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OECD Biotechnology Statistics GM CORN(06)157pp

OECD Biotechnology Statistics GM CORN(06)157pp

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Who are the OECD? Do they "really" care about bribery? What's GM Corn?
Who are the OECD? Do they "really" care about bribery? What's GM Corn?

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10/25/2011

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• Data on R&D investments by application field
are available for 13 countries plus China
(Shanghai). The data are for R&D expenditures
in 12 countries, but Sweden and Belgium
provide data in terms of R&D employees.
Given the close relationship between R&D
employees and R&D expenditures, the two
methods of measuring R&D investment are
presented in the same Figures for health, agro-
food,

and

industrial-environmental

applications.
• The results for five countries (France,
Germany, Ireland, Norway and the
United Kingdom) are limited to total R&D
expenditures by core biotechnology firms,
which will include R&D on non-
biotechnology-related research and excludes
biotechnology R&D performed by large firms.
All other results are for biotechnology R&D
and include large firms if active in
biotechnology.
• Health applications dominate biotechnology
R&D. Excluding Sweden and Belgium where
the shares are based on R&D employees, 87%
of all estimated biotechnology R&D
expenditures in the remaining 12 countries are
for health applications, 4% for agro-food
applications, 2% for industrial-environmental
applications, and 7% for ‘other’ applications.

• In all countries, the majority of biotechnology
R&D investments are focused on health
applications. Almost 90% or more of
biotechnology R&D is for health applications
in the United States (89%), Iceland (92%), and
Ireland (97%). The lowest share is in Sweden,
but this is partly because health-related
biotechnology employment in the service
sector is assigned to the ‘other’ category.
• Israel and China have the highest share of
biotechnology R&D investment on agro-food
applications (14%), followed by Australia
(12%). There are no detectable expenditures on
agro-food biotechnology in Ireland.
• Australia has the highest share of
biotechnology R&D investment for industrial-
environmental applications, at 15%, followed
by Switzerland (10%) and Israel (7%). The
share is below 2% for four countries: Germany,
France, the United Kingdom and Iceland. With
the exception of Iceland, the very low shares
could be due to the limitation on core
biotechnology firms. For instance, 14% of all
German firms with biotechnology R&D report
activity

in

industrial-environmental
applications. The discrepancy between firm
count data and R&D expenditure data could be
partly explained if many industrial-
environmental applications are researched by
large firms.

OECD Biotechnology Statistics - 2006

© OECD 2006

31

Biotechnology applications: R&D

Percent of biotechnology firm R&D investments on health applications, 2003

0

50

All R&D expenditures among core biotechnology firms

Biotech R&D expenditures among all biotech active firms

60

61

62

68

69

72

77

81

83

87

88

89

92

97

0

20

40

60

80

100

Sweden (1,3,4)

Israel (2002) (2)

Switzerland (2004) (1,2)

Norway (2,5)

Australia (2)

China (Shanghai) (1,2)

Germany (2,5)

Belgium (3)

France (2,5)

United Kingdom (2,5)

Canada (2)

United States (2001) (2)

Iceland (2)

Ireland (2,5)

%

1. Application field based on sector of activity, underestimating firms active in health as many of these are in R&D services,
assigned to 'other'.
2. Application focus based on distribution of R&D expenditures.
3. Application focus based on distribution of R&D employees.
4. Limited to firms with more than 50 employees.
5. Data from Critical I report to the UK DTI, 2005, based on total R&D expenditures in core biotechnology firms.

OECD Biotechnology Statistics - 2006

© OECD 2006

32

Biotechnology applications: R&D

Percent of biotechnology firm R&D investments on agro-food applications,3

2003

0

50

All R&D expenditures among core biotechnology firms

Biotech R&D expenditures among all biotech active firms

0

1

1

3

3

4

5

6

6

12

13

14

0

5

10

15

20

Ireland (2,4)

France (2,4)

Germany (2,4)

Iceland (2)

Switzerland (2004) (1,2)

United States (2001) (2,5)

United Kingdom (2,4)

Norway (2,4)

Canada (2)

Australia (2)

China (Shanghai) (1,2)

Israel (2002) (2)

%

1. Application field based on sector of activity.
2. Application focus based on distribution of R&D expenditures.
3. No results for Sweden and Belgium where the sector definition of the application area is not detailed enough to identify
agro-food or industrial-environmental applications.
4. Data from Critical I report to the UK DTI, 2005, based on total R&D expenditures in core biotechnology firms.
5. Agriculture-derived processing assigned to industrial-environmental applications.

OECD Biotechnology Statistics - 2006

© OECD 2006

33

Biotechnology applications: R&D

Percent of biotechnology firm R&D investments on industrial-environmental applications,3

2003

0

50

All R&D expenditures among core biotechnology firms

Biotech R&D expenditures among all biotech active firms

0

0

0

1

1

2

2

3

3

7

10

15

0

5

10

15

20

Iceland (2)

United Kingdom (2,4)

France (2,4)

Germany (2,4)

Ireland (2,4)

United States (2001) (2,5)

Canada (2)

China (Shanghai) (1,2)

Norway (2,4)

Israel (2002) (2)

Switzerland (2004) (1,2)

Australia (2)

%

1. Application field based on sector of activity.
2. Application focus based on distribution of R&D expenditures.
3. No results for Sweden and Belgium where the sector definition of the application area is not detailed enough to identify
agro-food or industrial-environmental applications.
4. Data from Critical I report to the UK DTI, 2005, based on total R&D expenditures in core biotechnology firms.
5. Agriculture-derived processing assigned to industrial-environmental applications.

OECD Biotechnology Statistics - 2006

© OECD 2006

34

BIOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS

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