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Isabelle Seward

Mr. Yagid
9/18/14
Article Review: New MRI Technique Helps Clinicians Better Predict Outcomes Following Mild
Traumatic Brain Injury
New MRI technique helps clinicians better predict outcomes following mild traumatic brain
injury. (2014, September 17). Retrieved September 18, 2014.
Article Body: DTI (Diffusion Tensor Imaging) senses microstructural changes in the
brain which can be beneficial to doctors in order to better predict the outcome of mild traumatic
brain injury. Although this technique may have been performed well in one scientist’s particular
studies and may be more accurate/detailed than MRI’s, it is still a very controversial method
because it is so new.

Isabelle Seward
Mr. Yagid
9/23/14
Article Review: Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy: Study Describes 68 CTE Cases in
Veterans, High School, College and Pro Athletes.
Boston

University Medical Center. (2012, December 3). Chronic traumatic encephalopathy:
Study describes 68 CTE cases in veterans, high school, college and pro athletes. ScienceDaily.
Retrieved September 23, 2014
Article Body: A study on 68 different deceased patients of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy
reveal that a majority of the donated brains and spinal cords were professional football players.
Boston University Researchers are using the information of not only these brains, but by current
athletes in order to determine just how many concussions it takes to attain this trauma induced
brain degenerating disease.

Isabelle Seward
Mr. Yagid
9/23/14
Article Review: Disease Caused by Repeat Brain Trauma in Athletes May Affect Memory,
Mood, Behavior
American Academy of Neurology (AAN). (2013, August 21). Disease caused by repeat brain
trauma in athletes may affect memory, mood, behavior. ScienceDaily. Retrieved September 23,
2014
Article Body: This article describes Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy as a brain degenerative
disease as a result of multiple blows to the head. It explains how the disease can cause
alzheimers like symptoms in patients. It describes the disease as initially affecting memory or
mood and how it is typically found in professional athletes such as football players or boxers. It
is also found in soldiers and people who have sustained multiple concussions in their lifetimes.

Isabelle Seward
Mr. Yagid
9/19/14
Article Review: Missing Piece Found to Help Solve Concussion Puzzle
Missing Piece Found to Help Solve Concussion Puzzle. (2014, September 10). Retrieved
September 19, 2014.
Article Body: Researches developed the Vestibular Ocular Motor Screening to assess 90% of
concussions accurately. This fact based, 5-10 minute test, helps to evaluate patients with
vestibular issues whom would have gone unnoticed otherwise. Common symptoms of a
concussion include fogginess, visual issues and balance issues. Using VOMS, doctors can
evaluate 5 aspects of vestibular and ocular related problems, which is why this new method is so
effective.

Isabelle Seward
Mr. Yagid
10/1/14
Article Review: Sports Concussion ‘Breathalyser’ Proposed
Webb, J. (2014, September 10). Sports Concussion 'Breathalyser' Proposed. Retrieved October 1,
2014.
Article Body: Researchers proposed the idea of a breathalyser to potentially detect and diagnose
concussions within 5 to 10 minutes. Although this idea is merely just proposed and no where
near ready to be used as a sole diagnosis. The idea behind it is that it should be able to detect
chemicals released into the bloodstream after a player sustains a concussion.

Isabelle Seward
10/9/14
Mr. Yagid
Article Review: Brain Game
Kukich, D. (2014, October 7). Brain game. Retrieved October 9, 2014.
Article Body: Soccer and football athletes of the University of Delaware are participating in
research of CTE by measuring the number of hits players sustain. This is done through a special
type of helmet called HITS designed by a company called Triax, which also made special
headbands with nickle sized sensors for soccer. This is cutting edge technology to all athletes for
learning more about CTE and concussive forces which are believed to be 100 Gs.

Isabelle Seward
Mr. Yagid
10/9/14
Article Review: Better Testing Needed to Monitor Brain Health After Concussions
Better testing needed to monitor brain health after sports concussion. (n.d.). Retrieved October 9,
2014.
Article Body: Research conducted by Dr. Alan Pearce of Deakin University suggests that
concussions may last longer than what is originally believed. He says that concussions could still
be present even after all symptoms have disappeared. Current testing systems do not pick up the
actual impact to the brain so new testing strategies may need to be rethought of in order to best
protect athletes and the general public.

Isabelle Seward
Mr. Yagid
10/10/14
Article Review: Comprehensive Neurosurgery Supplement Covers Sports-Related Concussions
Comprehensive Neurosurgery supplement covers sports-related concussions. (2014, September
14). Retrieved October 9, 2014.
Article Body: Neurosurgeons explain their common goals of protecting football players from
concussions through research of the injury and equipment proposals. Neuroscientists work on the
sidelines to develop safety plans for football players, but most agree that in order to create
change there needs to be major changes in NFL rules and a larger budget in Pop Warner for
newer helmet technologies.

Isabelle Seward
Mr. Yagid
10/10/14
Article Review: White Matter Measure Predicts Longer Concussion Recovery
White matter measure predicts longer concussion recovery. (2014, September 11). Retrieved
October 9, 2014.
Article Body: Dr Saeed Fakhran of University of Pittsburgh and her colleagues conducted
research of their their subjects white brain matter. It was discovered that the white matter in the
males brains were more present in their brains as opposed to the females. This is important
because it is an indicator to TSI (Time to Symptom Resolution) after mild traumatic brain
injuries.

Isabelle Seward
Mr. Yagid
10/10/14
Article Review: Do Sports Concussions Really Cause Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy?
Loyola University Health System. (2013, December 2). Do sports concussions really cause
chronic traumatic encephalopathy?. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 9, 2014
Article Body: It is believed that the most common cause of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy
is repeat mild traumatic brain injuries. However research conducted by Loyola University
suggest that there is no controlled evidence that sports concussions have a direct link to Chronic
Traumatic Encephalopathy. This goes hand in hand with no connection to brain degenerative
diseases later in life and concussions.

Isabelle Seward
Mr. Yagid
10/10/14
Article Review: Model Sheds New Light on Sports-Related Brain Injuries
University of Rochester Medical Center. (2014, April 29). Model sheds new light on sportsrelated brain injuries. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 9, 2014
Article Body: Research has been conducted to study the behavioral effects of repeated
concussions. The study included mice who have sustained multiple blows to the head. It was
concluded that most of them developed behavioral changes such as difficulty sleeping, memory
loss and other symptoms of CTE. It sheds light on doctors to better understand and learn how
mild traumatic brain injuries may link to Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy.

Isabelle Seward
Mr. Yagid
10/10/14
Article Review: Study Casts Doubt on Theory That Retired NFL Players Suffer CTE
Loyola University Health System. (2014, January 27). Study casts doubt on theory that retired
NFL players suffer CTE. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 9, 2014
Article Body: Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy is commonly linked to older professional
football athletes who withstood years of hits to the head and concussions. A study conducted by
Loyola University reveals that there is little hard evidence proving that CTE actually exists.
Scientists argue that the symptoms of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy are so broad that they
cannot be determined as a clinical syndrome.

Isabelle Seward
Mr. Yagid
10/10/14
Article Review: Neuroimaging Technique Identifies Concussion-Related Brain Disease in
Living Brain
The Mount Sinai Hospital / Mount Sinai School of Medicine. (2014, September 16).
Neuroimaging technique identifies concussion-related brain disease in living brain.ScienceDaily.
Retrieved October 9, 2014
Article Body: A study performed by The Mount Sinai Hospital suggests that a certain
experimental radiolabeled compound will latch onto tau proteins in the brain. This is important to
doctors because they could use this information to diagnose CTE in living patients using a PET
Scanner (positron emission tomography). This is because tau proteins accumulate and entangle in
the brain after multiple blows, ultimately causing degeneration or death.

Isabelle Seward
Mr. Yagid
10/10/14
Article Review: Boys and Girls Who Have Had a Traumatic Brain Injury Differ in Rates of
Harmful Behavior
Boys and Girls Who Have Had a Traumatic Brain Injury Differ in Rates of Harmful Behavior.
(2014, September 30). Retrieved October 9, 2014.
Article Body: A survey conducted on mTBI patients between the grades of 7 and 12 of both
boys and girls reveal that they were more likely to become involved with harmful behaviors than
those who have not gotten hurt. Of the 13 behaviors observed, (such as bullying, binge drinking,
smoking, etc.) girls were most likely to engage in all of them. Boys were found to engage in only
9 of the 13.

Isabelle Seward
Mr. Yagid
10/10/14
Article Review: Compound Protects Brain Cells After Traumatic Brain Injury
Compound Protects Brain Cells After Traumatic Brain Injury. (2014, September 11). Retrieved
October 9, 2014.
Article Body: Dr. Andrew Pieper of University of Iowa has led research to discover a new class
of compounds known as P7C3 which can be used to block axon damage and therefore preserve
brain functions after mild traumatic brain injury from blasts. These can be taken orally up to 36
hours after impact to prevent the harmful effects of mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

Isabelle Seward
Mr. Yagid
10/10/14
Article Review: Compound Protects Brain Cells From Explosive Force
Wolf, L. (2014, September 24). Compound Protects Brain Cells From Explosive Force.
Retrieved October 9, 2014.
Article Body: Compound P7C3, discovered by researchers of University of Iowa, was tested to
see the effect it has a neurological effect it has on cell survival. It binds to the molecule NAMPT,
which is in charge of maintaining balance of the cells energy, and when binded, it speeds of the
live cells catalytic activities (increases rate of a chemical reaction without undergoing permanent
chemical change).

Isabelle Seward
Mr. Yagid
10/10/14
Article Review: Cancer Researcher Stumbles Upon Concussion Treatment
Glenn, L. (2014, September 26). Cancer Researcher Stumbles Upon Concussion Treatment CBS Pittsburgh. Retrieved October 9, 2014.
Article Body: James Lechleiter and his research team believed they had developed a drug to kill
cancer cells in the brain. When the drug was tested, it appeared to do the opposite, and was even
stronger than before. When taken after a concussion, it prevents long term damage but will not
actually enter the brain unless there is damage. In this case it is just excreted from the body.

Isabelle Seward
Mr. Yagid
10/10/14
Article Review: Stanford Concussion Center Has Device to Test For Concussion
Thomas, E. (2014, September 29). Stanford Concussion Center has device to test for concussion.
Retrieved October 9, 2014.
Article Body: Researchers in Stanford have developed an affordable and effective concussion
test which could be administered on the battlefield or sidelines after a big hit. The test itself takes
about 30 seconds and measures the attention span of an athlete. This is done in housing with
special electronic goggles where the player could put them on and follow a red dot with their
eyes as an administrator interprets the attention.

Isabelle Seward
Mr. Yagid
10/10/14
Article Review: Doctors Using New Test to Measure Brain Activity Following Concussions
Congedo, J. (2014, October 3). Doctors using new test to measure brain activity following
concussions. Retrieved October 9, 2014.
Article Body: This article highlights the purpose of ImPACT Testing especially in high school
athletes. ImPACT stands for Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing. It
measures different aspects of the brains functions such as memory and reaction times. This test is
becoming more and more readily available to student athletes across the country. The purpose is
to take a baseline test preseason so if a concussion is suspected during the season, the results can
be compared.

Isabelle Seward
Mr. Yagid
10/10/14
Article Review: Concussions: Getting Your Head Out of the Game
Gammons, M. (2014, October 6). Concussions: Getting Your Head Out of the Game. Retrieved
October 9, 2014.
Article Body: The purpose behind this article was the emphasize the point of how each
concussion is different and therefore must be treated differently. The author suggests that most
concussions are resolved within 7-10 days however this varies based on different factors whether
it be genetics or their mTBI history. The most important thing is to keep the patient out of
play/school until they are symptom free, then gradually reintroduce their old lives.

Isabelle Seward
Mr. Yagid
10/15/14
Article Review:
Kounang, N. (1970, January 1). Doctor: NFL player who killed girlfriend, self likely had CTE.
Retrieved October 15, 2014.
Article Body: A Chief’s linebacker who shot his girlfriend was autopsied. It was revealed that
he had a high concentration of tau proteins in his brain which is commonly associated with
Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy. Because of this, lawsuits were filed against the National
Football League for not better informing their players about the dangers this degenerative brain
disease has on their athletes.

Isabelle Seward
Mr. Yagid
10/26/14
Article Review: What Happens in the Brain After a Concussion
Reynolds, G. (2013, December 18). What Happens in the Brain After a Concussion. Retrieved
October 27, 2014.
Article Body: This article focuses on the molecular effects of concussions on the brain. The
author describes that after a blow, the free radicals of the brain spread away from the point of
impact, which kills off brain cells. The effect of this is concussion like symptoms. With this
information, researchers can begin development of antioxidants to absorb these free moving
radicals.

Isabelle Seward
Mr. Yagid
10/26/14
Article Review: Study Details How Brain Injury From Concussions Progresses
Park, A., & Park, A. (2012, December 4). Study Details How Brain Injury from Concussions
Progresses | TIME.com. Retrieved October 27, 2014.
Article Body: This article highlights the research of Dr. Anne McKee from Boston University.
Her and her team analyzed the brain of 68 deceased subjects to study CTE. Most of the subjects
had been athletes, (boxing, hockey and football), veterans and one who inflicted in self headbanging behaviors. Her research revealed the different stages of the disease, and how it
originates in the valleys of grey matter in the brain due to tangles of p-tau proteins.

Isabelle Seward
Mr. Yagid
10/26/14
Article Review: From Trauma to Tau: Researchers Tie Brain Injury to Toxic Form of Protein
University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. (2013, May 29). From trauma to tau:
Researchers tie brain injury to toxic form of protein. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 27, 2014
Article Body: Researchers conducted an experiment using mice and lab created antibodies to
test the effect mTBI has on p-tau oligomers spreading throughout the brain. The results of their
experiment were present after four hours of the mice having been injured. The tau build up lasted
for about 2 weeks in the animal’s brain pointing to the conclusion that these brain degenerating
effects may lead to permanence.

Isabelle Seward
Mr. Yagid
10/26/14
Article Review: Blood Test Could Take the Guesswork Out of Concussions
Czinke, K., & Bair, D. (2014, October 23). Blood test could take the guesswork out of
concussions. Retrieved October 27, 2014.
Article Body: A portable blood test is in the works for medical professionals to potentially
diagnose a concussion on the spot, whether it be a battlefield or football field. It works by using
small chips that will essentially look for and recognize a concussive protein released after
impact. This could be revolutionary to college or high school athletes who try to hide their
symptoms in order to continue playing, because they no longer will be able to.

Isabelle Seward
Mr. Yagid
10/27/14
Article Review: A Comprehensive, Targeted Approach to the Clinical Care of Athletes
Following Sport-Related Concussion
Collins, M., Kontos, A., & Murawski, C. (2013, December 12). A comprehensive, targeted
approach to the clinical care of athletes following sport-related concussion. Retrieved October
27, 2014.
Article Body: University of Pittsburgh researchers have conducted research in order to develop a
more comprehensive guide to treating different types of concussions (any combination of
cognitive, vestibular, migraine, ocular, cervical and anxiety/mood). They work concluded with
the idea that because every concussion is different, the patient must have a team of doctors
working to provide therapeutic solutions to relieve symptoms.

Isabelle Seward
Mr. Yagid
10/27/14
Article Review: Post-Concussion Cognitive Rest: How Much Time is Enough Time?
Brown, N. (2014, February 3). Post-concussion Cognitive Rest: How Much Time Is Enough
Time? Retrieved October 27, 2014.
Article Body: Dr. Brown reviews the cognitive recovery process of her patients and provides
some of the only evidence that cognitive rest is necessary for mTBI. She categorizes her findings
into 2 important conclusions. The first, is that cognitive rest is vital for a quicker recovery, as
opposed to those who continually stimulate their minds. The second, was that the middle
percentiles recovered at the same speed, indicating that moderate activity may be beneficial to
concussed athletes.

Isabelle Seward
Mr. Yagid
10/27/14
Article Review: Treat Concussions Immediately
Treat concussions immediately. (2014, October 6). Retrieved October 27, 2014.
Article Body: This article emphasizes the actual definition of mTBI and highlights key
symptoms. It is intended for athletes and coaches because it addresses the importance of not
hiding symptoms. By hiding the symptoms, one could risk Second Impact Syndrome which
occurs when someone gets an additional concussion before the initial one is healed. It explains
how easy it is for an athlete to lie but persuades them to be honest so they can further their
futures.

Isabelle Seward
Mr. Yagid
10/27/14
Article Review: Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE)
Wedro, B. (2012, May 8). Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) - MedicineNet. Retrieved
October 28, 2014.
Article Body: Repeated hits to the head contact sports such as football can lead to Chronic
Encephalopathy which is the gradual degeneration in brain function. Such hits may link to
repeated head injuries that causes both concussions with symptoms or asymptomatic. Symptoms
of CTE start slowly with headaches, memory problems and confusion. It progresses to more
aggressive symptoms similar to Parkinson’s disease and cannot be stopped.

Isabelle Seward
Mr. Yagid
10/27/14
Article Review: Head Injury Causes Immune System to Attack Brain, New Study Finds
BioMed Central. (2014, October 20). Head injury causes immune system to attack brain, new
study finds. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 27, 2014
Article Body: A study published by the Acta Neuropathologica Communications science journal
revealed an experiment performed on mice. It was performed by inserting CD74 into the lesions
of an injured mouse brain and some with CAP. The results concluded that CD74 triggered their
immune systems to damage more brain cells where CAP had began to heal them. This could be
beneficial for athletes to apply for new medication or mTBI treatment methods.

Isabelle Seward
Mr. Yagid
10/27/14
Article Review: Traumatic Brain Injury Associated With Increased Dementia Risk in Older
Adults
The JAMA Network Journals. (2014, October 27). Traumatic brain injury associated with
increased dementia risk in older adults. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 27, 2014
Article Body: Middle aged former athletes are discovered to be more at risk for dementia
especially after a history of mTBIs. Although it may be similar to chronic traumatic
encephalopathy, this poised public risk is believed to be linked to genetics, concussive histories
and other environmental factors. The ultimate results were slim that it is directly related to
concussions because of the many outside forces which may have affected to data, or proven
negative if studied again.

Isabelle Seward
Mr. Yagid
10/27/14
Article Review: Head Injuries Can Make Children Loners
Brigham Young University. (2014, April 10). Head injuries can make children
loners.ScienceDaily.
Article Body: Neuroscientists of Bigham University studied children three years after they
experienced a traumatic brain injury. It was found that even three years later there was still
lingering trauma in the right frontal lobe which is associated with social aspects of ones life.
Using this new information, doctors and researchers can begin to develop therapies to help
improve memory and cure these social issues.

Isabelle Seward
Mr. Yagid
10/27/14
Article Review: Report on the Neuropathology of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy Workshop
Report on the Neuropathology of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy Workshop. (2013, March
3). Retrieved October 28, 2014.

Article Body: The report of a CTE workshop gave a summary of key aspects. It discusses what
little is known about CTE and who is at risk. At this conference doctors discussed that because
they know that symptoms fall into 2 pathological patterns, they could begin using magnetic MRI
techniques to try to detect CTE in living persons. This method would need to be tried true
multiple times before it is a routine clinical practice.

Isabelle Seward
Mr. Yagid
10/27/14
Article Review: Symptoms Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy
Stahl, R. (2013, August 30). Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy. Retrieved October 28, 2014.
Article Body: The article reviews the facts that chronic traumatic encephalopathy is currently
only detectable after a person dies because of the level it originates from in the brain. It provides
information as to how to prevent it such as wearing helmets and taking doctors orders after a
concussion. It also discussed the treatment that one may give to someone with CTE such as
therapy for emotional problems, regular exercise and medication.

Isabelle Seward
Mr. Yagid
10/27/14
Article Review: Study Gives Hope for Brain Disease Treatment
Sports, G. (2013, January 23). Study gives hope for brain disease treatment. Retrieved October
28, 2014.
Article Body: Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy has a hopeful future in being detected in live
persons using a PET Scanner with low doses of radioactivity. The small study performed proves
that p-tau proteins may be detectable with this magnetic scanning device. This would reduce
suicide in athletes, a common death of CTE patients. These findings need to be studied in more
detail but gives promise for treatment for dementia in living patients.

Isabelle Seward
Mr. Yagid
10/27/14
Article Review: Sports Concussion ‘Breathalyser’ Proposed
Webb, J. (2014, September 10). Sports Concussion 'Breathalyser' Proposed. Retrieved October 1,
2014.
Article Body: Researchers proposed the idea of a breathalyser to potentially detect and diagnose
concussions within 5 to 10 minutes. Although this idea is merely just proposed and no where
near ready to be used as a sole diagnosis. The idea behind it is that it should be able to detect
chemicals released into the bloodstream after a player sustains a concussion.