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Robert Frost
The Age of Extremes
o Mark Twain called this era the “Gilded Age”
o Historians called this era the “Age of Extremes”
Andrew Carnegie
o A Scottish artisan that was born into a poor family
o His mother made him sensible and willing to work hard and his
father made him want to improve the world
 He was known for his honesty
o His first job, at 12 years old, was a bobbin boy in a textile factory
 Became an assistant of Thomas A. Scott, a leading railroad
man at 17
 At 33, he invested in railroads and became rich
o Worked harder, got richer, and became the king of America’s
Steel Industry
o Unfortunately, he didn’t pay his workers much and they went on
o J.P. Morgan bought his company and made Carnegie one of the
richest men in the world
 Almost all the sale money he gave away to the community
(90%) to make it a better place for everyone else
William “Crazy” Kelly
o First person to create steel inexpensively and for people to use at
cheap cost, especially in usage for railroads
o William Bessemer’s process, the Bessemer’s Process, made
Bessemer famous even though Kelly was the actual first person
to create the process
John Davison Rockefeller
o The King of America’s oil industry first started in Titusville,
 He bought a small oil refinery that grew large
 Then started to buy his competitors
 The first oil in Texas was discovered in Jan. 10, 1901 by
Patillo Higgins and Anthony F. Lucas in Spindletop
o He would pay full price to ship his oil, but the railroad company
gave him half of what he had paid secretly (rebate or kickback)
o His company, Standard Oil, became spectacularly rich
 Helped make American businesses grow into world
o He was viewed as a villain though, only thinking m money and
profits, and not in his employees
o At the end of his life, he gave half of his profits away to others
that needed

Lyman Frank Baum
o A gentle, sick, daydreaming little kid
o Had no talent for making money, but loved to write and tell
 Most people thought he should be sensible and serious to
o In Frank’s books, no one fought
o He tried getting jobs like starting a newspaper and even writing
for one, but they failed and he was usually fired or quite
o Maud Gage’s, his wife, mother told Baum to get his stories
 The first two were about Mother and Father Goose
 Children liked them
 His most popular and famous books were about the Land
of Oz
 The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, became on of the most
popular books ever written
John Pierpont Morgan
o Very rich and powerful, but vain and arrogant
o Talented in mathematics and languages and had a huge, red
o A banker that could bring order to a difficult and confusing
 When a leading trust company was about to collapse, he
held a meeting with the country’s leading financers and
was able to save the U.S. from financial disaster
o His family, which started in 1636 Massachusetts, was already
o The House of Morgan, the name of Morgan’s bank, controlled
almost all the important stuff in the U.S. and became the nation’s
first billion-dollar company
o Bought Carnegie’s steel company and Rockefeller’s metal
o In a market economy, the customer determines what will be
produced when he or she spends money
o A command economy is organized by the government. What is
produced and who will produce it is decided by the government
o A traditional economy is when people usually do the same
work their parents did
o A hybrid, which is what most economies are, is a mixture of
different types of economy
o Monopolies are whole industries that are owned by one

o Trusts are a form of monopoly
 A legal arrangement that allows many different companies
to be owned and run by the same people
o When there is competition, it is called “free enterprise” or a
“market economy”. To make a monopoly, you buy the
competition and now have no competition and can sell your
products for any price
 Rockefeller’s Standard Oil trust was a huge monopoly that
owned more than 90% of America’s oil industry
o In 1890, Congress passed the Sherman Antitrust Act
 Intended to make business responsible to the public and
made trusts and monopolies illegal
Elisha Graves Otis
o A women from Vermont that designed the first safe elevator
 Used in the elegant Dakota apartment house in New York
Frederick Law Olmsted
o A great landscape architect
o In 20 years, he created Central Park
Frank Lloyd Wright
o Student of Louis Sullivan who was considered one of the world’s
greatest architect
o Wanted his building to be enjoyable for all who used them
John Augustus Roebling
o Twisted thing steel wires together and made strong steel cable
o He created the first modern suspension bridges that hung from
steel cable attached to concrete and stone towers
o Suggested the idea of a bridge across New York’s East River
 Called the Brooklyn Bridge and took 14 years to finish on
May 24, 1883
 “wonder of the world
 first bridge lit by electricity
 Chester A. Arthur cut the opening ribbon
o When he died, his son Washington Roebling took over the
 Diagnosed with “bends” that made him partially paralyzed
 Had his wife Emily Roebling deliver orders to the workers
Edouard de Laboulaye
o Talked about the liberty of America and came up with the idea of
the Statue of Liberty
Frederic Bartholdi
o Young sculptor who was captivated by the idea of the Statue of

So he decided to build it
151 feet, 225 tons
Represented America’s freedom and policy of welcome
Took nine years, but it was built
 On Ellis Island
o Racked up many donations to build the project
 Started building with Gustave Eiffel
Joseph Pulitzer
o He was a remarkable news reporter
o Bought the New York World and turned it into a world renown
o Made donating to the statue seem like a very patriotic cause
William Jennings Bryan
o An outstanding speaker from Nebraska
o Was elected into Congress in 1890 as a Democrat
o Money and its distribution concerned him
o Lost in bid for Senate, but decided to run for president
 Went on a speaking tour and people were hushed and
 Told about the history of gold and silver
 Divided the East and West
 Nominated as president by the Democratic Party
 Ran against William McKinley
o He lost the election because people thought he was dividing the
country between his ideas, especially silver over gold
Ch. 14
o Tom Watson
 His party, the Populist’s Party, failed and Watson turned
into a bigot
 Became enamored of “white supremacy”
 People were being consumed into money and things
o Racism
 People were starting to blame the immigrants for all the
problems in America
 People couldn’t see that these people were actually trying
to make America a better and richer place
Montgomery Ward, Sears, and Roebuck
o Ward created the first catalogue for people buy stuff without
leaving their home
o Sears and Roebuck were two business owners that made new
department stores
 With these two innovations, anyone could go into a store
and buy a fine suit or dress

George Eastman
o In 1880, patented roll film for cameras
o In 1895, the first pocket Kodak was in use
Samuel Gompers
o Used American business methods to organize and negotiate for
o A bright boy who born in a poor family
 He decided to head to America to go to work
o Got a job in a cigar factory
 Became president of the Cigarmakers Union
o Named president of the American Federation of Labor
 Made it a major force in the American industrial world
o He wanted to improve working conditions in the U.S.
o Employers had almost unlimited power
 That changed when unions acquired power and
Mary Harris “Mother” Jones
o Pugnacious little women who became successful after opening a
dressmaking shop
 After the 1871 great Chicago fire, she was left with nothing
o She then started to work hardest to help children
 Wanted others to know the struggle of child workers
 People didn’t want to see these thing so she was arrested
multiple times, but she did make people really think about
this type of servitude
o Eventually, laws were passed to protect children and make going
to school compulsory. A pure food and drug act helped make our
food safe
Ida Tarbell
o The most famous muckraker (stated later) in history
o She wanted to become a scientist, but that field was only for
 So she wanted to write articles that would support her in
o She was spotted by Sam McClure who hired her
o She’s written about Napoleon and Abraham Lincoln, but she most
notably exposed Rockefeller and Standard Oil
 This caused the Supreme Court to dissolve the Standard Oil
Sam McClure
o He had many jobs involving physical labor, but he did not enjoy
o Then he had a brilliant idea of starting a syndicate for writers

He bought articles from very good writers and sold each
article to several publications
 In 1892, he founded McClure’s magazine
o Then he found one of the best writers, Ida Tarbell, and
encouraged her to write about the bad stuff that was happening
within companies like monopolies and trusts
John Muir
o Cared about the land and nature and was are that Americans
were mowing down the frontier and turning them into urban
o Stated that disturbing nature causes natural disasters
o Helped make Yosemite Valley a national park
o Began to convince Americans that trees and birds and animals
were too precious to destroy
o A Hawaiian queen that intended to restore power to the Hawaiian
o Worked secretly on a new constitution
o Didn’t understand that business interests now had more power
that royalty
o She was imprisoned by Sandford B. Dole
 The Hawaiian monarchy was finished
Jane Addams
o Best known reformer of her day
o Chose to help others
 She build a house right in the middle of the slums called
Hull House
 Turned it into a house were poor people could learn
stuff that they weren’t able to learn when they were
younger or they couldn’t afford
 Hull House kept growing into something bigger
o Established the first public playground, juvenile court, and
appointed city garbage inspector
o Johnny Powers was forced to be more honest by Addams
Henry Ford
o Had the idea of building an automobile so cheap that everyone
could own
o Thomas Edison encouraged Ford to make a car powered by liquid
o Created the first Model T
 And also came up with the idea of just replicating the same
o Albert Kahn supplied many of the ideas for Ford’s factory
o Used one of the first conveyor belts

o First Model T came out in 1915 and everyone could buy one
o Showed that it is better to make products for average people
than for the rich
The Wright Brothers
o Wilbur and Orville Wright flew for the first time on Dec. 17, 1903
 At Kitty Hawk
o They flew for almost a minute and the Virginian Pilot told of the
 No one paid any attention
o In August 1908, they went to France to fly his plane
 The 24 witnesses went wild
 After France, they went to Virginia to show the people
o They finally solved the problems of lift, propulsion, and control
Woodrow Wilson
o Had problems (dyslexia) as a child but learned to solve them
 This didn’t stop him, so he became president of Princeton,
governor of New York, and even the president of the United
o Had a sense of what was right and wrong
o He wanted to go into politics at first, but he failed
 He then became one of the best college professors
o Became a reforming governor of New Jersey
o In 1912, he was elected president
 Believed in progressive goals
 Wilson did what he promised
 But he didn’t do anything about racism, women’s
rights, and thought nations would help other nations
o Unfortunately, when he was president, the First World War
Edith Galt
o Wilson’s wife after his first wife died
o Became a de facto president and made many of the president’s
o Pragmatic – practical-minded
o Altruistic – unselfishly concerned for others
o A partnership is when you share ideas, work, profits, and
problems with another company. It can have advantages and
o A corporation is a form of business that evolved from the stock
companies of the past
o Populist – someone who is representing the ideas of ordinary
people (in this book’s context, it’s mainly to support farmers)


Radical – extreme
Socialist –
Anarchist – someone who doesn’t support a government
Wobblies – Industrial Workers of the World
Muckrakers – Journalists who wrote about wrongs. They wrote
unusually well, did careful research, cared, and developed
investigative journalism
Syndicate - a group of individuals or organizations combined to
promote some common interest
Direct Primary - an election in which voters choose candidates
to run on a party's ticket in a subsequent election for public
Intiatives –
Referendums - a proposal to repeal a law that was previously
enacted by the legislature
Amendment 17 – The senate shall be composed of two
senators from each state that are voted in by the people

o ***** There is too much information about
Theodore Roosevelt to post
o ***** READ CHAPTERS 27, 28, 29, 31 and