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. For example, metal may be welded, moulded, cast, trimmed, slit or sheared. These procedures often create ragged edges or protrusions. The raised particles and shavings that appear when metal blanks are machined are referred to as burrs, and the process by which they are removed is known as deburring. A burr is a raised edge or small pieces of material remained attached to a work piece after a modification process. It may be present in the form of a fine wire on the edge of a freshly sharpened tool or as a raised portion on a surface, after being struck a blow from an equally hard or heavy object. A normal burr from well-maintained tools is usually less than 10% of material thickness. If burrs are not acceptable (burr-free requirement), then deburring needs to be done. Typically deburring results in a rounded edge with a radius of 0.05 to 0.075 mm (0.002 to 0.003 in). Burr formation in machining accounts for a significant portion of machining costs for manufacturers throughout the world. Drilling burrs, for example, are common when drilling almost any material. The Boeing 747 airplane has approximately 1.3 million holes drilled in it,[ most of which have to be deburred to some extent. As one could imagine, the cost and time needed to perform these drilling and deburring operations is significant. In addition to drilling, milling is also a source of burr formation in machining. One good example of unwanted burrs is in the automotive industry where cylinder blocks, pistons and other engine components are cast then milled to a specific dimension. With higher and higher demands placed on accuracy and precision, burr formation is of critical importance because it can affect engine performance, reliability, and durability.
Deburring is important for quality, aesthetics, functionality and smooth operation of working parts. It is also important for safety. Even a small notch can cause moving parts to catch, creating the potential for accident, injury or unnecessary delay in production. Rough edges can also cause injury when individuals are required to handle blanks. Each of these preventable problems can cost companies a great deal of money. Deburring is done by tumbling parts in a barrel or a vibratory bowl, along with finishing media. Ceramic media is often used for steels. For softer materials, plastic media, walnut shells etc can be used. This type of deburring is usually confined to unfinished materials. For materials that are already finished, such as pre-plated or prepainted materials bulk deburring operations are not suitable, because the deburring will remove the finish along with the burrs. For these materials, other forms of deburring such as belt sanding or hand filing will have to be done with the associated higher costs.
1.1 DESIGN FLOW CHART:
PROBLEM IDENTIFIED -BURR
SEARCHING OF THE AVAILABLE MATERIALS FROM JUNK YARD
SELECTING THE SEQUENCE
FABRICATION DRILL HEAD FOUND
PILLAR TYPE OR INCLIN ED ONE
INCLINED TYPE SELECTED
Fig 1.1 Design flowchart.
CASTLE NUT 2.1 DEFINITION: A slotted nut that allows insertion of a cotter pin to prevent rotation. Usually manufactured from metal with various sizes. A castellated nut, also called a castle nut or slotted nut, is a nut with slots (notches) cut into one end. The name comes from the nut’s resemblance to the crenellated parapet of a medieval castle. The bolt or axle has one or two holes drilled through its threaded end. The nut is torqued properly and then, if the slot isn't aligned with the hole in the fastener, the nut is rotated to the nearest slot. The nut is then secured with a cotter pin or safety wire which passes through the lateral aperture in the bolt and through corresponding diametrically opposite slots in the nut. Castellated nuts are used in low-torque applications, such as holding a wheel bearing in place. 2.1.1 History of this Word "castle" is from "castellum" (fortress), spoken by ancient people in central Italy around 700 B.C. "slot" is from "esclot" (horse's hoofprint), spoken in France
which is from "slodh" (track), spoken by people in North England about 800 A.D. "nut" is from "hnutu", spoken by people in England during 450-1100 A.D.
2.1.2 Slotted Hex Nut Lock Nuts Properties - ANSI / ASME B18.2.2 A hex nut with opposed slots cut into the top of the nut Description through the centers of the flats. The slots are on the end opposite the bearing surface. The slots are for the insertion of a cotter pin to secure the nut when used with a drilled shank fastener. Commonly used in the automotive industry to secure front wheel bearings / wheel hubs to spindles on cars and trucks. Nuts shall be made from a low carbon steel which conforms to the following chemical composition requirements:
Applications & Advantages
Carbon: 0.47% max; Phosphorus: 0.12% max; Sulfur: 0.23% max;
Hardness Proof Load
Rockwell C32 maximum 72,000 psi
2.2 BURR FORMATION: Due to the slot formation in the nut the metal at the inner side of the work tends to fold which will form the burr at the inner face. This burr is formed before the threading operation.
NEED FOR DEBURRING AND DEBURRING METHODS 1. Deburring is important for quality, aesthetics, functionality and smooth operation of working parts. It is also important for safety. 2. Even a small notch can cause moving parts to catch, creating the potential for accident, injury or unnecessary delay in production. 3. Rough edges can also cause injury when individuals are required to handle blanks. 4. Each of these preventable problems can cost companies a great deal of money. 3.1 METHODS OF DEBURRING 1. Abrasive substances may be applied, or abrasive cloths may be used to rub the metal in order to remove thin shavings and small notches, as well as to polish the piece. 2. Water under high pressure is forced at the targeted area. 3. By repetitive filing or use of a grinder to smooth away nicks and fragments. 4. Deburring can also be done by designing a machine with a deburring unit.
The most common methods of deburring are sanding and filing. Sanding may be accomplished with a power sander, or simply by touching up the worst spots by hand. Edges may also be finished with a router.
6. Deburring can be done by using wire brushes.
Deburring can also be done by manual operation
Fig no 3.1 Deburring tools.
3.1.1 Deburring Using Wire Brushes. Abrasive Nylon Deburring Brushes available In
Aluminum Oxide, Silicon Carbide, Ceramic & Diamonds in Various shapes like Disc Circular Inside Deburring (I.D.) Tufted (staple set) Spindle Mounted Strip Brush Manual Tied End Brush Miniature Cup type Spiral Brush Profile Brush
Fig 3.2 Wire brushes.
CHAPTER-4 MECHANICAL PHASE
4.1 MECHANICAL PHASE The mechanical part of our project actually consists of the following steps. 1) Setting up a suitable guide arrangement for the drill head.
Arranging guiding setup for work piece.
3) Fixing the two guide plates with the base. 4) Aligning the centre point of the tool with that of the work centre. 5) Drilling holes and placing the cylinders to full fill the sequence. 6) Making the guide ways according to the requirement.
4.2 MECHANICAL OPERATIONS 1. Milling the base plate . 2. Brazing the end effecters of the cylinders. 3. Grinding the extra metal in the end effecters. 4. Drilling the plates for fastening.
4.3 FABRICATION PROCESS
The machine which is made using a dismantled drill head attachment of a US based machine. The guide ways are also fabricated based upon the availability. The guide ways is bolted to the guide plate. The pneumatic cylinders are bolted to the guide plate.
The guide plate which is used is then attached to the supporting plate with an inclination of 35 degree for gravity feed of work. The drill head is also attached to its inclined guide base and to then bolted to the supporting base.
3. Four separate cylinders are used to fulfill the sequence of operation out of which two are single acting and two are double acting cylinders.
The single acting cylinders are used for the stopping action and is controlled by a 3/2 DCV.
The double acting cylinders are used for tool feeding, separating and for the clamping action and is controlled by a 5/2 DCV.
6. Pencil cylinder is used to control the mechanical actuator switch in the tool cylinder.
CHAPTER-5 ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS PHASE
1. Selecting the appropriate motor for the spindle. 2. Fixing a DOL starter for the main spindle motor.
Wiring the solenoid coil for actuation.
5.1 PLC STRUCTURE
Fig 5.1 PLC structure 5.2 BASIC COMPONENTS The basic components of a PLC are listed below i. ii. iii. iv. Power supply Central Processing Unit (CPU) Inputs Modules Outputs Modules
The general structure of programmable logic controller is as follow:
Fig 5.2 General Structure Of PLC
5.2.1 Power supply mode: There are several types of power supply mode
1. 2. 3.
240V ac supply 110V ac supply 24V ac supply
184.108.40.206 Function: Provides all the voltage level needed to operate the PLC. Converts 110V AC or 240V AC into the DC voltage required by the CPU, memory, I/O interface
Fig 5.3 Example of a power supply module 5.2.2 Central Processing Unit (Cpu) 220.127.116.11 Function: Receives information from input interface, process according to the program stored, update the output information.
18.104.22.168 Memory Memory location is an address in RAM or ROM where a group of bits can be stored
Grouping of bits depending on PLCs: i.
8 bits per word 16 bits per word
32 bits per word
LSB : Least Significant Bit - Digit that represents the smallest value MSB : Most Significant Bit - Digit that represents the largest value 5.2.3 Inputs Module To receive and convert field signals from pushbuttons, sensors or
switches into a form that can be used by the CPU
Fig 5.4 Input module 5.2.4 Outputs Module Takes signal from the CPU and translates them into forms that are appropriate to produce control actions by external devices such as indicator lights, solenoids or motor starters.
Fig 5.5 Outputs module
Fig 5.6 Input/output processing
5.3WORKING OF PLC 1. Bringing Input signal status to the memory of CPU
Field signals module
Fig Input signal
status to the memory
2. Processing of signals using program
CPU PII PIQ Internal counters
Fig 5.8 Processing of signals
3. Spring the result of processing in the internal memory
Fig 5.9 Internal memory processing
4. Sending process output image to module
CPU Output PII PIQ module
Fig 5.10 Signals to output module
PNEUMATICS PHASE The pneumatic section consists of the following steps. 1) Selecting the cylinder based upon the maximum pressure. 2) Selecting the directional control valve based upon the cylinders used. 3) Placing the FRL unit and silencers.
Connection of tubes. Clamping at the areas at which two tubes are connected.
6.1 PNEUMATIC COMPONENTS USED The following are the pneumatic components used to satisfy the sequence. 1) Pneumatic cylinders -4 i. ii. iii. iv. Clamping cylinder. Separating cylinder. Stopper cylinder. Forward and retract motion of drill head.
2) 5/2 Directional control valves-2 3) FRL unit 4) Air compressor. 5) Tubes .
6.2 PNEUMATICS BASICS
1. The term double acting is used when the control pressure are applied to each side of the piston. 2. A difference in pressure between the two sides then results in motion of the piston, the piston being able to move in either direction along the cylinder as a result of high pressure signals. 3. For the double acting current through one solenoid causes the piston to move in one direction with the current through the other solenoid reversing the direction of motion. 4. The choice of the cylinder is determine by the force required to move the load and the speed required. Hydraulic cylinders are capable of much layer forces than pneumatic cylinders. However pneumatic cylinders are capable of greater speeds. 5. The force produced by a cylinder is equal to cross sectional area of the cylinder multiplied by the working pressure, (i.e) the pressure difference between two sides of the piston in cylinder. 6.3 INSTALLATION OF THE FRL UNIT 1. The filter is installed upstream from other conditioning components. This protects internal moving parts in the regulator from harmful contaminants and avoids fouling the lubricator reservoir. 2. Large capacity filters are available to protect a pneumatic network, but it is more common practice to install filter in each branch. Likewise regulators are installed at each branch which requires a specified pressure setting. 3. Some pressure regulators are designed to be mounted on valve manifolds. 4. Lubricators are installed at downstream end of the FRL unit. Just after the regulator and should be placed as close to the equipment as possible. 6.4 AIR CYLINDERS
Air cylinders are the final component in a pneumatic or compressed air control or power system. They are used in the food processing and packaging, metal working, automotive, mining, textile, and forest industries. Also referred to as compressed air cylinders or pneumatic cylinders, air cylinders are devices that convert compressed air power into mechanical energy. This mechanical energy produces linear or rotary motion. In this way, the air cylinder functions as the actuator in the pneumatic system, so it is also known as a pneumatic linear actuator. The air cylinder consists of a steel or stainless steel piston, a piston rod, a cylinder barrel and end covers. As compressed air moves into a cylinder, it pushes the piston along the length of the cylinder. Compressed air or a spring, located at the rod end of the cylinder, pushes the piston back. Valves control the flow of compressed air to the cylinder. There are two basic types of air cylinders-double acting cylinders, which are able to perform an operating motion in two directions and single acting cylinders, which are able to perform in one. Other types include rotary cylinders, cable cylinders and rodless cylinders. They are housed in different styles and named accordingly. These include stainless steel cylinders, brass cylinders, compact cylinders, miniature air cylinders and small air cylinders. 6.5 SINGLE-ACTING CYLINDER The single-acting piston-type cylinder is similar in design and operation to the single-acting ram-type cylinder. The single-acting piston-type cylinder uses fluid pressure to provide the force in one direction, and spring tension, gravity, compressed air, or nitrogen is used to provide the force in the opposite direction. In some spring-loaded cylinders the spring is located on the blank side, and the fluid port is on the rod side of the cylinder. A three-way directional control valve is normally used to control the operation of the single-acting piston-type cylinder. To extend the piston rod, fluid under pressure is directed through the port into the cylinder .
This pressure acts on the surface area of the blank side of the piston and forces the piston to the right. This action moves the rod to the right, through the end of the cylinder, thus moving the actuated unit in one direction. During this action, the spring is compressed between the rod side of the piston and the end of the cylinder. The length of the stroke depends upon the physical limits within the cylinder and the required movement of the actuated unit. To retract the piston rod, the directional control valve is moved to the opposite working position, which releases the pressure in the cylinder. The spring tension forces the piston to the left, retracting the piston rod and moving the actuated unit in the opposite direction. The fluid is free to flow from the cylinder through the port, back through the control valve to the atmosphere in pneumatic systems. The end of the cylinder opposite the fluid port is vented to the atmosphere.
This prevents air from being trapped in this area. Any trapped air would compress during the extension stroke, creating excess pressure on the rod side of the piston. This would cause sluggish movement of the piston and could eventually cause a complete lock, preventing the fluid pressure from moving the piston.
Fig 6.1 Single acting cylinder 6.6 DOUBLE-ACTING CYLINDER
Most piston-type actuating cylinders are double-acting, which means that fluid under pressure can be applied to either side of the piston to apply force and provide movement. One design of the double-acting cylinder is shown in figure 6.2. This cylinder contains one piston and piston rod assembly. The stroke of the piston and piston rod assembly in either direction is produced by fluid pressure.
Fig no 6.2 Double acting cylinder
6.7 DIRECTIONAL VALVES Valves are necessary to control the pressure, flow rate and direction of the fluid. Pneumatic systems are low pressure systems. Pneumatic valves are made from cheaper materials (e.g. aluminium and polymer) and are cheaper to manufacture. The basic symbol for a valve is a rectangle to which external connections are drawn. Inside the rectangle, the internal connections are shown for the normal position of the valve.
6.7.1 3/2 Solenoid Valve:
Note: The center port with the brass One Touch Fitting is the supply or pressure port. Fig 6.3 3/2 Valve 3/2 DC valve is used to control single acting cylinder. The term solenoid may also refer to a variety of transducer devices that convert energy into linear motion. Solenoid
Fig 6.4 Solenoid Valve. The term is also often used to refer to a solenoid valve, which is an integrated device containing an electromechanical solenoid which actuates either a pneumatic or hydraulic valve, or a solenoid switch, which is a specific type of relay that internally uses an electromechanical solenoid to operate an electrical switch; For example, an automobile starter solenoid, or a linear solenoid, which is an electromechanical solenoid.
Fig 6.5 Magnetic Field Created by a Solenoid. 6.7.2 5/2 SOLENOID VALVE:
Fig 6.6 5/2 Solenoid Valve The two dark blocks represent the two possible valve positions. Actuator symbol with a diagonal line indicates solenoid operations, return spring symbol indicates at rest position. The arrow symbols indicate the direction of Gas Flow through the valve. Letters A and B indicate the Output Port connections for the pneumatic actuators (cylinders). EA and EB are exhaust ports. P is the fluid supply port. Besides showing the internal connections, a valve symbol must show how the valve element is moved. This is done by adding a small box at each end containing the symbol showing how it is done. Some examples are shown below.
Fig 6.7 Types of operating control valve A Hand lever operated and pilot return. B Pilot operated and pilot return. C Push knob operated and spring return. D 3 position valve pilot/pilot with spring centring. E Solenoid operated and solenoid return. F Roller operated and spring return. 6.7.3 Valve Bases
Directional and other valves are usually designed to be mounted on a separate base. The external pipe work is connected to the base. The advantage of this is standardisation of designs and it allows the valve to be removed without disconnecting the pipe work. Hydraulic bases to ISO size 6 and 10 are shown below
Fig 6.8 Valve bases Machines used in industrial applications use several valves and it is convenient to mount them on a manifold so that supply and exhaust connections are common to all.This is a common design for air valves. 6.7.4 Cartridge Valves These are forms of poppet valve designed to fit into a manifold block. Just about all valve types can be designed as a cartridge to fit into a block specially machined to accept it. In this way a bank of valves may be built into one block. The block might contain directional valves, relief valves, flow dividers, one way valves and so on.
OPERATION OF DIRECTIONAL VALVES
6.8.1 Solenoid Operated Valves A solenoid is a coil with an iron plunger inside it. When current flows in the coil, the plunger becomes magnetized and tries to move out of the coil. If a spring is used to resist the movement, the distance moved is directly proportional to the current in the
coil. Solenoids are used in relays where they operate an electric switch. They are also used in hydraulic and pneumatic valves to move the valve element. A direct acting solenoid valve would have the plunger pushing directly on the valve element as shown. This is more common in pneumatic valves.
t o o l c y lin d e r c la m p in g c y lin d es re p a r a t o r c y lin d e r s t o p p e r c y lin d e r
Fig 6.9 Solenoid operated valves
5 1 3 5 1 3 5 1
F R L u n it a ir s u p1p ly
D e s ig n a t io n C o m p o n e n t D e s c rip t io n 3 / 2 W a y V a lv e 5 / 2 W a y V a lv e 5 / 2 W a y V a lv e 5 / 2 W a y V a lv e F R L u n it A ir s e rv ic e u n it , s im p lif ie d r e p r e s e n t a t io n a ir s u p p ly C o m p r e s s e d a ir s u p p ly c la m p in g c y linyd linr d e r, D o u b le - a c t in g , w it h T w o P is t o n R o d s a n d S in g le T re s t le C e s e p a ra t o r c y C y dlinrd e r, D o u b le - a c t in g , w it h in a n d o u t P is t o n R o d lin e s t o p p e r c y linSdin rg le a c t in g c y lin d e r e t o o l c y lin d e r C y lin d e r, D o u b le - a c t in g , w it h in a n d o u t P is t o n R o d
Fig 6.10 Pneumatic circuit diagram CHAPTER-7 DEBURRING UNIT 7.1 SUGINO NEWTRIC SELFEEDER DEBURRING UNIT MODEL SN4U SPECIFICATIONS
SPINDLE TAPER: JT1 THRUST: 310 LBS. COLUMN DIAMETER: 2" MOTOR: HORSEPOWER: 1/2 R.P.M.: 1100 VOLTS: 230/460 AMPS: 1.1/0.55 OVERALL DIMENSIONS: 10" X 5" X 22" TALL Fig 7.1 Drill head
7.2 HYDRO SPEED REGULATOR 1. The regulator will control the forward speed of the spindle to any desired rate. 2. The suitable feed can be set to the work piece. 3. A constant smooth rate of travel is obtained. 4. The regulator prevents sudden forward surge breakthrough and thus prevents the drill damage.
5. It is a compact and essential unit for precision and maintenance of accuracy,clean finish and long life. 6. It has also other application as like a shock absorber or a linear speed regulator.
Fig 7.2 Hydro speed regulator
CHAPTER-8 FABRICATION PROCESS 8.1 WORKING PRINCIPLE 1) The burr in the nut has to be deburred. So the guide ways for the work is machined to satisfy the sequence. 2) The nut is then dropped in to guide ways and it flows in to the stopper cylinder which is in extended position and prevents the work to be flow down.
3) Then continuous feeding of the nut is done. 4) The clamping cylinder extends to clamp the work. 5) The separator cylinder extends to separate the penultimate work. 6) The stopper cylinder retracts for effective clamping. 7) The main spindle extends and the deburring action is satisfied. 8) The clamping cylinder retracts to release the machined work which gets collected at the collection box. 9) The stopper cylinder now extends to stop the flow of the work. 10) The separator cylinder retracts and the penultimate work becomes the
The sequence is then repeated with a time interval of 5 seconds.
8.2 COMPONENTS DESCRIPTION: 8.2.1 Deburring Machine Base. The machine base is used to withstand the whole weight of the machine.
Fig 8.1 Deburring Machine Base 8.2.2 Supporting Plate For Guide Ways This is given with an inclination of 35˚ and it supports the guide plate over which the guide ways for nut is placed.
Fig 8.2 Supporting Plate For Guide Ways
8.2.3 Supporting Plate For Drill Head. This is given with an inclination of 55˚ and it supports the guide plate over which the drill head is placed.
Fig 8.3 Supporting Plate For Drill Head 8.2.4 Guide Plate For Drill Head. This is used to support the drilling unit and in turn bolted to the supporting plate.
Fig 8.4 Guide Plate For Drill Head
8.2.5 Guide Plate For Guide Ways. This is used to support the guide ways which is used to guide the nut.
Fig 8.5 Guide Plate For Guide Ways 8.2.6 Guide Ways The guide ways are also fabricated based upon the availability. The guide ways is bolted to the guide plate. These are used to guide the nuts and the ways are designed to the size of M10 with some clearance.
Fig 8.6 Guide Ways
These are the problems faced during the fabrication process and the solution found to overcome that. Table 8.1 Problems faced PROBLEMS FACED Pressure rate is REASON PROBLEM FOR THE SOLUTIONS FOUND
not Leakage of air at place of The joining is done with the input to the DCV. clamp.
maintained at constant joining the compressor tube with a help of a
Nut got stuck in the Guide ways is not properly The guide ways is guide ways. aligned. adjusted.
Clamping cylinder not The retracting.
the Grinding is done at not the walls of the end
clamping plate hole
moving freely inside the guide effecter.
Separating action is The top face of the end The top face of the not achieved effecter is locked with the end penultimate nut. The tool effecter is trimmed
cylinder Hydro speed regulator is not Proper lubrication is great working. done and adjustment is made.
extends the work.
speed and damages
The deburring action The alignment of the inclined The is not done at the guide base is been altered. required point.
done properly with respect to the tool
Fig 8.7 Functional diagram
BASIC SEQUENCE DIAGRAM
Fig 8.8 Basic sequence diagram
CHAPTER-9 AUTOCAD DIAGRAMS
9.1 FRONT VIEW - ASSEMBLY
9.2 BASE PLATE FOR CHUTE
9.3 BASE PLATE FOR DRILL HEAD
9.4 GUIDE WAYS
9.5 ASSEMBLY OF GUIDEWAYS UNIT
9.6 SUPPORTING PLATE FOR CHUTE
9.7 SUPPORTING PLATE FOR DRILL HEAD
9.8 DEBURRING MACHINE BASE
Area Of Chip = r θ t
= 5 30
= 235.6 mm2
Working force = = 210
area of chip 235.6
= 49476 N Area of tool = d2 = 102 = 314.15 mm2 Tool force = = 220 area of the tool 314.15
= 69114 N
FOS = Tool force/Working force = 1.5
FOS should be greater than 1. Thus the design is safe.
= 82; Where,
- distance of the first bolt from the center of gravity of drill unit - distance of the second bolt from the center of gravity of drill unit Assume mass of the drill unit is 50kg Moment = m g distance = 500 172.5
= 86250 kgm
f= = = 1.872 Maximum loaded bolt = f = f 172.5 = 322.98 N FOS =
CHAPTER-11 TOTAL COST ESTIMATION: Table no 11.1Total cost estimation S.N.O CONTENTS 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) DRILL HEAD PNEUMATICS ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS PUSH BUTTON BOX FABRICATION COST IN Rs. 125000 16000 9000 3000 8000
CONCEPT DEVOLOPMENT AND DESIGN 5000 PLC TOTAL 10000 176000
PHOTOS FRONT VIEW LEFT SIDE VIEW
APPENDICES Feature Standard Cylinder Round Cylinder Values
CONCLUSION We have fabricated a deburring machine for the slotted nut of size M10. We planned to have a vibratory bowl for the automatic work feed. In the mere future we will implement the guide ways for different sizes and of adjustable type. The deburring machine reduces the cost from Rs 0.10 by the present method to Rs 0.04 per work by our machine. And hence we are planning to manufacture the machine in huge numbers and distribute it to other plants.
Mechanical Deburring And Surface Finishing Technology by Alfred F. Scheider. Addison-Wesley, 1989.
Bollinger, J.G. and Duffie, N.A., Computer Control of Machines and Processes, Chang, T.-C., Wysk, R.A. and Wang, H.-P., “Computer-Aided Manufacturing second edition”, Prentice Hall, 1991. Kalpakjian, S., Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Addison-Wesley (3rd. ed.), 1995. D.E.Seborg. T.F .Edgar, D .A .Melichamp ,process and control, Wiley. 1989. G.Wamock programmable controllers; operation and application prentice Hall . 1988 R.W .Lewis programming industrial control systems using IEC 1131. IEE PRESS.1998 www.google.com www.festo.com