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Integrated Chemistry problems

1. When water and methanol are mixed, the total volume of the resulting solution is not equal to
the sum of the pure liquid volumes. When 72.061 g H2O and 192.25 g of CH3OH are mixed at
25Β°C the resulting solution has a density of 0.86070 g/mL. At 25Β°C the densities of water and
methanol are 0.99705 g/mL and 0.78706 g/mL respectively. Calculate the volumes of pure liquid
samples and the solution. Calculate the molarity of CH3OH in the solution.

2. Consider the following: π‘π‘ŽπΆπ‘™
(π‘Žπ‘ž) + 𝐴𝑔𝑁𝑂3 (π‘Žπ‘ž) β†’ π‘π‘Žπ‘π‘‚3 (π‘Žπ‘ž) + 𝐴𝑔𝐢𝑙 (𝑠)
A student enters into the lab and wishes to perform the above reaction. The student knows that
he needs 200ml of a 1.3 M(molarity) NaCl solution and 0.3 L of a 0.6 M AgNO3 solution. In the
lab the student is finds solid NaCl and a solution of 1.5 molarity solution of AgNO3. Calculate the
amount of the initial reactants needed to get the desired concentrations of reactants.

3. Sodium Dithionite Na2S2O4 is an important reducing agent. One interesting use is the reduction
of chromate ion to insoluable chromium (III) hydroxide, in basic solution. Sulfite ion is another
product. The chromate ion may be present in wastewater from a chromium-plating plant. What
mass of sodium dithionite is consumed with 1000.0 L of waste water having CrO22-= 0.0148 M?
The chemical formula is provided, but not balanced. 𝑆
2 𝑂42βˆ’ (π‘Žπ‘ž) + πΆπ‘Ÿπ‘‚42βˆ’ (π‘Žπ‘ž) + 𝐻2 𝑂 (𝑙) + 𝑂𝐻 βˆ’ (π‘Žπ‘ž) β†’ 𝑆𝑂32βˆ’ (π‘Žπ‘ž) + πΆπ‘Ÿ(𝑂𝐻)3 (𝑠)

4. Sodium nitrite is used in the production of dyes for coloring fabrics, as a preservative in meat
processing, as a bleach for fibers, and in photography. It can be prepared by passing nitrogen
monoxide (molar mass= 30.01 g/mol) and oxygen gases into an aqueous solution of sodium
carbonate (molar mass=105.99 g/mole). Carbon dioxide is another product of this reaction. In
one experimental method, which gives a 95.0% yield, 225 ml of 1.50 M aqueous solution of
sodium carbonate, 22.1g of nitrogen monoxide, and a large excess of oxygen gas are allowed to
react. What is the limiting reactant? What is the mass, in grams, of sodium nitrite obtained? π‘π‘Ž
2 𝐢𝑂3 (π‘Žπ‘ž) + 𝑁𝑂 (𝑔) + 𝑂2 (𝑔) β†’ π‘π‘Žπ‘π‘‚2 (π‘Žπ‘ž) + 𝐢𝑂2 (𝑔)

Answers:
1. When water and methanol are mixed, the total volume of the resulting solution is not equal
to the sum of the pure liquid volumes. When 72.061 g H2O and 192.25 g of CH3OH are mixed
at 25Β°C the resulting solution has a density of 0.86070 g/mL. At 25Β°C the densities of water
and methanol are 0.99705 g/mL and 0.78706 g/mL respectively. Calculate the volumes of
pure liquid samples and the solution. Calculate the molarity of CH3OH in the solution.
Total Volume: 307.09 mL
Volume of H2O: 72.27 mL
Volume of CH3OH: 244.29 mL

2. Consider the following: π‘π‘ŽπΆπ‘™
(π‘Žπ‘ž) + 𝐴𝑔𝑁𝑂3 (π‘Žπ‘ž) β†’ π‘π‘Žπ‘π‘‚3 (π‘Žπ‘ž) + 𝐴𝑔𝐢𝑙 (𝑠)
A student enters into the lab and wishes to perform the above reaction. The student knows
that he needs 200ml of a 1.3 M(molarity) NaCl solution and 0.3 L of a 0.6 M AgNO3 solution.
In the lab the student is finds solid NaCl and a solution of 1.5 molarity solution of AgNO3.
Calculate the amount of the initial reactants needed to get the desired concentrations of
reactants.
Volume of 1.5 M AgNO3: 0.12L
Mass of NaCl: 15.19 g
3. Sodium Dithionite Na2S2O4 is an important reducing agent. One interesting use is the
reduction of chromate ion to insoluable chromium (III) hydroxide, in basic solution. Sulfite
ion is another product. The chromate ion may be present in wastewater from a chromiumplating plant. What mass of sodium dithionite is consumed with 1000.0 L of waste water
having CrO22-= 0.0148 M? The chemical formula is provided, but not balanced. 𝑆
2 𝑂42βˆ’ (π‘Žπ‘ž) + πΆπ‘Ÿπ‘‚42βˆ’ (π‘Žπ‘ž) + 𝐻2 𝑂 (𝑙) + 𝑂𝐻 βˆ’ (π‘Žπ‘ž) β†’ 𝑆𝑂32βˆ’ (π‘Žπ‘ž) + πΆπ‘Ÿ(𝑂𝐻)3 (𝑠)
3 𝑆2 𝑂42βˆ’ (π‘Žπ‘ž) + 2 πΆπ‘Ÿπ‘‚42βˆ’ (π‘Žπ‘ž) + 2 𝐻2 𝑂 (𝑙) + 2 𝑂𝐻 βˆ’ (π‘Žπ‘ž) β†’ 6 𝑆𝑂32βˆ’ (π‘Žπ‘ž) + 2 πΆπ‘Ÿ(𝑂𝐻)3 (𝑠)

Mass of Na2S2O4: 387.0 g

4. Sodium nitrite is used in the production of dyes for coloring fabrics, as a preservative in
meat processing, as a bleach for fibers, and in photography. It can be prepared by passing
nitrogen monoxide (molar mass= 30.01 g/mol) and oxygen gases into an aqueous solution of
sodium carbonate (molar mass=105.99 g/mole). Carbon dioxide is another product of this
reaction. In one experimental method, which gives a 95.0% yield, 225 ml of 1.50 M aqueous
solution of sodium carbonate, 22.1g of nitrogen monoxide, and a large excess of oxygen gas
are allowed to react. What is the limiting reactant? What is the mass, in grams, of sodium
nitrite obtained? π‘π‘Ž
2 𝐢𝑂3 (π‘Žπ‘ž) + 𝑁𝑂 (𝑔) + 𝑂2 (𝑔) β†’ π‘π‘Žπ‘π‘‚2 (π‘Žπ‘ž) + 𝐢𝑂2 (𝑔)
Limiting Reagent: Na2CO3
Mass of sodium nitrite: 44.3g π‘π‘Ž

2 𝐢𝑂3 (π‘Žπ‘ž) + 𝑁𝑂 (𝑔) + 𝑂2 (𝑔) β†’ π‘π‘Žπ‘π‘‚2 (π‘Žπ‘ž) + 𝐢𝑂2 (𝑔)