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Tyler King

Unit 1 & 2
1. A biography is a detailed description of someone’s life written by someone else while an
autobiography is a detailed description of someone’s life written by that person.
2. Geography, Religion, Achievements, Politics, Economy, and Social Structures.
3. The main differences are that the Neolithic Era developed agriculture, domesticated
animals, and had more advanced tools than the Paleolithic Era (before the Neolithic).
4. The five characteristics of a civilization are Complex Institutions, Advanced Cities,
Record Keeping, Technology, and Specialized Workers.
5. Mesopotamia
Geography- Fertile soil, abundant water supply, protection from invaders, and easy trade
Religion- Polytheistic, had to please gods
Achievements- Invented wheel, sail, and plow; complex writing and irrigation systems
Politics- Priest were in control (theocracy), hereditary rule (dynasty)
Economy- increased agriculture and trade, metal tools, developed first cities
Social Structure- [Kings and Priests]-[Merchants]-[Ordinary Sumerians]-[Slaves]
Egypt
Geography- Settlements near Nile, fertile soil, deserts on either side
Religion- Polytheistic, built temples, believed in afterlife
Achievements- Pyramids, first to use stone columns, full calendar
Politics- Pharaoh was ruler, viewed as a god, theocracy
Economy- traded along Nile, traded with Mesopotamia
Social Structure- [Pharaoh]-[Priests]-[Merchants]-[Ordinary citizens]-[Slaves]
Indus River Valley
Geography- Located near Indus and Ganges rivers, Himalayans, floods, protection
Religion- Polytheistic, theocracy, related to Hinduism
Achievements- Plumbing and sewage, city planning
Politics- Theocratic society, hierarchy systems
Economy- Traded through the rivers
Social Structure- Uniformity in religion and culture, little war, bad social divisions
China
Geography- Near Huang He River, Taklamakan desert NW, 10% of land is farmable
Religion- Ying and Yang, I Ching (Oracle book), Oracle bones
Achievements- First lasting dynasty, nationalized Ying and Yang symbol, silk
Political- Sharp social division, mandate of heaven, feudalism, dynastic cycle
Economy- Traded through rivers, traded silk
Social Structure- Strong social classes, dynasty owned land
Unit 3
1. Hinduism
Origin- India

Tyler King
Main Beliefs- Brahma the Creator, Vishnu the Preserver, and Shiva the Destroyer
Leaders- None
Holy Text- The Vedas and Upanishad
Judaism
Origin- Jerusalem
Main Beliefs- “Chosen”, waiting for the Messiah to return
Leaders- Abraham
Holy Text- Torah, Ten Commandments
Buddhism
Origin- Grew out of Hinduism
Main Beliefs- Four Noble Truths and Eightfold Path to Enlightenment
Leaders- Siddartha Guatama
Holy Text- Tripitka, Three Baskets of Wisdom
Christianity
Origin- Grew out of Judaism, Jerusalem
Main Beliefs- God sent only son to die to give salvation/show love for humanity
Leaders- Jesus, Paul
Holy Text- the Bible
Islam
Origin- Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem
Main Beliefs- Five Pillars
Leaders- Muhammad
Holy Text- Quŕan
Confucianism
Origin- China
Main Beliefs- Humaneness, connection to nature, virtue
Leader- Confucius
Holy Text- Lun-yü