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Annotated Bibliography
Primary Sources:
Cohen, Rose. “My First Job.” n.d.
This source provided information from a sweatshop worker and a survivor from the
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire. This source provided personal experiences from a person
who participated that time of history. This source provided more personal information
of how it felt to be one of the victims in the factory conditions. This source is primary
because these information given was written from a victim’s experience.
“Death List Shows Few Identified.” New York Times 26 March 1911: 4. Print.
This source will allow observations of the victims of the fire who died. This source will
demonstrate the victims they were able to identify their names. This source will help
make conclusions of the majority types of victims based on gender or ethnicity. This
source is primary because it was released around the time of the fire.
“Echoes from the Triangle Fire. Dr. Price Suggests Cooperation Between the Waist Makers’
Union and the Board of Sanity Control.” Ladies’ Garment Worker September 1911: 6.
Print.
This source will provide an example of the fire’s impact. This source will provide a way
people are coming together to make changes and improvements. This source provides
information of demands people want after the fire. This source is primary because it is a
written document around the time of the fire.
The Fire Hazard in Factory Buildings. Albany, New York: The Argus Company, 1912. Print.
This source provided reports recorded of the fire hazards in the factory. This source
on the fire hazard risks during the time. The source gave details of the fire and impact
statistics. This source is primary because it is a report disclosed around the time of the
fire.
Frowne, Sadie. “Days and Dreams.” n.d.
This source provides a worker’s experience at the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory. This
source provides information of the labor conditions workers faced. This source will
make understanding the worker’s life and labor conditions easier. This source is primary
because it is a text document written from a victim of of the fire.
Horvitz, Yehuda. “Mournful Song of the Great Fire.” n.d.

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This song provided information of the fire and emotions/grief felt from victims. This
song was nicely translated from Yiddish. The song was easy to understand reading the
lyrics and the message conveyed. This song is primary because this was a document
written around the time to commemorate the deaths of the Jewish women at the fire.
"Industrialization & Child Labor in New York." - Factory Investigating Commission. The New
York State Archives, n.d. Web. 06 Dec. 2015. <http://nysa32.nysed.gov/education/sh
owcase/200910labor/activities_dbq2.shtml>.
This website was easy to access and manage. This website provided documents/images
for my research. These images also provided good information related to my topic. This
source is primary because it is an archive filled with many excerpts of the Factory
Investigation Commission.
Lemlich, Clara. “Life in the Shop.” New York Evening Journal 28 November 1909
This source provided information of a Triangle Shirtwaist worker’s daily life. This source
provided information of their conditions in the factory. This source gave and provided a
new view towards the life inside. This source is primary because it was a written
document of a worker/ victim of the factory’s working conditions.
Maily, William. “The Triangle Trade Union Relief.” American Federationist July 1991:
544-47. Print.
This newspaper provided details about the Triangle Relief Committee. This newspaper
provided some statistics about the TRC’s influence. This newspaper provided more links
and sources for further researching. This source is primary because it was a written
newspaper around the time of the fire.
“Notes on Same Trade in Which Women are Employees.” Albany, New York: The Argus
Company, 1912. Print.
This source provided direct key points that covered the labor conditions in the factory.
This source was easy to understand the given information and easy to follow through.
This also gave data of the Triangle Factory building and statistics along with it. This
primary because it was reported document around the time of the fire from investigators.
Results of the Data Obtained by the Investigation. Albany, New York: The Argus Company,
1912. Print.
This source provided the data after the fire. This source mention great key points to look
into for research. This source was well-written to understand easily. This source is

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primary because it was reported around the time of the fire.
“Say Triangle Doors Were Never Locked.” New York Times 21 December 1911. Print.
This source provided a part of the trial of the fire in court. This source provided dialogue
between the witness, and Blanck and Harris. This source was easy to understand and read
the text in the newspaper. This source is primary because it was a written newspaper
around the time of the fire.
Stein, Leon. “Leon Stein Interviews.” 6 February 1958.
This source provided an interview of a fire department captain’s experience during the
fire. This source provided his experience coming to the fire with his crew. This source
provided descriptions which were easy to understand and follow through. This source is
primary because this interviews a victim during the time of the fire.
Stein, Leon. “Leon Stein Interviews.” 6 June 1958.
This source provided an interview of a survivor. This source provided a cutter’s
experience and survival. This source provided a more details and description of the
fire. This source is primary because this interviews a victim and survivor of a worker
of the Triangle Shirtwaist factory.
“Stories of Survivors, And Witness and Rescuers Outside Tell What They Saw.” New York
Times 26 March 1911: 4. Print.
This source provided witnesses’ perspective/view during the fire and chaos. This
source was easy to understand with the writings and interviews. I am able to understand
fire more from the witnesses/survivors rather than from general research. This source
is primary because it was release around the time if the fire with input of victims.
“Three Miracles.” Living Century. Prod. Nick Loeb. 2001. Film.
This video provided a clip from the film. “ Three Miracles” (part of the Living Century
series). This video features Rose Freedman, last survivor of the fire. This video provided
information of the factory conditions and Rose Freedman’s personal experience. This
source is primary because it provides information from a victim and survivor of the fire.
“Thrilling Incidents in Gotham Holocaust That Wiped Out One Hundred and Fifty Lives.”
Chicago Sunday Tribune 28 March 1911: 2. Print.
This source described witnesses experiences during the fire. This source described many
victims before their death. This source was useful in understanding the area at the time of
the fire. This source is primary because it was released around the time of the fire.

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"Workers & Working Conditions." The 1911 Triangle Factory Fire. Cornell University, n.d.
Web. 05 Dec. 2015. <http://trianglefire.ilr.cornell.edu/primary/photosillustrations/ind
ex.html>.
This website provided a wide range of images to use for my research. The images were in
nice quality to use. The images were also easy to access through and view each of them.
This source is primary because it provided images during the fire and time with
descriptions for each.
Secondary Sources:
"100 Years Ago: The Triangle Shirtwaist Fire." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 24
Mar. 2011. Web. 03 Dec. 2015. <http://www.history.com/news/100-years-ag o-the-trian
gle -shirtwaist-fire>.
This website was easy to access through all the information. It was nice to have
newspaper clippings of the for my research. They provided great information to look into
further for research. This source is secondary because it is just information gathered from
researchers who researched about the fire.
"100 Years After the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire." Public Radio International. Public Radio
International, 23 Mar. 2011. Web. 27 Nov. 2015. <http://www.pri.org/stories/201103-23/ 100-years-after-triangle-shirtwaist-factory-fire>.
This website provided an image for my research. It also provided extra information about
the fire. Very simple and easy going system in this website. This source is secondary
because this was created long after the fire.
“The 1911 Triangle Factory Fire.” Cornell University. Version. Cornell University. n.d. 20
October 2015. <https://www.trianglefire.ilr.cornell.edu/story/fire.html>.
This website provide a summary or story of the fire. This website provides a good
beginning for the rest of the website research. This website is very useful in finding
needed information and easy to get use to go explore. This source is secondary because
it is just information gathered from researchers who researched about the fire.
"Alva Belmont Biography." Bio.com. A&E Networks Television, n.d. Web. 06 Dec. 2015.
<http://www.biography.com/people/alva-belmont-9206429>.

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This website provided great information about her. As well as an image of her. It was
easy to understand the information and easy to access. This source is secondary because
this is a biography written about a person’s life events.
"About the Triangle Fire." About the Triangle Fire. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Nov. 2015. <.http:/ /www
.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/m_r/pinsky/triangle.htm>.
This website provided a great deal of information about the fire. The photo essay
provided images to use for my research. The website was simple and useful to access
through all the information and images. This source is secondary because it just
researched information gathered after the fire.
"American Experience: TV's Most-watched History Series." PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 06 Dec. 2015.
<http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/biography/triangle-morgan/>.
This website provided great information about Morgan. As well as an image was
provided of her. It was easy to understand the information and easy to access. This source
is secondary because it is a biography written about a person’s life events.
"The Deadly Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire." About.com Education. About.com, n.d. Web. 06
Dec. 2015. <http://history1900s.about.com/od/1910s/p/trianglefire.htm>.
This website provided general information about the fire. This website provided an image
to use for my research. It was helpful in the start, but it went off topic later on. This
source is secondary because it is information gathered from research of the fire.
Drehle, David Von. "The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire: A Lasting Legacy, 100 Years Later."
Time. Time Inc., 26 Mar. 2011. Web. 26 Nov. 2015. <http://content.time.com/time/ma
gazine/article/0,9171,2061228,00.html>.
The website provided an important images to my research. This website also provided
information about the fire. It was easy to understand the given information. This source is
secondary because it is information gathered after the fire - showing the legacy.
Eddie C. "Yesterday's Memorial for the Triangle Factory Fire Victims." Daily Kos. Kos Media,
LLC, 26 Mar. 2010. Web. 01 Dec. 2015. <http://www.dailykos.com/story/2010/3/26/850
933/>.
This website provided great images of the Brown Building today. It was nice to see the
major changes and improvements from the fire. It was also easy to understand the given

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information. This source is secondary because it is information gathered after the fire this is modern day’s time commemorating it.
"Elise's Ghosts, Murders, and Mayhem." Elises Ghosts Murders and Mayhem. WordPress.com,
31 Mar. 2013. Web. 27 Nov. 2015. <http://ghostsandmurdersblog.com/tag/unions/>.
This website was nicely written for the readers to understand the fire. This website also
provided images to use for my research. This website was also easy to access throughout
the whole story. This source is primary because it was written long after the event of the
fire.
"Elise Valmorbida's Top 10 Books on the Migrant Experience." The Guardian. Guardian News
and Media, 10 June 2009. Web. 24 Dec. 2015. <http://www.theguardian.com /books/
2009/jun/10/elise-valmorbida-migrant-experience>.
This website provided an image for my research. This image is important for me to use in
my subtopics. It was nice that there was information about the image. This source is
secondary because it provided information gathered after the fire.
“Harris and Blanck.” PBS. n.d. Web. 25 October 2015. <https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/american
experience/features /biography/triangle-harris-blanck/.html>.
This source provided background information of the factory owners. This source
provided event information and money statistics related to the court’s decision. This
source also provided a timeline of their factory influence. This source is secondary
because it is just a biography of the owners of the factory (information was researched to
put together the information.
"LaborArts." Labor Arts. 10th Floor Bobst Library NYU, n.d. Web. 06 Dec. 2015. <http:/
/www.laborarts.org/exhibits/thetrianglefire/2-the-clothing-industry.cfm>.
This website provided great information to began with my website. This website also
provided a wide range of images to use. It was quick and easy to access through on all of
them. This source is secondary because it provides information gathered from research
after the time.
"Laboring Away on Labor Day." RoseReads. WordPress.com, 03 Sept. 2012. Web. 03 Dec.
2015. <http://rosereads.com/2012/09/03/laboring-away-on-labor-day/>.
This website focused on labor. It was nice to find a clip of the original newspaper article
clipping. It was nice that the image was easy to access. This source is secondary because
it was written long after the fire - providing information gathered from research.

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“Legislative Reform at State and Local Level.” Cornell University. n.d. Web. 25 October 2015.
<https://www.triangle.ilr.cornell.edu/legcy/legislativeReform.html>.
This source provided information of many movements followed after the fire. This
source provided one example of the major legacy the fire left behind. This source
provided name and information of reforms that took charge in protecting worker’s rights
and improvements. This source is secondary because it provides information gathered
after the fire.
"Manhattan." U.S. Department of Labor. U.S. Department of Labor, n.d. Web. 20 Nov. 2015.
<https://www.dol.gov/shirtwaist/areas/manhattan02.htm>.
This website provided a map of the building. The website also provided a few images to
use for my research. This website was direct and simple with its provided information.
This source is secondary because it provided an image to me that was taken long after the
fire.
Matt. "The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire: March 25, 1911 - UNC Press Blog." UNC Press
Blog. UNC Press, 25 Mar. 2010. Web. 26 Nov. 2015. <http://uncpressblog.com/201
0/03/25/triangle-shirtwaist/>.
This website was organized in a nice simple way. This website provided images to use for
my research. More useful information was provided with the images to use. This source
is secondary because it was made long after the fire - providing information gathered.
"National Women's Trade Union League of America." Open Collections Program: Women
Working,. <http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/ww/nwtul.html>.
The President and Fellows of Harvard College, n.d. Web. 06 Dec. 2015. This website
provided a great starting point for my research. This website also provided images to use
for my research. It was also nicely organized to different subtopics. This source is
secondary because it provides information gathered long after the fire.
"Photo Essay: The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire." PBS. PBS, 25 Mar. 2011. Web. 21 Nov.
2015. <http://www.pbs.org/newshour/multimedia/trianglefire/>.
This website provided a great amount of images to use for my research. It was nice each
images had a description next to it. It was easy to go through the images. This
information is secondary because it was created long after the fire with information
gathered from years of research.

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“Sweatshops & Strikes Before 1911.” Cornell University. Version. Cornell University.
n.d. Web. 09 November 2015 <https://trianglefire.ilr.cornell.edu/story/sweatshops
Strikes.html>.
This source provided an outlook of sweatshops and strikes before the fire in 1911. This
gave me another perspective of how labor conditions were before rather than just
thinking one particular case. The given information was easy to understand and direct to
the point with their message of factories. This source is secondary because it information
gathered from researchers who researched about the fire.
Taylor, Paul F. The ABC-CLIO Companion to the American Labor Movement. Santa Barbara,
California: Library of Congress Cataloging - In - Publication - Data, 1993. Print.
This book gave a brief overview of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire. It gave specific
details on the major events that happened during it. I received a few starting points to
research more about the people/acts involved. This source is secondary because this book
was written way after the fire for research purposes.
"This Day in Resistance History: The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire and Union Protections."
Grand Rapids Institute for Information Democracy. WordPress.com, 25 Mar. 2011. Web.
06 Dec. 2015. <http://griid.org/2011/03/25/this-day-in-resistance-history-the-triangleshirtwaist-factory-fire-and-union-protections/>.
This website was easy to read and understand the information. This website provided
images about the unions formed. It was nice that some parts was bold to emphasize
important information. This source is secondary because it was created long after the fire
with information gathered from research.
“Topics in Chronicling America - Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire.” Triangle Shirtwaist Factory
Fire. n.d. Web. 13 October 2015. <https://www.loc.gov/rr/news/topic/triangle.html>.
This website provided important dates to mention in the fire. This website provided
articles related to the fire. This website provided research strategies to follow and few
research tips. This source is secondary because this source was put together with
information by researchers who studied the fire.
“Triangle Fire.” PBS. n.d. Web. 13 October 2015. <https:/ /www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexper
ience/features/introduction/triangle-intro/.html>.

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This website provided a list of sources they gathered to provide information about the
fire. This website provided extra primary sources to look into in the future. This website
was well-organized to use and was easy to access. This source is secondary because this
website was created from the information of other researchers of the fire.
“Triangle Fire and the ILGWU.” Cornell University. n.d. Web. 25 October 2015. <https://www.t
rianglefire.ilr.cornell.edu/legacy/TFAndILGWU.html>.
This source provided another example of the legacy. This source particularly focused on
the ILGWU impact. This source provided conditions that were beginning to be monitored
after the fire. This source is secondary because it is information gathered from
researchers who researched about the legacy of the fire.
“Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire.” History. n.d. Web. 13 October 2015. <https://www.history.c
om/topics/triangle-shirtwaist-fire.html>.
This website gave specific times and data collected of the fire. This website gave a brief
summary of the fire. This website gave details of the conditions and situations the victims
faced, This source is secondary because this source was conducted with information by
researchers who studied the fire.
"Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 26 Nov. 2015.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triangle_Shirtwaist_Factory_fire>.
This website provided a great starting point for my research, This website also provided
images to use for my research. It was also nicely organized to different subtopics. This
source is secondary because it provides information gathered long after the fire.
"The Vogue Magazine Covers." Condé Nast. Condé Nast, n.d. Web. 05 Dec. 2015. <http
://www.condenaststore.com/-st/Vogue-Magazine-Covers-Prints_c146182_p6_.htm>.
This website was nicely organized with each covers. This website provided a wide range
of different covers. It was easy to use the image for my research.
"Welcome to Immigration." Welcome to Immigration. Scholastic, Inc, n.d. Web. 06 Dec. 2015.
<http://teacher.scholastic.com/activities/immigration/tour/stop3.htm>.
This website was simple and easy to use. This website provided an image for my
research. This website provided information about the immigrants (workers). This source
secondary because it provides information gathered long after the fire.
"Women's Trade Union League." Women's Trade Union League. The Eleanor Roosevelt Papers

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Project, n.d. Web. 06 Dec. 2015. <http://www.gwu.edu/~erpapers/teachinger/glossary
/womens-trade-union-league.cfm>.
This website provided important information for my research. It also provided an image
for use or my research. Very simple and easy going website. This source is secondary
because it provides information gathered from research after the fire.
“What is a Shirtwaist?” PBS. n.d. Web. 25 October 2015. <https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/american
experience/features/general-article/triangle-shirtwaist/.html>.
This source provided background information about the shirtwaist. This source provided
information of its popularity. This source nicely defined the shirtwaist and was easy to
understand with the writings. This source is secondary because it provided general
information of what this item was.
"You Owe a Big Thanks to the Dead Ladies of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory." Motherboard.
2015 Vice Media LLC, 25 Mar. 2011. Web. 01 Dec. 2015. <http://motherboard.vice.com
/read/the-triangle-shirtwaist-factory-fire-of-1911-celebrating-100-years-of-the-8-hour-wo
rk-day>.
This website was nicely organized and easy to access. This website provided images to
use for my research. The images were easy to use too. This source is secondary because it
was created long after the fire - with information research and gathered.

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