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Isabelle Seward

Mr. Yagid
Journal Article Review: Providing Sport Psychology Consulting Services in Professional
Halliwell, W. (n.d.). Providing Sport Psychology Consulting Services in Professional
Hockey. The Sport Psychologist, 4(4), 369-377.

Journal Summary: This article relates experiences and knowledge gained in providing
sport psychology consulting services to professional hockey teams over a 6-year period.
The process of getting involved in professional hockey is described and the importance
of obtaining ample consulting experience before working with professional athletes is
discussed. Philosophical and organizational components of service delivery are
presented along with the range and type of service provided. The development of trust
and confidence in the player1 consultant relationship is seen as the key to effective
sport psychology consulting. Also, the importance of being able to read situations, fit
into the professional sports environment, and adopt a low-key, behind-the-scenes
approach is discussed. It may be necessary to keep this in mind in terms of potential
increase in concussion reporting. Many athletes do not report concussions for fear of
losing playing time, so therefore the utilization of a psychologist or a psychological

Isabelle Seward
Mr. Yagid
RECOVERY FROM CONCUSSION. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 44, 367-373.
Journal Article Body: A study conducted by the Aukland Hospital reviews the possibility
of measuring concussion severity utilizing a paced auditory test. The test measures the
information processing of an individual and can be used as a tool to measure the
recovery process. This test was administered by Dr. Gronwall to his concussed patients
at the hospital. The purpose of his study was to identity mild concussions in his patients
in order to create a recovery plan for reduced work without using a post concussion
amnesia scale, as most of his patients did not experience significant amnesia, but rather
complained of other types of symptoms (specifically concentration, focusing and
memory issues). The results of his study indicated lower test results in his concussed

patients as opposed to his patients who did not suffer from a concussion.This indicates
that there were slower information processing speeds in the mildly concussed patients
which can then be used to prove how a reduced work load is vital in terms of athlete or
patient recovery. This article proves how concussion recognition technology has vastly
improved, and can be used to develop more programs similar to this and the ImPACT
test to improve accuracy and consistency to ultimately increase recovery time.
1: How could a paced auditory test be integrated into a test in the app?
2: Is there any way to determine if a neurocognitive test is or is not more accurate than
the auditory approach?
3: Would results still be similar for patients who do not suffer from symptoms regarding
sound sensitivity?
Isabelle Seward
Mr. Yagid
Journal Review: Bodychecking Rules and Concussion in Elite Hockey
Donaldson, L. (2013). Bodychecking Rules and Concussion in Elite Hockey. PLOS One.
Journal Article Body: Athletes participating in contact sports such as ice hockey are
exposed to a high risk of suffering a concussion. We determined whether recent rule
changes regulating contact to the head introduced in 2010–11 and 2011–12 have been
effective in reducing the incidence of concussion in the National Hockey League (NHL).
A league with a longstanding ban on hits contacting the head, the Ontario Hockey
League (OHL), was also studied. A retrospective study of NHL and OHL games for the
2009–10 to 2011–12 seasons was performed using official game records and team
injury reports in addition to other media sources. Concussion incidence over the 3
seasons analyzed was 5.23 per 100 NHL regular season games and 5.05 per 100 OHL
regular season games (IRR 1.04; 95% CI 1.01, 1.50). When injuries described as
concussion-like or suspicious of concussion were included, incidences rose to 8.8 and
7.1 per 100 games respectively (IRR 1.23; 95% CI 0.81, 1.32). The number of NHL
concussions or suspected concussions was lower in 2009–10 than in 2010–11 (IRR
0.61; 95% CI 0.45, 0.83), but did not increase from 2010–11 to 2011–12 (IRR 1.05; 95%
CI 0.80, 1.38). 64.2% of NHL concussions were caused by bodychecking, and only
28.4% of concussions and 36.8% of suspected concussions were caused by illegal
incidents. We conclude that rules regulating bodychecking to the head did not reduce
the number of players suffering concussions during NHL regular season play and that
further changes or stricter enforcement of existing rules may be required to minimize the
risk of players suffering these injuries.
1: What rules changes can be implemented to protect in sport concussions?
2: What other sports besides football is also affected in the same way?

3: Should bodychecking be eliminated entirely? What are the consequences of that?

Isabelle Seward
Mr. Yagid
Journal Review: ImPact Test-Retest Reliability: Reliably Unreliable?
Jacob Resch, Aoife Driscoll, Noel McCaffrey, Cathleen Brown, Michael S. Ferrara,
Stephen Macciocchi, Ted Baumgartner, and Kimberly Walpert (2013) ImPact TestRetest Reliability: Reliably Unreliable?. Journal of Athletic Training: Jul/Aug 2013, Vol.
48, No. 4, pp. 506-511.
Journal Article Body: Computerized neuropsychological testing is commonly used in the
assessment and management of sport-related concussion. Even though computerized
testing is widespread, psychometric evidence for test-retest reliability is somewhat
limited. Additional evidence for test-retest reliability is needed to optimize clinical
decision making after concussion.To document test-retest reliability for a commercially
available computerized neuropsychological test battery (ImPACT) using 2 different
clinically relevant time intervals. Design as a Cross-sectional study.Two research
laboratories.Group 1 (n = 46) consisted of 25 men and 21 women (age = 22.4 ± 1.89
years). Group 2 (n = 45) consisted of 17 men and 28 women (age = 20.9 ± 1.72
years).Both groups completed ImPACT forms 1, 2, and 3, which were delivered
sequentially either at 1-week intervals (group 1) or at baseline, day 45, and day 50
(group 2). Group 2 also completed the Green Word Memory Test (WMT) as a measure
of effort. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated for the composite
scores of ImPACT between time points. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was
used to evaluate changes in ImPACT and WMT results over time. The ICC values for
group 1 ranged from 0.26 to 0.88 for the 4 ImPACT composite scores. The ICC values
for group 2 ranged from 0.37 to 0.76. In group 1, ImPACT classified 37.0% and 46.0%
of healthy participants as impaired at time points 2 and 3, respectively. In group 2,
ImPACT classified 22.2% and 28.9% of healthy participants as impaired at time points 2
and 3, respectively.We found variable test-retest reliability for ImPACT metrics. Visual
motor speed and reaction time demonstrated greater reliability than verbal and visual
memory. Our current data support a multifaceted approach to concussion assessment
using clinical examinations, symptom reports, cognitive testing, and balance
1: What alternatives are there to ImPACT in terms of testing programs?
2: How could these flaws be improved in another method of testing?
3: How are visual/verbal discrimination less reliable?
Isabelle Seward
Mr. Yagid

Journal Review: Sport-Related Concussion Misunderstandings Among Youth Coaches
Mcleod, T., Schwartz, C., & Bay, R. (2007). Sport-Related Concussion
Misunderstandings Among Youth Coaches. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 17(2),
Journal Summary: The objective of this study was to determine the understanding of
sport-related concussion among youth sports coaches. Designed as a cross sectional
survey, it was administered at coaches' meetings, following practices, and via mail. The
participants included 156 active youth sports coaches, with 5.88 ± 3.16 years (range 122) of coaching experience. Scores on the survey instrument reflecting symptom
recognition and management knowledge constituted as the main measurements. For
the 16 items comprising the symptom recognition survey, the mean number of correct
responses was 9.78 ± 2.07. Previous coaching education was predictive of better
symptom recognition. On the true/false portion, between 49.4% and 61.5% of coaches
correctly answered the 4 statements. This investigation revealed that, among youth
sports coaches, coaching education was predictive of the ability to recognize signs and
symptoms of sport-related concussion. However, several misconceptions about
concussion still exist, highlighting that education regarding concussion is necessary.
The presence of qualified health care personnel, such as an athletic trainer, at the youth
organization level may enhance early recognition, treatment, and referral of
1: For each and any organized youth sport such as football or hockey, should it be
required to have a designated health care professional be active in the league?
2: What specific questions or aspects of specific questions did the coaches average
incorrect answers for?
3: How could generalized concussion seminars for youth coaches and parents be
improved based off of the results of this study?
Isabelle Seward
Mr. Yagid
Journal Review: Cumulative effects of concussion in amateur athletes
Iverson, G., Gaetz, M., & Lovell, M. (n.d.). Cumulative effects of concussion in amateur
athletes. Brain Injury, 18(5), 433-443.
Journal Summary: The objective of this study was to examine the possibility that
athletes with multiple concussions show cumulative effects of injury. Amateur athletes
with a history of three or more concussions were carefully matched (gender, age,
education and sport) with athletes with no prior concussions. All participants completed
a computerized neuropsychological test battery at preseason (ImPACT) and then within
5 days of sustaining a concussion (mean = 1.7 days). The results of this experiment

show that there were differences between groups in symptom reporting and memory
performance. At baseline (i.e. preseason), athletes with multiple concussions reported
more symptoms than athletes with no history of concussion. At approximately 2 days
post-injury, athletes with multiple concussions scored significantly lower on memory
testing than athletes with a single concussion. Athletes with multiple concussions were
7.7 times more likely to demonstrate a major drop in memory performance than athletes
with no previous concussions. In summation, this study provides preliminary evidence to
suggest that athletes with multiple concussions might have cumulative effects.
1: Do believe there would be a correlation between symptoms reported in one sport as
opposed to another?
2:Was there a correlation in recovery time for athletes with multiple concussion? (Similar
recovery time)
3:How could a decrease in memory performance be improved?
Isabelle Seward
Mr. Yagid
Journal Review: Cerebral Concussion in Athletes: Evaluation and Neuropsychological
Maroon, J., Lovell, M., Norwig, J., Podell, K., Powell, J., & Hartl, R. (2000). Cerebral
Concussion in Athletes: Evaluation and Neuropsychological Testing. Neurosurgery,
47(3), 659-672.
Journal Summary: The objective was to conduct a topic review of studies related to
cerebral concussion in athletes, as an aid to improving decision-making and outcomes.
They review the literature to provide an historical perspective on the incidence and
definition of and the management guidelines for mild traumatic brain injury in sports. In
addition, metabolic changes resulting from cerebral concussion and the second-impact
syndrome are reviewed, to provide additional principles for decision-making.The
incidence of cerebral concussions has been reduced from approximately 19 per 100
participants in football per season to approximately 4 per 100, i.e., 40,000 to 50,000
concussions per year in football alone.Each has associated management guidelines.
Concussion or loss of consciousness occurs when the extracellular potassium
concentration increases beyond the upper normal limit of approximately 4 to 5 mmol/L,
to levels of 20 to 50 mmol/L, inhibiting the action potential and leading to loss of
consciousness. This phenomenon helps to explain the delayed effects of symptoms
after trauma. Knowledge of the various definitions and management strategies, as well
as the utility of neuropsychological testing, is essential for those involved in decisionmaking with athletes with mild traumatic brain injuries.
1: Chemically, could a drug be created in order to prevent a delay of symptom after

2: Would creating a drug to do the above even be beneficial to recognizing and
diagnosing mTBIs sooner?
3: What sort of athlete related concussion management would be the most beneficial?

Isabelle Seward
Mr. Yagid
Journal Review: Identification of Sport and Recreational Activity Concussion History
Through the Preparticipation Screening and a Symptom Survey in Young Athletes
Mcleod, T., Bay, R., Heil, J., & Mcveigh, S. (2008). Identification of Sport and
Recreational Activity Concussion History Through the Preparticipation Screening and a
Symptom Survey in Young Athletes. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine,18(3), 235-240.
Journal Summary: The objective was to evaluate the concussion history of
young athletes using three questions on the preparticipation screening (PPS)
and a concussion symptom survey (CSS). Five hundred twenty young
athletes participated in the study. Athletes were asked about their
concussion history using three different questions on the PPS. The CSS, a list
of concussion-related symptoms, was also given to assess the history of
concussion-related symptoms associated with a previous injury to the heads.
There was little agreement among the three PPS questions, with kappa
coefficients ranging from κ = −0.018 to 0.342. Analysis of the CSS revealed
that 286 athletes (55.0%) reported having at least one concussion symptom
after a head injury. Of those reporting symptoms, 86.4% did not report a
concussion history in sport, and 92.7% did not report a concussion history in
recreational activities. The identification of concussion history may depend
on the phrasing of questions on the PPS. Simply asking an athlete whether
they had a concussion may not adequately identify athletes with concussion
histories. Although recommendations have been made to avoid the
terminology of ding and bell rung, it seems these terms may be needed to
ensure adequate reporting of previous concussions in young athletes.
1: Were there any correlations between athlete symptom to the sport that they
participated in?
2: Were there any patterns in terms of terminology used to describe concussion history?
3: What were the questions on the PPS?