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DuBois 1

Eric DuBois
Mr. Kane
US Government
1 October 2015
Annotated Bibliography

Baker, Al, J. Goodman and Benjamin Mueller. “Beyond the Chokehold: The Path to Eric
Garner’s Death” The New York Times. The New York Times Company, 13 June 2015.
Web. 2 Oct. 2015.
This article gives a detailed step-by-step account of the events that led to Eric Garner’s
death. It summarizes the build-up to the confrontation, regarding the illegal sales of
cigarettes near the Staten Island Ferry. The confrontation itself is described with as many
facts and testimonials as possible. The final piece of the article examines the aftermath
and describes it as thoroughly as possible.
This article will be the basis of my simulation. Its incredible detail will ensure that the
simulation is as accurate as possible, adhering to the cross referenced facts of witnesses.
It will also help me understand the factors at play when the officers went to arrest Eric
Garner.
Demby, Gene. “What We See In The Eric Garner Video, And What We Don’t.” npr. npr, 29 July
2014. Web. 2 Oct 2015.
This article discusses the idea of excessive force and chokeholds. Excessive force is a
highly controversial issue, as it is unclear what is considered the proper amount of force.
A chokehold on the other hand is a vague term regarding a police restraint technique.
This article discusses the nuances between these techniques and why they make policing
so difficult.
This article will be used in my explanation of the case, as these are two points key to the
defense. It will help me show the point of view of the police officers involved in Garner’s
death. Furthermore, it offers some general crime statistics which will be very useful in
talking about police brutality across the nation.
Kille, Leighton and John Wihbey. “Excessive or reasonable force by police? Research on law
enforcement and racial conflict.” Journalist’s Resource. HARVARD Kennedy School, 1
July 2015. Web. 2 Oct 2015.

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This article examines all aspects of police brutality from the use of less deadly weapons
to the impact of body cameras. It provides statistics for every conclusion it draws about
the facts surrounding police brutality. It also provides the testimony of the FBI and highranking police officers, explaining the logistic nightmare of tracking racial bias.
This article will be used in the overall project as I try to examine police brutality as a
whole. The statistics will be key in providing examples of cause and offering possible
solutions. It will also be used to help further my understanding of police reactions in law
enforcement situations.
Lewis, John. “Michael Brown, Eric Garner, and the ‘Other America’.” The Atlantic. The Atlantic
Monthly Group, 15 Dec 2014. Web. 2 Oct 2015.
This article helps to put into perspective the racially-biased police brutality that is
prevalent throughout America. It references how similar it is to the time of Martin Luther
King Jr and concerns itself with the mindset of Americans. It brings to light the racism
and distortion that helps justify these killings by offering a well-considered opinion.
This article offers the opinion of a black man in America, providing insight into what
they perceive and may be included in the simulation as it is quite realistic. While it
certainly contains racial bias, this is will also be very useful in the oral presentation that
will accompany the game, because it gives an unimpeded look into the prejudice suffered
by black persons.
Long, Colleen. “Eric Garner’s Family on $5.9 Million Settlement With New York City: Money
Is Not Justice.” NBC New York. NBCUniversal Media, LLC, 14 July 2015. Web. 2 Oct
2015.
This article discusses the legal closing of the Eric Garner case. The city of New York
settled for $5.9 million, while the jury declined to indict the involved officers. It should
also be noted that the city admitted no blame while pursuing the settlement, and the
Garner family still seeks civil rights actions.
This article is necessary for observing the complete story of Eric Garner, start-to-finish.
While no notable change was derived from his death and the settlement is far from
common, it will both contribute to the simulation and presentation by giving it a positive
note.

New York Daily News. “Eric Garner video - Unedited version.” Online video clip. YouTube.
YouTube, 12 July 2015. Web. 2 Oct. 2015.

DuBois 3

This video is the unedited version of Eric Garner’s death. It starts with the initial
approach of the plain clothes police officers, and then progresses to the use of force and
his eventual subdual.
This video will provide the raw video footage for the simulation. It will also allow me to
form my own opinions of the events that led to Eric Garner’s death. It may also be
possible that this video can be included in my presentation.
New York Daily News. “‘I Can’t Breathe’ - Eric Garner: One Year Later.” Online Video clip.
YouTube. YouTube, 12 July 2015. 2 Oct. 2015.
This video is a reflection one year after Eric Garner’s death. It offers interviews with the
family along with bystanders, which helps shed some human perspective on the events.
The montage of videos includes the statements from the NYPD, and compiles media
surrounding this story into one location.
This video can be included as the raw video footage for the simulation. It also adds the
opinions of others who were highly involved in this event. Clips of this video could also
be used within my presentation.
Peters, Justin. “Broken Windows Policing Doesn’t Work.” Slate. Graham Holdings Company, 3
Dec. 2014. Web. 2 Oct. 2015.
This article discussing the policing tactics of New York and crime in the nation. Within
New York, they recently switched from ‘stop-and-frisk’ policing, where suspicious
persons are searched at random to ‘broken windows’ policing, where all infractions are
punished. Crime rates have lowered since the institution of this policy, but they have also
dropped across the nation as a whole.
This article will help me by giving insight into different policing methods. It will help
add realistic aspects to the game by introducing real police tactics. It also offers
information on crime throughout the nation, which can be used in the presentation.