HUGHES

-

DICTIONARY OF ISLAM

i

I

, ,

I ._ --

....

'\; ...

... ~.

If

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"~IIa..''''(~) e'

~Ii ... MADRAn

.. 4t 104

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A MAP

-- Ot:T"~ --

Am .l\JB31L~!'l lP'l~NIr.t'!~1IJ'1L,j\

AT MUI;IAMMAD'S TIME..

Til. U'.4II. (Burlcm.)

DICTIONARY OF ISLAM

BEING

A CYCLOPAEDIA OF THE DOCTRINES, RITES.

CEREMONIES. AND CUSTOMS, TOGETHER WITH THE TECHNICAL AND THEOLOGICAL TERMS.

OF THE MUHAMMADAN RELIGION.

by

THOMAS PATRICK HUGHES

with numerous illustrations

E

Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt Ud

ISBN 81-215-0706-5 This edition 1995 Firstpublished 1885

© Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd.

All Rights Reserved

Printed and published by Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd., Post Box 5715, 54 Rani Jhansi Road, New Delhi 110 055.

TO

DEDICATED

(YnTH 'JlBJlI88ION)

THE RIGHT REYEREHD THOIAS Y ALPY FREHCH, D.D.,

lI'IRST BISHOP OF LAHORE,

WITH KUCH APlJlOTION AND BSTJ:JlK,

BY H18 LORDSHIP'S OBIDIKNT 8. aVANT,

THOMA.S PA.TRICK HUGHES.

PRE F ACE.

THB increased interest manifested in relation to all matten affecting the Eaat, and the great attention now given to the study of comparative religion, seem to indicate that the time has come when an attempt should be made to place before the English-speaking people of the world a systematic exposition of the doctrines of the Muslim Faith. The present work is intended to supply this want, by giving, in a tabulated form, a concise account of the doctrines, rites, ceremonies, and customs, together with the technical and theological terms, of the Muhammadan religion.

Although compiled by a clergyman who has had the privilege of being engaged in missionary work at Peshawar for a period of twenty yean, this II DICTIONARY OF ISLAM" is not intended to be a contravenial attack on the religious system of Muhammad, but rather an exposition of its principles and teachings.

Divided, as the Muslim world is, into numerous seets, it haa been found impossible to take into consideration all the minor differences which exist amongst them. The Dictionary is, for the mOlt part, an exposition of the opinions of tire Sunni sect, with explanations of the chief points on which the Shiah and Wahhabi schools of tbought -di1l'er from it. Very special attention has been given to the views of the Wahhabia, 8S it is the Author's conviction that they repl'elent the earliest teachings of the Muslim Faith as they came from Muhammad and his immediate suceeseors, When it is remembered that, according to Mr. Wilfrid Blunt's estimate, the Shiah sect only numben some ten millions out of the one hundred and seventy-five millions of Muhammadans in the world, it will be seen that, in compiling a Dictionary of Muhammadanism, the Shiah te.llets must of neceeaity occupy a secondary place in the .tudy of'>'-tne religion. Still, upon all important questions of theology and jurisprudence, these difference. have been noticed.

The preeent book dGei not profeu to be a Biographical Dict.. tionary. The great work of Ibn Khallikan, tnDIlatecl into Engliah by

VI

PREFAOE.

Slane, supplies this. But short biographical notices of persons connected with the early history of Islam have been given, inasmuch as many of these persons are connected with religious dogmas and ceremonies; the martyrdom of Husain, for instance, as being the foundation of the Muharram ceremonies; Abu Hanifah, as connected with a school of jurisprudence; and the Khalifah 'U mar as the real founder of the religious and political power of Islam. In the biographical notice of Muhammad, the Author has expressed his deep obligations to SIR WILLIAM MUIR'S great work, the Life of Mahomet.

It is impossible for anyone to write upon the subject of Muhammadanism without being largely indebted, not only to .Sir William Muir's books, but also to the works of the late MR. LANE, the author of Modem Egyptia1Ul, new editions of which have been edited by MR. STANLEY LA~E POOLE. Numerous quotations from these volumes will be found in the present work.

But whilst the Author has not hesitated in this compilation to avail himself of the above and similar works, he has, during a long residence amongst Muhammadan peoples, been able to consult very numerous Arabic and Persian works in their originals, and to obtain the assistance of very able Muhammadan native seholara of all schools of thought in Islam.

He is specially indebted to DR. F. STEINGA8S, of the University of Munich, the author of the Englilh-AralJic and AraIJic-E1I{/li8h Dictionarie8, for a careful revision of the whole work. The interesting article on WRITING is from the pen of this distinguished scholar, as well as some valuable criticisms on the composition of the QUR'AN, and a biographical sketch of the Kbalifah • U mar.

Orientalists may, perhaps, be surprised to find that SIK.UISM has been treated as a sect of Islam, but the Compiler has been favoured with a very able and scholarly article on the subject by Mr. F. PINCOTT, M.R.A.S., in which he shows that thc e'religion of Nanak was really intended as a compromise between Hinduism and Muhammadanism, if it may not even be spoken of as the religion of a Muhammadan sect,"-the publication of which in the present work seemed to be most desirable.

At the commencement of the publication of the work, the Anthor received very valuable assistance from the REV. F. A. P. SUIBBBPF, M.A., Principal of the Lahore Divinity College, as well as from other friends, which he must gratefully acknowledge.

Amongst the numerous suggestions which the Author reeeired for

PBl!IPAOB.

vii

the compilation of thil Dictionary, was one from a well-known Arabic scholar, to the eft'ect that the value of the work would be enhanced if the quotation. from the Quran, and from the Traditions, were given in their original Arabic, This, however, teemed incompatible with the general design of the book. The whole structure of the work is intended to be such as will make it available to English scholars unacquainted with the Arabic language; and, consequently, most of the information given will be found under English words rather than under their Arabic equivalents, For example, for information regarding the attributea of the Divine Being, the reader must refer to the English GOD, and not to the Arabic ALLAH; for all the ritual and laws regarding the liturgical service, to the English PRAYER, and not to the Arabic SALAT; for the marriage laws and ceremonies, to the English MARRIAGE, and not to the Arabic NIJUH. It is hoped that, ill this way, the information given will be available to those who are entirely unacquainted with Oriental languages, or, indeed, with Eastern life.

The quotations from the Qur'an have been given chiefly from Palmer's and Rodwell's translations; and those in the Qur'anic narrative of Biblical characters (MOSES for example) have been taken from MR. STANLEY LANE POOLE'S edition of Lane's Selection.. But, when needful, entirely new translations of quotations from the Qur'an have been given.

The cc DICTIONARY or isLAM" has been compiled with very considerable study and labour, in the hope that it will be useful to many j -to the Government official called to administer justice to Muslim peoples; to the Christian missionary engaged ill controversy with Muslim scholars; to the Oriental traveller teeking hospitality amongst Muslim peoples; to the student of comparative religion anxious to learn the true teachings of Islam ;-to all, indeed, who care to know what are those leading principles of thought which move and guide one hundred and seventy-five millions of the great human family, forty millions of whom are under the rule of Her Most Gracioue Majesty the Empress of India.

Jr.l, 28rd, 1886,

THB ARABIC LETTERS IN THIS VOLUJ(E HA VB BEEN TRANSLITERATED AS FOLLOWS:-

Arabic. Names. I Roman. Pronunciation.
j

, Alif , A a, i, v, at the beginning of a word.
..... Bii I B As in English. J
..... Tii T A soft dental, like the ltalia.n t.
oA> ~ji ~ Very nearly the sound of til, in thing.
I
8 Jim J J As in English.
t l;Iii l;I A strong a.spirate.
e iJl,li. :Kb Guttural, like the Scotch r.k in loch.
,) Diil D Soft dental.
J Zil Z A sound between dh and IS.
J Rii R l A. in EDglioh.
J Zi Z
CJ" Sin S
'.jo Shin Sh
..., eid e A strongly articulated '; in Central Asia.
as N.
..; ~iid ~ Something like the foreign pronunciation
of the u~ in tAat j in Central Asia and
India. • or ItO.
&. Tii T A strongly articulated palatal t.
~ ?i ? A strongly !,rticulated •.
~ 'Ain , A guttural, the pronunciation of whic~
must be learnt by ear.
I. Ghain Q!l A strong guttural (I/J..
..J Fii F As in English.
'" Qaf Q Like ck in .tuck.
.., Kif K
J Liim , L
f' Mim M
'=' Niill N As in English.
I Hii H
, Wau W
\of Yi Y
. Fatl)ah a. 1
-
- Kasrah i As in Italian.
-
.. ~mma.h u
Hamzah , Pronounced as a, i, ., preceded by a. very

slight aspiration. A.

DICTIONARY OF ISLAM.

c

AARON. Arabic Hlir-ua «:),)"-).

The account ginn of Aaron in tbe Qur'in will be found in tbe article on MOlel. In Siirah xis. 29, tbe Virgin Mary ia addrealed u " the Siner of Aaron." [M,uT, MOl".]

ABAD (~'). Eternity; without end, &8 distinguished fromAzal (JJ'). without beginDiDg.

'ABASA (V""I"'). "He frowned."

The title of the Lxuth chapter of the Qar'iD, n i. laid that a blind man, named 'Abdn'Ilih ibn Umm lfaktiim, onoe interrupted Mu\1am· mad ill conversation with oertain chiefs of Qarailh. The Prophet, however, took no notioe of bim, but frowned &Ild~arned away; and in the firat verae of thia Siir.h, be i. repreaented al reproved by God for having done 10 :-" He frowned and tumed hil back, for that the blind man came unto bim."

'ABB.A.s (V'"~). The son of 'Abdu 'I.Multialib, and .conlequently the paternal unole of Muhammad. The most celebrated of the" Companions," and the founder of the Abbuide dynasty, which held the Kbalifate for a period of 609 yeers, namely, from ~.D. 749 to ~D. 1258. He died in ~.B. 82. Hi, son Ibn·'Abbia waa alao. celebrated autbo· rity 011 Ialamic traditioDB and law. [ID '4IIJU', "ABIDB&.]

ABBASIDES. Arabic al.',AbbtiBiyaA ('-~'). The name of a. dynasty of Khalifabs descended from al.'Abbia, tbe Ion of 'Abdu 'I·MuHalib, and a patemal uncle of Muhammad. On account of their descent from 10 near a relation of tbe Propbet, the Abbuides bad, ever since the introduction of lalim, been very high in esteem amoDgst tbe Arab., and had at an early period begun to excite the jealwsy of the Umaiyade Khalifab., wbo after the defeat of 'Ali occupied the throne of tbe Arabian Empire. The Abb_

id .. had for lome time u.erted their olaUiu to the Khalifate, and in •. D. 7.6 they com· menned open hOltilitiel. In 7 f9 the Abbuide Khaliifah Abu '1·'Abbu, lumamed ae-SaflilJ, "the blood·lhedder," wu reeoguied u~. lifah at al.Kiif~. and Marwin n., the laet of tbe Umaiyad. yalifahl, wa. defeated and .Iain.

Thirty ••• ven KhaUfaha of the Abbuld. dye nuty reigned over the Muil-ammadan empire, edl'nding over the period from A.B. 182 (4.D. 7f9-50) to A.B. 666 (.1..1). 1268).

The namel of the Abba.ide Khalifah. are:Abii 'I·'Abbia aa·SaIJi,\1 (A.D. 7.9), al.Mauftr (A.D. 75.), al·Mabdi (A.D. 775), al·Hidi (4.1). 785), Hiriin ar·Ralbid (A.I). 786), 'aJ·Amin ( •. D. 809), aJ·M.'miin (A.D. 818), 1Il • .Mu'tftim (A.D. 838),al,Witiq (A.D. M2),al • .MatawultU (A.D. 8.7), .1·Munta,lI' (A."D. asl), al·lIfnata'in (A.D. 862), al·Mu'tuz (A.D. 866), aJ·.Mubtadi (A.D. 869), al·Mu'tamld (~.D. 870), aJ,Mu'a.icI (A.D. 892» al·Muktafi (A.I). 902), al • .Muqtadir (A.D. 908), al.Qi.hir (A.D. 082), ar.~i (A.D. 984), al·Muttaqi ( •. D 9.0), al·Multaqfi (4.D. 94.). al·MuW (A.D. 9.5), at·Tii' ( •• D.97." al·Qidir ("I). 99.), al.Qi.jm (A.D. 1081), al. Muqtadi ( •. D. 1076). al • .MU8ta~hir(A.D.1OM), al·Mustarabid (~.D. 1118), ar·Riahid (~.J). 1185), al.lfuqtafi (A.D. 1186). .1.MultCjld (~.D. 1160), a)..Muat&ti (A.I). 1170), an·NifIr (~.D. 1180), a~.~i.hl. (~.I). 1225), al.Mnatantir (~.D. 1226), al·M.usta',im (A.D. 12.2 to .LD. 1258).

In the reign of .1·.MuIta',im Hillikil, grand. 80n of Jingia Khi.D, entered Perala and became Sultan ~.D. 1256. In 1258 he took Ba&l}did and put the'Kbalifah al.Musta',im to death. (IUULIJ'.u.]

ABD.lL (J'~'). .. Substitutes.~· pL of Badal. Certain persoDS by w~om, It II said, God cOlltinuel the world in existence. Their number i. 8eVBnty, of whom fort1 reaide in Syria, and thirty ellewhere. When ODe Iii.. another takel hi. place, being 10

1

2

ABD17 'LUB

appointed b1 God. It i. one of the aigne of the lut da1 that the Abdil will come from Spia. (Mi,Wt, :r.xiii. c. 8.) No one pretend. \0 be able to· ideatify theM eminent persone ia the world. God alone bowa who they arll, and wbere they are.

'ABDU 'LLAR (413'~). The:fatber of :M1J~ammad. He waa the 1oungel' aon of 'Abdu 'l-MuUalib. During the pregnanc1 of hie wife Aminah, he .. 10 out on a mercantile e:r.peditic;>n to Gaza in tbe .o.th of Paleltine, and on hil wa1 back he lickened and died a' al-Madinah, before the birth of hi, .on Mu~mad. (Ktitibu '1- WtiqIdi. p. 18; :Muir'l Lif. of Malaom.t, ..-01. i. p. 11.)

'ABDU 'LLAH IBN BA'D (.u,¥ .i&.o ~). One of Mubammad's secretariea. It la related that, .. ben Mu~ammad in,tructed 'Abdu 'llih to write down the worda (SOrah :r.xiii. 12-U), " We (God) have created man from an e:r.tract' of clay . • . then .. e produced it anotber creation," 'Abdu 'llih e:r.claimed, .. And blePlld be God, the belt of creators"; and M1i.~mad told him to write that down aleo. Whereupon 'Abdu 'llih.boaated that he had been inlpired .. ith a Bentence which the Prophet had aobowledged to be part of the Qur'in. It i8 of !Pm that it ia written in tbe Qur'in, Surah ...t. 98, .. Who i, more unjUBt than he who de"iB" against God a lie, or laya, 'I am inlpired,' when ha is not inspired at all"

'ABDU'L-MUITALIB("r .. lI •• n~).

Mu~ammad·. grandfather and hi8 guardian for two year.. He died, aged 82, A.D. 618. His sonl were 'Abdu '1Iih (Mu~.mmad·1 father), al-Hiri~, az-Zuhair, Abu Tilib, Abu Lahab, al-'Abbill, and l;Iamza.

'ABDU 'L.QADffi AL-JlLANI (J~' )..,\II'~). The celebrated founder of the Qidiriyah order of dar,.,elbeB, 8uruamed Pir-Dastagir. He died and wa. buried at Baghdid, A.B. 661.

'ABDU 'R-RAijM.lN IBN 'AUF (...Jf ~ ~;'~). One of the CompamonR who embraced I81im at a nry early period, and .. as on. of- thOle .'ho tied to Ethiopia. He also accompanied Mul1.ammad in aU hia battles, and receiTed twenty wounds at U~ud. He died A.B. 82, aged 12 or 16, and wal buried at Baqi'u 'I-Gharq"d, the graveyard of al-Madinah.

ABEL. Arabic HabiZ (JoI~), Heb. ~l'" Hebel. In the Qur'in "the two so~s" of Adam" are called ~tibil wa Qtihil, and the following is the account given of them in that book (Siirah 1'. 80-85), together with the remarks of the commentatora in italic. (a. rendered in Mr. Lane'. &fcetion" 2nd ed., p. 63), .. Recite unto them the hi8tory of the two Bona of Adam, fI4"~ly. Abel and Cain, with truth. When they oBered rtheir) oBering to God (Abef, bang!J ralll, and Vai.', '-fig produce of LV eartA~ uacl It ..... accept8ll from on. of them (tAot 1I • .frtml AW,

'ABID

j!Jr fire daeeraded from 1Iea_, and tUvoured Ais offerirtq), and it WII not aocepted from the other, Cala 111118 enraged; but Ae ConCNkd IIi, envy IIfItil A .. performed a pi Igriflla!J4, wAen he .aid IIIIto Au brotller, I ... ill a.nredly .lay thee. ANI "';d, WMrefore, Caill alllfWerul, B«:tstu. of tit. a«eptance oj tAi,.. olfering to fA. uc/_ of .. iM. Abel replied, God 01iI1 accepteth from the pious. If thou stretch forth to me Uty hand to llay me, I will not .treteh fortb. to thea JIl1 hand to slay thee; for I fear God, the Lord of th. worlds. I delire that thou Illouldat bear the aiD [whicb thou intendm to commit 1 againet me, by ,l4ying m., ancl thy aID whick tAw luut COIIImltt,d bilIOre, and thou wilS be of the compaDione <If the flre.-And that i8 the recompenee of the oBenders.-But hi. loulsuffered him to slay hil brother: 10 he alew him; and he became of [the number on those who suBer 1088. Alid IN knew no( wlat to do with him ; for he WlU tIN firlt ckad per,oll upon tile face oj' tIN eartA of tIN atmI of Adam. So A. carried Aim UPon. lai. btU". And God sent a raTen, which Icratched ~p the earth witla its biU and it, taloru and raild it Oller a dead raven tlaat WlU witll it ulltil it hid it, to show him ho ... lae Ihould hide the corpse of his brother . He said, 0 my disgrace I Am I unable to be like thi. ra1'8n, and to hide the corp .. of my brotheJ'?-Aud he baoame of tlihe number ofJ the repentant. And he digged [a graTe] .for him and hid Mm.-On aecount of thil whic/a Cai,. did WI commanded the children of Israel that he who should llay a soul (not for tAe ,l4tter', having .Iain a soul or committed wickadnesa in the earth, .. ell III ifljltUlity, or adultery, or interceph'/lg tIN way, and the filee) [Ihould be regarded3 as though hel:oad slain an mankind; and pe .. ho saTeth it alilfe, b, ab.tainillg from .14,in9 it, II though he had ... "ed aUn all maukind."

"The oocalion of their making thil offeri1Ig i. thu. related, according to the common tradition in the Ealt. Each of them being born with a twin-lister, when they were grown up, Allam, by God'. direction, ordered Oain to malTY Abel's'twin-lilter. and Abel to marry Oain·.; (for it being the common opinion that marriages ought not to be had in the nearest degrees of oonsanguini'y, since they mUlt nec.aarily marry tbeir silters, it leemed realonable to .uppo.e they onght to take those of the remoter degree;) but this Oain refu:.ing to agree to, because hia OWll ai.ter was the handsomest, Adam ordered them to make their oW.rings to God, thereby referring the diapute to His determination. The commentators lay Cain'a offering WII a aheaf of the very worst of hi. corn, but Abel'. a fat lamb of the be,t of hia look."Sale', Koran, 1., p. 122.

'ABID (.If\c). "A wOl'Bbipper [of God]." A term generally need for a deTout per.on. The word frequently oooure in the Qur'in; '.g, Siirah Ii, IS2: .. Thebaptiam (,ibglJ!Jh) of God I Aud who is better than Qod at baptizing? We are the wOl'llhippera ('ibid_) of God." Th •• "rcl,ibgW Sa trans-

ABtQ

Iated by Profelsor Palmer" dye" and 0; dyeing," but Salo, following the Mulim commentators, al-Bai'iwi, Jalilu 'd-din, and 1.Insaini, who I&y it refen to the Chriltian rite, tranllates it " baptilm." Otherl lay that it meaDB .fitrall or dirt, the religion of God, with &t'\ adaptatation to which manlr.intl are created. See Lane'l Luic.ra. [BAPTIIJI.]

.A.BIQ (Jt'). A runa"a]; .laye. (UlCO.DDrQ 0., ILA VBI.]

ABJAD (~'). The name of an arithmetical arrangement of the alphabet, Ute letters of which han ditrerent powers from one to one thousand. It il iB the orier of the alphabet al uled by the Jewl al far .1 fOO, the lix remaining letters being added by the Arabians. The letterl lpell the worU-

djU AIs",_a l"Ui ktJa_ .. 'ftlf ,arfUh.t llaMa; :,arill

The "thor of the Arabic Le~icon, al-QCIIIMs, sayl that the firet lix words are the namei of celebrated lr.inga of MadyAn (Midian), and that the last two word .. were added by the Arabians. Some Bay they are the names of th. eight lonl of the inventor of the Arabic character, Mnrimir ibn Murra.

The follo1fing il a list of the lettera with their Englilh equiyalentl, .. nd \he power of each ill numbera :~

ta(i,.)' 2 b .... 3 j IS 4t d ..,

5 11. ,It 6 10 7 I 8 ~ 9 1-

10 y

~O "

30 l

4tO m (> 50 n (:)

(EXOBCIIK.]

ABLUTION. Arabic, waru', ~u' (.,.,), Persian, iWdast (""_,.\f'). Ablution is described by M nl).ammad aB "the half of faith &lid the key of prayer" (Mi,hkat,iii. Be), and is founded on the authority of the Qur'ii.n, siirah v. 8,~' 0 Bellevers l when ye pr~pare yourselves for prayer, wash your faces and hands up to the elbowl, and wipe your heads and your feet to the ankles."

These ablutions are absolutely necessary a8 a preparation for the recital of the liturgical form of prayer, and are performed as Jollows :

The worshipper, hning tucked up his sleeves a little higher than his elbows, wasbes his hands three times; then he rinses his mouth three times, throwing the water into it with his right hand. After this, he, with his right hand, throws water up his nostrils, snuffing it up at the same time, and then blows it out,

, ,} C

"

60 70 80 90

100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900

1000

f

q

r J .k ..;. t ....,

ABLUTION

8

compressing his nOltrill with the thumb and finller of the left hand~thil being allo performed three times. He then walhea hil faoe three times, throwing up the water with both hsnde, He next waahes his right hand and arm, as high .. s the elbow, aa many timee, cauling the w .. ter to run along hie arm from the p .. !m of the hand to the elbow, and in the lame manner he washel the left. Then he draws his wetted right hand over the upper part of hi. head, raising his turban or CILP with his left. If he has a beard, he then combs it with the wetted fingers of his right bnd, holding his hand with the palm forJards, and paning the fingers through his beard from the throat upwards. He then puts the tips of his fore-fingers into his ears and $wi.te them reuad, passing his thumb. at the lame time round the back of the earl from thll bottom upwlrds. Next, he wipes his neck with the back of the fingerl of both hande, making the ends of his fingers meet behind his neck, and then drawing them 'Ofw .. rd. L&stly, he waahes his feet, a. high as the ankles, &lid paes88 his lingers bet.eelt the toes. During this cer«DOuy, which il generally performed in less than three minutea, the intending ... orshipper usually recites lome pious ejaculations or pr .. yers. For example:-

Before commencing the ",a~ii' :-" I am going to pnrify myself from all bodily UIlcle .. nness, preparatory to commencing pr .. yer, that holy act o( d\1ty, which will draw my soul Ilear to the throne of the Most High. In the name of God, the Gre .. t .. nd Mighty. Praiee b .. to God who has given us grace to be Muslims. Ialim is IP. truth and infidelity a falsehood."

When washing the nostrils :-" 0 my God, if I am plea.aing in Thy sight, perfume me with the odours of Paradise."

When washing the right hand :--" 0 my' God, on the daJ of judgmeut, place the book of my actions m m" right hand, and examine my account with lavour."

When washing the left h .. nd :~" 0 my God, place not at the lesurreetion the book of my actions in my left hand."

The Shiya'is, acting more in accordance with the text of the QU'in quoted .. bove, only wipe, or rub (,m,sa(l) the feet, instead of w .. shing them, as do the Swmis.

The ablution need not be periormed before each of the five stated periods of pt .. yer, w hen the person is conscioua of h .. ving avoided every kind of impurity since the last performance of the ahlut ioa. The prrrate parts of the body must also he purified when necessary. Whon water canno1l be procured, or would be injurious to health, the llh1ution may be performed with dust or sand. This ceremony is called Tayam1llUlII (q.".). The washing of the whole body is necessary after certain periods of impurity. (GRUBL.] The brushing of the teeth is also a religious duty. [MI8WAX.] The benefits of ablution are highly extolled in the sayings of Muhammad, e.g., " He who performs the wa~u' thoroughly will extract all sin from his body, even though it may be lurking under hi. tinger n .. ils." "In

4

ABORTION

the day of resurrection people shall come with bright faces, hande and feet, and there will be jewels in nery place where the waten of the _,i' have reached." (Mi.Akit, iii. 1.)

VEIIIBLII roa ABLUnON8 USED IN AJ'GBAl'IISTAN AND INDIA

VES8ELS FOR ~BLunON8 USED n; BGYPT. (LANB'8 .. EGYPTIAN • .'')

In all the principal mosques there are tanks, or wells, which supply water for the purposes of legal purification. [PuBIFlcAnoN.]

ABORTION. Ara,bic Isqal.. There is no mention of the subject in the Qur'iin, but according to the Putawi '.JUamgiri (vol. iv. p. 288), it is forbidden after the child is formed in the womb. Nuhammad is related to have ordered prayers t~ be said over an abortion, when supplication should be made for the father and mother, for fOl:giveness and mercy. (Mishkiit, v, c. 2.)

ABRAHAM. Arabic Ibrahim

(~'j'). One of the six great prophets to whom God delivered special laws. The" Friend of God," K.4alilu 'lIiih, to whom were revealed twenty portions (.~u(lifal.) of Scripture.

Abraham is very frequently mentioned in 'he Qur'iin, together with Ishmael and Isaac.

ABRAHAM

The followiug are Mr. Lane's selections (giving in italic. the remarks of Muslim commentators) :-

"Re"~m~r when Abraham said to his father AuI' (thi. was tk« surname of Terah), Dost thou take images all deities P Verily I see thee and thy people to be in a manifest error.-(And thus, a. We .howed him the error of hi. father and hi, people, did We show Abraham the kingdom of the heavens and the .earth, and fwe did so] that he might be of rthe number of those who firmly believe.) And when the night overshadowed him, he saw a star (it is said that it Wal Venus), [and] he said unto his people, who were astrologers, This is my Lord, according to your a8sertion.-But when it set, he said; I like not those that set, to talee them as Lords, since it is not meet for a Lord to experience alteration and chang' of place, as they al'e of the nature of accidents. Yet this had no effect upon them. And when he saw the moon rising, he said unto them, This is my Lord.-But when it set, he said, Verily if my Lord direct me not (if He confirm m~ not in the n'g"t wa!!), I shall assuredly be of the erring people.-Thi., was a hint to his people that the!l were in error; but it had no effect upon them. And when he saw the sun rising, he said, This is my Lord. This is greater than the star and the moon.-But when it set, and the proof had been rendered more strong to them, .lIet the!! desisted not, he said, 0 my people, verily I am clear of the [things] which ye associate with God; namel!!, the images and the heat'enly bodies. So they said unto him, What dost thou u'ol'fJhip 1 He answered, Verily I direct my face unto Him who hath created the heavens and the earth, following the right religion, and I am not of the polytheists.-And his people argued with him j [but] he said, Do ye a.rgue with me respecting God, when He hath directed me, and I fear not what ye associate with Him unless my Lord will that aught displeasing should befall me 1 :My Lord comprehendeth everything by His knowledge. Will ye not therefore considerP And wherefore should I fear what ye have associated with God, when ye fear not for your having associated with God that of which He hath not sent down unto you a proof? Then which of the two parties is the more worthy of safety? A.re we, or !!OU 1 If ye know who is the mOloe wf1Tthy of it, follow him.-God saith, They who have believed, and not mixed their belief with injustice (that is, polytheism), for these shall be safety./i·olll punishment; and they are rightly directed." (Sul'ah vi. 74-82.)

"Relate unto them, in the book (that is, the Qur'an), the histo'y 0/ Abraham. Verily, he was a person of great veracity, a prophet. When he said unto his father Azar, who wor.hipped idols, 0 my father, wherefore dost thou worship that which heareth not, nor seeth, nor averteth from thee aught, whether of advantage or of injury? 0 my father, verily [a degree] of knowledge hath come unto me, that hath not come unto thee: therefore follow me: I wiII direct thee into a right way. 0 my father, serve not th" devil,

ABRAHAM

bl obeJing /ai", in .erving idol.; for the de .. il i. very rebellious unto the Compassionate. 0 my father, nrily I fear that a punishment will betide thee from the Compassionate, if thou repent not, and that thou wilt be unto the devil an aider, and a companion in hell-fire.cHe replied, Art thou a rejector of my Gods, o Abu.ham, and dOBt thou revile them f If thou abstain not, I will assuredly assail thee with ,tones or with ;II words; therefore beware of' me, and lean me for a long time.-Abra- 1Ialll said, Peace from me be on thee! I ... ill ask pardon for thee of my Lord; for He is gracious unto me: and I will separate mysolf from you and from what ye in .. oke instead of God; and I will call upon my Lord: perhaps I shall not be unsuccessful in calling upon my Lord, as ye are in calling upon idols.-And when he had separated himself from them, and from what they worshipped instead of God, by going to the Holy LAnd, We gave him two sons, that he might cheer hi""elf thereby, namely, Isaac and Jacob; and each [of them J We made a prophet; and We bestowed upon them (nalllely, the three), of our mercy, wealth and children, and W 8 caused them to receive high commendation." (Siirah six. 42-51.)

"We gave unto Abrabam his direction formerly, before he had attained to manhood ; and We knew him to be worthy of it. When he said unto his father and his people, What are these images, to the worship 0/ which ye are devoted ?-they answered, We found our fathers worshipping them, and we have followed their e%ample. He said unto tkem, Verily ye f'ld your fathers han been in a manifest error. They said, Hast thou come unto us with truth in laying this, or art thou of those who jest? He answered, Nay, your Lord (tlat beirag who de.erveth to be wor"'ipped) is the Lord of the heavens and ~he earth, who created them, not after the similitude of anything pre-aiding; and I am of those who bear witness thereof. And, by God, I will assuredly devise a plot against your idols after ye shall have retired, turning your backs.-So, after they had gone to their place of aa.embly, on a day u,hen they held. a festical, he break them in pieces with an axe, except the chief of them, upon whose neck he hung the a%t; that they might return unto it (nalllely, the chief) and Bee what he had done with the other« They said, after they had returned and .een wl.at he Iaotf done, Who bath done this unto our gods? Verily he is of_the unjust.-And sOllie of them said, We beard a young man mention tham reproach/ully' he is called Abraham. Tbey said, Then bring him before the eyes of the people, that they may bear witne"s agai7l$t him of his having dOM it. They said unto lIi.lI, when he had bun brought, Hast thou done t.his unto our goda, 0 Abraham? He answered, Nay, this their chief did i': and ask ye them, if they [can] speak. And they returned unto themsahes, upon -refieetion, and said unto them.eiva, Verily ye are the unjust, in worshipping that wMch speaketh not. Then they renrted to their obstinacy, tJfId ,aid, Veril)'

ABRAllU[

5

thou kno1l"est that these speak not: t. wherefore do,t thou order UI to alk tM , B. said, Do ye then worship, instead of God, that which doth not profit you at aH, nor injure you if ye worship it not f Fie on you, and on that which ye worship instead of God I Do ye not then understand?-They &aid, Bum ye bim, and a .. enge your gods, if y. will do '0_ So tht]} colkcttd a"undance of firewood for him, and set fire to it; and thty bound AbraAalll, and put hi", illto an engine, and caat him into the fire. But, ,alth God, We aaid,O fire, be thou cold, and a security unto Abraham! So nou.qAt of him wa. burned 8ave Ai. bonds: the heat of the fire ceased, but iu light remained ; and by God'. ,aying, Security,Abraham was saved from dying by reaaon of it. cold. And they intended against him a plot; but.he caused them to be the sufferers. And we delivered bim and Lot, the ,on of hi •. brother Haran, from El-'Eriiq, (bringing tbem 1 unto the land which We blessed for the peoplea, by the abundance of its rioer« and trees, namely, Syria. Abrahalll took up hi. abode in Palestine, and Lot in Et-Mutejilceh, between which i. a day'. journey. And when Abraham had asked a .on, We gat'e unto him Isaac, and Jacob as an additional gift, beyond what he had aaked, being a .on' •• 071; and all of tbem We made rigbteous persons and prophets. And We made them models of religion who directed mm by Our command unto Our religion; and We commanded them by inspiration to do good works and to perform prayer a.od to give the appointed alms; and they served Us. And unto Lot We gat'o judgment and knowledge; and We delivered him from the city which committed filthy actiona ; for tbey were a people of e .. i1, sbameful doers; and We admitted him into our mercy; for be was [ON! 1 of the righteous." (Siirah xxi. 52-75.)

"Hast thou not considered him who disputed with Abraham concerning his Lord, because God bad given him the kingdom? A.nd he was Nimrod. Wben Abraham said, (upon hia .aJing unto him, Who i. thy Lord, unto wlumt thou i",,"ut u. f), My Lord is He who git'eth life and causeth to die,-he replied, I give life and cause t" die.-And he summoned two men, and ,lew OM of them, and left the other. So whm he .aw that he understood not, Abraham said, And verily God bringeth the 6un from the east: now do tbou bring it from the west.-And he who disbelieved was confounded; and God directetb not the offending people." (Siirab ii. 260.)

"And Our messengers came formerly unto AbrahaUl with good tidings of Isaac and Jacob, who "'ould be after .him. They said, Peace. He replied, Peace be on you. And he tarried not, but brought a roasted calf. And when be saw that tbeir hauds tonched it not, he disliked them and concei ved & fear of them. They said, Fear not: Ior we are sent unto the people of Lot, t~at we may destroy them. And his wife Sarah 1I"as standing .erving them, and she laughed, rejoicing at the tiding. of their destruction. And we gave her good tidings of Isaac; and after Isaac, Jacob.

6

ABBAIUH

She said, Alas! shall I bear a child when I am aD old woma.n of nine and ninety year., and when thill my husband i,a a.n old man of a hundred or a hundred and twenty year.' Velily this rwould be] a wonderful thing.They said, Dost thou wonder at the command of God? The mercy of God and His blessings be on you, 0 people of the house (of Abralialn)! for He is praiseworthy, glorious. -And when the terror had departed from Abraham, and the good tidings had come unto him, he disputed with Us (that is, with Our mu,tngers) respecting the people of Lot; for Abraham was gentle, compassionate, repentant. And he said unto thl!1n, Will ye de.troy a city wAuein are three hundred believer" They a,uwered, No. He .aid, And will ye dutroy a city wAerein are two hundred believer., They afJ8wered, No. He said, And will !Is dutroy a cifJL wherein are .forty believers' TAeyanswl!1yd, No. He said, Aradwill ye dutroy a city wherein a,'e fOllrt4m believers' They answered, No. He ,aid, And tell me, if there be in it one believer' They aRlweretl, No. He said, Verily in it i. Lot. They replied, We know but wAo iI in it. And wke7& their cJj.pute had become tediow, they ,aid,O Abraham, abstain from this diBputation; for the command of thy Lord hath come for tAeir destruction, and a pUnishment not [to be] averted is coming upon them." (Siirah xi. 72-78.)

" And when Our decree for the de.truction of tke people of Lot came [to be executed], We turned them (that is, t!.eir citiu) upsidedown; for Gabriel raised tll_ to Maven, and let the,n fall upside-dou'n to tAe earth; and We rained upon them stones of baked clay, lent. ODe after another, marjted with thy Lord, each with tAe name of him upon whom it sllould be cast: and they [are] not far distant from the offenders; that is, the stonu are not, or 'lie cities of the people of Lot were not,fa~ dida"t from tlle people of ~fekkeA." (Siirah Xl. 8~.)

.. And [Abraham] said [after his escape from Nimrod], Verily I am going unto my Lord, who will direct me 'Unto tAe place wAitAtr He hath. commanded me to go, namely, Syria. And wken Ae had arrived at the Holg Land, Ae said, 0 my Lord, give me a 80n [who shall be one] of the righteous. Whereupon We gave him the glad tidings of a mild yquth. And when he had attained to \the age- when he could work with him (as some sag, seven yeal's; and some, thirteen), he said, o my child, verily I have seen in a dream tha1t I should sacrifice thee (and the dreams of prophets are true; and their actions, by the command of God); therefore consider what. thou seest advisable for me to do. He replied, 0 my father, do what thou art commanded: thou shalt find me, if God please, [of the number) of the patient. And when they had resigned themselves, and he had laid him down on his temple, in [the valley of] Mina, and had draum the /emfe across his throat (but it produced no effect, bg reason of an obstacle interposed by the divine power), We called unto him, 0 Abraham, thou hast verified the vision, Verily thus do We reward the well-

AltBABAJ(

doen. Verily thil wal the manifeat trial. And We ransomed him wAom ke had been com_nded to ,acrifice (and Ae was IsAmael fir Isaae ; fo, tAere are two opinions) with an excellent victim, a ram/rom Paradi,e, the 'alne that Abel had offere : Gabriel (on whom be IHau /) broUfJ4t it, a"d t/&. lord Abraham .afTi_/iced it, .aYlng, God i. rrI08t great / And We l,n thi, salutation [to he bestowed] on him by the latter generations, Peace [be] aD Abraham! Thu. do We reward the welldoers: for he was of Our believing servants." (Siirah xxxvii 97-111.)

.. Remember when Abraham said, 0 my Lord, Illow me how Thou will raise to life the dead.-He said, Hast thou not believed P He answered, Yea: but I have asked Thee that my heart may be at eaBe. He replied, TheD take four birds and draw them towards thee, and cut tAem in piecu and mingle together Meir .flIlA and tlreir feather,; then place upon each moun.tain of tny land a portion of them, then call them unto thee: they shall come unto thee quickly; and know thou that God is mighty [and] wlae.-And lie took a peacock and a vulture and a m!lt'n and a cock, alld did with tkem IJ4 hath been d"cribed, and kept their heads with Aim, and called them; whereupon the portions .flew about, one to another, until they beca_ complete: tAen they came to tAeir keads." (Siirah ii. 262.)

.. RerllBfflber, when his Lord had tried Abraham by [certain] words, co'nmands and proMbitioRl, and he fulfilled them, God said unto Aim, I oonstitut. thee a model of religion unto men. He replied, And of my offspring COlI.titute mockls of religioll. [God] said, My covenant doth not apply to the offllndera, tile unbelievers among them.-And when We appointed the house (that is, the Ka'baA) to be a place for the resort of men, and a place of security (a IIlan would meet the .layer of Ai, fatlser there and Ae would not provoke Aim [to revengel,) and [said], Take, 0 men, the station of Abraham (the stone upon wAick A~ .tood at tAe time of building Me House) as a place of prayer, tAat ye 711ag perform 6ehind it the prayers of the two ,'ak'aIu [which are ordained to be performed after the ceremony] of the circuiting [of the Ka'bah ].-And We commanded Abraham and Ishmael, rsaying], Purify my House <rid it. of the. Idols) for those wko shall compass (it), fond those who shall abide tAere,and those who shan bow down and prostrate themseh:es.-And when Abraham said, 0 my Lord, make tbis place a secure territory (and G6d hath. ansuiered Ai. p"aycr, and made it a sacred 'place, wherein th« b.lviJd of man is not shed, nor is anyone oppressetl ill it, nor is its game hunted [or shot], nor art ite plants cut or pulled up), and supply its inhabitants with fruits (which hath been drnu bg tile transporting of u!- 'l'tiif-/rOlIl Syria thither, wAen it [that is, the tenitory of M"akkah] was desert, without soum land or IIIster, such of them as shal; believe in God and the la~t da.y.-He mentioned them PUllliarlM in tke prager agreeably with the saying of God, My covl!1lant doth not apply to tke offender •. -God replied, And [ will supply

ABRAHAM

him who diabelienth: I will make him to enjoy a IVpply oj Jood in thi, 1Dorld, a little wAile: then I will force him, in the world to come" to the punishment of the fire; and 8Til shall be the transit." (Siirah ii. 118-120,)

.. And remember when Abraham waa raising the foundations of the Houae (that is, building it), together with Ishmael, and the!! said, o our Lord, acoept of us our bui/di"!'; for Thou art the Hearer oj what is .ald, the Knower oj what i. done. 0 our Lord, alao make 1la religned unto Thee, and make from among our olr'pring a people resigned unto Thee, and ahow UI our rites (the ordinance.! oj our wor,ltip, or our pilgn·TJl/Jge). and be propitious towards us; for Thou art the Very Propitioua, the Merciful. (They begged Rim to ~ propitiOUl to them, notwitlutandin.q their iaonuty,from a motive of humility, find by way oj j",tructlon to llaeir offspring.) 0 our Lord, alao send unto them (iAqt i., the people of the BClVle) an apostle from among them (anef God Ndh Cllllwered their prayer by ,endi1lfl_ Madlammad), who ahall recite unto them Thy sign. (1M Qur'in), and· shall teach them the book (tM ~in), &Dd the kJlowlege tAta, it con· t4ir.tth, and .hall purify th .. ~ poIyt/rei.m ; for Thou art the Mighty, the Wise.-And who 1 will be anrte from the rolirion of A\,paham but he who maketh hia aOllI fooli.h, ':;'0 i. ignoraJlt that it i, God'. creation, and that tlae wor,hip oj Him i, 'incumbent 011 it; or ",lao lightly ut_tA It and applietla it to m'le pUrpOlU; when We have choaen him in thi. world aI an apo.tle and a Jriend, anel he .hall be in the world to come one of the righteous for 1Dhc'll are ltigh ranb '-And remember when his Lord said unto him, Relign thyself :-he replied, I reaign myself unto the Lord of the worlds.-And Ahraham commanded l.i. chilo dren to follow it (nalllely, the religiMl); and Jacob, hi. cliildrtJl; .aying, 0 my children, verily God hath chosen for you the religion of aI-Isltim; therefore die not without your being Muslims.-It was a prohibition from abandoning I.ltim and a command to per.evere therein unto deatll." (Siirah.ii. 121-126.)

" When tile JntI, said, Abraham Wal a Je», and we are of Iri. rlli.qion,-flnd tile Chri,tia", ,aid til. lib, (the following] waJ 'fIVealetJ:o people of the Scripture, wherefore do ye argue l'elpeotlng Abraham, allertin9 tAat I" war ~ yuur rlligion, when ths Pentateuoh and the OOlpel were not aent dOWD but after him a long tjill.' Do.,e not then und,rltuel til. faUlty of your .alJlng , So y., ~ peopl_, han Argued respectll1jf that of WhlCh ye han kno ... ledg~, concllf'rling MOIu and J8IIU, and huv« alBert.d that y. are oj tlleir r./igion: then ""herefore do ye argue respecting that of which ye hne DO knowledge, ~ing Abraham' But God knoweth his c,J)" and ye know it not. Abraham "as not a Jew nor a Christian: but he was ortbodox, a Mualim [or one resigned], a Unitarian, and he was not of the polytheists." (Siirah iii. 58-60.)

ABSCONDING OF SLAVES, Arahic Ibiiq (.,54'). An absconded male or female .Ine is called .A b19, but an

ABU HANIP'AH

7

infant sian who leaves his home is termed ~till, a word which il also used for an adult slave who has strayed. The apprehension of a fllgiti ve Ilave is a laudable act, and the person who seizes him should bring him be • fore the magistrate and reeei ve ;. reward of forty dirhams. (Hamilton's Hidtiyah, vol, ii.

p. 278.)

ABSTINENCE. Arabic Taqwa

(J,,a;). Is very frequently enjoined in the Qur'in. The word generally applies to abstinence from idolatry in the firat instance, but it is used to express a life of piety. An excessive abstinence and a life of asceticism are condemned in the Qur'an, and the Christians are cbarged with tho invention of the monastic life. (Siirah lvii. 27.) "As Jor the monastic life, they invented it themselees" [JlOIUSnCI8K, WAlITIJlG.]

ABO 'ABDI 'LLAH (IJJ",I • ..,D -,,').

Mul;lammad. ibn lami'il al·Buhl!iri, the author of the well·known collection of traditionl r.eceived by the SUDnil. [BUltBaI.]

ABO'ABDI 'LLAR AI;IMAD IBN I;IANBAL (~ ~ "_,, IJJ'¥ -,,'). (1WfJW..]

ABO 'ABDI 'LL.A.H IBN ANAS (v-i' ~ ~\...IJJ"~ -,,'). [JI.A..LIE.]

ABO I ABDI 'LLA.ff MUHAM.

MAD IBN AL·IJASAN (A1I,~", ~, ~ ~). Known 8.S Imam lful;lammad.. Born at Wiait, a city in Arabian 'Iraq, ~.a. 182. He studied under the great Imam Abii aanifah, and had also studied under Imam Mili~ for three years. He is celebrated as one of the disciples of the Imim Abii I:i&nifah, f'I'om whom he occasionally dillors, &1 is seen in the Hidayah. He died at Rai, in KhuriaiD, where his tomb is still to be seen, A.B. 189.

ABO BAKR (~-,,'). Of the

orilrin of hi. name, there are urious 81plana· tions. Some think that it means "the fathor of the maiden," and that he reoeived this tltI, beoause he wal the father of 'A.yilhah, whom MUQammad married wbeD Ihe Was only IIln. yearl old. Hli original name wal 'Abdu 'l-Ka'bah (whloh the Prophet ohaDi.d into 'Abdu 'llih) lbn Ab{ Qui).l.fah. H. Wal the flrtt Dalilab, or luooe .. or of MuQammad. rlm'AB.] Ml1l;1ammadan writer. prall. him lor the purlt, of hi. lif., and oal1 him a,. ~ddlq, the Veraoioul. He oDly re!frned two YMrl, and died ADi'11lt 22nd, •. D. 68'.

ABO DA''O'D (J,'J -,,'). Sulaiman Ibn al·Ash'as al·SiJistlni; Dorn at al.Ba,rah ~.a. 202, and died .i.B. 275. The compiler of one of the si1 correct books of -Sunni tradi. tiona, called the Sunnan Abi Da~iid, which contains ',008 traditions, said to ha ve been carefully collated from 500,000. [TIUDITION8.]

ABO' I:IANIFAH ((:)\.-.:.1, ~ tI').

Abii I;Ianifah an.)lu'miD ia tho great Suuni Imam and jurisconsult, and the founder of

8

ABU HURAIRAH

the ~anifi sect. His father, Sibit, was a ailk dealer in the city of al-Kiifah, and it is said his grandfather, ZiitB, was a native of Kibul. He was born at al-Kiifah, .... K. 80 ( .... D. 700), and died at Baghdad, A.B. 160. He is regarded as the great oracle of Sunni jurisprudence, and his doctrines, with those of brs disciples, the Imam Abii Yiiauf and the Imam Mu!;lammad, are generally received throughout Turkey, Tartary, and Hindustan. It is related that Imam Malik said that the Imam Abii Hanifah was such a logician that, if he were to assert a wooden pillar was made of gold, he would prove it by argument.

ABO HURAIRAH (;a~ JI'). One

of the most constant attendants of Mu!;lammad, who from his peculiar intimacy has related more traditions of the sayings and doings of the Prophet than any other individual. His real name is doubtful, but he was nicknamed Abii Hurairah on account of his fondness for a kitten. He embraced Islim in the year of the expedition to Khaibar, .... B. 7, and died in al-Madinah, .... B. 57 or 69, aged 78.

ABO JAHL (~,,'). An im-

placable adversary of Mul;lammad. Hia real name waa 'Amr ihn Hiahiim, but he was lurnamed, by the Muslims, Abii Jahl, or the .. Father of Folly." He is supposed to be alluded to in the Qur'in, Siirah xxii. 8:.. There is a man who disputeth concerning God without either knowledge or direction." He was a boastful and debauched man, and was killed in the battle of Badr.

ABO LAHAB (--el JI'). One of

the sons of Abii MuHalib, and an uncle to ,Muhammad. He was a most bitter enemy to the Prophet, and opposed the establishment of Islam to the utmost of his power. His name was 'Abdu '1- Uzza, but he was surnamed by Muhammad, Abii Lahab, .. The Father of the Fla:me." When Muhammad received the command to admonish his relations, he called them all together, and told them he was a warner sent unto them before a grievous chastisement. Abii Lahab rejected his mission, and cried out, "Mayest thou perish I Hast thou called us together for this? " and took up a stone to cast at him; whereupon the cX1th Siirah of the Qur'ji.n was produced :-

II Let the hands of Abii Lahab perish, and let himself perish!

His wealth and his gains shall avail him

naught.

Burned shall he be at a fiery flame, And his wife laden with fire wood, On her neck a rope of palm fibre,"

Abii Lahab is said to have died of grief and vexation at the defeat which his friends had received at the batt.le of Badr, surviving that misfortune only seven days. His body wa. left unburied for several days.

Zaid and Abii Lahab are the only relatives or friends of Mu!;lammad mentioned by name in the Qur'in

'AD

ABO 'L.HUZAIL ZUFAR IBN AL.HUZAIL (J1.iel' ~ J'j ~J.el' JI').

Celebrated as the Imam Zufar, and as a contemporary and intimate friend of the great Imam Abii Hanifah. He died at al-Basrah,

.... B. 168. .

ABO 'L-QASIM (,....W' JI'). "The

father of Qiisim." One of the names of Mu!;Iammad, assumed on the birth of his son Qasim, who died in infancy. [JdUBilOIAD.]

ABUSIVE LANGUAGE is for. bidden by the Muillim law, and the offender must be punished according to the discretion of the Qi~i. Abii Hanifah says: II If a person abuse a Musalmin by calling him an ass or a hog, punishment is not incurred, because these expressions are in no respect defamatory of the person to whom they are used, it being evident that he is neither an ass nor a hog. But some allege that in OUT times chastisement is inflicted, since, in the modern acceptation, calling a man an ass or a hog is held to be abuse. Others, again, allege that it is esteemed only to be abuse when the person of whom it is said occupies a dignified position." According to Abii Hanifah, the greatest number of stripes that can be inflicted for abusive language is thirty-nine. (Hamilton's Hidiiyuh, vol, ii. 78.)

Mu!;lammad is related to have said, .. Abusing a Muslim is disobedience to God, and it is infidelity for anyone to join such an one in religious warfare." (Mishkiit, xxii. 2.)

ABO TALIB (..,.J\l. JI'). Mul.18,m.

mad's uncle and guardian; the father of '.A li, He is believed to ha VB died as he had lived, an unbeliever in the Prophet's mission; but for forty years he had been his faithful friena and guardian. He died in the third year before the Hij rah.

ABO 'UBAIDAH (i~~ ,,') IBN

AL-JARRA:a One of the Companions, who was with the Prophet in all his wars, and distinguished himself at the battle of Uhud, He was highly esteemed by Muhammad, who made him one of the <Asharah al-Mubash» sharah, or ten patriarchs of the Muslim faitb He died A.B. 18, aged 68.

ABO YUSUF (....A..)i JI'). Known also as Ya'qiib ibn lbrihim Born at Baghdad, A.B. 113. Studied under the Imam Abii :aanitah, and is celebrated, together with the Imam MUQammad and the Imam Zufar, as disciples of the great Imam j from whose opinions, however, the three diSCiples not unfrequently differ, &s will be seen upon reference to the Hidiigah. He died .... B. 182.

'.AD (..,~). A tribe located to the south of Arabia, to which. the prophet Hiid is said to have been sent. See Qur'an, vii. 63:-

.. And to 'Ad we sent our brother Hiid, '0 my people,' said he, 'worship God: ye have no other god than Him: Will ye not then fear Him? '

.. Said the lUlbelieving chillfs among· hi.

ADA

poople, 'We certainly perceive that than art unaound of mind; and we surely deem thee an impostor.'

" He said, '0 my people I it is not unaoundnOS8 of mind in me, but I am an Apostle from the Lord of the Worlds.

'" The messages of my Lord .do I announce to you, and I am your faithful counsellor.

'" Marvel ye that a warning hath come to you from your Lord through one of yourselves that He may warn you? Remember how he hath made you the successors of the people of Noah, and increased you in tallness of stature. Remomber then the favours of God, that it may haply be well with you.'

" They Raid, • Art thou come to U8 in ardor that wo may worship one God alone, and leave what our fathers worshipped? Then bring that I!pon UR with which thou threatonest us, if thou be a man of truth.'

" He said, ' Vengeance and wrath shall suddenly light on you from your Lord. Do ye dispute with me about names that you and your fathers have given ,your idols, and for which God hath sent you down no warranty? Wait ye then, and I too will wait with you.'

"And we delivered him, and those who were on his side, by our mercy, and we cut off, to the last man, those who had treated OUI' signs 11.8 lies, and who were not believers."

Also, Siirah Ixxxix. 5 : .. Hast thou not seen how thy Lord dealt with 'Ad at ham, adorned with pillars, whose like have not been reared in these lands." [BUD, IlUII.]

ADA' (~,.,'). Payment j satisfaction; completing (prayers, &:c.).

ADAM. Arabic, Adam (,,"'): The first man. Reckoned by Muslim writers as the ~rBt prophet, to whom ten portions of scripture (~ah!{ah) are said to have been revealed. He is distinguished by the title of !;lafiyu'llah, or, the" chosen one of God." He is mentioned in the Qur'an In the following Siirahs, which are taken from Mr. Lane's Selecti01l8 (new edition, by Mr. Stanley Lane-Poole; Triibner, 1879), with the commentary in italic. :-

"&member, 0 Mu(&am7llad, when thy Lord said unto the angels, I am about to place in the earth a vicegerent to act jor me in the execution oj TIIy ordinances therein, nallle/y, Adam,-they said, Wilt Thou place in it one who will corrupt in it hy disobediences, and will shed blood (as did the som oj l!:I-J tinn, 101,0 were in it; where ore, u,hen they acted corruptly, God sent to them the angels, who drove them away to the islands and the moulItaim), when we [on the contrary] celebrato the divine perfection, occupyin,q ourstlves with Thy praise, and extol Thy holineSR? Therefor. w. are !nore worthy oj the vicegerency.God replied, Verily I know that which yo know not, a8 10 the affair of appointing Adam vicegerent, arid, that among his posterity will be the obedient and the rebellious, and the just will be IRanijelt (lllIon9 them. And he created Adam jrolll the surface oj the earth, taking a handjul oj ever!! colour that it comprised, wliich wa. lmeathd WIth vario", water. ; and he com-

1\

ADAM

9

p/ete/y formed it, and breathed into it th •• ouI; 80 it became an animated sentient bei~. And he taught Adam the names of all thmg8, infusill.g the lcnouiledqe of them into hi. heart. Then He showed them (nllme/y, the thing.) to the angels, and said, Declare unto me the names of these things, if ye say truth in your assertion that I will not create any more oknowin,,! thun ye, and thnt ye are more worth!L oj the ,·icP,'1.renc!I. They replied, [We extol J Thy perfection I We have no knowledge excepting what Thou hast taught us; for Thou art the Knowing, tho Wise.-(Jod said,O Adam, tell them their names. And when he had told them their names, God Raid, Did I not say unto you that I know the secrets of the heavens and the earth, and know what ye reveal oj your uiords, .• a!ling, Wilt thou place in it, otc., and what ye did conceal oj yow' uiords, .<a!lillg, He will not create any mort .9plIP'·OUS towards Him than we, nor any Ina,". knowing t " (Siirah ii. 28-31.)

.. We created you ; thut is, YOllrfathtll, Admit.' then We formed YOU; we formed him, and YOI. in him : then We said unto the angels, Prostrate yourselves unto Adam, by way oj sal«. tation , whereupon they prostrated themselves, except Iblees, t~e father oj the jinn, who WtU amid the angela.' he was not of those who prostrated themselves. God said,'What hath hindered thee from prostrating thyseU, when I commanded thee? He answered, I am better than he: Thou hast created me of fire, and Thou hast created him of earth. ~God] said, Then descend than from it j tAts, II, jrom Paradise i or, aR some .ag, _frrtM 1M heavens; for it is not tit for thee that thou behave thyself proudly therein: 80 go thou forth: verily thou shalt be of the contemptible. Ho replied, Grant me respite until the day when they (that is, mankind) shall be raised from the dead. He said, Thou shalt be of those [who are l respited: and, in another verse [in xv, 38, it 18 said), until the day of the known period; that is, until the period oj tne first blast [of the trumpet 1. [And the devil] said, NoM', as Thou hast red me into error, I will surely lay wait for them (that is, jor tAe .ons oj Adalll) in Thy right way, the way that leadeth to Thee.' then I will surely come upon them, from before them, and from behind them, and from their right hands, and from their left, and hinder them jrom pur.uing tluI way (but, saith. ibn 'Abbas, he cannot COllI., vpon them above, le.t he should inten:ene between the servant and God's mercy), and Thou shalt not find the great number of them grateful, or believing. fGod] Baid, Go forth from it, despised an.! driven away jrrmt mercy. Whosoever of them (that is, oj mlJllTeind) shall follow thee, I will s\irely fill hell with you all; with thee, and thy off'pring, and with men." (Siirah vii. 10-17.)

"And we said, 0 Adam, dwell thou and thy wife (JIOIVWii. for Eve], whom God crea'ed from a rib oj his U;{t side) in the garden, and eat yo therefrom plentifully, wherever ye will; but approach ye not this tree, to eat thereoj; (and it WaB wheat, or the grape-viM; or some other Irte;) for ~f .'/t do so, ye will be

10

ADAB

of tAe number a/the ollenders. But the devil, lbleu, caused them to slip from it, that is from tM garden, by hi. laying unto them, Shall I ./to., gouthe way to the tree of ete"lIty f Alld he Sioart to them by God that he wa.s one of the faithful adeisers to them ; so they ate of it, and He ejected them from from that .tate of delight in which the" were. And We said, Descend ye to the earth, ye two u'ith the offrpring ·that ye comprise [yet unborn), one of you (that is, of your offspring) an enemy to another; and there shall be for you, in the earth, a place of abod .. , and a provision, of it •. vegetahle pro~uc~, for a time, until tlie period of the ezpiratum of you,' terms of life. And Adam learned, from his Lord, words which were these :-0 Lord, we have acted unjustly to 00" own SOUI8, and if Thou do not forgive U8, and be merciful unto 118, we shall rureiy be of thOle IIlho suffer 100B. And he prayed in tAese word» I and He became propitious towards him, accepting his repmtance , for He ie the Very Propitious, the Merciful. We laid, Descend ye from it <from the garden) altogether; and if there come unto you from Me a direction (a boole and an apOItle), those who follow my direction, there ,hall come no fear on them, nor shall they grieve in the world to come; for they shal! enter paradis«: but they who disbelieve and accuse our signs of fllisehood, these shall be the companions of the fire: they shall remain therein for ever." (Siirah ii. 83-31.)

The MuQ.ammadans say, that when they were cast down from Paradise [which is in the seventh heaven], Adam fell on the isle of Ceylon, or Sarandib, and Eve near Jiddah (the port of Makkah) ill Arabia; and that after a separation of two hundred years' Adam was, on his repentance, conducted by the angel Gabriel to a mountain near Maltka~ where he found and knew his wife the mountain being then named 'Arafat; and'that he afterwards retired with her to Ceylon.Sale.

ADAB C .... "',). Discipline of the

mind and manners; good education and good breeding; politeness; deportment i a mode of oonduct or behaviour. A very 10nR' section of the TI·adition. i. devoted to the sayings of MUQ,ammlLd regarding rulel of conduct and i. found in the Mi.hleatu 'l-Jfa,abl/a undel~ the title Babu 'l-.Adab (book nil. Matthew'. Milhlcal). It Inolude.-(l) Salutationl, (2) Alklng permillion to enter houlel, (8) ShakInll' hand. and embracing, (') Riling up, (5) Sitting, sleeping and walking, (6) Sneezing and yawning, (1) Laughing, (8) Names, (0) Poe~ry and eloquence. (10) Backbiting and abuse, (l],j Promises, (12) Joking, (18) Boasting and party spirit. The traditional sayings on these subjects will be found under their respective titles. <Ilmu 'l-Adab is the science of Philology.

'ADIYAT (..:.>4,.>\.&». "Swift horses."

The title of the l00th Siirah of the Qur'an the .econd verse of which is, "By the :wift chargers and those who strike fire with their

ADORATION

hoofs. " Professor Palmer translates it

" anorting chargers." -

AD'IYATU 'L.MAsO'RAH (~"" ')~W'). "The prayers handed down by tradition." Those prayers which were s.aid b.y Muhammad, in addition to the regular liturgical prayers. They are found in different sections of the traditions or A, .. idiR.

'ADL (J~). Justice. Appointing what is just; equalising; making of the same weight. Ransom. The word occurs twelve times in the Qur'iOu, e.g., Siirah iv. 128, " Ye are no~ able, it may be, to act equitablr. to your Wives, even though ye covet it.' Siirah ii, '4, "Fear the day wherein no soul shall pay anY"ansolll for another soul." Siirah ii. 123, " And fear the day when no soul shall pay any ranso,!, for a soul, nor shall an equivalent be received therefrom, nor any intercession a vail; and they shall not be helped." Siirah ii. 282, "Write it down faithfully ... then let his agent dictate faithfutty." Siirah v. 105, "Let there be a testimony between you when anyone of you is at the point of deathat the time he makes his will-t'vo equitabl.e persons from amongst you." Siirah vi. 69, "And though it (soul),compensate with the fullest compensation it would not be aocepted." Siirah v. US, "The words of thy Lord are fulfilled in truth and justice. " Siirah xvi., 78, " Is he to be held equal with him who bids w~at isjll~t, and who ~B on the right way?" ~ur~h ,~T1. ?2, "V:eflly God bids you do justice, . Sur!,h xlix, 8,." Make peace with them With equity and be)ust." Siirah lxxxii. 8, " Thy generous Lord, who created thee and moulded thee and disposed thee aright."

AL.'ADL (J~I). One of the ninety-nine special names of God. It signifies "the Just." It does not occur in the Qur'an as an attribute of the Divine :Being, but it is in the list of attributes given in the Traditions. (Mishlciit, book x.)

'ADN «:J~). The garden of Eden.

Jasmat» 'Adn. The garden of perpetual abode. The term is used both for the garden of Eden, in which our first parenti dwelt, and allo for a place in celestial bUll. [IAlI'- 5~TU 'AD •• ]

ADOPTION. Ara.b.ic Pabann;

(~). An adopted son, or da.ughter, of lenown descent, ha~ no I'ight to lnherlt from hil, or her, adoptive parenti and their 1'8latlvel,-the filiation of thi. desoription being neither recommended nor recognised by )lu):iammadan law. Such son 01' dau.ebter is, however, entitled to what may be given under a valid deed in gift or will. In -tbis particular the Muhammadan agrees with the English, and the Hindu with the Roman law. (Taqor« Law Lectures, 1873, p. 124.)

ADORATION. The acts and

postur~s by which the )luslims express adoration at the time of prayer are similar to th?s~ used by the a_ncie':lt Jews (t·ide Smith's DIctionary of the Bible, III loco), and consist of

ADULTERY

Rukil.', or the inclination of the body, the hands being placed on the knees; and Sujil.d, or prostration upon the earth, the forehead touching the ground. [PRAYELl' The adoration of the black stone at Makkah forms an important feature in the ceremonies of the pilgrimage. [IUJJ.)

,

ADl!LTERY. Ara.bic ,inti' ("\)j).

The term zinG' includes both adultery and fornication, but there is a difference in the punishment for these oiJencea. [I'QRNICATlO!l.]

Adultery is established before a Qi~i, either by proof or confession. To establish it uf,on proof, four witnelses are required. (Qur in, Siirah iv. 1.) When witnellel come forw .. rd, it is necessary that they should be examined particularly concerning the nature of the oiJence. When the witnelsellh .. ll h .. n borne testimony completely, declaring that .. they have seen the parties in the ,'er!l act of carnal conjunction," the Qii4i passes sentence.

A confession of adultery must be made by the person who has committed the sin, at four dilfel'ent times, although, according to the Imim ash-Shifi'i, one confession is 8uflicient. Some of the dcctors hold that if a person retract his confelsion, his retraction must be credited, and he must be forthwith released.

A.t the commencement of Mul)ammad's milsion, women found guilty of adultery and fornication were punished by being literally immured-Sil.ralu 'n-nil'; (iv.) 19, " Shut them up within their housea till death release them, or God make some way for them." Tbis, however, wal cancelled, and lapidation was lubstituted al the punilhment for adultery, .. nd 100 Itripes and one year's banishment for fornication.

When an adulterer is to be stoned to death, he ehould be carried to lome barren place, and the l"pidation should be executed, first by the witnelsel, then by the Q"i, and afterwards by the by·standers. When a woman is stoned, a hole or excavation should be dug to receive her, as deep as her waist, because lIIuhammad ordered such a hole to be dug for Wlandia.

It is lawful for a husband to slay his wife nnd her paramour, if he shall find them in tho very act. U a supreme ruler, such as a Kl!alif .. h, commit aaultery, he is not subject to such punishment.

The state of marriage which subjects a \I' hore~onger to lapidation, requi~e~ that he be free (i.e. not a slaTe), a Mushm, and one who has consummated u lawful marriage.

It will be seen that Muhammadan law is ulmost identical with the divi;le law of the Jews with regard to adultery (Dent. xxiii. 22, Lev. xix. 20) i but the Mosaic penalty applied as well to the betrothed as to the married woman.

AFFINITY. Arabic Qarabah (~'}).

The prohibited degrees (hurmah) with regard to marriages are aR folh,ws :-Mother, daugbter, paternal aunt, maternal aunt, brother'. or sister's daughter, grandmother, granddaughter, mother-in-law, step-mother,

11

daughter-in-law, granddaughter-in-law. Nor can any man marry any who stand in any 01 these relationships from fosterage. The marriage 01 two silters at the ome time is forbidden, but the marriage of a decea&ed wife'. sister is allowed. Marriage with a deceased brother's wife is very common in Muslim countries, such tnarri .. ges being held to be a very honourable means of providing for a brothel's widow. The marriage of cousins is also considered most desirable, as being the means of keeping families and tribes together. The passage of the Qur'in on the subject of affinity, is as follows (Siirah v. 27):-

"Marry not women whom YOU1' fathers have married: for this is a shame, and hateful, and an evil way:-though what is past (i.e. in times of ignoraace) may be allowed.

"Forbidden to you are your motherlt and your daughters, and your listers, and your aunts, both on the father and mother's side, and your nieces on the brother and sister', ,ide, and your foster-mothers, and your foster-sisters, and. the mothers of your wives, and your step-daughters who are your warda, born of your wives to whom ye han gone in: (but if ye han not gone in unto them, it shall be no sin in you to mlrry them i) and the wivee of your Ions who proceed out of your loine i and y. may not haTe two sisters i except where It i. already done. Verily, God il Indulgent, Mel'ciful J

.. Forbiddm 10]lOU also are m&rried women, except tbose who are in your hand8 al sl .. "es: This is the law of God for you. And it il allowed you, belide thi., to leek out wins by me&nl of your ealth, with ... ·model' conduct, and without fornication. And gin those with whom ye have cohabit.ed ~heir dowry. This i. the law. Bu' it lhall be DO crime in you to make agreements over and abon tqe law. Verily, God i. Knowing, Wise! "

AFFLICTION. Arabic (aUln (~~), {lh,amm (~). The benefita of II.ftliction are frequently espressed in both the Qu'rin and Traditions. Fer eumple: Siir .. h ii. 160, "We will try you with something of fear, and hunger, and loss .nf wealth, and loull and fruit; but give good tidings to the patient who, when there falll on them a c&lamity, say, , Verily we are God'i and nrily to Him we return.'" This formula il alway. Ulad by Mnl:tammadans In any danger or sudden calamity, especially in the pre.ence of death.

In the traditions (lee MilAkiilllo 'I-Me,ti6i/l), Muhammad is related to have eaid, .. A Muslim is like unto standing green corn, which sometimes stands erect, but is sometimes cast down by the wind." "No amiction belala a servant of God but on account of the ains which he commits."

AFSON «(:)~'). The Persian term for Da'wah 01' exorcism. [UORCIllII.]

'AFD (~). Lit." erasing, cancelling." The word is generally used in Mnl:tammad an books for pardon and forgivenee.. It

12

AGENT

oeeurs eight times in the Qur'iln, e.g. Surah ii. 286, "Lord, make us not to carry what we have not strength for, butfOl'gil'c us and pardon us and have mercy on us." Surah iv. 46, .. Verily God pardons und forgives.'

AI-'.<Ifu is one of the ninety-nine special names of God. It means" oue who crases or cancels;" "The Eraser (of sills)." Sec Qur'lin, Surah iv, 51.

AGENT. Arabic wakil (~,). One leg-aliy appointed to act for another. For the !llu~amlUapan law regarding the appointment of Ul{Cllts to transact busines •. or to negotiate mal'l'ia~cR, see Hamilton's Hid('.9"/I, vol. iii. p. 1; Baillie's Diqest. Hanif; Cod", p. 15; Imiillliyah Code, p. 29. The author of the Hida!lu" says, "It is lawful for a person to uppoint another his agont for tho settlement, in his behalf, of every contract which he might lawfully have concluded himself, such as sale. marriage, and so forth;" and he then proceeds to lay down rules for Kuirlnnce in such matters at great length. A woman who remn ins in privacy and is not accustomed to go into Court, ought, according to tho saying of Abu Bakr, to appoint an agent and not appear herself. A slave 01' a minor may be appointed agent for a free man.

AL.AI:IAD (~~'). "The One." A title given to God. [NAME8 01" GOD.]

AI:IADIYAH (&.!~'). Unity, con. cord. Al-A~,adiyall is " term used by Sufi mystics to express a condition of the mind, completely absorbed in a meditation on the Divine Unity. (See 'Abdu 'r-Razznq's Dictionary of th« Technical Tenlls of tile :;iii/iS. Sprenger's edition.)

AI:IQAF (u~'). The name of a tract of land in Sihr in Yaman. The title of the ltLVJth Siirah of the Qur'ii.n.

AHLU 'L.BAIT (~, J.t>'). "The

people of the house." A term used in the Qur'in (Siirah xxxiii. 33), and in the I;ladi~ (.'fi"lkat, xxiv. 21), for MuJ.!ammad's household.

ARLU 'L·RA WA' (»',.s' J.t>'). A

visionary person; a libertine.

AHLU 'L.KITAB ( ..... WJI J.t>'). Lit.

.. The people of the book." A term used in the Qur'fm for Jews and Christians, a" believers in a revealed rellgion, Some sects of the Shi'ahs include the l\Iajiiai (Magi) under this term.

AlfMAD (~'). The name under which Mul~ammad profeaaes that Jesus Chri.t foretold his coming. Vide Qur'in, Surah lxi, 6, "And remember when Jesus the son of Mary said, ' 0 children of IsraelI of a truth I am God's Apoatle to you to confirm the law which waa given before me, and to announce an apostle that shall come after me, whoso name ahall be Ahmad.'" MuJ.!ammad had, no doubt, heard that Our Lord had promised a Paracletos (1I'apu:A'1"oc), John ui. 7. This title, anderltood by him, probably from the

AL

similarity of sound, as equivalent to Perielytoa (1I'£ptKAvroS), he applied to himself with reference to his own name Mui)ammad, the 1J1'a1'"ed or glorIfied one. Muir think. that in some imperfect Arabic translation of the Gospel of St. John, the word 1I'a.pa.K)..'1"tX may have been translated Ahmad, 01' praised. (Life of Mahomet, '1'01. i, 17.)

AI:IZAB ( ..... ~'). "Confederates."

The title of the xxxmrd Surnh of the Qur·ii.n, which is said to have been written when al-Madinah was besieged by a confederation of the Jewish tribes with the Arabs of Makkah. A.H. ii.

AIYUB ( ..... ~I). [JOB.]

AJAL (~I). The appointed time of death, said to be ordained by God from tho first. Qur'an. Surah xxxv, 44, "He respites them until the appointed tillle. Whcn their appointeti time comes, verily God look. upon His servants." [DEATH.]

AJIR (.1*'). A term used in Mu. hammadnn law for n person hired for service. [IJARAH.]

AJNABI

(~').

any person not of Arabia.

AKHIR.I.CHAHAR-I.SH AMBAH (~ )~ ~n. The last Wednesday of the month of Safar. It is observed as a feast in commemoration of MuJ:iammad's havinj.( experienced Home mitigation of his last illness, and hnv ing bathed. It was the last time he performed the legal bathing, for he died 011 the twelfth dav of the next month. In some purts of i~liim it is customary, in the early morning of this day to write verses of the Qur'an, known aa the &t'ell SaliilllJ; (q .v. ), and then wash off the ink and drink it alt a charm against evil. It is not obser-ved by the Wahhiibis, nor is its observance universal in Islam.

AKHLAQ (J~'). The plural of K~ulq. Natures, dispositions, habits, manners. The general term for books on morality, t'.g. A~/aq-i.J(lliili, Akhlaq-i-Multsini, the name of a dissertation on Ethics by Husain Wil'i~ Kiiahifi, A.H. 910, which has been tran.lated into English by the Rev. H. G. Keene (W. H.,Allen &: Co.).

AlUJUND (o\i~'). A maulawi , a teacher. A title of respect given to eminent religious teachers. One of the most celebrated Muhammadan teachers of modern times was tlie "Akhimd of Swat," who died A.D. 1876. This )!,r'ti;\t religious leader resided in the village of Saidu, in the district of Swat, on tho north-west frontier of India.

AKHO'NDZADAH (6..1'jo\i~b. The

son of an A.khiind. A title of respect given to the sons or descendants of celebrated religious teachers. [AKBUND.]

AL (J'). Lit. "offspring, or pos· terity." Used in Mllslim work. for the off· Rpring of Muhammad

A foreigner;

AL-A'LA

u·A'LA (~:i'). " The Most High." The title of the r.xxxvnth Surah of the Qur'an, in the second verse of wbich tbe word occurs: "The nnme of tby Lord the .1/0..1 Hig" is celebrated."

'ALAM (~). A standard or

ensign. A term used for tho flags and standurda paraded during the )lllJ:tlLrram. [MUII ABBAII , STANDARDS.]

'ALAM (,Ju.). 'l'he universe;

world; condition, state of being.

· .Hanm 'l-aruia]: The world of spirits,

• .llamu '1-0ialq Tbe world; this life.

• .Ilamu 'I.biiqi . The future state.

',1lamu 'l·u';ama/.. The highest heaven, '..flamu 'sh·shaliiid"l, The visible world. '.Ilam" 'I.ghaib Tbe invisible world. ·.I1alllll 'l.nul'qiil . The rational world.

The four mystic stages of the Sufis are'.11a71111 'n-niisiit . The present world. '.Ilam" 'l-malakiit , The state of angels.

'.Hamu 'l-jabaria Thc state of power.

·.Ilamu '1·liiMit Tbe state of absorption

into the Divinity. lIlUl'IlSIl. ]

'ALAMAT (=\"~). The greater

signs of tbe resurrection, C'ALUIATI' 'H-

~A'AH, RE8URRECTION.] •

'ALAM.ATU 'N.NUBOWAH (S~' =\"~). "'fhe signs of Pro. phecy. ,. A term used for the supposed miracles and other proofs of the mission of Muhammad. Tbe title of s chapter in tho Traditions. (Jlishkiit, xxi. c. vi.)

'ALAMATU 'So SA'AH ("",\,.~ ~W'). "Tbe signs of the bour," i.e. the signs of the time of the Resurrection and of the Day of Judgment. The title of a section of the Traditions. (Afishkiit, xlo:iii.

e. 3.) [RESURRECTION.]

'ALAQ (~). "Con!!ealed blood."

The title of the xcvrtb Surah, the first five verses of which are generally allowed to be the earliest portion of the Qur'an.

AL-BALDAH (i~'). "The City." ..\ name sometimes used in the Hadia for :\lakka,h.

ALCHEMY. Arabic Kimiyll

(.\.e .... eS'). According to the Kashfu '~-~uniin, ill loco, learned Muslims are not agreed as to the existence of this occult science, nor are they of one opinion a8 to its lawfulness, even if it should exist.

ALEXANDER THE GREAT.

Mentioned in the Qut'an as Zii 'I< Qarnain, i.e. "He of the two horns," with which he is represented on his coins. (Siirah xviii. 82.) !Ie seems to have been regarded by MuJ:tammad alone invested with a divjne commission :-" Verily we established his power npon earth"; but commentators aJ'O not agreed whether In '8"ign to him the 1'0Rit.inn of a Prophet. [zu ·L'QAllNAIN.]

'ALIM

18

AL.l:lAMD (~'). "Pra.ise." A title given to the first Siirah, so called because its first word is Al-bamd. This chapter is also called Fiili/)ah, which term is used by modern Muslims for the Surah when it is said for the henefit of the dead, AI.I)a>lId being its more usual title. [FATlHAH.]

AL.l:IAMDU .LI'LLAH (All ~').

.. Praise belongs to God." An ejaculation which is called Tahmid, and which occurs at the commencement of the first chapter of the Qur'iill. It is used as an ejaculation of thanksgiving" Thank God!" It is very often recited with the addition of Rabbi 'I"iilalllill, " Lord of the Unhorse." [TAllIIID.]

AL·'ALl (.}-J'). One of the

ninety-nine special names of God. It means " The Exalted One."

'ALI (.J.c). The SOD of Abu.

T.illib, and a cousin-german to Muhammad, who adopted him us his son. He married Fa~imah, the daughter of Muhammad, and had by her three son", Hasan, Husain, and Muhassin. He WaS the fourth Khalifah, and reigned from A.H. 35 to A.H. 40. He was struck with a poisoned sword by Ibn Muljam, lit al·Kiifah, and died utter three days, aged fifty-nine years. The Shi-ahs hold that, 011 the death of Mul)llmmad, .'Ali was entitlcd to the Khalitate, and the respective claims of "\l>ii Bakr, 'Vmal', and 'Usmim on the one hand, and of 'Ali on the other, gavo rise to tho Shi-ah schism. 'Ali is surnamed hy the Arabs _I""dll 'Uiih, and by tho Pet'"i;ll1s Sher-iKI",dIi, i.e ... The Lion of God." [Em'.\B.]

ALlF. Tbe letter Alif (') is a monogram frequently placed at the head of letters, prescriptions, &c. It is the initial letter of the word Allii" (All')," God."

ALIF LAM MIM. The Arabic

letters ,J', corresponding to A L M, which occur at the commencement of six ~iirah8, namely Siirato 'l-Baqarcb (11.), Siiratu Ali ilmran (III.), Siiratu '1·'Ankabiit (XXIX.), Suratu 'r-Rum (xxx.), Sii~atu Luqmiin (XXXI.), and Siiratu 's-Sijdah (XXXII.). Muhammad never explained the meaning of these myste . rious letters, and consequently they are' a fruitful source of perplexity to learned commentators. Jaliilu'd·din gives an exhaustive summary of the different views in his Itqiin (p. 470). Some suppose they stand for the words Alliih, "God"; Latif," gracious"; Jlajid." glorious." Others say tltey s~nd for Aua'lIii!.ull'I"",u," I am the God who knoweth." Others muintain that they were not meant to be understood, and that they were inserted by the Divine command withont explanation, in order to remind the reader that there were mysteries which his intellect "'ould never fathom.

ALU '1M RAN (<:l'~ J'). "The

family -of 'Imrin." The title of the third ch~pter of the Qur'in.

'ALIM (,Ju.). pl. 'ulama' A learned

1,(,

AL-'ALIH

man. The term usually includes all religious teachers, such as !mims, Muftis, Qil!lis, and Maulawi~s; and in Turkey it denotes the polio tical party led by the religious teachers.

AL.'ALIM (,.,Jal'). One of the ninety-nine special names of God. It frequently occurs in the Qur'in, and means" The Wise One."

ALLAH (.un). [GOD.]

ALLAHU AKBAR (P" .un).

"God 'is great," 01' "God is most great." An ejaculation which is called the Takbir. It occurs frequcntly in the liturgical forms, and is used when slaying an animal for food. (1Al{BIR.]

ALMSGIVING. The word generally used for aIm,S is $adaqah, or that which manifests righteousness; the word ~akat, or purification, being specially restricted to the legal alms. [U.KAT.] $adaqatu 'l-Fitr are the offerings given on the Lesser Festival. The duty of almsgiving is very frequently en. joined in the Qur'iin, e.g. Slirah ii. 2U-5, "What ye expend of good (i.e. of wellgotten wealth), it shall be paid to you again, and ye shall not be wronged. (Give your alms) unto the poor who are straitened in God's way and cannot traverse the earth. . . . Those who expend their wealth by night and by day, secretly: and openly, they shall have their hire with their Lord."

The following are some of the sayings of Mui).ammad on the subject of almsgiving, as they occur in the Traditions :-" The upper hand is better than the lower one. The upper hand is the giver of alms, and the lower hand is the poor beggar." "The best of alms arc those given by a man of small means who gives of tuat which he has carned by labour, and givcs as much as he is able." "Begin by giving alms to your own re.latives." " Doing justice between two people IS alms; aRsisting a man on his beast is alms; good words are alms." "A camel lent out for milk is alms; a cup of milk every morning and evening is alms." "Your smiling in your brother's face is alms; assisting the blind is alms." "God says, Be thou liberal, thou child of Adam, that I may be liberal to thee." (See Mishkat, Matthew's edition, vol. i. p. 429.)

AL WAH (c',s'), pl.. of Lauu,. "The tables" (of 'the Law). Mentioned in the Qur'iUl Siirah vii. H2, "We wrote for him (Moses) upon the Tables (al-Alwall) a monition concerning every matter."

111 uslim di vines are not agreed as to tho number either of the tables, or of the Oommandments. The commentators Jaliilain say they were either seven or ten. [TEN COMMANDMENT8.]

'AMAL.NAMAH ( .... U J..I=). The

Persian word for $alli/atu 'I-A'ma!, or record of actions kept by the recordIng angels. [UHII'ATU 'L·A'IUL, JUlUJIU 'L-K~TIBDI.)

AMAN «(:)\..'). Protection given

AMULETS

hy a Muslim conqueror to those who pay Jizyali, or poll tax. [JIJUD.]

AMBIYA (.Y'), pl. of Nabi.

"Prophets." The title of the XXIet Sitrah. [PBOPHII:·rs.]

.AMIN (~'), Hebrew ~t;t. An

expression of aBsent used at the conclusion of prayers, very much as in our Christian worship. It is always used at the conclusion of the Suratu 'l-Fitil)ah, or first chapter of the QUr'in.

Alliin," FaithfUl." Al-A 1Rin is the title which it is said was given to MUQamJllad when a youth, on account of his fair and honour· able bearing, which won the confidence of the people.

Aminu 'I· Bait, one who wishes to perform the pilgrimage to Makkah.

AMINAH (Lw'). Mul)ammad's

mother. She was the wife of 'Abdu 'llih, and the daughter of Wahb ibn 'Abdi Manit. Sbe died and was buried at al.Abwi, a place midway between Makkah and al-Madinah, before her 80n claimed the position of a Prophet.

AMIR (~'), Anglice, Emir. "A

ruler; a commander; a chief; a nobleman." It includes the various high offices in a Muslim state; the Imim, 01' Khalifah, .being styled Amirn 'I· Umarii', the ruler of rulers; and AminI 'I·Mu'minin, the commander of the believers.

AMIRU 'L-I:JAJJ (~, ~'). The

chief of the pilgrimage." The oorcer ·in charge of the pilgrims to Makkah. [IUJJ.]

AMIRU 'L-MU'MININ ( ~,

~,. .. n). "The Comma.nder of the BeIievel'8." A title which was Orst given to Abdu 'llih ibn JaQsh after his expedition to N.altJllah, and which was afterwards aSlumed by the Khalifahs (first by 'Umar) and the SuHins of Turkey. [XHALII'4H.)

'AMR IBN AL-'.A~l (U"'\al' (:)-t "...).

One of the Companions, celebrated for his conquest of Syria, Palestine and Egypt, in the reigns of Abli Bakr and 'Umar.--Be died (according to an.Nawawi) ~.H. 48.

AMULETS. Arabic Qama'u

(. "'-), "anything suspended" i TO'wil, "a refuge"; l;lajab," a cover."

Amulets, although of heathen origin, are very common in MuQammadancountries. The following are used as amulets: (1) a small Qur'iin, encased in silk or leather, and BUS. pended from the shoulder; (2) a chapter or verse of the Qur'in, written on paper and folded in leather or velvet; (8) some of the names of God, or the numerical power (S88 AB.lAD) of these names; (4) the names of pro. phets, celebrated saints, ort he numerical power of the same; (6) the MUQammadall creed, engraven on stone or eilTer. The chapter. of the Qur'in generally selected for Amuleil are: Sitrahs i., 'ri., sviiL, uxvi., sliT., lTv

AMULETS

Ixvii., Ixxviii. Five verseR known a, the Aylitu '1.I!ij;, or "verses of protection," are alec frequently inscribed on Amulets. They are Siirahs ii. 256; xii, 64; xiii. 12; xv. 17: xxxvii. 7. [AYATU'L·HIFZ.]

These cbarms are fastened on the arm or leg, or suspended round the neck, as a pro· tection against evil. They are also put on houses and animals, and, in fact, upon anything from which evil is to be averted. Strictly, according to the principles of Islam, only the names of God, or verses from the Qur'iln, should be used for amulets. Information regarding the formation of magic squares and amulets will be found in the article on Exorcism. [EXORCISM, DA'WAH.]

~ ...J , e
--- --- --- ---
t l;, ...J ,
--- --- --- ---
, e ~ ...J
--- --- --- ---
...J , e ~ AX AMULET or THE ATTIUBUTE O~ GOD-I!lifi~, "TIlE PROTECTOR."

A I.ALL QURAN S08PE!iDED AS AN AJfULET.

.\L.AN'AM (,.\N~n). "The Cattle."

The title of the vnb Siirah, in verse 187 of which some superstttious customs of tho Meccans, as to certain cattle, are incidentally mentioned.

ANANIYAH (4\;'). From ana, "I." "EgotiAm.'· .A /.aniilliyah i. a term uRed by the f>ilfiR to expreas the exis~ence of man.

AN AS IBN MALIK (~, ~, .aU\..). The last of the Companions of Muhammad, and the founder of the 8eet of the Milikis. He died at al.Basrah, A.H. 9S, aged 108.

AL.ANFAL <J\AI,,). "The Spoils."

The title of the vIIlth Silrah which was occasioned by a dispute relfardlDg the Ipoils taken at the battle of Badr, between the young men who had fouKht and the old meo who had ltayed with the enaips.

ANGEL

15

~

ANGEL. Arabic mq.l'ak or mala.k (.-))..., ...u..). Persian Firi,htah (.s..u._f). " it is believed," says Ibn Miljah, "that the angels are of a simple substance (created of light), endowed with life, and speech, and reason; and that the difference between thein, the Jinn, and Shail.ii.nH is a difference of species. Know," he adds, "that the angela are sanctified from carnal desire and the disturbance of anger: tbey disobey not God in what He hath commanded them, but do'what they are commanded. Their food is the celebrating of His glory; their drink, the proclaiming of His holiness; their conversation, the commemoration of God, Whose name be exalted; their pleasure, His worship; and they are created in different forma and with different powers." (Arabian Night., Lane'. edition, Notes to ~he Introduction, p. 27.)

Four of them are archangels, or, aa they are called in Arabic, KariAbi!Jun (Cherubim), namely, .Tubra'i/, or Jibril, (Gabriel), the angel of revolations; Mika'il, or Miktil, (Micbael), the patron of. the Israolitea; israJiI, the angel who ,will sound the trumpet at the last day; and 'Izrii'il, or 'A;crO'U, the angel of death. Angela are aaid to be inferior indignity to human ,prophet .. because all the, angela were commanded to prostrate themsolve. before Adam (Sunh U. 82). Every believer ia attended by two reeerding angels, called the Kirlimu 'l.kiitibin, one of whom record. his good actionl, and the other his evil actions. There are alao two angell, called Munlcar and Nalcir, who examine all the dead in their graves. The chief angel who has charge of hell ia called M iilik, and hll subordinates are named Zablinigah, or guardl. A more extended account of theae angela will be found undl!r their particular titlea.

The angels intercede for man: "The angels celebrate the praiae of their Lord, and ask forgiveness for the dwellers on earth." (Silrah xlii. s.) They also act aa guardiu angels: "Each hath a eucceesion of allll',1a before him and behind him, who watch over him by God's behest." (Siirah xiii. 12.) "Is it not enough for you that your Lord aid,th you with three thouaand angela .ent down (from on high)?" (Silrah iii. 120.) "R. is the supreme over Hi •• enanta, and aendeth forth guardians who watch over YOU, until, when death overtaketh anyone 01 you, our messengers receive him and fail not." (Sunh vi. 61.)

There are eight angela who support tile throne of. God, .. And the angela shall be on its sides,\ and over them on that day eight shall bear up the throne ofthy Lord." (Silrah Ixix. 17.) Nineteen have charge of helL "Over it are nineteen. None but angela have we made guardians of the fire." (Silrah lssiv. SO,81.)

The names of the guardian angela given In tho book on Exorcism (da'wah), entitled the Jawiihil'U 'I· lSllalllMlh, are brifil, Jibri'il, 1taI· kil'i1, Dardil'il, Durbil'i1, Raftmi'il, Sharki'il, Tankafil, Iami'il, Sarakiki'il, Kbarllri'il, 1'a,i'il, Riiyi'il, Hiili'il, HamwiJr.i1, 'hri~lI,

16

ANIMALB

AmwikD, 'AJpri'il, '.\sri'll, Miki'il, Mahki'il, Bani'll, 'Ati.'il, Nuri'il, Nukhii.'il. [BXOB- 0lIl,,]

ANI;MALS. Arabic Q ayatDcin

(,=,',..). According to the Qur'ii.n, Stir&h xxiv. u, "God hath created every &Dimal of water." "Ail idea," 8ays Rodwell, II perhapl derived from Gen. i. 20, 21."

It i. believed that at the Besurrection the irrational animals will be restored to life, that Uley may be brought to judgment, and then be annihilated. See Qur'in, Siirah vi. 88,. "No kind of beast is there on the earth, nor fowl that flieth with its wings, but is a community like yon; nothiDg have We passed over in the book (of the Eternal decrees): then unto their Lord shall they be gathered."

u.'ANKABlJT ( ..... ~'). "The Spieler." The title of the XXlxth Surah, iD which there is a pa.ling reference to U1t. iDlect in the ~h verse :-" The likenOli for tho.e who take to themselves guardiana belides God is the likeness of the .pider wl10 bnlldeth her a house; but truly the frail .. t of all housel lurely i. the house of th'lpider."

u.ANe.lR ()\.I"). "The Helpers," a term used for the early converts of allfadinah; but when all the citizens of allfadinah were ostensibly converted to Islkm, Uley wsre all nallled An~cir, while those )(Dlliml who accompanied the Prophet from Kakkah to al-Madinah were called MIJMjirun, or exilel. (Muir's Life of Mahomet. vol iii.

P. 26.) [IIUB.UDU.D.]

ANTICHRIST. [.A.SIHU 'D-DAJ.r&J..]

APOSTASY FROM ISLAM.

Arabic irtidcid, ("'~)'). Accordi~g t~ lIullim law, a male apostate, or Murtadd, IS liable to be put to death if he cOlltinue bbstiII&te in his error; a female apostate is not InbJect to capital punishment, but she may be kept in confinement until she recant. ~lton'l BidGyah, vel, ii. p. 227.) If elUler Ule husband or wife apostatize from the faith of Islam, a divorce takes place ipso /tU.to; the wife is entitled to her whole dower, but no lentence of di 1I0rce is necessary. If the hDlband and wife both apostatize together, Uleir marriage il generally allowed to eontinue, although the Imam Zufar says it is annnlied. But if, after their joint apostasy, either husband or wife were singly to return to Itllm, ther the marriage would be dislolved. (Hamilt9n's Bidciya/l, vol ii. p. 188.)

According to Abii J:lanifah, a male apostate il dieabled from selling or otherwise diaposInr of hi. property. But Abii Yiisuf and imAm Mul)ammad differ from their master upon this point, and consider a male apostate to be al competent to exercise every right as if he were etill in the faith. (Bidiiyah, vol. ii. p. 28&.)

If a boy under age apoltatize, he is not to be put to death, but to be imprisoned until he come to fnll age, when, if ~e continue in

'AQILAH

the state of unbelief, he must be put to. death. Neither lunaticl nor drunkards are held to be responsible for their apostasy from Islam. (Hidiiyah, vol. ii. 246.) If a person upon COlllpulsion become an apostate, his ~ife is not divorced, nor are his lands forfeited. If a person become a Musalmin upon compulsion, and afterwards apostatize, he is not to be put to death. (Hidciyah, vol. iii. 467.)

The ",ill of a male apostate is not valid, but that of a female apostate is valid. (Hidciyw., vol. iv. 087.)

'Ikrimah relates that some apostates were brought'tothe Khalifah' Ali, and he burnt them alive; but Ibn 'Abbas heard of it, and said that the Khalifah had not acted rightly, for the Prophet had laid, .. Punish not with God's punishment (i.e. fire), but whosoever changes his religion, kill him with the sword." (SalIi~u 'I-BuIc.l!iiri.)

APOSTLE. Arabic Tasul (Jr), Aa1Dliri (~>,,.). The t.erm raril (apostle or meslenger) il applied to Mul)ammad, that of ~awiiri . being used in the Qur'im (Siirah iii. 4, 0; Siirah iv, Ill, 112; Siil'ah lxi. 14) for the Apostles. of J eSU8. The ~o~d ~awciri leeml to be deri ved from the lEthlOPIC, Mm," to go "; ~awiiryii, " apostle" ; although, according to al-Bah:ii.wi, the commentator, it iR derived from ~awira, " to be white," in Syriac, ~ewar, and was given to the disciples of Jesus, he says, on account of their- purity of life and sincerity, or because they were respectable men and wore white garments. In the Traditions (Mishlccit, book i. c. vi. part 2) liawiiri is used for the followers of all the prophets. [PROPHET8.]

AL·'AQABAH (~'). A sheltered glen nesr Mini, celebrated as the scene of the two pledges, the first and second pledge of al-' Aqabah. The first pledge was made by ten men of the tribe of Khazraj and ten of AUR, when they plighted their faith to MuI,ammad thul :-" We will not wonhip any but one God; we will not steal; nor commit adultery ; nor kill our children; nor will we slander ow' neighbour; and we will obey tho Prophet of God." The date assigned to this pledge by Sir W. Muir is April 21, A.D. 621. The second pledge was a fev._ months afterwards, when seventy-three men and two women came forward, one by one, and took an oath of fealty to the Prophet. Mul)ammad named twelve of the chief of these men, and said :_u MoseR chose from amongst his people twelve leaders. Ye shall be sureties for the rest, even as were the Apostles of Jesus; and I am surety for my people. And the people answered, Amin, So be it." (Muir's LIfe oj' Mahomet, tol. ii. pp. 216: 282.)

'AQIB (~~). "A successor or deputy." "One who comes last." Al-'ciqib is a title given to Mul)ammad a8 being styled " the last of the prophets."

'AQILAH (&li~). The relat.ives who pay the expiatory mulct for manslaughter, or any other legal fine. They must

be relativea descended from One common father. (Hamilton'a Hidoyalt, 1'01. i1'. pagea "9, ~52; Baillie's Law of Salt, p. 2U.)

'AQIQAH (lI"Ie). A custom

observed by the Arabs on the birth of a child; namely, leaving the hair on the Infant's hAd until the seventh day, when it ia sha1'ed, and animals are sacrificed, namely, two aheep for a boy and one for a girl. (Mi';'. kit, uiil. c. 8) It is enjoined by MUQauunadan law. and observed in all parts of Islim.

ARABIA. Biliidu 'l.'Arab (At ..... ,.n) , JtlIfratu 'l-'Arab ( ..... ;,-3, &,lyt:), '.ArabUtfin (<:1~~)' The peninsula. bearing, amongst the Arabi, these namea ia the country situated on the eaat of tho Red Sea, and extending al far as the Persian Gulf.

The word probably aigniflea a "barren

place," " desert .. (Beb. i'1i-~)'

Ptolemy divides Arabia into three parta, Arabia Petrea, Arabia Felix, and Arabia Deserta; but Arabian geogral'hers divide it into TiMilltah, al./.Iiioz, an.NaitI, al.-An;ti, and al- Yalllan.

The raceR which have peopled Arabia are .livided into three sections, al-' Amb. 'I·Biii· dah, al·IA,'dbll '1.1 Aribllh, and al·-Ara·bu 'I· MIIRta'riba/l.

I. AI·'Aral", 'I-Bo"idalt, are the old "Ioat ArabI," of whom tradition has preserved the names of several tribes, as well aa some memorable particulars regarding their extinction. Thia may well be called the fabulous period of Arabian history ; but, a8 it has the unction of the Qur'iin, it would be Racrilege in a Muslim to doubt its authenticity. According to thia account, the most famous of the extinct tribes were those of 'Ad, S,amftd, J.dis, and Tum, all descended in the third or fourth generation from Shem. 'Ad, the father of his tribe, settled, according to tradition, in the Great Desert of al·AQqif soon dter tbn confusion of tongueR. Shaddid hiN son sneceeded him in the government, and greatly extended hia dominions. He performed many fabulous exploits; among others, he erected a magnifl· cent city in the desert of IAdan, which had heen begun by hiA father, and adorned it with a sumptuous palace and delightful gardena, in imitation of the celestial paradise, in order to inspire his aubjectR with a auperstitioua veneration for him aR a god. ThiR superb structure was built with bricks of gold and xilver alternately disposed, The roof "fI'aA of gold, inlaid with precious Htonea and pearla. The trees and shruba were of the same pre· eloua materiah. The fruita and ftowera were rubies, and on the branches were perched hirds of Aim'ilar met.aIA, the hollow panA of which were loaded with every Rpecies of the I'ichent perfumes, so that every breeze that lotew came charged with frBgrance from the lIiIlA of these golden imogea. To thin paradiRe he gave t.he name of Iram (see Qur'in, Hill'ah lxxxix. 6). On the completion of all thi8 grandeur, Shaddiid Het out with a aplenditl retinue to admire ita beautien. But heayen

ARABIA

would not.wrer hil pride and impiety to ,0 unpu~i~lhed; for, when within a day'. j01ll1l8" of the place, they were all destroyed by .. ~rrible noiae from the cloudl. AI a mon_ent of Divine [ustiee, the city, we are aaaured, still ltendl in the desert, though InYialble. Southey,.in' hi. Tltala6a, hal 1'lewed thI. and many of the other fables and auperatitioDi of the Arabi with the eye of a poet, a philo. aopher, and an antiquary. AccoEdIng to at· Tabari, this legendary palace wa. diAco1'ered in the time of M u'iwiyah, the ilnt KPlifah of Damascus, by a person in learch of a atray camel. A fanciful tradition adda, that the Angel of death, on being alked whether, In the discharge of hia dutiel, an inltance had ever OCCUlTed ill which he had felt lome com· paRRion towards hil wretched victiml, ad· mitted that only twico had bil lympathioR been awakened-once towards a .hipwrecked infant, which had been expoled on a solitary plank. to struggle for existence with the wInda and wavel, and which he lpared; and th. second time in cutting oft the uuhappy Shad· did at the moment when almoat within 1'ie" of ,the gloriOUR fabric which he had erected at 10 much expense. No aooner h&1l the angel spoken, than a voice from heann was heard to declare that the helpl". innocent OJ! the plank. wa. no otber thaD Sbaddid bim'aelt_; and that hil puniahment W88 a just retribution for bit lDgratltnde to a merciful and kind ProvldeDee, which had not onlyaaved his life, but railed bim to unrivalled wealth and splendour. The whole fllble steml to be a contused tradition of Belus and the ancient Babylon; or, rather, OB the name would import, of Denhadad. men· tioned in Scripture as one of tile most f.moul of the Syrian kings, who, we are told, ...... worshipped by hia 8ubjecta.

Of the 'Aditea and their succeeding princ .. , nothing certain il known, ex.ept that they were dispersed or deltroyed in the courae of a few centuriea by the aovereigna .of al· Y aman.

The tribe of $.amiid flnt aettled in Arabia Felix. and on their expulaion they repaired to al-Hijr, on the conflnel of Syria. Like the 'Aditea, they are reported to hne been of a most gigllntic nt.ture, the talleat beiDg a handred cubits high and the lea at aixty ; and IlUCh waA their muscular power, that, with a stamp of the foot in tbe drieat Roll. they could plant themselves knee-deep in the earth. They dwelt, the Qur'iin infol'JIIs UR, .. in the cavel of the rocks, and cut tbe mountain!! into houllea, which remain to this day." In thia tribe it iA elAY to discover ihe Tbamudeni of Diodorull, PEny, and Ptolemy.

Tho tribe!! of TaAm and Jadil settled between Makkah lind 1I1.Madinah, &lid occupied the .. hole level country of aI·Yaman, living promiscuously under the same gO'l'ollll1llent. Their hiRtol'Y iM buried ill dal·kneall j and whc'n tho Arab .... inh to denote onytb'lng of dul,iou8 nnthortty, they eal] it a foMe of Talm.

Tlu!' extinction of tMAe tribCR, aeeordinK to the Qur'iin. "lin mit'ul'ulouA, and a Rigllal example of Divine nngealll·r. The pORterity of 'Ad and Samiid had nt-andoned

17

18

AKABIA

the "orlhip of the trae God, and lap.ed into) iacom,ible Idolatry. They had been ~ha.ti .. d "Ith a three yean' dl'Ought, bat theIr heart. remained hardened. To the former wa. lent the Prophet Had, to reclaim them and preach the UDity of the Godhead. .. 0 my people I ,. nclaimed the prophet, .. allk pardon of yoar Lord; thea tUl'll anto Him "Ith penitonce, (aJ¥l) He "ill lind down the henenl upon you "ith ooploQR ralnl, and "Ith Itrength in additloa to your "trength will He increaRe yeu." Few believed, and the o'l'orthrow of the Idolaten WAI effected hy a hot and auf· focati. "Ind, that blew Reven night. and eltrht daya without intermiRHion, accompanied with a terrible earthquako, by which their Idol. werl brokln to pieceR, and their hou"ell thrown to the ground. (See Qur'in, Siirah vii. 08, itl. 58.) Luqmin, 1I'ho, according to IIome, WI.. a famouR king of the 'Adites, and who lived to the age of Reven eaglea, elcaped, with about Ib:ty otherR, the common calamity. Theae few "univor. gave rille to a tribo oalled the Latter' Ad j Iiut on account of their crime. they were tl'anRformed, aR the Qur'in ltatel, into aaReR or monkeYH. Hud returned to lJa,ramaut, and "'as buried in tho neigh· bourhood, where a Hm.n town, Qabr Hild, still beal'R bill naDle. Amollg the ArAbll, 'Ad e&prellla the lame remoto AgO that Saturn or Ornel did amopg the Oroek,,; anything of ntreme antiquity ill allifl to be II all old aR Xing 'Ad."

The Idolatrou. tribo of 8amiid had the prophet e&liq lent to them, whom D'Herbolot makeR the Ron of· Arphaud, while Boclhart and Sale luppo"e him to be Peleg, tho hrother of Joktan. Hi. preaching had littlo offect. The fate of the 'A4Ite", In.tead of being a "arnlng, only aet them to dig cavern. in the rockA, where they hoped to eRcalle tho velli.ance of "Indl and tempeRta. Othen demanded a .Ign from the prophet in token of hi. million. AI a conditIon of their belief, they ohallenged him to a trial of power, .. imilar to what took place betweon Elijah and the prieltll. of Baal, and prcmlsed to folIo" the deity that IIhould gain the triumph, From a certain rock a camel hig with young waa to come forth in their presenee, The idolatera 'II'ere foiled; for on !;;i1i!)'A pointing 'e the _pot, a me·camel wall produced, with Il y01lllg one rudy weaned. Thill mlraele wroUfl'ht oonvfctlon in a few; hut the reRt, far from believing, hamltrunw t.ho mother, killed her miraculoa. progeny, and lJivldod tho flesh among them. Thi. act of impiety Roalod their ,doom ... And a violent tempest orertcok the Wicked, and they "oro found.p,roRtrate on their hreuta In their abode •. ' (Qul"iin, Silrah Til. 71, &1. fl4.)

The tribell of J.dl. and Taam owe their oxtinotlon to a different canse. A certain deRpot, & Tallmite, but sovereign of hath trih,,". had rendered him Rolf detested by 1\ voluptuous 1& w claiming for himsel! a priority of I'ight 0,",01' all tho hriflo. of tho .JadiaitoH. This iqRult WIIR not to he tolerated. A con.pirll".v wal fOl'med. Tho king and hia chiefs were invited te an ontertainmont. The nvcnl(er.

ABAJlJA

had privately hidden their 8word8 in the sand, and in the moment of mirth and leI. tivity they fell upon the tyrant and hiR retinue, and finally extirpated the greater part of hil 8U bj.ct ••

n.-The ]Jure Arab. are those who claim to be desoended ftom Joktan or Qsl)tin. whom the prelent Arabs regard as their princi:pal founder. The Jll,embers of this genume stock are styled al·'Arabu 'l"Aribab, tho genuine Araba. According to their genealogy of thi. patriarch, hiA deacendlmts formed two distinct branches, Ya'rub, one of hill IOns, founded the kingdom of al·Yaman, and Jurhum thst of al·lJiji", These t'll'O aro the onlv Ions Rpoken of lIy the Arabs. Their nameR do DOt oocur in Scripture; but it haR been conJec. tured that they were the Jerah lind Hadoram mentioned by MORes as among the thirteen plllntel'R of Arabia (Gen. x. 26).

In the divilion of their nation into tribel the Arabs rellemble the Jews. From an early ora they ha VB retained the dilltinction of Bepa· I'ato and independent families. Thi. partition wall adverse to the con.oIldation of power or political influence, but it furnishes our chief guido into the dark aIlY.A of their antiquitie~. The' posterity of Ya'ru" spread and multipliod into innumorable clans. Now Roconionll rendered new Huhdh·i.ioIIH nece.aary. In the lCenealogical tahJeR of Sale, Gagnior, and Saiyid Al)mlld KhiAn, are enumerated noarly three-seore tribes of genuino AI'Abs, many of whom became celebrated IonIC before the timo 01 Mul)ammlid, and somo of them retnin their DRmes even at tho prasent day.

In.-The 'A"abu "·Mu.t(,·ribnh, tho mired Araba, claim to 110 descended from lehmaol and tho dftughter of al.Mu~ii~, King of al·lJijiiz, whom ho took to wife, and WIIH olthe ninth generation from Jurhum, tho founder of that kingdom. Of tho Jurhumlte», till the timo of Ishmnel, little iH recorded, except tho nameR of thflil' prinoes or "hiefA, and that they had pO"AellSion of the territory of aJ·lJijft" . But sa Muhammad trnees hia descent to this nlliance, tilo Araba have boon more than usually careful to prORe1''I'O nnd adorn hiA genealogy. The want of a pure RllcPAtry iH, in their ostimation, morc than componsatod by tho dignity of HO sacred & connexion j !Ol' thoy l,oaRt OR much I\s the JewR of bemg reckoned tho children of. Ahraham. Thi. eircnmstaneo will account for the preference with wbleh they uniformly regnrd this hranch , of thoir pedigree, lind for the mnny romanti« 10gemlA they hnvo gl'llftod upon it. It ia not improhnhlo'that tho oldginllh 01111 idolater. RUft'OI'O<1 an imnginRI'V oxtmetion to mil ke wily for II more fl\\'o\ul\d 1'RCt", and that Divine chastiRemflntR alwaYIl overlook those who (In rill to invade their conseerated terrlt01'iOK.

The 8eriptnl'c ocrutlnt of til" expulsion lind destlnv of this venerated prog.mitor of till' Al'Ilhs' i. brief', hut shnpl« unrl IdYecting, Ishmael Wu" till' son Clf AI>mhullI hy Hagar. an Ji:lCyptian alave, When Iourteon ~'ears of age, he WIIS supplanted in the hopes and nlTrctions of hi. father by the birth of I •• ac,

ARABIA

through whom the promises were to descend. This event made it necessary to remove the unhappy female and her child, who were accordingly sent forth to seek their fortune in some of thc surrounding unoccupied districts. A small supply of provisious, aud a bottle of water on hel' shoulder, was all she carried from the tent of her master. Directing her steps towards her native country, she wandered with the lad in the wilderness of Beer-sheba, which was destitute of spl·ings. Here her stock failed, and it seemed impossible to a void perishing by hunger or thirst. She resigned herself to her melancholy prospects, but the feelings of the mother were more acute than the agonies of want and despah·. Unable to witness her son's death, she laid him under one of the shrubs, took an affecting leave of him, and retired to a distance. "And she went, and sat her down over against him, e. good way off, as it were II bow-shot j for she said, Let me not see the death of the child. And she Rat over against him, and lifted up her voice and wept." (Gen. xxi. 16.) At this moment an angel directed her to a well of water close at hand,-a discovery to which they owed the preservation of their lives. A promise formerly given was renewed, that shmael was to become a great nation-that he was to be a wild man-his hand against overy man, and every man's band against him. The travellers continued their journey to the wilderness of Paran, and there took up their residence. In due time the lad grew to manhood, and greatly distinguished himself as an archer, and his mother took him n wife out of her own land, 'Here the sacred narrative breaks 01I abruptly, the main object of Moses being to follow the history of Abraham's descendants through the line of Isaac. The Arabs, in their version of Ishmael's history, have mixed a great deal of romance with the narrative of Scripture, They assert that al-l;Iijiz was the district where he settled, and that Makkah, then an arid wilderness, was the identical spot where his life was providentially saved, and where Hagal' died and was buried. The well pointed out by the angel, they beUno to he tho famouR Zamzam, of which all pioua Muslims drink to this day. They make no allusion to hi. allianoe with the E,yptian womlLn, by whom he had twelve sonl (Gen. xxv. 12-18), the ohieh of a. many nation., and tho pOllel.OrB of separate towns; but al polygamy ,val oommon In hll age and countl'Y, It Ie not Improbnble he mlly have had mOI'e wives. thlln 0110.

It was, say they, to commemorate the mh'aculous preservation of Ishmael that God commanded Abraham to huild the Kalbah, and his SOli to furnish the necesaary materials.

}luq.ammadan, writers give the following account of Ishmael and his descendants:Isbmael was constituted the prince and fll'st high-priest of lIIakkah, and, during half a century he preached to the incredulous Arabs. At his death, which happened forty-eight years after that of Abraham. and in the 137th

ARABIA

19

of his IIge, he was buried in the tomb of Ius mother Hagar. Between the erection of the Ka"bah and the birth of their Prophet, the AI'nbs reckon about 2,740 years. Ishmael was succeeded in the regal and sacerdotal office by his eldest son Nebat, although the pedigree of lluq.ammad is traced from Kedar, a younger brother. But his family did not long enjoy this double authority j for, in progress of time, the Jurhnmites seized the government and the guardianship of the temple, which they maintained about 800 years. These last, again, having corrnpted the true worship, were assailed, as a punishment of their crimes, first by the scimitars of the Ishmaelites, who drove them from Makkah, and then by divers maladies, by which the whole race finally perished. Before quitting Makkah, however, they committed every kind of sacrilege and indignity. They fined up the Zamzam well, after having thl:own into it the treasures and saored utensils of the temple, the black stone, the swords and cuirasses of Qala'ah, the two golden gazelles presented by one of the kings of Arabia, the sacred Image of the ram substituted for Isaac, and all the precious movables, forming at once the object and the workmanship of a superstitious devotion. For several centuries the posterity of Iehmael kept possession of the supreme dignity.

The following is the list of chiefs who are said to have ruled the l.Iijiz, and to have been the lineal anccstors of MuQ.ammad, liS far as "Adniin:-

A.D. 538 I Abdu 'Jlih, the father 0' MuQ.smmad. 505 "Abdu'l-Muttalib.

472 Hishim.

439 I Abd Manif. 406 Qu~aiy.

373 Kilib.

340 Murrah.

307 Ka"ab.

274 Luwaiy.

2U Ghilib.

208 Fihr or Quraiah. 176 }li.lik.

U2 an-Na,r.

109 Kininah.

76 Khuzalmah. 48 Mudrlkah. 10 al-Ya'R.

D.C. 28 Mu,ar. 66 Nizll·. 89 Ma'add. 122 'Adnin.

The period betweon Ishmael and 'Adnt.n II variously estimated, lome reokoning forty, others only Beven, generations. T~I! authority of Abu'l-Fidii., who makes it ten, IS that generally followed by the ,Arabs, being founded on a tradition of one of MuQ.ammad's wives. Making every allowance, however, for patriarchal longevity, even forty generations are insufficient to extend over a space of nearly 2,500 years. From I Adniin to Mul)ammad the genealogy is considered certain, comprehending twenty-one !,(clIcl'lltions, and nearly

20

ABABIC

160 different tr'ibea, all brauehing off from the aame parent stem.

(Soe Abu t.ra«, Gagnier's Vie de Malio-, met; Pocock, Speci", .. Arab. Hist.; Saiyid Ahmad Khi\u's Essay.; Sale's Koran, Prelim. Oil j Crichton's Hist . .drabi".)

ARABIC. LiBiinu·'l.'.drab j u: ."liatll 'l-s Arob. The classical language of Arabia is held to be the language of the Qur'in, and of the Tradifions of Mu~ammad, and by reaaon of its incomparable excellence is called &AIll al-fllgltali, or "the language." (8ee Qnr'iin, Siirah xvi. 1 Oil , "They say, Surely Ii person teac~eth him [i.,. MuI:tammadl. But the tongue of. him at whom they"hint is foreign, whilo this [i.e. the Qu)"'sn] is plain Arabie.")

This classical language is often termed, by the Arabians themselves, the language of Ya'add, and tho language of Mu~ar, and is a compound of many sister dialects, very often differing among themselves, which were spoken throughout the whole of the Peninsula before the religion of MuI:tammad incited the nation to spread its conquering armies over .foreign countries. Before that period, feuds among the tribes, throughout the whole extent of their territory, had prevented the blending of their dialects into one uniform language; but this effect of disunion was counteracted in a great measure by the institution of the saered months, in which all IIcts of hostiUty were moat stt'ictly iaterdicted, aud by the annllal pilgrimage, and the yearly fair held at 'Uki.;r;, at which the poets of the various tribes contended for the meed of general admiration.

Qatidah says that the Quraish tribe used tv cull what was most excellent in the dialects of Arabia, so that their dialect became the best of all. This assertion, 11Ol'eVer, is not altogether COITect, fOI' many of the children of the tribe of Quraish, in the time of MuI:tammad, were sent into the desert to be there nursed, in order to acquire the utmost chasteness of speech. MuI:tllmmad himself was sent to be brought up Among the tribe of Sa'd ibn Bakr ibn Hawiizin, descendants of Mu~ar. but not in the line of Quraish j and he is said to have urged the facts of hiB being a Quraish, and having also grown up among the tribe of Sa'd, as the grounds o( his dlLim to be the most chaste in speech of the Arabs. Certain it i~ that the Illnguage of Ma'add was characterised hy the higheHt degree of perfection. copiousness, and uniformity, ill the time of MuQammad. although it afterwards declined.

The language of the QUI'·ii.n is univeraally acknowledged to be the ruost perfect form of Arabic speech, At the same time we must not forget that the acknowledged claims of the Qur'ii.n to be the direct utterance of the Divinity have made it impossihle for nny )luslim to eriticise tho work, and it hILA hecome the standard hy which other literary -ompositicna have to Ill' judged. (Sec Lane's Introduction to his .-{r"b'" LJ,cIIOIlW'U, and Pahucr's (1'11"'';11,)

AL-A'RAF

ARABIC LEXICONS. The first Arabic lexicon is that which is generally ascribed to ai-Khalil, and entitled Kitiibll'/ '..tin. Tho following are the most celebrated Arabic dictionaries composed after the '.4ill.

The JlIIlJu,,·(Ui, by Ibn Duraid, died A.H. S:H. The TaIi;ib, by al-Azhari, died UL 3iO. The Mlll.ait.. by the !)i.I:tib Ibn 'Abbid, died

A.H.385.

Tlie .V~jlllal, by Ibn Faris, died A.IL 395. The $iMh, by nl-Jauhari, died A.H. 398. The Jiimi', by nl-Qazziz, died A.R. 412.

The MN'ab, by Abil Ghalib, died A.H. i3ll. The Mu/.Iklllll, by Ibn Sidah, died A.H. iUS. The A~iiR, by Ilz-ZlImakhshari, died A.H.

538: •

The MlIgl111b, by IlI-lIutarl'izi, died A.IL 610.

The' Ubiib, by Il,-Siighii.ni, died A.IL ,\GO. The Lisii"" 'I-'Amb, by Ibn Mukal'ram, died A.H.. 711.

The TlIl.:.ihll 't-TaIt;ib, by llaI:tmiid atTanilkAi, died A.H. 723.

The Mi~biih, by Al}mad ibn Mul}llUlmad al-Faivtimi, compiled A.H. 73·1.

The" Jfuylilli 'l-Eablb, by Ibn Hlsham, died A.H.761.

The 'lalliUs, by al-Flliriizabiidi, diet! A.H. 816.

The $i/.liih (says Mr. Lane in his Preface to his Dictionary), is among the books of lexieology like the $aMla of Al-BII~ii"i amongst the books of traditions j for the point on which turns the title to reliance is not the copiousness of the collection, but the condition of genuineness and correctness.

Two well-known dictionaries, compiled. in modern times in Hindustan, are the Glti!Jii.~I' '1- Lug/Jat, by Maulawi IDIiyi!!u 'd-din of Rampili', and the MUlitalia'I-'Arab, by 'Abdu '1'Rahim ibn 'Abdu 'l-Karlm of $afipiir. These are' both Arabie and,Persian lexicons.

The Arabic-Latin dictionary of Jacob Golius, was printed at Leydlln. A.D. 1653; that of Freytag at Halle, A,D. 1830-3..;;. I The Arabic-English and English-ArabIC dictionaries extant are-

Richardson's Persian-Arabic-English, A.U. 1771-

Richardson's English-Persian-Arabic, A.D. 1810.

Francis Johnson's Persian-Arnbie-Engliah, A.D. 1852.

Catafago's Arabic-Ellglillh and EnglishArabic. new edition, 1873.

Lano's Arabic-English, A.D. 1863 to 1882,

imperfect.

Dr . Badger's }o~ugli8h-Al'abic, A.D. 1881. Dr. Steingass'8 English·Arabicj A.D. 1882.

AL.A'RAF (~'~J'). (1) The

partition between heaven and hell, described in the Qur'iill, Silrah vii. 44," Betwixt the two (heaven and bell) there is a partition; and on al-A'rif are men who know all by their marks j and the~' shall cry out to the i~ha bitants of Paradise, 'Peacc be upon you! (but) they have not (yet) entered it, although they 10 desire. And when their sight is turned tOll·ard. tho dwellers in the Fire, thoy say,' 0 our Lord,

'ABAFAH

place us not with the unjust people.'" AccordIng to Sale, al- .t1'l·~f is deri ved from the verb 'aml'a, which signifies" to distinguish between things, 01' to part them"; though some com-mentators give another reason for the imposition of this name, because, say they, those who stand on this partition will/cno,o and distinguish t~e blessed from the damned by their respectIve marks 01' characteristios: and others say the word properly intends anything that is eleeated, I\S such a wall of separation must be supposed to be. Some imagine it to be a sort of limbo for the patriarchs and prophets, 01' for the martyrs and those who have been most eminent for sanctity. Others place here those whose good and evil works are so equal that they exactly counterpoise each other, and therefore deserve neither reward nor punishment; and these say thev will on the last day be admitted int~ Paradise: after they shall have performed an act of adoration, which will be imputed to them as a merit, and will make the scale of their good works to preponderate. Others suppose this intermediate space will be a receptacle for those who have gone to war, without their parents' leave, and therein suffered martyrdom; being -excluded from Paradise for their disobedience, and escaping hell because they ,are martyrs. (2) The title of Siirah vii, (3) A te~'m used by ~iifi mystics to express a condftion of the mind and soul when meditating on tho existence of God in all thingsl

'ARAFAH (oU"c). The vigil of the

'ldn 'I-A~Qa, or Feast of Sacrifice, when the pilgrims proceed to Mount 'Arafit. ['IDU L-AZBA.]

'ARAFAT ( .... U~), or 'A,·afah.

The n Mount of Recognition," situated twelve miles from Makkah; the place where the pilgrims stay on the nin\h day of the pilgrimage, and recite the mid-day and afternoon prayers, and hear the khu~bah or A~nnon. Hence it is a name given to the ninth day of the month ~u 'l-l;Iijjah. Upon the origin of the name given to this mountain, Burton says, "The Holy Hill owes its name to the following legend :-When our fi1'8t parents forfeited heaven for eating wheat, which deprived them of their primeval purity, they were cast down upon earth. The serpent descended upon Ispahan, the peacock at Cabul; Satan at Bilbays (others say Semnin 01' Seistlin), Eve upon 'Arafit, and Adam at Ceylon (Sarandib). The latter, determining to seek his vdfe, began a joUrney, to which the earth owes its present mottled appearance. Wherever our first father placed his foot, which was large, a town afterwardb arose; and between the strides will always be country, Wandering for many years, he came to the Mountain of }Iercy, where our common mother was continually calling upon his name, and their reeoqnitio» of each other gave the place tho name of 'Amjall."

ARA~[ (~'}). Lit." laads ": the

sale of lands, Tombs are not included in the sale of lands, A place 01' station for casting

ABClIITEOTURE

21

the harvest is not considered to be amonglt the rights and advantages of land, and therefore does not enter into the sale of it. (Baillie's Law oj Sale, pages 5~, <65.) [LAND,]

ARCHITECTURE. The term Saraeenie is usually applied by English writers to Muq,ammadan arehitecture. But though the style may be traced to the Arabians, they cannot themselves be considered the inventors of it, , They had, in fact, no distinctive style of their own when they made their rapid conquests, but adapted existing styles of architecture to meet the religious and national feelings of the Muslims.

Mul).ammad built a mosque at al-Madinah, but it was an exceedingly simple structure, and he left 110 directions in the Qur'in or in the Traditions on the subject,

The typical varieties of the earlier }luham!Badan ~rchitect"!'e are those which appeared III SpaID and ID Egypt; its later form appeared in Constantinople. The oldest specimen of Saracenic architecture in Spain is the mosque of Oordova, which now serves as the cathedral of the city, It was commenced by the Khalifah 'Abdu 'r-Raq,min, 786 A.~"

IN TIIB 8A11'C'tI1ABY OP TUB CATRIIl>lUL OF CORDOVA.

with the avowed intention that it Ihould be the finest mOllque in the world, and Byzantine arcbltects are said to have been specially invited to superintend its construction.

The earliest of the Muhammedan build burs in Egypt, of which any poi'tions still remain,'1Ithe Mosque of • AmI' at old Cairo, begun about A.D. 642, but greatly altered or rebuilt about sixty yeal's later. •

On the CII pture of Constantinople, St. Sophia was converted by the MMlim conquerors into their chief Mosque, and made their al'cfuitectural model. The. older Saracenic styl., 1'8 seen at Cordova and old Cairo, continued to be the basis of the new, but it was modified tbrouguout by Byzantine influence, In Persia

22

ABOHITIOTUBI

we may clearly trace in )lul)ammadan buildinga tho older Peraian type, and in India

III' I. 80PUIA, CO!l8TAlITlXOPLIo:.

tho Saracenic architects showed the same pliancy in adopting the styles of the various peoples amongst whom they settled. It thus happens (says Fergusson, In his Hi.tor!J of Indian ArcAitecture), that we have at least twelve or fifteen dilJcI'cnt styles of }1ul}ammadan architccturc in Central Asia and in India.

III' TO TAl JUJIALL, .lOU.

A Htl'iking and distinctive foature in early Muhammadan architecture is the horse-shoe arch, which in time gives way to acusped 01' scalleped arch, strictly 80 termed, the outline being produced by intersecting semi-arches. Another variety of Saracenic arch is the circular-headed and stilted form, The pillars are commonly of exceedingly slender proportion",

AlWHITIOTUBJJ

almost to apparent insecurity j but owing to the style of the embellishment, this lightness

DI' 'l'BB 1l0'l'l llA8.Jm, "'OBA.

of particular forms tends to heighten tho general luxuriance, Some have imagined tha* thia element of slenderne81 in regard to pilla1'8 indicatea a tent origin of the Ityle, This tent-like character hal beel1 further kept up by concave ceiliJlgs and cupolas, emblazoned with fainting and gilding, Decorati<!ns composed 0 animal and human figures, being interdicted by Mul)ammadan law rPJCTtlBBI, are not found in Saracenic architecture; but their geometrical patterns exhibIt singular beauty and complexity, inoxhaustiblo variety of combinations, and a wond.erful degreo of harmonious intricacy, arising out of very simple elements. Lattice or open trellis

-_ ~
.\ \:.llA ..... v'
'r~~
,
.- B.A.aLYPATlUJr I'l'YLIl III TIUI qVTB BUILDDfGI 4TDBLHI.

work is another fertile source of embellishment, and is similar to the tracery met with in Gothic buildings. Another characteristic of Baracenic style is that of the dome, For the most part domes occur in mosques and tombs, and are of Byzantine origin. - ?rlinarets are also a special feature in MUQammadan mosques, and contribute much to the picturesqueneas (of these buildings, They ure

'ARIYAH

found in mosquea of the later Saracenie atyle. (See Ferarus1on'slndian and Easter» A,·cltitec·

IN It. HOUSE IN PBBBAWlt.B.

lure. Mr. Owon Jones's Alhnntbrn Palace, Heraenler's ArabiHC/" Dalll·e"ziel"llngen.)

'ARIYAH (&t~). A kind of sale

permitted in lAliLm. namely. when a person computes what quantity of fruit there is on a tree and sells it before it is plucked. (lolis/ikit, ~i. c. v.)

'A.RIYAH (&t)\a). (1) A loan for

the use of anything of which Qu,.,. cannot he made: e.g. the loan of a horse is • A rayah ; the loan of money is Qa,.;:. (2) A gift, of which the following is an example :-A person makes a gift to another of the date. of a palm-tree in his garden; hut having afterwards some doubt of the propriety of that peraon coming daily to his garden where his' family usually are. and bcing at tho same time unwilling to depnrt from his promise, or to retract his gift. he gives some of thc dntes that· hAVIl already been pulled in lieu of thoso upon the tree. (Baillie's Law of Sal«, p. 300.)

ARK. NOAH'S (Cf ..w). It is

mentioned in tho history of the Deluge. as recordod in the Qur·iin. in two places-Siirah xi. 89. " Build the ark under our eye and after our revelation." and Silrah xxiii 2'1. There is alAo supposed to be an alluRion to the ark in Siirah xxxvi .• 1." And a aign to them is that we bare their oifapring in the laden ship."

AI-Bai~iLwi says that Noah was two yeal's building the ark. which waa SOO cubits long. 00 wido. and SO broad. and which waH mado of Indian plnnc-tree; that it conaisted of three stol'eys, the lowest for beMtS. the middlc for men and women (who were separated from each othel~. and tho highost for birds.

The ark is sald to have l'ested on the mountain al-J iidi. [NOAH.]

ARK OF THE COVENANT. The

c

ASHAB

28

Hebrew word for" Ark" is i1:lr.1 (i.e.

Tu

a chest, a. coffer), Ohald. ~n':l"nJ

Arabic =~\;. !"Ii. See Q\lr'a~. Su~h ii. 249. " The sign of his (Sa.ul's) kingdom is that there shall come unto you the ark (Tiibiil); in it shall be security (0" the Sheehi-

nah, salcinah, Heb. i1~":;l~) from your Lord. and the relics of whllt tho. family of MOReR and the family of Aaron left; the angel. shall bear it." J aliilu 'd-din say. this ark contained the imagea of the prophots, and waa sent down from heaven to Adam. and at length came to the Israelites, who put great confidence therein. and continually carried it in front of their army. till it was taken by the Amalekites. But on this occaeion the angels brought it back in the sight of all the people. and placed it at the feet of Saul (Tiiliit), who WaR thereupon unanimouRly received as king.

ARMS. The Sa.le of. Tbe sale of armour or warlike Atores to rebels. or in their camp, is forbidden. beeauAe selling arme into the; hands of rebela is an assistance to Aefeetion. But it is not forbidden to sell the material. for making arms to Ruch persona. (Hamilton'8 Hidiiyah, vol, ii. 226.)

ARSH (.,)0)\). (1.) A legal term

for compensation. (2.) A mulct; a flne i particularly that which ia paid for. shedding of blood. (8.) A gift for conciliating the f&Tour of II judge; a bribe. ( •. ) Whatever a purebaser receives from a seiler after diseoTeriug n fa~lt in tho article bought.

'ARSH (.,)o~). The term used in tho Qur'i\n for the throne of God. Sunh ix. 131. "He iR the Lord of the lIIighty thTOlle." Huaaini , the commentator. Rays the throno haR 8.000 pillara. and the distance between each pillnr is 3,000.000 miles.

'Af;!ABAH (~). A legal term

for mille relativeR by the father'R side. agnates.

Af;!AF ( ...... \). The wazir or prime minister of Solomon. Alluded to In the Qur'i\n. Siirah xxvii. 40, aA "He with whom waR knowledge of tho seripture." Mut,a.mmadan commentators say he WaR the aOI1 of BarMtiya.

A~AR (1'). Relating; banding down by tradition. Generally uRed for a ~adiR related hy one of the Companions. ns diHtinguishcd from one of the Pl'ophct's own.

AL.A~ARU ·SH.SHARIF (/'\ ...AtrJ'). The sa.cred relic. A hair of either tho beard or mURtachios of Muhl!.DI· mad. or n foot-print of tho Prophet. aile of thORO sacred relics (a' hair of hiA beard) iR exhibited in the great mosque at Dolhi. lin other in 11 mosque in CBAhmere.

ASl:IAB ( ..... ~'). pl. of $'i~ib.

The Companion. or Assorinl!" of )[nQnmmad.

24

A8HABU

The term uaed for a lingle eompaDion is ,aluWi. Ooncerning the title of "Oompanion," there is considerable controverlY ae to the p'enonl to whom it can be applied. Ba'id Ibn al·Musaiyeb reckoned none a "Oompanion," but those who had been a year or more with Mu~ammad, and had gone on a warlikli expedition with him. Some say that everyone who had attained pnberty, had embraced Ialim, and had seen the Prophet, was a" Oompanion," even though he had attended Muhammad but an hour. Others, however, afllm that none could be a "Companion" unlesl Muhammad chose him lind he chose Mu~ammad, and he adhered to the Prophet at all times. The general opinion is that eury one who embraced lalim, saw the Prophet, and aocompanied him, even fOI' a short time, wa. a " Companion. "

It i. related that the Prophet marched to Makkah with 10,000 Mnelims, to ~unain with 12;000, and that .0,000 accompanied him on the farewell pilgrimage. The !lumber of the .. Oompallionl" at hi. death is said to have been U.,OOO.

In point of merit, the refugees (MuAijirim) are more worthy than the auiliaries (An~ir); but by way of precedence, the a\lIiliaries are more worthy than the later refugees.

The "CompaDione" have been arranged in thirteen ela8ses, which are given by Abu 'l-Fidi •• fo11owl :-1. ThOle who first embraced IIl1m, noh as Dadijah, 'Ali, Zaid, and AM Dab, and those who did not delay till he had eetablished his mission. II. The Companions who believed in him after his mission had been fully established, amongst whom was 'Umar_ III. ThOle who fled to Abyssinia. IV. The first Companions of 'Aqabah, who precteded the Auxiliaries. V. The second

" Companions of 'Aqabah. VI. The third CompaDions of 'AqabRh".-ho were seventy. VIL The refugees who W"~lt to the Prophet after hi. flight when he WIIS at QubiL, before the erection ~f the temple. VIII. The soldiers of the great battle of Bsdr, IX. Those who joined Islim between Badr and Hudaibiyah. X. Those who took the oath of fealty under the acacia tree at Hudaibiyah. XI. Those who joined after the treaty of Hudaibiyah, hut before tbe conquest. XII. Those that embraced Illim on the day of conquest. xm Those who were children in the time of the Pro'!Ihet, and had seen him.

Mu1).ammad frequently commended tho " Compallions," and spoke of their excellences and virtues, a cbapter in the TI'nditions heing dnoted to tbis subject. (Mi.Mcjjl, 11i",. c.

C He i8 related to han sllid, .. My comonll are like 8tars hy which roads arc d, for which ever companion you foll01l" you will flnd the right road."

AL-~HlBU 'L-FIL (J.AI' ..... ~').

.. Jhe Oompanione of the Elophant." A term ued in the Chapter of the Elephant, or the CYth 8iirah :-" Bast thou not lleen how thy Lord dealt with the __'_'illlU of tit, eIItpltarlt ? Did He not cause their .tratAgem to miltarry'

AL-A8H' ABIYAB

ADd He lIeDt Ilpinet them birds in floeka, small stonel did they hurl down upon them, and he made them Iik4' stubble eafen down I "

Thia refers to tho ar,,,-y of Abrahah, the Christian king of Abysainill and Arabia Felix, laid to have been 101t, in the year of Nu1).ammad's birth, in an expedition against Makkah for the purpole of destroying the Xa·bah. This army was cut off by amall-pox, and there i8 no doubt, aa the Arabic WON for amall-pox .lso means "amall atones," in reference to the hard gra?elly feeling .:If the pustules, what il the true interpretation of the fourth verse of this Silrah, which, like many other poetical passageR in the Qur'in, has formed the atartiug point for the mpRt puerile and edraTlIgant legends.

A~l;lABU 'L-KAHF (....Ae'l' ..... ~').

"The CompaDions of the Can," i.e. the SeTen Sleepers, mentioned in the Siiratu '1-kahf, or Chapter xviii. of the Qur'in. 'l'he story, aR told by early Christian wl'iter8, ia given by Gibbon (Ri.e and Fall, Chapter xui.). When the Emperor Deeius persecuted the Ohristiane, seven noble youths of Ephesus are said to bave concealed themaelves in a cave in the side of a mountain, where they were doomed to perish by the tyrBrnt, who gave orders that the entrance should be firmly secured with a pile of huge stonel. They immediately fell into a deep slumber, which was miraculously prolonged, without injuring the powerll of life, during a period of 181 years. Thia popular tale, which Mul,1ammad must have hel}rd when he drove his camela to the faira of Syria, is introduced into the' Qur'in a8 • divine revelation. ,.

Ael;lABU -s - ~UFF AH ( ..... '-, lA..S'). .. The sitters on the bench" of the temple at Makkah. They are thus described by Abu 'l-Fidi: "They were POOl' Rtrangera, without friends or place of abode, who claimed the promises of the Apo.tle of God and implored his protection. Thus the porch of the temple became their man8ion, and thence they obtained their name. When Muhammad went to meals, he used to call some of them to partake with him; and he selected others to' eat with hia eompanion •. "

'ASHARAH MUBASHSHARAH (~I~). .. The ten who received glad tidingR." Ten of the moat distingnished of Muhammad's followers, whcse certain entrance into' Paradise he ia aaid to have foretold. rhey are Abii Bak,·, 'Umar, U@min, 'Ali, 1'al1).ah, az-Zubair,' Ahdu 'r-Ra~miin, Ba'd-ibnAbiI-Waqqi" Sa'id ibn Zaid, Abi, 'UbaidRh ibn al-Jarril}. (MiR/J.:jjt, book niv. e. xx., part ii.) Mu\lammad declared it preaumption for anyone to count upon an entranl'e into heaven with IIhsohlto certainty, lout he mad. an exception in fovour of these ten didinglliahed perscne,

..u-ASU'ARIYAU (lt~J'). A teet formed by Abu '1-l;Iaaan 'Ali i1m IamltI1 al-Alb'ari, born A.B. !60 (A.Il. 87~).

AL-ftJI' ARTYAR

TheJ hold thM the attribute. of God nre distin~ from Bill elsencll, yet ill such a wal al to forbid any comparison being made betwllOD God and HiA creatures, They Aay they are not .. 'ai" nor gJurir:" not of Hi'A essenee, nor di8tmct from it: i.e. they cannot be compared with any other thing·s. Thev alBO hold that God 'has one eternal wili from which proceed all things, the good and the evil, the useful and the bwtful. Tho destiny of man was written on tbe eternal table before the world was created. So fllr they go with the ~ifiitiA, but in order to preserve the moral reRponsibilitv of man, they lay t bat he has power to coin'ert will into action. But this power cannot create anvthi~g n~w, for then God's sorereignty w<luid be Impaired; 10 they snv thnt God in His providence 10 orders matters that whenever "a man desirel to do a certain thing, good or bad, the action ecrreaponding to the desire is, there and then, created by God, and, as it were, litted on to the desire." Thus it seems II if it came naturally from the will of the man, whereal it doeA not. 'l'his action ia called Ktub ( acquisition), because it is acquired by a lpeeial creative a~ of God. It il an act directed to the obtaining of profit or lhe remoTing of injury: the term is therefore inapplicable to the Deit~-. Abit Bakr al-Bakillilli, a disciple of Ill-Alh'lri, sayl: 'The essence or subatance or the action is the elfect of the po ... er of God, but ita being an .. ct!OU of obedience, such liS pro YeT, or nn acbon of disobedieuee, Aueh 01 foruicatiou, are q~alitiel of the aetien, ". hich proceed from the power of man." The ImiLm AIl,Iaramain (A.IL U9-.78) held .. that the a~iona of men were elfected by the.power which God hu created in man." Abii· Ist,aq al-Ilfariyini sayl: "That which maketh imprellllon, or hath influence on a~ion. ia a compound of the power of God and the power of man." They also belien that the word of God is eternal, though they ackuowledge that the vocallounds used in the Qur'in, which are the mauifestation of that word, are created. They Bay, in Ihort, that the Qur'in containa (1) the eternal word which exilted ill the ealenoe of God before time wal; and (2) the word which conliats of lounds and combinations of letters. Thialut they call the created word.

Thul AI-Asll'ari traverled the main positions of the Kutazilites, denying that man can, by the aid of his reason alone, rise to the knowledge of good and evil. He must exercise no judgment, but accept all that il reTealed. He has no right to apply the moral lawl which alfe~ men te- the Bctiona of God. It cannot be allerted by the human rllalon that the good will be rewarded or the bad puuiahed in a future world. Man mUlt aiwa,. approach God a. a 11ave, in whom there II no light or knowleclae to judge of the aetlonl of the Supreme. Whether God will accept the peniteDt IlnDer or not CaDDot be a.lerted, for He I, an abllolute SoTereip, abon all law. (Sale, from II". In"ItItut; IN. Jfll'tnzili'rJI od,r me }'rtirlt"l:e,' in hlt;III, ron II. Stf'ineT',

ASWAD

25

18Gii: 2"rGt,cAicltf, AlII, '1- .{111101I al-aalt'GriM, ~on W. Sp!tta, 11178: De Slrijd or." Itel DogntG In den lslii.. to' op El-nM'ari, door Dr. 11. Th. HoutllDla, Leiden, 1876; and E:rpon ,I. III R<f'cmll'- tk r l.lallli.'IIf, by loL i.... t. Mehren

Leiden,1878.) .

'.ASHOR.A (.'J,.\A). Lit." the tenth:' A Toluntary fait day, oblen'eel on the tenth of the mouth of 'llut,arram. It i. related thot Mut,ammad obser'f'llld it, and laid it '11'11' a dR" respected by Jewa and Chriltionl. (",i.Uaf, vii. Co vii. 1.)

It i, the onlr day of ?oIul)lIrr&m observed by the Sunni Muslims, being the day on whioh it i8 aaid God created AdllDI and Eve, h .. t'en lind hell, the taMet of decree, the pen, life, and deatb, It is kept by the l)W1Di ••• a fait. [XI:HAUAlI.]

ASIYAH (4-~). The "ife of

Pharaoh. One of the four perfect women (the Vil'gin )lIIry, KhRdijah, lind Fitimah, being the other three). See Mi.1J.:atu 'I-Jla.abill, uil'_ c. 22. Rhe is mentioned in lho Qul"iin (Sorah lxvi. 11): "And God Itrikoth out a parable for those who believe: the wife of Pharaoh, when she laid, 'lly Lord, build for me a bease with Thee in Pllrailise, and. aILl'e me from Pharaoh and hiA works, and BIll'8 me from the unjnat people."

A~L (J-'). CIltU8e, fint PrinCiPle~ foundation. .1,I-,(',,(nl"," eaUBe and elfect,"

" fundamental and cferivatlTe prineiple," .

ASM.A'U 'LLAR (&.11' ,l-~). [OOD,

NAliEI or.]

'ASR (,..). The afternoon

prayer. r FaA TllJUI.] Tbo tido of tbe cUlrd Siirah of the Qur'iin.

ASS. According to the Imam Abill,llLllilah, tbo nil is au unclean anilllai, and its flesh and milk are unlawful; nor ilzal'lil to be given on an IIAa. (II.miltou·_ /IidifUA, vol. I. 16, iT. 7., 8t1.)

ASSISTANTS. [AKIn.] ASTROLOGY. Arabic 'n"," ',,"vj_ Qatidah la,a, referring to the Quf'in, that God hu created ltara for three ulea: (1) III an ornament to tbe heaven. (Silrah' Ixyii. 6) ; (2) to stone the Dnil with (Silrab lxvil. G); aud (8) to direct travellerl throqli the fDreata and ou the lea (Siirah XT. 11l). ?Iut,ammad condemns those who study the ltar. for any other purpose (.lIi.Util, xxi. c. lit pt. iii.), aud consequently the acient'e of Astrology iB not considered Io,wfulln Ialim.

ASWAD (o)_"')\). An impottor

who, in the time of lIui)ammad, claimed the prophetic ofRce. Hi. name wu 'Aihalah ibn )[a'b, and he belonged to the tribe of.'Au, of which be wfta an InBuentiai chief. He ..... 'Ul'lWlled ?:OU 'I-Qi.ar, or "The Muter of the A .. ,~· becanae he ued

• Bat UJOther r...tbow Ia ." ·LDi ... " 01', "Be "lth tile Tell."

26

ATHEIST

frequently to lav, .. The muter of the aRS II coml.1lDto me," aDd pretendod to reeeive hli re .... latioDi from two angell, Dlmod Suhaik aud Shuralt. Bei. a good hand at legerdemain, aDd having a lDIooth tongue, he gained mightily on the utIaltltDde by the atrange feata which he ahewed them, and the eloquence of hiB dilcoune. By thele means he greatly increaaed hil power, and having made himlelf malter of Najrin and the territory of Ti'il, on the death of Bidhin, the governor of Yaman for lIIu~ammad, he leized that pro~ince allO, killing Sbahr, the son of Bidhiin, and taking to wife WI .. idow Aziid, whORe father he hid also slain. 'l'he ne... being brought to MuiJammad, he sent to his friends and to the tribe of Hamdin, a party of whom conlpiriDg .. ith Qaialbn 'Abd Yaghoth, who boro A.wad a grudge, Ind with Firtiz and Alwad'i wife, broke by night into hli hOUle, wliere Firtb IUrpri.ed him and cat off hi. bead. While dying, it il laid that be roared like a bull, at which bi. guard. came to the chamber door, but were lent away by hi. wife, who told them that the prophet was only agitated. by the divine iDipiration. This wal done tbe very night before Mu~ammad died. The next morning the cODipiratorB cauaed the following proclamation to be made, viz. "I bear .. itnea. that Mu~ammad i. the Apostle of God, and that 'Aihala is a liar"; and lettera were immediately sent a .. ay to Mal].ammad, with an accoWlt of what had been done; but a melsenger from heaven 01ltlltripped them, and acquainted the prophet with the new., .. hich be imparted to hil CompanioDi a little before hia death, the lettera them .. lvea not arriving till Abit Bakr waa chosen Khalif. It il aaid that Muham· mad on his occaaion told tho .... ho attended him that before the nay of Judgment thirty more impostors, beaidea MusaiUm.h and As· wad, should appear. The whole time from the beginning 01 As .. ad·s rebellion to his doath was four months.

ATHEIST. [DABRI.]

'ATIRAH (~). The sacrifice offered by the idolatroua Arabs in the month of Rajab. It w&S allowed by the Prophet at the commencement of his mission, but W8S .. Iterwarda abolished. Mi.lrl.:iit, book iv ..... bO, " Let there be no Fara' nor' Atirah."

AT-TAI;lIYAT ( .... \e..,.xl\). Lit. "the

IJreotings." A part of the stated prayers, recited after the Takbiru 'I· """iid, after every two rak'1IAI. It i~ recited whillt tho worlhipper kneels upon the ground. His left foot bent under him, he sita upon it, and places hi' hands upon his knees, and Bays:.. The adoratioDi (i.,. at.taMyiitu) of tho tongue are for God, and 11.180 of the body and of "Ims.giving. Peace be on thee, 0 Prophet, with the mercy of God and His bleesing. Peace be upon U8, and upon God's righteoul servants:' (Jlislr/ciit, iv., c. xvi.) [PIlATER.]

AUGURY. [u'r,.]

AYATU 'L-FATH

AULIYA (.Y,'), pl. of toali.

" Itavourites of God." The oxpression oceurs in the Qurin in the following verle, " Are not the favourites of God thOle on whom no felr shall come, nor shall they be put to grief? " .(Siirah x. 63).

AUTAD (oll;,,). Lit." props or pillars." A term used by the !;Iotis for the four saints, by whom the four corners of the world are said to be supported.

A'OZU BIIJLAH (1lS~ .i~\). An-

other name for the Ta'auwu~, or the prayer in the daily liturgy: .. I seek refnge .,;ith God from the cursed Satan:' [PRAYElL]

AVENGER OF BLOOD. In the MuiJammadan law, as in the Jew.ilh, the punishment for wilful murder is left to the next of kin; but in the Jewish code the avenger of blood was compelled to take the life of the murderer, whilst in the ?tIuslim code he may accept compensation, vide QU'in, Sorah ii. 173, .. 0 believers! retaliation «(b',i,) for blcod-shedding il prescribed to you: the free man for the free, and the slave for the slave, and the woman for the woman ; but he to whom his brother shall make any remisaion is to be dealt with equitably; and a payment should be made to him .. ith liberality. This is a relaxatipn (i.8. of the stricter lex talioni.) from yonr Lord, and a mercy." [QISAI.]

AYAH (4t'). Lit. "a sign, or

miracle." The term used for one (If the smaller portions of the chapters of the Qur'in, which we call veraes. The number of ver.ea is often set do .. n after the title of the chapter, but the verses are not marked in the text as they are in our English Bibles. The number of verses in the Qur'in is variouslyeltimated, but they are generally said to be about aix thousand two hundred. [QCR',U e, ]

A.L-A'YANU '6-6ABITAH (:)~" 7 otz,Ul\) , pl. of 'ayn, in the sense of

"the eslenee" of a thing. The established essenees. A term used by the Silti mYltics

to expresl figureR emblematic of the names

of God. C' Abdu 'r.Razzaq's Dictiona,'!} 0[ Technical Terms of tire Sufis. Sprenger s edition.)

AYATU 'L-FATl;I (~\ &t\). Lit.

.. The verse of victory." The flfty.ninth vcrse of the Siiratu 'I·An'im (vi.) d the Qur'in. The powers 01 this verae are 0·, ". to be so great, that if II. person constantly lito It he will obtain his desirea. It is g' Ally recited with thil object fort,. times af' each soa80n of prayer. It is 8S follows :-' A.nd with Him are the keys of the secret things; none knoweth them but He ; and He knoweth what· ever i, on the land and In the sea; and no leaf falleth but He knoweth it ; neither is there & grain in the darbes .. , of the earth, nor a green thing nor a dry thing, but it is noted in .. clallor book."

A Y A1'U 'L-BlrZ

.1YATU'L-I;IIJ'Z <'" .... ,,'). The

.1Il'I" of protection." Certain nr... of the Qur'ln whieh are uually ineeribed on lIDIul.ts. Th.y are:-Sirah iI. 206, .. Ana. th. prelerTation of both (heann and earth) i8 no burd.n Ullto Him." 8iirah xii. 6', "God ia the be.t proteettlr." Surah:sill. 12, .. Th.y guard him by the eommand of God." 8iirah XT. 11, .. W. ruard him from nary d .... il driTen away 'by .tooea." Surah xxxTii. 7, "A protection agaiDet ..... ry rebelUou d.Til."

.AYATU'I,.KU~I (uo-fI' It').

"Th. nne of the throne." V erIe 206 of the Silratu 'l.Baqarah, or eh&~ ii. of the QIIr'iD. n is related (Mi.Alctit, book iT., e. m., part iii.) that 'Ali heard Mul1am· mad aay in the gulpit, .. ihat penon who repeats the Aya'" I·Kurri after e •• ry prayer, nothiuB preT.nte him ent.riDg into Paradise but Uf.; and whoe~er Aayl it wh.n he goel to hia bed-chamber, God will keep him in lafety, togeth.r with his house and the houle of hil n.lghbour. The nrse il .. follows :-" God I There il no God but He j the LiTing, the AbidiJle. N.ith.r slumber leizeth Him, nor eleep. To Him belongeth whatsoever il in h .... n and whataoe1'8r is in earth. Who Is he that can intercede with Him but by His own permission? He knoweth what hath b.en before them, and what Ihall be after th.m j yet nought of His knowledge do they comprehend, saTe what He willeth. His TIDIOl'IS reacheth over the heanns and the earth, and the upholding of both burdeneth Him DOt; and He il the High, the Great."

AYATU'L-MAWARlf}(~',.s'lt').

"Th. Terae of inheritances." The twelfth T~ne of the Suratu 'n·niaa, or fourth chapter of the Qur'in. It relates to inheritance, and is the fonndation of the MUllim law on the lubject. It is given in the article on Iaheritance. [L .. BD.lTAl'ICE.)

AYIMMATU'L-ASMA (.L...".t.n).

"The leadiJlg names.~ The leven principal Dames or titles of God, namely :-

J.I-I!ayy The LiTing.

...tl·'Alilll The Knowing.

.41·Murid The Purpoaer.

.Af.(J.tidir The Powerful.

.. b·Sami' The Hearer.

A,-Ba,ir. The Seer.

AI·MlltakaUi", The Speaker.

'AYISHAH (~\a). The daughter of Abu Bakr, and the favourite wife of ~lu· }:Iammad, to whom ahe was married when only nine years of age. She survived her hUband many yearl, and died at al·Madinah, .A.B. 118 (.A.D. 618), Aged sixty-seven, and obtained the title of Umlllv '[.Mu"lIillin, .. The lIlother of the Believer ....

AYMAN (C:)~'), pl. of Yamfn. [IlAla.)

AYYAMU'L-BI~ (u'owl',.I,\). II The

days of the bright nights," mentioned in the .I1i'hhit (book vii. c. i, part By, as (b~'s on

'AZABU'L-QABR

27

whieh )(nl)lIDImM did DOt eat, whether halt· in&' or marohiDr. They are the IMh, Uth, and 16th Dighta of the month. (See Lane', Drct., p. 2~.)

AYYAMU 'L-QARR(,It' .. ltn. The

da, of relt after the day of lacri8ce at the PiJaTimage. [1l.U.J.)

AYYAMU'N-NAI;IR (.,.,...n ,.It').

The 1 .. 80n of aacri1lce at the Pilgrimage. [UAol.J.)

AYYAMU'T - TASHRIQ (,.l.....,' 1Jl,.un). The three day- after the feaat of ucri8ce at Mid d1l1'iD8 the Pilgrim· age. So 'called beeauae the 8elh of tbe Tictims is then dried, or beeanae they are not slain anti! after sun-riee. [JU.J.J, PJLGauuoB.]

AYTIM (,..'). A legal term for

a woman haTing no husband, whether Ihe be a virgin or a widow.

'AZ.A.BU'L-QABR (~ .... ,la).

.. The punilhment of the gran." That all persons, whether belienn or not, IlJ1dergo some punishment in their grans, il a lunda· mental article of the MUllim beUef. Th ... punishmentl are deseribed in the follo~ ~u.di~ on the au\hority of Abu Burair&h :-

.. The Prophet of God said, When a eorpse is placed in ita gran, two blaek &DIela com. to it, with blue eyel. The DIIDIe of the one II Mu,./,;ur and of the other Nakir, and they inter· rogate the dead penon concerning the Prophet of God. If he be a Muslim, he will bear wiblell to the Unity of God and the mi .. ion of MU~lDIDad. The angell will then "y, , W, knew thou wouldst say 10'; and th. gra:'e will then expand lennty tim .. ,eTenty yards in length, and leTenty time. anenty in breadth. A light will then be giTen for the gran, and it will be aaid, 'Sleep.' Then the dead penon will aay, '. Shall I ratuna to my brethren and inform them of thil" Then the angell will .ay, 'Sleep like the bride· groom, till God shall raile thee up from the graTe on the Day of Resurrection.' But if the corple be that of an unbeliever, it will be asked, 'What sayest thou about the Prophet? • and he will reply, • I know him not.' And then the angels will say, 'We knew thou wouldst aay so.' Then the groWld will be ordered to cloae in upon him, and it will break his sides, and tuna hil right aide to his left, and he will Ider perpetual punishment till God raise him therefrom." In another tradition, recorded by 'Anaa, it il said, .. The "icked will be struok with a rod (mit.raqaA), and they will roar out, and their cries will be heard by all animall that may be n .. r the graTe exoepting man and the genii." (Mi.IJ.:it, book i., c. T.).

All )lul1ammadan doctor. of the orthodox school. (whether we apply the term orthodox to SUWli or Shi'ah) belieTe in the literal interpretation of these pumlhments in the gran, which are said to take place U I_ al the fUDeral part~· 4~s left the graTl·yard. A

28

AZ!L

peru .. 1 of the 'farlout tradition. on the aubject mUlt qln1'ince any nnprejudiced mind that Hul)ammad intended to teach a literal interpretation of hi. sayingl on thil subject. It is related that on one eee .. ion, when the Prophet w .. riding through a grna-yard, his male, hearing the groans of the dead, tried to throw hil m .. ter. On that occasion, :Muham· mad .aid, "If I were not afraid that IOU woald lean off burying, I would ask G" to gin you the power of hearing what I hear." Shaikh 'Abdu 'l·lJaqq, in his commentary on the MiMIc.t, say., .. The accolUlti which are here ginn of the punlshment of the gran, are undoubtedly true, andthe:v are not either imaginary or ftgurati1'e." (MimJ.:.t, book i., chap ..... ; see Persian edition with 'Abdu'1· IJaqq's commentary.)

AZAL (J,;,). Eternity with reo apect to the. Past., as diatingul,hed from abad ( ""), eternity without elld.

A.ZA.N «:),.1'). Lit." a.nnouncement."

Th. e can or lIummone to 'public prayers proclaimed by the Mu'auin (or erierr.::in small mosques from the side of the buIlding or at the door, and in large mosques from the milUlrot.

It i. in Arabic as follows :-

~ AU' - ,.t' "'" -"..s' AJ.n -,.tl AU' AU' " AS' t c;)' ¥' -"'" " AS' j C;), "'tIo'-

~~~~~ jr~'~ tJ ~~:

- ClAn ..j& rJ"" - c:..n ..}It ~ - 1y...J' . AU' " .. n , -,.s' AU' -,.$" IJJ'

AlIi/t" al:6ar I Allila" db! AUiIa" akbur! Aluu.u d6ar I .A.ltladu GIl Ii iltilta illt, 'Ilila I AMitadu GIl li ililaa ilia 'lIi1a I .AM· lad. allllG Mu~_ada" raniu·/lila I :.t.It· lada allllG M.1II1111Jdm1 ra""'-ll4/t! Hayya 'ala ',.,aliti I /;fayga 'alu ',-,aliti I Qa!l!Jtl 'ala '[·(alibl /layga,lu, '1·{aIib! ..fIlM. _bur i Allilau 1Ik6ar! IA i/ilta ilia 'Ilila I

Which is trenelated:-

.. God is most great I' God is most great I Clod is mo_ .great I God is molt great' I teeijfy that there is no god but God I I testify that there is no god but God! I teatify that Hul)ammad la the Apostle of God I I teatify that Muqammad is the Apostle of God' Come to prayer I Come to prayer I Come to .alntion! Come to 8alntion' God is mOBt groat I God is mOlt great! 'fhere . is no god but Ged !"

In the A!in in the early mOI'lling, after the wOI'dB, .. Come to aalvation I" i8 added If-l'

. ,.t'" ~ Jf"" I,L-I' - ,..rJ' ~ ~

'.·".!altitlC !d!.ClIl'un mi,ia '1I-1I(lIIl11i! A.,·,uIilll ~:!Clirull 111;'1<1 "l-Ilallllli! .. Prayer is better than sleep! Prayer is better than Bleep I "

The Shi'aha make a alight altel'ation in the A!iLu. by adding the wortiR, Jf!'-' ..;. ..:sa-

J..-l' ~ . ~ ..:sa- - J-I' /;fu,I/!/" 'u/. tjI,iri '1-'lId! /;fu!lYU 'ul. tAm'li 'I"altlll/i ! .. Com" to the beet ot work.! COlRe to the

!ZAN

bes' of 'Work.!" and by re.,-tiBc the l .. t lentence of the Alb." Thwe is no god but God," twice iIIIItead of once," in the .8wmi AIiD.

When the AliD i. recited, it il ulual for men of piety and religiou. feelli!g to respond to each call, .. , for eumple, when the Hu'anin crlel;-

61 Allihu akbarl Allahn Akbar! Allihu akbar! Allihu Akbar I"

Thole who hear it repeat :-

61 Allihu Akbar I Allihu Akbar I Allihu akbarl Allihuakbar!"

Tho Ma'anin "y_

61 I test-ify that there is no god but God j I testify that there is no God but God."

They reply-

61 I testify that there i. no God but God j I telltify that there il no god but God."

Mu'anin.-u I teetify that Muqammad i. the Apostle of Ood."

Reply._u I teatify that HuI)ammad is the Apostle of God,"

lIu'a!!in;=" Come to preyer."

Reply._u I have no po .... er nor strength but frOID 00<1 the 1110_ High and Great."

Hu·al!Iin.-" Come to.al1'atioll."

Re~ly.- .. What God will_h will be; wit at He willeth not wineth DOt be."

Tho recital of tAe Aim mut ~ liRened to with great renreDce.. If a periOD be walking at the time, he should stand still; if reo cliniDg, sit ull.lIr. Lane, in hia ModNn Efil/plitlllll, ~H, .. Moet 01 the KIl'anin.a of a"lro. haTe b$rmollioUII and sonorous ... olc .. , which they etuin to tbe utmost pitch; yet there i. D simple and Bolemn melody in their chants which ia 1'Gry _riking, particularly in the etilln081 of the night." But Vambery reo mark. that .. the TwkistiDeel most carefully a1'old all tune and melody. The manner in which the Alin is eried in the weet i.1 here (in Bokhiri) declared siuful, and the beautiful melancholy Dotes which, in the IHent hour of a moonlit e1'ening, are heard from the slender minarets 00 the Bosphorua, faacinat· ing e1'8ry hearer, would be listened to by the Bo!Ulariotwith feelings only of detestation,"

The· 11UIIJD0ne to prayer wal at Bret the simple Cl'y, "Come to public prayer." After the Qiblah was changed, Hu~ammad be. thought himself of a more formal calL Some luggested the Jewish trumpet, othen the Christian hell; bat neither w .. grateful to the Prophet's eaPl The Azin, or call to prayer WaS then established. Tradition claims for it a supernatural origin, thu :-" While the matter wal under discusion, 'Abdu'1liih, a Khanajite, dreame<l that he met a man clad in green raiment,carrying a bell. 'Abdu'l1ilh sought to buy it, sayiog that it would do well for bringing together the a8lembly of the faithful. .. I will show thee a better way," replied the stranger; .. let a crier cry aloud, '9od is most great,' &e." Waking from Bleep,' Abdu 'l1ah proceeded to Mul)ammad, and told him his dream. (Huir, from Kiuib« '/WGkilli.) Hi.himi recitel the story as if 'Abdu'llih had actually met the man.

Bingha.m, in his AfttilJ"iJi"8 (vol. ii., book

AZAB

viii. chap. Tii), relatel that, in the monaltery of· virgins whichPauia, the famons Roman lady, .et up and governed .t Jerusalem, the .igual for prayer was given by one going about and linging .. Hallelujah I" for that 11'" their call to church, al St. Jeroma inform. us.

The A!in il proclaimed before the stated time. of prayer, either by one of the congregation, or by the Mu'a!!in or crier, who is paid for the purpose. He muet stand with his face toward. Makkah, with the points of his fore· Bogen in hia eara, and recite the formula which has been given above.

U muet not be recited by an unclean penon, a drunkard, a madman, or a woman.

AZAR (»~). Terah, the fa.ther of Abraham. 8mh, vi. 7~, "And when Abrahim ,aid to his father Azar, Takest thou Jma,e. al god. ? "

"The Eaatern authors unanimouely agree that h. was a statuary, or caner of idols j and he is represented as the Brat who malia image, of clay, pictures only having been in 1118 before, and taught that they were to be adored al gods. However, .. e are told hil employment was a very honourable one, and that he was a great lord, and in high favour with Nimrod, .... hose son- in. law he wal, becallie he made his idols for him, and 11'.'

BABEL. Arabic ~'It saa: Mentioned once ,in the Qur in, Siirah Ii. 96:

"Sorcery did they teach to men, and what had been revealed to the two angels Hiriit and Miro.t at BibiL" Babel il regarded by the Muslims al the fountain-head of the leienee of magic. They suppose Hirlit and MirUt to be two angel. who, in consequence of their wan' of compassion for the frailtie, of mankind, were 18nt down to earth to be tempted. They both linned, and,. being permitted to eboose whether they would be punished now or bereafter, eho .. the former, and are still .uepended by the feet at Babel in a roeky pit, and are tbe great teachen of magic. (Lane'. TlIotuafld and OM Night., eh, iii. note a.) Vide Taf,ir-j",&zizi jflloco.

( BABU 'L-ABW AB ( ..... '-"" ..... 'It).

Lit. "The door of doore." A term used by the f:;iifi. for repentance. ('Abclu 'r-Rauiq'. Dictionary of Sufi Tet7M.)

BABU 'S-SALAM (,.J-S' ..... 'It).

" The Gate of Peace." The gateway in the sacred mosque at Makkah through ... hich MUQammad entered when he W&l elected by the Quraish to decide the question as to ... hich section of the tribe should lilt the Black Stone into its place. It WII8 originally

BACKBmNG

29

exceUent in hii art. Some of the Rabbm. .. y Terah was a priOit .nd chief of the order."(S&le.)

u-AZARIQAH (.i.ih"). A sect of heretics founded by NiH' ibn al·Azraq, who I&Y that 'Ali was an infidel, and that hi. assassin was right in killing him. (See adShahrasttini, ed. Cureton, p. ,,~, Haarbruecker'l

tr&nslation, I., p. 133.

AL-'A~BA' ( .. \,..Ml'). The alit-eared] one of MUQammad's favourite camels.

AL-A~1:lA (~"). AL-'AZ1M (~').

ninety-nine special names great One."

'AZIMAH (~). An incanta.tion. [EXOBC18X.)

AL-'Azlz (il,;-!'). One of the ninety-nine speeia] 'names of God. It frequently occurs in the Qur'im. It me&D8 .. the powerful, or the mighty One."

'AZRA'IL (JJ')f\). The angel of Death. Mentioned in the Qur'in under the title of Malaku 'I-Maut, Siiru,h :l:lXii. 11, "The angel of death who is charged with you .hall cause you to die." [K.U.,Uf.U 'L-lUirr.)

['IDU'L-.URA.] One of the of God. "The

B.

called the Bib &ni Shaibah, "the Gate 01 the Banii Shaibah," the family of Shaibah ibD 'U~min, to whom Mulj,ammad gaye the key of the Ka'bah. Burk.hardt eayl that there are now two gateways called by thia name. Burton BaYs, "The Bibu 's-Salim re.emblel iD its ilolation a triumphal arch, and is built 01 cut ston .. ~ (Burton's Pilgri",age, voL ii. p. 17~._ Se. Muir's Life of MahOlMt, pp. 28,29.)

BABU 'N-NIS!, (\....Il' ..... \f). "The

Women'. Gate." In later years, a. MUQamma4 added to the number of his wives, he provided for each a room or house on the same side of the mOlque at al-Madinah. From th_ be had & private entrance into the mo.que, 1lIed only by himself, and the eastern gate .till Dean in itl name, Biba 'n·Nisi', the memory of the ·arrangement. (Muir'. Life Df MaJw. met, iii. p. 20.)

BACKBITING. Anything IeCretly Whispered of an absent person wnich i. ealculated to injure' him, and which i8 true, ill called Ghibalt, r. false ace1lll.tion beine upressed by BuAtifl. Abu Hurairab .'11, "The question walJl,pllt to the Prophet,' Do you know what backbiting i8 ?' and he replied, 'It is saying anything bad of a lIuslim.' It "'as then laid, • But ",hat ia it if it i. true?'

30

BADAWI

And he laid, 'If It Is true it Is GlaibaA, and If It i. a false accll8ation, it il Buhtin (i.e. Blander).'" (Milhkit, uii c. s.)

The tollowing are sayings of Mul;lammad on the .abject :-" Th. best of God's Bervants are those ~ho when you meet them speak of God. The worst of God's servants are those who carry talel about, to do :lDischief and separate friends, and seek out the defect. of iood people." "He who wears two facel in this world .hall ha ve two tongue. of lire in the day of the Resurrection." "It is unworthy 01 a believer to Injure people'. reputation., or to curee anyone, or to ab1l8e anyone, or to talk vdnly." "The best atonement you can make for backbiting is to say,' 0 God pardon me and him (whom I have injured):" Mi.likiit, :uii. c. lL

BADA WI (I.$,~). A na.me given to the Bedouin Arabs, or the Arabs of the d_rt. Bedouin is only a corruption of the plural of thiB word, which iB derived froUl BadID .. BidiyaJr.. " a desert."

AL-BADI' (~.~n) is one of the ninety.nine special names of God. It means .. He who oriiinates." It occurs in the -Qur'an, Biirah ii 111, .. He Is the wonderful originator of the heaveDs and the earth; when He decreeth a matter, He doth but say to it, • Bo,' and it is."

BADR, The ba.ttle of. Arabic, GltGlilDatu 'l-Badr, The 1Irat battle of Badr W88 fought in the month of Rama,in, .l.H. i (March, A.D. 624),. between Mul;lammad and the Quraish. Many of the principal men of the Quraish were slain, including Abu Jahl, whose head was brought to the Prephet, and when it waa ca.t at hi. feet, he uclaimed, .. It is more acceptable to me than the choicest camel of Arabia." After the battle waa over, some of the priaonera were cruelly murdored. ij:usain 8ay8 the 101888 of the .Quraish at Badr wer8 aeventy killed and • nenty prisonera. Thi. victory at Badr eonBolidated the power of Mul;lammad, and it 18 regarded by Muslim historianl aa one of the moat important events of bistory. An account of this celebrated battle will be found in the article on MvlaammtMl.

The eecond battle of Badr wal a bleodless victor1, and took place in the month ZU 'I· Qa'dah, .l.1L 4 (April, A.D. 626).

BAl;1IR! ('~). A Nl'storian

monk whom Mul;lammad met when he wal journeying back from Syria to Makkah, and wllo is .aid to have perceived by varioll8 aigns that he was a prophet. His Chl'istian name I. supposed to bave been Sergiua (or Georgius).

Sprenger thinks that Ba~iri remained with Mui}a.minad, and it has been suggested that there is an allusion to, thi8 monk in the Qur'iD, Surah xvi. 106: .. We know that they say, 'It i. only a man who teacheth him.'" l:Iusain the commentator saYI on thia pul.,. that the Prophet w .. in the habit of ;

BA.l'

going e,..ry evening to a Christian to hear the Tallrit and Iojil. Ta/lir·i.Q_ifli; Sale, p. lJ28; Muir's' Life 0/ JlaAomef, p, 711.)

BAI:IIRAH(~). (1.) Ashe-camel, ahe-goat or ewe, whlch had given birth to • t8nth young one. (2.) A ahe-camel, the mother of which had brought forth tea female. consecutively before her.

In the.. and lIimilar oa8ea, the pagan Arabs observed certain religious ceremoniea, IDch aa 8litting the animal's ear, &c., all of which are forbidden in the Qur'in: .. God hath not ordained any Bal;lirah." (Siirah .... 102.)

BAl' (~, pI. Er--' buyu'). A sale i commercial d8aling; harter. Bcq\ or" sale," in the language of the law, signifies an exchange of properly for property with the m1ltual eeasent of partiel. For tbe rules conoe_~ 8ale8 and barter, ,.ee Hamilton'8 HidiiyaA, vel, Ii, 860; Baillie's Mu/lammadma IAID of Sale; The FatifDi 'Alamgiri.

Sale, in ita ordinary acceptation, Ie a transfer of property in conaideration of a price in money. The word hal a more comprehenaive meaning in the Mnl1ammadan law, and i. applied to ever1 exch&llie of property for property with mutual couaent. It, therefore, Includes barter al well 88 lale, and also loan, when the articles lent are intencl.ed to be conaumed, and replaced to the lender by a .imilar quantit1 of the .ame kind. Thi. tranaaction, which is truly an exchange of property for property, i8 t8rmed far, in the Mul}.ammadan law.

Between barter and 8ale there i8 no es •• atiel distinction in most system. of law, and' the joint lIubject mav in general be couslder. ably .implifled by being treated of .olely aa a .ale. A oourse has been adopted in the Mul;lammadan law, which oblige. the reader to fix hi. attention on both sides of the contract. Thi. may at first appear to him to be . an 1lDDeCellary complication of the .ubject, but when he becomes acquainted .... Ith the definition of 'price, and the rules for the prohibition of ucel8 in the uchange of a large clas8 of commoditiel, which apply to every form of the contraot, he will probably be of opinion that to treat of the .ubject In anT other way would be attended with at leaat equal difficultiea.

The first point which leeme to require his attention is the meaning of the word .. property" a. It occurs in the definition of .ale. The original term (mtil), which haa been thua translated, i8 defined b... Muhammadan lawyers to be .. that whi~h can' be taken poale.aion of and aecured." This definition 8eems to imply that it i. tangible or corporeal, and things or .ubatance. are accordiugly the proper .ubjectl of .ale. Mere right. are not m41, and caunot therefore be lawfully sold apart from the corporeal thingl with whleh th.y may happen to be connected. Of neh riihtS one of the moat important I. the right

of a creditor to enct payment of a debt, ... hich ie not a proper eubject cf sale. In other worde, debtl cannot, by the MUQammadan law, any more than by the common law. cf Eugland and Scotland, be lawfully 101d.

Thingl are commonly divided into moveable and immoveable, the latter oomprehendiDg land and thingl permanently attached to it. But the diltinction ia not of much imporiance in the MulJammadan law, as the iranefer of land il in nowise dininguilhed from that of other kinds of property.

A more important dhision of thingl il that into miNli and .!:a_i. The former are thinge whioh, when they happen to perlsh, are to be replaced by an equal quantity of something limilar to them; and the latter are thiDgI which, in the lame circumatanoel, are to be replaced by their value. These two olalsel have been aptly styled "aimilars" and "dia.imilan " bI Mr. Hamilton, in hil tranalation of the HidiyaA. Similan are things which are ulually lold or exchanged by weight, or by measurement of capacity, that ia, by dry or liquid mealure; and dialimilan are things whioh are not sold or exchanged in either of these waYI. Artil'lel which are nearly alike, aud are commonly lold or exohanged by number or tale, are olassed with the flrat di,.ilion of hings, and may be termed .. similar. of tale"; while articlel .... hich differ materially from each other, yet are It ill uanally lold or exchanged by number, belqng to the _ond division, and may be caUed "dillimilan of tale." Dirleatru and din4ra, the only coined money known to the old ArabI, are included among limilan of weight.

Similan of weight and capacity are diltingui.hed in the lIuQammadan law from all other descriptions of property in a very remarkable ,.,ay. When one article of weight il lold· or exchanged for another article of weight, or one of meaaure il sold or exchanged for anot·her of mealure, the delivery of both muat be immediate from hand to hand, and any delay of delivery in one of them is unlawful and prohibited. Where, &gain, the articlee exchanged are alao of the aame kind, as when wheat ia lold for wheat, or .ilnr for lilnr, there mUlt not only be reciprocal and immediate delivery of both before the leparation of the parties, but also ab.olute equality of weight or mealure, according al the articles are weighable or mealurable, and any exc ... on either side is also unlawful and prohibited. The.e two prohibitions constitute in brier the doctrine of reba, or" usury," which is a marked characteriatio of the MUQammadlllllaw of aale. The word reba proporly signifiel "exoeal," and there are no terma in the MUQammadan law whioh correeponds to tho words" interest" and" Ulury," in the aellse attached to them in the Englilh language; but it wal upressly prohihited by MUQammad to his followers to deri,.e any ad1'&ntage from loans, and that particular kind of advantage which ia called by ua intereat, and consists in the receiviag baok from tho borrower II larger quantity than wal Rotually I.nt to him, wa. efTeotualll'

BAI'

prevented by the two rul .. above-mentioned. These, like .ome other principl .. of MnlJammadan law, are applied with a rigour and minutenellll that may to ua .88m incommenlurate with their importance, but are -..ily aocounted for when we know that they are belie,.ed to be of divine origin.

Similarll of weigM and capacity have a common feature of re_blance, which.diatinguilhllll them in their own nature from other commoditiel, and marks with further peculiarity their treatment in the MulJammadan law. They are aggregates of minute partl, which are either exactly aUke, or 10 nearly resemble each o~her, that the dillerenee between them may be lately dilrerarded. For thil reaaon th.y are uaually dealt with in bulk, regard being had only to the whole of a ltipulated quantity, aDd not to the indi'ridual partl of .... hiob it il composed. When lold in this maDDer they are said to be indeterminate. They may, bowever, be rendered specific in leveral way.. Actual delivery, or production with distinct reference a~ the time of contract, seeml to be lumoient for tha~ parpose in all cale.. .But lomething .hort of this would lumce for aU limilarl bu~ money. Thua, flour, or any liiDd of grain, may be J:endered speeillc by being encloaed in a lack; or oil, or any liquid, by beiDg put into calln or jars; and though the v .. ela are not actually produced a~ the time of contract, their conteuts may be lumciently particulariled by d .. oription of the vesaele and their locality. Money il not luaceptible of being th11l particulariaed, and tlirAG. and aNn are frequently referred to in the following })qel a. tllinga whIch cannot be rendered 'peciflc by de.cription, or 'peciflcatlon, al it il more literally termed. Hence, money il said to be alway. indetermina~e. Oth.r limilar" including limilarl of tale, are lom.timel .peeiflc and lombtimel indeterminate. Di.similar" including those of tale, are alway. IP'Ilific.

When limilar. are lold indeterminately, the purchaler hal no righ~ to any lpeeUlc portion of th.m until it be .eparated from a general mall, and marked or identilled a, ~he lubjeot of the contract. From the momen~ of o.er till actual delivery, he ha .. nothing to rely upon but' the seller'l obligation, whicll may, therefore, be couaidered the direct I11bject of the contract. Simi1are taken indeterminately are accordiugly tel'1lled .y", or .. obligatioDl," in the Muhammadan law. When taken lpecillcally, they are claaaed with dilsimilar" under the general name of 'ayA. The literal meaning of thi. term i. " aubltance Or thiug "; but .... h.n oppoaed to ooyra it meana IOmething determinate or 'pecillc. The lubject of tralBc may thua b. di,.ided into two clallel, lpacillc and indeterminate; or. if we lubstitute for the latter the .... ord !' obligation," and omit the word .. lpeciflc" as uDDecel.ary when not opposed to "indeterminate," these clallel may, according to the view of Mu~ammadan lawyer., be described .1 thinga and obligations.

There il some degree of presumption ill u.illl

81

82

DAl'

a word in any other than ita ordinary acceptation i and it ie not witl!out heeitation th.t (Mr. Baillie A.YS) I h.ve V8ntur.d to employ the word" obligation" to 8ignify indeterminate thinp. My re.aonl for doing eo are these: flret it esprelle. the es.ct meaning of the Arabic word dayn, and yet diltinguilhea this use of it from another lense, in which it is also employed in the MuQ.mmad.n 1.19; second, it preaenes consistency in the law. Thua, it will be found hereafter that the effect of aale is laid to be to induce a right in the buyer to the thing sold, and in the seller to the price, and that this effect follows the contract immediat.ely before reciproea! possession by the contr.cting parties, Now, it is obvious that thiA il imposaible with re~.rd to things th.t are indetermin.te, if the things themselves .re cOlllidered the lubject olthe contract,and ca.el are mentioned where it is expressly atated that there i,no transfer of prop.rty to the purchaser, when ,imil.ra of weight of cap.city are sold without beiq distinctly speeifled, until actual pOllel.ion take place. The difficulty disappe.rs if we consider not the tWIIg itself but the oblig.tion to render it to be the subject of contract i for. right to the obligation p&II8I immediately to the purch.ler, and the Hller m.y be compelled to perform it. If we DOW renrt to the diviaion of thinga into aimiI .... and diasimllars, money-which, it h., beaD remarked, il alw.YI indetermin.te-is therefore an oblig.tion; dililmilarll., which are alwaYII IIpecifict .re never obligations j and other limilar', escept money, beiag 1OQletimea .peciflc and lometimel indeterminate, are at one time obligationa, .nd at another time thlDge. or subltance ..

lWore Jll'oceeding f.rther it is necea.aryto .aTtn more p.rticularly to the otherlenlle in which .the word'dap i. frequ8lltlyemployed ia the Mull-amm.d.n law. Itme.ne atrictly .. ohli8ation," as .lrMdy oblened j but the oblir.~oll m.y be either that of the contractiDg party .himlelf, or of another. In th,e former lenle dtJ" il nnt only a proper subject at .tr.llc, but fonnl the' lole lubject of ODe important kind of •• le, hereafter to be noticed. Bu.t when dap i, used to signify the obligation of .nother th.n the contr.ctiDg party, it il not apl'oper lubject of tratBc, and,.1 alre.dy obsened, cannot be lawfully eold. In the followiDg pagea d4,p h.s been alw.ys tr.nelated by the word .. debt" when It signiflel the obligation of a third party, and pnenlly by the word" oblig.tion," when it signiflea ~he engAgement of the contractillg party him .. !!, though when the thing. repl'esented by the oblig.tion are more prominently brought forward, it h.1 sometimes been found neeesaary to lubstitute the espreaeion, .. indeterminate thingl."

Though barter .nd 8ale for a price, are confounded under one general name in the Mul)ammadan law, it is sometimelneces8ary to eonlider one of tbe thing.esehanged .8 more atrictly the subject of ule, orthiDg sold, and the other.1 the price. In this view the10rmer f. tenned mubi', and tb. I.tter $amlin. $allla", or .. pl'ice,~ i. deRned to be da.!(fI fi

BU'

rillllflalt, or, literally, .n "ohlilC&tion In relpon,ibility." From which, unless the 8xpre.lion i. a mere pleonasm, it would, appear that the word daln I. lometimel used .bltraclly, and in a sen .. diatinct from tb. ide. of li.bility. That idea, howeYer, is necess.ry to conatitute price j for thoDgh clotb, when properly deIcribed, may, by reason of its divi.ibility .nd the .imilarity of It. p.rt, , be sometimea .. ,umed to perform tbe function of price in a contract of •• Ie, it il only when it il not immedi.tely delivered, hut is to remain for aome time on the responsibility of the contr.otiDg party, that it can be adopted for th.t purpale.

It i. • general principlo of the Mu4amm.dan law of sale, founded on • decl.r.tion of the Prophet, that credit cannot be opposed to credit, that is. th.t both the things exchanged cannot be allowed to rem.in on the reHponlibilit)t of the p.rties. Hence, it-ia only with reg.rd to one of them that .ny stipul.tion for del.y in itl delivery i. l.wful. Price, from its definition above given, .dmits of being left on responsibility, and aeeordillgly • stipulation for delay. in thl! payment of the price i. quite 18 wful and valid, It follows that a atipul.tion for delay in the delivery of the things sold cannot be lawful. And thi. is the case, with the exception of one particular kind of 8ale, hercafter to be noticed, in which the thing laid il .lway. indeterminate, and the price il paid in .d vance. It may, therefore, be laid of aU lpaciflc things when the .ubject of. I.le,. that a stipulation for del.y in their delinry is illeg.I, and would invalid.te a ,ale. The object of thi. rule may have been to prevent .ny ch.nge of the thing sold before delivery, and the diapute. which might in consequence ariee between the parties. But if they were allowed to select whic~ever they pleased of the .rticles nch.nged to .tand for the price, and the other for the thiq sold, without .ny regllTd to their qualitiel, tho object of the la.t-mentioned rule, whatenr it may have been, might be defeated. Thil .eem. to have led to another arrangement of thing. into different cl.sles, according to their capacitieA for lupporting the functiona of price or of the thillg .old in a contr.ct of aale. The flr.t oiasl comprehends dir"am •• nd dinars, which are alwayl price. The lecond cl ... comprise" the whole division of diisilllil.ra (with tho siDgle exception of cloth), which are alw.ys the thing sold, or subject at .ale, in • contr.ct. The third clasa comprises, first, all simllan of capacity i .. cend, all .imil.r. of weight, except dirlla1lll and dinar.; and, third, all similars of t.le. The whole of this claaa is capable of supporting both functiolls, and is sometimes the thing sold, and sometimes the price, The fourth class comprisos cloth, and the copper coin called fu/wi.

Sale implies a reciprocal vesting of the price in the seller and of the thing sold in the purchaser, This, as already remarked, is called its legal effect, and sale may be divided into different stiges or degrees of complete. n.,., according a$ this dect ill immediate,

BA.I'

nap8nded, in.,.Ud, or obligatory. Thu, lale lDust Brit of all be duly conltituted or contracted. After that, there may It ill be lome bar to itl operation, whicb oocasions a suspension of itl effect. This generally arisel from a defect of power in the seller, who may not be fully competent to act for himself, or may have inlufficient authoritv, or no authority whatever, over the subject of sale, In this clas8 of lales the effect is dependent on the as lent or ratification of aome other person than the party actually contracting. But whether the effect of a sale be immediate or RSpended, there may be some taint of illegality in the mode of oonatituting it, or in ita lubject, or there may be other circumstances connected with it, which render it invalid. The oausel of illegality ara many and vanoul. But even thongh a lale should be unimpeaohable on the previoul grOundl, that I" though it should be duly constituted, operative or immediate in ita effect, and free from any ground of illegality, It ill it may not be abaolutely binding on the parties. Thil brings UI to another remarkable peculiarity of the Muq.ammadan law, viz. the dootrine of option, or right of cancellation. The Prophet himlelf recommended one of hil followers to relerve a loau pmit~fttilfl, or option, for three days in all his purchasel. Thil has led to the option by stipulation, which may be relerved by either of the partiel. But beaidel this, the purchaser has an option wjthout any stipulation, with regard to things which he has purchased without leeing, and allo On acoount of defectl hi the thing lold. The greatest .of all defects il a want of title or right in the seller. The two lalt optlonl to the purchale constitute a complete warranty of title and againat all defection the part of the seller, in • which relpect the Mlll10ammadan more nearly reaemblel the Scotch than the English law of "le'

There are many different kinci& of sale.

Twenty or more have been enumerated in the NiluiyaA, of ·which eight are mentioned and ez,plained.. Four of thaae, which have reference to the thing sold, may require lome notice in this place. The first, called MuqiJ,a~aA, ildeacribed as a sale of things for thingS, and corresponda nearly with barter; but the word" thing" ('aJlft) ia here opposed to obligationl, and mU'l4yafaA is . therefore properly an exchange of specific for specific thinga. So that if the goods exchanged were on both.aidel or on either side indeterminate, the tranaaotion would not, I think, be a muqjjf4~ah, though still barter. The second eale II oalled ,ar!, and il. defined to be an exchaDge of obligations for obligations. The uaual objects of,thla contract are dirlu"u and dinir., which being obligations, the definition ia generally correct. But In exchange of money for bullion, or bullion for bullion, is also a sarf; and every aale of an obligation for an obligation ia not a sar I, so that the definition iI redundant aa well al defeotive. It is essential to the legality of this kind of lale, that both the thiuge exchanged should be delivered

BA.I'

88

and taken pollellion of before the leparation of the parties, and that when they are of the lame kind, as .ilveE for silver, or gold for gold, they ahould also be exactly equal by weight. These rules are necelsary for the avoidance of reba, or "usury," &8 already explained ; and the whole of sarf, which il treated of at a length quite disproportionate to it. importance, may be conaidered a. a continued illuatration of the doctrine of uk. The third kind of sale il .ala",. It hal been already observed that there oan be no lawful Btipulation for a postponement of the deliverY of the thing sold, except under one particular form of sale. Th£ form alluded to il .ala-. Thia word meanB, literally, "an advance"; and in a salam sale the price il immediatel,. advanced for the goodl to be deJit'ered at a future fixed time. It ia only thinga of the clasl of similan that can be Bold in thil wa,., and as they must necelsarily be indeterminate, the proper subject of lale is an obligation ; while, on the other hand, aa the price must be actually paid or delivered at the time of the contraot, before the separation of the parties, and mUlt, therefore, even in the case of its being money, be produced, and in consequence be particularised or lpaeific, a ,alam aale il Btrictly and properl,. the lale of an obligation for a thing, al defined abo ... e. Until actual payment or delinry of the prie" however, it retaina ita character of an obliption, and for thil rellon the price and the goods are both termed "debu," and an addnced in the lame chapter &8 e:r.amplel of the principle that the .. Ie of a debt, that ia, of the money or goodl which a perlon la under engagement to J!ay or deU ... er, before posselaion, ia innlid. 'The lad of the lalel referred to is the ordinary exchanre of gooa for money, which being an obligation, the tranlaction il defined to be thel.le of thiDp for obligation •.

There is another tranaaetion which _ within the dellniiion of aale, and hal "already noticed, but may be . further ad't'8rted to in thia place. Ii 18 that which iacaUad Qaq: in the Mabie, and" loan It in the J:Drliah language. The borrower acquirea an ablolute right of propen,. in the thingI ~ and eomea under an engagement to ~ an equal quantity of things of the lalDe kind. The tranaaction il therefore 1l8C8CIIril,. limited to similarl, whether of weight, capacity, or tale, and the thingl lent and repaid being of the lame kind, the two rulel alreacl,. mentioned for the prevention ofrt6a, or "usury ," must be Itrictly observed. Henoe it foilowl that an,. stipulation on the pan of the borrower for delay or forbearance by the lender, or iln,. stipulation by the lender for interest to be paid by the borrower are aUk. unlawful.

N otwithltanding the Itringency of the rulea for preventing usury, or the taking an,. interest on the loan of money, methodl were found for evading them and atill keeping within the letter of the law. It had alwa,.1 baen eonlidered lawful to take a pledge to l8CurB the repayment of a debt. P1edgBl were ordi,.

84

BAl'

II&rily of m01'&ble property; when rtTen u 180vity for a debt, &Del the plea,. happen.d to perilh in the hand! of the pawnee, the d.bt wu h.ld to ~ r.lelled to the extent of the nlu. of the pledge. Land, thollgh Bcarcely liable to thil incident, wae sometimes made the lubject of pledge, and d3'ficea were adopted for .nabling the lender to derin lome adnutag. from ita po ••••• ion while in in the ltate of pledge. Bat the moderate adTantag. to be derived in this way doe. not .eem to have contented the money-lender., who in all age. and countries han been of a Jl"uping di.po.ition, and the .xpedient of a lale with a condition for redemption was Idopted, which very clo.ely relembles an EDglilh ~ortgage. In the latter, the condition i. u.ually expressed in one of two waY8, vis. eith.r that the sale shall become void, or that the l.nder .hall re8ell to the leller, on payment of principal and interest at an alligned term. The first of these form. would b. inconsiatent with the nature of .ale under the Muq.ammadan law, but a lale with a covell&llt by the lender to reconvey to the .eUer on repayment of the loan ._. to haTe been in \18e probably 10Dl before the form wu adopted in Europe. It II probable that a tlrm wa. Bud within which the repaym.nt .hould be made. If repayment were made at the a •• igned t.rm, the lender wae obliged to reconvey; but if not, the property would remain hi. own, and the differenc. between ita Talue and the prio. or ._ lent mirht haTe been made an ample compensation for the 10 •• of int.rut. Thi. form of •• le, whioh wu called /mi'a '1-lDfJji, .. em. to ha", been atrictlyleralaocordin,J to the moat .pproved anthoriti •• , though held to be what thl law calla abominable, .. a d.vio. for obtainilll what it prohibita.

In conltituting ·.ale there i, no material ditrereao. between the Muq.ummadan &Del o\h. '1atem. of law. The off.r and aco~ anee, which are exprelled or implied in aU oa_, Dlnst be .0 connected al to obviate any doubt of the on. b.ing Intended to apply to the other. For thil Purpoll the Muq.ammadan law require. that both .haU be inter· ohupd at the lame Dleeililg of the pertlel, IDd that no other buain'll ihan be ,utrerecl to interv.ne betwe.n an offer and itl acceptance. A very IliIrht interruption i, adolent to break the oont"inuity of a nerotlation, and to terminate the meetlDg in a technioal ,,_, though the pertie8 Ihould still rem&hl in perlona1 comm1Ulioation. An aoceptanee after the interruption ef an oller made before it would be lIIIulBoient to oonltitllte a &&le. Thil hu led to diatinetionl of the meetbla' whioh may appear unn.c .... rily minute to a reader unaoquaint.d with the manner! of Eutern oountries, where the people are often very dilatory in their bargains, interlper,ing them with oonverlation on indillerent topics. It il only when a m .. ting hal referenoe to the act of contracting that it. meanillR il th U8 liable to be reatricted; for when the word occurs in other partl of the law, u. for In_ance, whft It la aald of a 'Gr.' oontract

AL-BA'IS

that the thingl .xohaDged must be tak.n po .. ... l1on of at the meetiDg, the whole peiiod that the parti •• may remain together II to be· underltood. A. penonal communication may be inconvenl.Jit in lOme cuel, and impol.ible in other., the integrity of the meeting il held to be lutBoi.ntly prele"ed when a party who receiv .. an offer by m ...... 'or letter declaru hil &(loeptanc. of it on receiving the commu· nlcation and apprehending it. content ••

When a la1e i. lawfully oontracted, the property in the thiDgs exchaDged pa.... im· mediately from and to the partiel rupee· tively. In a legal lale,delivery and pee .... lon are not neceuary for thi. purpo... Until po .... lion II taken, however, the purch ... r I, not liable for "aocidental lOll, and ~he leUer baa a lien for the price on the thing lold. Delivery by on. party ia in general tanta· mount to po ... a.ion taken by the other. It ii, therefore, .ometim.. of great importanoe to a.certain when there i. a lufBoient deli· very; &Del many call', real or imaginary, on the lubject, are inserted in the Fatilllli , Alcmtgiri. It lometim.. happens that a penon purchaa .. a thiDg of which he la already in pea .... ion, and it then becomea important to determine in what cue. hil prevloUi p08I8I.ion i. convertible into a pol· ... aion under the purchal.. Unl .. 1 16oon. Terted, it would be held that there il l1li delivery und.r the .. le, and the .. ller wculd of OOurH retain hil lien and remain liable for accidental 10 ...

Though PO"'llioD i. not necellary to oom· . plete the tranafer of property under a legal .ale, the oal. il different where· the oontract il Wegal i for here property does not pa .. till JIOIHIIlon i. taken. The lale, however,. th01llJh 10 far effectual, i. still invalid, &Del Uable to be .et alide by a judge, .lIt the hlItanoe of eith.r of the parties, without any referenoe to the fact of the perlon complain· iDr being able to COIU before him witb what In legal phraeeology il termed clean bandl. A Muhammadan judge is obliged by hil law to interfere for the lake of the law itlelf, or, a. " i. more lolemnly termed, for the right of God, which it I. the duty of the judge to vindicate, thollgh by 10 doiDg he may afford a •• iItano. to a party who peraonally maI bay. no just claim to hi. interference. (7lc M~ Lalli of Sale, according to tlte a".fee CoM,from tlat! Fatawa Aklmgiri,by Neil B. E. Baillie. Smith, Elder " Co., London.)

BAIL. Arabic iSlA$" 1uJfala,". Bail II of two delcriptions: KqfilaA bi-'!,-n~, or ." lecmty for the person "; Kcijilalt bl-'I.m"l, or "aoourity for property." In the English court. in India, bail for the person is termed Qi#r-~amiini, and bail for property .?amtiMA, or ".security." Bail for the person is lawfnl 8lI:cept in cases of punishment (ljludUd) and retaliation (Q,j,a,). (HidayaA, vol. ii. p. 678.)

AL.BA·I~ (..a..a\J'). One of the ninety.nine apecial _ .. of God. It.JIUI&DI

BAITO 'L-HAMD

"He who awakes"; "The Awakener" (in the Day of Resurrection).

BAITU 'L-l;IAMD (~, ~).

" The House of Praise." An expression which occurs in the Traditions (Milhkat T. 7). When the soul of a child is taken, God says, " Bnild a house for my servant in Paradise and call it a house of praise."

BAlTU 'L-I;IARAM (,.'.,-1' ~).

"The Sacred House." A name given to the Meccan mosque. [J(~8JIDU 'L-BAB~.]

( BAITU 'L-I;HKMAH (~, ~).

Lit. " The House of Wisdom." A term used by 9iifis for the heart of the sincere seekers after God. (' Abdu 'l'-Razziq's Dictionary of /)ii.fi Ternll.)

BAITU'L-LAR (A1.I' ~). "The

House of God." A name given to the Mecca.n mosque. [J(AllJIDU 'L-~B~.l

BAITU 'L-MAL (JW' ~). Lit.

"The House of Property.' The public trealury of a Muslim state, which the ruler is not allowed to use for his personal expenses, but only for the public good.

The sources of income are: (1) Zaktit, or the legal tax raised upon land, personal property, and merchandise, which, after deductIng the expense of collecting, should be expended in the support of the poor and destitute. (2) The fifth of all spoils and booty taken in war. (3) The produce of mines and of treasure-trove. (4) Pl'operty for which there il no owner. (6) 'rhe Ji%yah, or tax levied on unbelievers. (Hidii!Jah, Arabic ed., vol. i. p.462.)

ll-BAITU 'L-MA.'MlJR (~, J...-.J'). Lit." The Inhabited House." A houae in the seventh heaven, visited by Mut,&IXlD1ad during the Mi'rij or nightjourney. It is said to be immediately over the aacred temple at Makkah. [1Il'1UJ.]

BAITU 'L-MIDRAS (U'"'.>oMl' ~).

"The House of Instruction." A term (used in a tradition given by Abii Hurairah) for a Jewish school (Mishkat, xvii. c. xi.) In

Heb. W"~j'f n":l

'I' :. - ••

AL-BAITU 'L-MUQADDAS (~, U'"~')' "The Holy House." A name given to the temple at Jel'1l8alem. [~-)(.8J1DU 'L-~QU.]

{ BAITU 'L-QUDS (U'"~' ~).

Lit ... The House of Holiness." A term used by the 9i1fis for .the heart of the true seeker after God when it is absorbed in meditation. ('.A.bdu 'r-Rizzaq's Dictionary of $ii.fi 1e,'nII.)

BAI'U 'L-WAFA ( .. u,n ~). The

word wafa means the _]lerformanee of a promise, and the Bai'u '1- WaJa is a sale with a promise to be performed. It is, in fact, a pledge in the hapds of the pawnee, who is not its propritor, nor is he free to make use of it without the permislion of the owner.

BANON

85

There are different opinious about the legality of this form of .ale, but it i. now the common form of mortgage in u.e in India, where it il usually styled Bai: hi-'I-lDafa. (See Baillie'. Mullammadan LaID oj Sak, p. 803.)

al-BAIYINAH (~'). Lit." The

Evidence." A title given to the xanuth Siirah C1f the Qur'in, in which the word

occurs.

BA'L (Jat), Heb. ~~~tT, i.e. "Lord."

The chief deity wor.hipped by the SyroPheanician nations. It is known to the Mut,ammadans as an idol wor.hipped in the days of the Prophet Elisha. (See Ghiyo,u '1- Lughah.)

BA LAAM. There is sa.id to be a.n allusion to Balaam in the Qur'in, Siirah 'tii. 174, "Recite to them the story of him to whom we gave our signa, and he departed therefrom, and Satan followed him, and h. was of those who were beguiled."

The commentary of the J alilain says that he was a learned man amongst the Israelitel, who was requested by the Canaanitel to curse Moses at the time when he was aboat to attack the Jabbariln or "giants," a tribe of the Canaanites. Balaam at IIrst refused to do .0 but at last yielded, when valuable present. were made to him" (See TafBiro 'l-Jalalai", p.142.)

BAUD (.II.t). Lit. hy country, district, or town, regarded al an habitation. , Al-Balad, the aacred territory of Makkah. A title given to the xoth Siirah, in which the word occurs.

BALIGH (~4). "Of years of legal maturity; adult. [PUBSBTY.]

BANISHMENT_ Arabic '-rl.1'i

Tag/Jrib. Expatriation for fornication i. enjoined by MUQammadan law, according to the Imam ash-Shill 'i, althongh it is not allowed by the other doctors of the law, and it ia al80 a punishment indicted upon highway rcbbers,

BANKRUPT. There is no provision in the MUQ&IXlD1adan law for declariilg a person bankrupt, and ao placing him beyond the reach of his creditors; but the Qi;i can declare a debtor insolvent, !WId free him from the obligation of sakit and almagiving.

BANtJ ISRA'IL (JoS'l,..' t"f) ... The Children of Israel." A title 01 the nuth Siirah or chapter of the Qur'in, called al.o Suraw 'l-Mi'raj.

BAN'O'N (<:J,rt). The plural of i1m (Heb. C"~:l). " Sonl; POlterity; tribe." The '';ord is more familiar to English readera in ita inflected form Bani: The tribel whose names occur frequently in the early hi&torv of Ialam, an'd are mentioned in the

• Tradition .. , are the Banli- Qurai.h, Banu ',,NaJjar, Ban" - Qur,!i,ah, _Bmali - Ki~, BanK 'n-NaIFr, Banr.-KjuaG'a/a, BaM-Bakr,

86

DAPTISlI:

Banii-'Amir, Banii - A.ad, Banii - Faz.ralt, Banii-LilJ!liill, 'Banu- Tamilll, Banii- Ulllaiyalt, Banii-Zahralt, and Banu-IMi'il.

BAPTISM. The only allusion to baptism in the Qur'an is found in Siirah ii. 182: "(We ha ... e) the baptism of God, and who is better to baptise than God?" The word here translated baptism is ,ibgllalt, lit. "dye," which, the commentators -al-Jalalain and al-Bai~j\:wi say, may, by comparison, refer to Christian baptism, .. for," says al-Bai~awi,

. "the Na~il"li. (Christians) were in the habit of aipping their offspring in a yellow water which they called al-illa'lIIud'ya" and said it purified them and confirmed them as Christians." (See TqJ8irv 'l-Jakilai» and TaJiliru 't-Bai~awi, in loco.)

AL-B.A.QI (u'LJ'). One of the

ninety-nine special names of God. It means "He who remains j" "The Everlasting One."

AL-BAQARAH (i.r'=l'). "The Cow."

The title of the second Siirah of the Qur'iLn, occasioned by the story of the red heifer mentioned in nne 63, "When )lose8 said to his people, God commandeth you to sacrifice .. cow."

BAQI'U 'L-GHARQAD(.u,-!I ~), or for sbortness-al-Baqi (~'). The burying-ground at al':Madinah,which 1IIuq.ammad used to frequent at night to pray for forgiveness for the dead. OUishkat, iv, c. 28.)

BARA.'AH (i.lp). "Immunity, or security." A title given to the rxth Chapter of the QUI"iLn, called also Sumlll 't-Taubah, " The Chapter of Repentance." It is remarkable as being the only ::iiirah without the introductory form, ,. In the name of God,the Mercjful, the Compassionate." Various reasons are assigned for this omission. Some commentators say that the prayer of mercy is not placed at the head of a chapter which speaks chiedy of God's wrath.

B.A.RAH-I-WAF.A.T ~~U, 1)4).

Barult (Urdii) "twelve," and JoJaJat. The twelfth day of the month Rabi'u 'I-Awwal, observed in commemoration of Mul:lammad's death.

It seems to be a day instituted by the Mu. Qammadans ()/. India, and is not observed universally amongst the lluslims of all countries. On this day Fati/.lahs are recited for MUQammad's soul, and both in private houses anQ mosques portions of the Traditions and othor works in praise of the Prophet's excellences are read.

The Wahhibis do not obsene this day, as it i. believed to be an innovation, not having been kept by the eaJ"ly Muslims.

.A.L.BARA IBN 'A.ZIB (~ .'.rtl' ..... jUa). ODe of the Oompanions who acoompanied Muqammad at the battle of the Ditch, and in most of his subsequent engagement.. H. aslisted in conquering the di.trict

BABNABAS

of Rai, .La. 22, and was with the Khalif.h 'Ali at the battle of the Camel, .La. 36.

AL-B.A.RI' (Io5)LJ'). "The Ma.ker."

One of the ninety-nine special names of God. It occurs in the Qur'in, Sfirah lix. 24: .. He is God the Creator, the ~Iaker, the Fashioner. His are the exoellent names."

BAlUQAH (&:i)4). Lit. "Refulgence, t lightning." A term used by the ~iifis for that enlightenment of the soul, which at first comes

to the true Muslim as an earnest of greater enlightenment. (' Abdu 'r-Razziq's Dictionary

0/ $u/i Terms.)

BARNABAS, the Gospel of. The Mul:lammadans assert that a gospel of Barnabas existed in Arabic, and it is believed by some that l\Iuhammad obtained his account of Christianity from this spurious gospel.

.. Of this gospel the Moriscoes in Africa have a trllnslation in Spanish, and there is in the library of Prince Eugene of Savoy a manuscript of some antiquity, containing an Italian tJ'anslation of the same gospel, made, it is supposed, for the use of renegades. This book appears to be no original forgery of the llu4auunadans, though they have no doubt interpolated and altered it since, the better to sene their purpose; and in pa.rticular, instead of the Paraclete or Comforter (St. John xiv. 16,26 j xv. 26; xvi. 7), they have in this apocryphal gospel inserted the word PeJ"iclyte, that is, " the famous or illustrious," by which they pretend their prophet was foretold by name, that being the signification of lluQammad in Arabic j and this they say to justify that passage in the Qur';;'n (i::iiirah 61) where Jesus is formally asserted to ha ... e foretold his coming, under his other name of Ahmad, which is derived from the same root as llu4ammad, and of the same import. From these or some other forgeries of tho same stamp, it is that lluQammadans quote several passages of which there are 1I0t the least footsteps in the New Testament." (Sale.)

Aftln' llr. Sale had written the extract which we ha v e quoted, he inspected a Spanish translation of the Italian copy of this apocryphal gospel, of which he gives the following account:-

"The book is a moderate quarto, ill Spanish, written in II very legible hand, but a little damaged towards the latter end. It contains two hundred and twenty-two chapters of unequal length, and four hundred and twenty psges ; and is said, in the front, to be transluted from tho Italian by an Aragunian lloslem named llo,tafii de AI·anda. There is a preface prefixed to it, 11' herein the discoverer of the original :118., who was a Chlistian monk called Fra Mal"ino, tells us that, having aocidentally met with a writing of IrenalUB (among others), wherein he speaks against St. Paul, alleging for his authority the gospel of St. Barnaba8, be became exceedingly desi· rous to lind this goapel; and that Goel, of hi. mercy, having made him very intimate with Pope Sistus V., one day •• s they "ere tog ••

BABNABAS

ther in thet Pope's library, his Holiness fell asleep, and he, to employ himself, reaching down a book to read, the first he laid his hand on proved to be the very gospel he wanted; overjoyed at the discovery, he scrupled not to hide his prize in his sleeve, 'and on the Pope's awaking, took leave of him, carrying with him that celestial treasure, by reading of which he became a convert to MU\:lammadanism.

"This Gospel of Barnabas contains a complete history of Jesus Christ, from His birth to His ascension, and most of the circumetancel of the four real gospels are to' be found therein, but many of them turned, and some artfully enough, to favour the Mu\:lammadan system. From the design of the whole, and the frequent interpolations of stories and passages, wherein Muhammad is spoken of and foretold by name, as tho messenger of God, and the great prophet who W8S to perfect the dispensation of Jesus, it appean to be a most bare-faced forgery. One particular I observe tberein induces me to believe it to have been dressed up by a renegade Christian, slightly instructed in his new religion, and not educated as a MUQammadan (unless tbe fault be imputed to tbe Spanish, or, perbaps, the Italian translator, and to tbe original compiler). I mean tbe giving to Muhammad tbe title of Messiah, and that not once or twice only, but in several places; whereas, tbe title of Messiah, or, as tbe Arabs write it, al-Masib., i.e. Chriyt, is appropriated to Jesus in tbe QW"iin, and is constantly applied by the lI1u\:lammadans to him, and never to their own Propbet. Tbe passages produced hom the Italian MS. by M, de la Monnoye are to be seen in this Spanisb version almost word for word."

The Rev. Joseph Wbite, D.D., in bis BamplOll Lecttll't8 of 1784, gives a translation of tbose chapters in thia spurious Gospel of Barnabas, which relate to the supposed crucifixion of Judas in the place of our Lord, and wbich we insert :-

.. Judas came near to tbe people with whom Jesus was; and wben He beard the noise He entered'into the bouse where tbe disciples slept. And God, seeing tbe fear and danger of His servant, ordered Gabriel and Michael and Rafail and Azrail to carry Him out of tbe world.

.. And tbey came in all baste, and bare Him out of the window wbicb looks towards tbe soutb. And tbey placed Him in the third heaven, where He will remain blesBing God, in the company of angels, till near the end of tbe world." (Chapter 216.)

.. And Judas the traitor entered before the rest ~to tbe place from wbich Jesus had jut been taken up. And the disciple. were sle.plng. And the Wonderful God aoted wond.rfully, changing Judas into the .. me figure and speech witb Jesus.

.. We believing that it was He, sald to him, Malter, whom seekest thou? And he laid to &hem, smiling, Ye have forgotten your.elves, liDo. ye do not know Judas lIeariot.

.. AI; thi. tim. the loldiery e1Itered; and

BABNABAS

37

.eeing J udal 10 lilte in eTary respecUo J_, laid handa upon him," &c. (Chapter 317.)

" In which (Chap. 218) is related tbe pallion of Judas the traitor.

" Tbe soldiers afterwards toolt Judal and bound him, notwithstanding he said with truth to them that he was not JesUl. And. soldiers mocked him laying, Sir, do not be afraid; for we are come to malte thee King of Israel; and we have bound thee, beeaue we know tbou baat refuled the kingdom. And Judal said, Ye have lost your lensel.

"I came to Ibow you Jesus, thet ye might take Him; and ye heTe bound me, who am your guide. Tbe soldiers loat their patienoe, heuing this, and they began to go with him, striking and buffeting him, till they reached Jerusalem," &c. &c. (Cbapter 218.)

"Tbey carried him to Mount Calvary, where tbey executed criminals, and crucified him, stripping him asked for the greater ignominy. Tben he did nothing but cry out, o my God, wby hast tbou forsaken me, that I should die unjustly, wben the real malefactor hetb escaped? I say in truth tbat he was so like in peraon, figure, and gesture te JesuI, that as many as knew Him, believed firmly that it was He, except Peter; -for which reason many left his doctrine, believing tbat it had been false; aa He bad laid that He should not die till tbe end of the world.

"But tbose who stood firm were oppresled with grief, seeing him die wbom they understood - to be Jesu: not recollecting what He had told them. And in company with Hil mother, they were present at his death, weeping continually. And by means of Jbseph Abarimatheas (.ic), they obtained from the president the body of Judas. And they took him down from the cross, burying him with much lamentation in tbe new sepulchre of Joseph; baving wra~ped him up in linen and precious ointments. (Ohapter 219.)

"Tbey all "returned, each man to hil house; and he who writeth, with James and John, went with the mother of Jesu to Nazareth. And the disciples, who did not fear God with truth, went by night and stole the body of Judas, and hid it; spreading a report that He (i.e. J esus) had risen agaln, from whence sprung great confuion among the people.

"And the High Priest commanded, under pain of anathema, that no one should talk. of him; and on this account raised a great persecution, banishing some, tormenting qtlien, and even stoning some to death: because it was not in the power of anyone to be silent on this subject. And then came newl to Nazareth, that Jesu had rilen again. And he that writeth delired the mother of Jeeul to lea T8 off her lamentation. And)(ary laid, Let u go to Jeruaalem, to lee If it II truth. If I lee HIm I shell die content; (Chapter 220) •

"The Virgin returned to Jeruaalem with bim thet writeth, and James and John, the same day \hat the decree of the Hich Pri_ eame out •

.. And as Ihe feared God. though Ihe lulew

88

BARNABAS

the co_aDd W&l unjust, Ih. ntreated thole who talked with her not to lpeak of heor·Sou. Who can 8&Y, how we were then affected? God, who knowl the heart of man, knows that be'ween the grief for the death of Judas, whom we underatood to be Jesus, and the plealMU'e of aeeing him riaen again, we almost upired. And the angels who wel"8 the gurdiana of Mary went up to heaven the third day, and told Jellll what was paning. And He, moved with comp'lsion ·for His moth.r, entre.ted of God th.t He might be Hen by His dJaciplel. And the Compasaion.te God ordered Hla four favourite angela to plac. Him within His own house, .nd to J1l&rd Him three days; that they .nd they only might s .. Him, who believed in His doctrine. Jeaua descended, s1lrroUDded with light, Into the house of His mother, where were the 'wo Ii_ters, Martha and Mary, and Luarua, and he that ",ri(eth, and John and Jamel, and Peter. And when they_.w Him, they fell with their f.ce_ on the earth aa if dead. And Jelns lifted them up, s.ying, Fear not, for I am your Maater. Lament not hencefortb, for I am .lIve. They were .stoniahed.t a .. ing Jealll, bec.UBe they thonght Him dead. And Mary weeping s.id, Ten me, my Son, ,why,if God gave Thee power to raise lip the' dead, did He conaent that Thou Ihouldeat die, with so much repro.ch and Ihame to Thy relations .nd friend a, and so much hurt to Thy doctrine, le.ving us .11 in deaolation? Jeaul replied, embr.cing Hil mother, Believe me. for I tell thee tbe truth, I h.ve not been dead ; for God h.1 resened )4e for the end of the world. In I.ying this He desired the .ngela to manifest themselves, and to tell how He had p.ssed through everything. At the inlt.nt tbey.ppe.red like four IUDI; and all present prostrated themlelvel on the groUDd, overcome by' the presence of the .ngell. And Jeslll g.ve to.U of them lomething to cover themlelvel .with, tb.t they might be able to hear the .ngell speak.

"And JesUB said to His motbel', Theae are the Minilterl of God. G.briel knowl Hil lecret.; Michael fightl with His enemies; Alr.f1el will cite all to judgment; and Azrael receivel the souls. And the holy .ngels told how they had, by the command of God, taken up JeauI, .nd transformed Judaa, that he might Buffer the punishment which he wished to Dring on Jel1l8. And he that writeth aaid, Is it la .... ful for me to alII. of· Th .. , In tbe lame maDDer al when thou walt In the .... orld P And Jesus anawered, Speak, Barnabal, what thout wilhelt.

"And he said. I wlah that Thou wouldeat tell me how God, being so compaslionate, could aftlict UI so much, in givmg 111 to lInderstand that ThOll W&lt be that luffered, for we have been very near dying? And Thou being a prophet, why did He luffer Thee to fall under disgrace. by (apparently) placing Thee on a cross, and between two robbers? Jesus answered, Believe lie, Barnabas, let the fault be ever so small God cbaatileth it with much punishment. And as my mother and faithful dilciples loved me

9ABZAKH

with a little earthly lOTI, God chaati.ed th.t love by thi. grief; that He might not ch •• tise it in the other world. And though I w •• illDocent, yet as they ealled ~Ie God, and Hil Son, th.t the devifa might not mock Me on the Day of Judgment, He h.s chosea th.t I shonld be mocked in thil world.

" And thi. mockillR ahall lalt till the holy Messenger of God (i.e. MuQ.mmad) Ih.ll come, who shall undecei,.. .U believers. And then He I.id, JUlt .rt Thou, 0 God! .nd to Thee ouly belongeth the honoor and glory, with worship, for ever." (Chspter 221.)

"And then He s.id, B.rn.b.l, that tholl by .11 m_ write my gospel, rel.ting everything which has happened in the world concerning Me; .nd let it be done exactly; in order th.t the faithful m.y be undeceived, knowing the truth. He th.t writeth I.id, Master, I will do it.1 Thou commande.t me, God willing: but I did not lee aU that happened with Jud.s. Jeaua anewered, Here etand Peter .nd John, who law it, and will rel.te it to thee.

" And He told J .mes snd John to call the leven apostles who were .beent, and Nicodemus, .nd Joseph Ablrim.theaa (.ic), and lome of the seventy-two disciples. Wben they were come, they did e.t with Him; and on the third d.y He commanded them .11 to go to the mount of Olives with His mother: beca1ll8 He waa to return to heaven. All the 'po.tlea and dilciples went, except twenty-live at the leTenty-two, .... ho h.d lied to Damaacul with fear. And exactly at mid-d.y, while tbey were .11 in prayer, Je.us c.me with many .ngela (blesllng God), with 80 much brightne8S that they all bent their facel to the ground, And Je8us r.ised them Up,l.ying, Fear not your M.ster, who comes to take leave of you,; and to recommend you to God our Lord, by the mercies received fr"m Hil bounty: and be He with you!

"And ~pon this He dis.ppeared with the .ngels: .11 of 111 rem.ining am.zed .t the gre.t brightness in which he left 111." (Chapter 222).

AL-BARR(~'). One of the ninety. nine lpecial names of God. In its ordinary lense it me.ns .. pious," or .. good." A. applied to God, it means "The Benellceat One."

BARTER. [BAl'.]

BARZAlW (tJJf)' (1) A thing

that intervenel between any two thingl; a bar j .n obltructlon; or. thing that m.kes a sep.ration betw .. n two thingl. In which lense it is used in the Qu'rin in two places. Siirah xxv. 60, .. He h.th put an interspace between them (i.e. the two se&8), and a barrier which it il forbidden tbem to pass." Siirah lv. 20, "Yet between them (the two leas) i8 • barrier."

(2) The interval between tbe present life and that which is to come. See Qur'iD, Siirah xxiii. U9, "And 8ay, lily Lord, I ... 11. reflllte with Thee from the meitinge of tht' devila, and I seek refuge witlh Tbee from their

BACS

prelenoe. Until whe death oomel to IIny one of them. he laYI. My Lord I lend me

. back (to life). if haply I may do right in that which I have left. Not 10 I A mere word that he'lpeake I But behind them there ia harza/d! (a bar). until the day when they Ihall be railed. And when the tru'mpet Ihall he blown. tbere Iball b. no relation between them on tbat day. nor sball they bep: of eaoh othertJlen." Upon tbis verae tbe commentator Bahliwi say.: .. Barzn/d! is an intenening.state (/.liNt. • a barrier ') betireen death and the Day of Judgment, and wboever dies enters it." The commentator J;lusain remark.: "Barza/d! is a partition (mini') between the living and the Day of Judgmeut, namely. the grave in ,yhich they will remain until tbe relurr8ction." Tbe commentatore al.Jaliiain apeak of it as a (lijlz. or intervening state between deatb and judgment. • Abdu 'r.Razzaq in hil DietiOfllJr.'I of T~cAniC41 T_. of th~ $iifiB (Sprenger'. Edition). gives a limilar deBni. tion.

The word ie employed by Mu~ammadan writera in at least two sen .... lome using it for the place of the dead. the grave, and others for tbe state of departed souls between death and judp:ment.

The condition of believers in the gra ve is held to be one of undisturbed rest, but tbat of nnbelieve~1 one of torment; for Mu~ammad is related to have laid ... There are appointed fo;r the grave of the unbeliever ninety-nine aerpetl to bite him until the Day of Resurrection." (Jli,lakit. i. e. Ii. p. 12.) The word _I gen6rally to be need in the lense of Hadel, for· every perlon who dies i. laid to eter al· Bar.aM.

BA'S (~). Lit." Bailing." (1) The Day of ReavrectioD. (2) The oftl~1\ of a m"lenpr or prophet.

BABE MONEY. The sale of one pure dirham and two ba.e onel in e~change fOT tWIl pure dirham. and one ba.e one is lawful. By two bale onel (ghala"ain). are to' be uncIeratood I'Ilch a. pall amonglt merchanta but are rejected at the publio trealury. (Bidiya/a. yoL ii. 660.)

al.BAI;IIR (~'). One of the ninety-nine lpeclal namel of God. It fre· quently occurl In the Qur'iIl. and mealll " The All-aeeing One."

BAI;IIRAH (I,....). Lit ... Penetration." The sight of the heart al diltiDgui.hed from the .ight of the eye (Ba,irall or Ba,ar). A term Uled by theologians· to expresl that enlight8llD1ent of the heart II whereby the Ipiritual man can underltand Ipiritual thingl with al muoh certainty as the natural man G&D lee objects with the light of the eye." The word occurl mce iu the Qur'in, Siirah xii. 108," This ia my way; I cry unto God, reating on clear ..,id_;" Siirah Ixxv. If, II A man Ihall be evitknca .. awt himlelf."

.u,.BASrr (1-\.,)'). One of the nlaety·nine lpecial bam.. of God.· It m_

D

(

BAZAQ

89

II He who .pread.. or Itretchel ou$," anel eeears in the Qur'iIl, Silrah xiii. Iii. AI applied to God, it means. II He who dilpeul • riehee," &c.

BASTARD (U""~, wllllldu ' .... in4).

An illegitimate child has. according to Mu· Ij.ammadan law. no legal father. and cenle· quently; tbe law doel not· allow the father to interfere with hie illegitimate child, evell for the purpOle. of education. He caunot inherit the property of his father, but he I. acknow. ledged as the rightful heir of hi, mother (Baillie's Digelt, p. '82). The evidence of a bastard is valid, because he is innocent with respect to the immorality of his parents; but thli Imim Malik maintain. that hil testimony is not to be accepted with respect to a charge of whoredom. (Hidiiyall. vol. ii, 692.)

BATHING. The Arabic term for ordinary batbing is (J-6) ghll.l, and that for tlle religioul purillcation of the whole body gll,"l. In all large mosques, and in most respectable dwellinga In Muqammadan eountries, there are bathing·rooml erected. both for the ordinary purposes of bathing and for the religious purillcation. An account of the legal purillcation will be found in the article GRUIL. Although purillcatiollll and bathing form 10 essential a part of the Muslim religion, cleanliness does not diatlnguilh Mul)ammadans. who are generally in thia respect a atriking contralt to their Hindii fellow subjectl in India. According to the .. ying of Mu~ammad, decency Ihould b. oblerved in bathing, and the clothe. from thl. wailt downwardl ahould not be takeno! at such timel. (Mi.hkiit. ii. e, iY.)

BArn.. (JIo\t). That which il faIle

in doctrine.

A~.BArIN ('=""\.,)'). (1) One of the

ninety-nine special namel of God. It meanl II that whioh i. hiddeu or concealed," II The Hidden One," or II He tbat ,knowl hidden thingl." (2) A term uBed in theology for that which is hidden in itB meaning. in contradistinction to that which ta evide~t.

BATOL (J.ff). Lit. II A shoot or olfset of a palm-tree put olf from ita mother kee; " II a virgin" (aa cut olf or withheld from men). The t8J1D al-Bat;;l il applied to Fitimah, the daughter of MuJ:!.ammad. becauae Ihe was leparated from the other women of

her age by her excellences, Beb. i1"'!!M~

Betll_Iila. or •

BA'O~ (w_,.c\t). A Syriac word.

NM'!!31::1 (i.e. II petition, prayer "),

which, In the dictionary al- Qim;;" is laid to mean the Ohri.tian Ealter; aud also prayera for rain, Or the /.ticqii of the Christianl. (Maftnu 'I· Bib"', p. 101.)

BAZAQ or~BAZIQ (~J\t). A pro· hibited liquor. The Juice of the lTape bOiltd

40

nARD

_til a q1l&Mitr leIl tbaa 'WO-thirdl evaporatel.

BEARD. Arabic.t....J lilayah or ~J E4fla.",. ThA beard is regarded by Mll8lims al the badge of the dignity of manhood. The Prophet is related to have said, .. Do the opposite of the polytheists and let your beard grow long." (Mi.hkat, xx. iv.) And the growing of a beard is said to be Fit.raJa, or one of thOle c118toms which have been observed by every Prophet. [nTR.uL]

BEAUTY, Female. " The maiden, whose Iovelineae inspires the most impassioned expression in Arabic poetrYlUld prose, il oelebrated for her slender figure; she is like the Dane among plants, and is elegant &8 the twig of the oriental willow. Her face is like the full moon, presenting the strongest oontralt to the colour of her hair, whioh (to preserve 'he nature of the simile just employed) ia of the deepe.lt hue of night, and deaoenda to the middle of her back. A rosy blush onrspreadl the centre of each cheek; and a mole ia considered an additional charm. The Arabs, indeed, are particularly n.travarant in their admiration of this natural beautyIPOt, which, according to itl place, il compared to a globule of ambergrIS upon a dish of alab.ater, or upon the lurfaoe of a ruby. The ey.. of the Arab beauty are intensely blaok, larlle, and long, of the form of an almond; they are full of brilliancy; but thil II loftened by a lid slightly depreseed, and by long ail ken laahes, giving a tender and languid expreslion, which ia full of enohantment, and acareely to' be improved by the adventitioul aid of the blaok border ot the hM; for thi .. the lovely maiden adda rather 'or the lake of falhion than necessity, ~ving what the Arabi term natural lcuM. The eye-brows are thin and arched, the forehead il wide, and fair aa Ivory"; the nOle straight, the mouth ImaU ; the lipa are of a briUiant red, and the teeth "like pearll set in coral." The forml of the bOlom are compared to two pomegranatee; the wailt il slender ; the hipl are wide and large; the feet and handB email; the fingen '-paring, and their extremitiel dyed with the eleep orange-red tin\ imparted by 'he leavel of (Jinni.

The following II the mOBt complete analYlil of Arabian beauty, given by an unknown author, quoteel by AI-IIl,iqi:-

" Four thlngl in a woman should be black: the hair of the head, lhe eye-browI, the eyelalhel, and the dark part of the eyel; four ",laite: the complexion of the Ikin, the whl'e of the eyel, the teeth, anel the legl; four ,.,d: 'he tongue, thl lipl, t~e middle of the eheeb, and the ramI; four rOllnd: the head, thl neok, thl forl-arml, and thl ankl .. ; four 1Dwg: the baok, thl finger., the ·arml, anel the .... ; four VIi.: the forehead, the ey .. , the bolo .. , ud iIle hipl ; four jiM: the eye-browl, 'he .OM, the lipe, and the finger.; four tlaiclc: the lower part of the back, thl thighl, thl Calvel of the 1.1, and the k_ ; fo.ur ...u: the ean, the breuU, the hanel., atId the feet. .. (LaDe'1 ArdiOIl Nil"t., vol. i. p. 16.)

BEJ.IIlVlR8

BEGGING. It i. Dot lawful for any penon pOlsealing lulBcient food for a day and night to belf (Durru'I-Mulfhtar, p. 108), and it il related that the Prophet said: " ActB of begging are scratchell and woundl with which a man wounds bis own face." "It is better for a' man to take a rope and bring in a bundle of8tiok~ to Bell than to beg." .. A man who continl1ll8 to beg will appear in the Day of Jlldgmeni without any Besh on his face." (Hi,laIcat, Book vi. ohap. v.)

BEINGS. According to MuQam. madan belief, there are three different species of created intelligent beings: (1) Angell (Malii'ilcah), who are laid to be created of light; (2) Genii (Jinn), who are created of fire; (8) Mankind (lilian), created of eartb. These intelligent beings. are called Zawu 'I. 'Uqul, or "R .. tional beings," whilst nnintelligent being." are called Ghair ZaIDi '1-' Uqui l!a!lawiini-Ntit.iq ill alao a term used for rational beings (who can BpUJlc), and I;Tayawani-'Ajam for all irrational creaturel. [JINIf.]

BELIEVERS. The terms used for believen are--Mu'lIIin, pl. Mu'lI!inain; and Mwlim, pI. MtUl/imVti. The dillerence ex. pressed in these two words ia explained in the Traditions, in a I;Tad"., given in the $aMi of Muslim (p. 21), where it i. recorded by 'Umar, as having been taught by Mul,ammad, that a Mu'min is one who hal imin, or .. faith ." Faith being a sincere belie\ in God, Hil angela, Hi, inspired books, His prophet., the Day of Resurrection, and the predestination of good and evil; and that a Mwlim Is one who ia resigned and obedient to the 'llill of God, and beara witne •• that there il no god but God, ancl that Muq.ammad is Hil Apoltle and is eteadfast in prayer, and givel ""tit' or "legal alma," and faata in the month 0; Rama~in, and makel' a pilgrimage 110 the Temple (Bait) at Makkah, if he ha"nl the means.

The rewardl in Itore for the believer are as followl (I" Buro'" 'I-BcaqoraJa, Sorah Ii. 16):-

"They who have believed and done the things tbat be right, theyahall be the iomatel of Paradile,-therein '0 abide for ever.~

B .... ot 'n-Ni.i, Siirah Iv. 60 :-

.. ThOle who have believed, and done the thing. that are right, we will bring them into rardena 'neath which the riverl flow-thereIB to abiele eternally; therein .hall they have wive. of Itamll'l purity: and "'e will brlDl them into Ihadowing lhad ... "

SUrcatw 'I·A .,.i/, BOrah vii. ~:-

.. Thon who. have believed and done the tbiJIIa which are rtaht, (WI will lay on no one a burdell beyoM hia power)-th_ ahan be bamatea of Paradile: for ever ahall they abide therein;

" And will ",e TI .. ov. whatever rocour " .. in their bOlom, ; riven ehaU JOU at their , ... ud they lhall lay, • Praiee be to God "h~ 1Iath pldeel 11. hitla.t We ..... b-. ruided laM _, God pi." _I Of a....,

BELLS

tbe ApolUel of our Lord came to 1llI witb truth.' And a Toice shall cry to them,' This is Paradise, of which, as the meed of your works, ye are made heirs.'

II And the inmates of Paradise shall cry to the inmates of the Fire, II Now have we found wbat' our Lord promised us to be true. Have ye too found what your Lord promised you to be true?' And they sball answer, 'Yes.' And a Herald shall proclaim between them: 'The curse of God be upon the evil doers,

II Who turn men aside from the way of God, and seek to make it crooked, and who believe not in the life to come I '

"And between them shall be a partition; and on the wall al-A'riif. shall be men who will know all, by their tokens, and they shall cry to the inmates of Paradise,' Peace be on you I ' but they ahall not !Jet enter it, although they long to do so.

II And when their eyes are turned towards the inmates of the Fire, they shall say, '0 our Lord I place us not with the offending people.'

II And they who are upon al-A'raf shall cry to those whom they shall know by their tokena, 'Youramaas:'.'lgs and your pride have nailed you nothing.

"' Are theae they on whom ye aware God would Dot bestow mercy? Enter ye into Paradiae! where DO fear shall be UpOD you, Deither Ihall ye put to grief.'

II And the inmates of the fire Ihall cry to the inmatea of Paradise: 'Pour upon us some water, or of the refreshments God hath given you?' rhey shall they, 'Truly God hath forbidden both to· unbelievers."

For a further descriptions of the Mu~ammadan future state the reader is referred to the article P.UU.1J18E, which deale more directly with the aensual oharacter of the heaTen 8!1Pp08ed to be in store for the believer in the mission of MuQammad.

The following il a deacription of the believer which ia given in the Qur'in, Suratu 'l-Muminin, the xltlIlrd Siirah, T. 1 :-

II Happy now the Believers,

Who bumble themlelvel in their prayer, And who keep.loof from 'f&in words, _ And who are doers of alms-deede (zakat), And, who restrain their appetites,

(SaYe with their Wi'l'lll, or the alaves whom thllir right hands pO.lee.; for in tllat ca" the, .hall be free from blamo:

But the, whOle desirel reach further thaD thi. are tranegrellor.:)

ADd who tend 10.11 their trllllt. &lid their oOT,nanta,

And who ke.p them .trictl,. to their pra,er.:

ThaN Ihall be the herlton, who Ihall in-

herit Paraelil', to abide therein for ever."

BELLS. [lUQ17S.)

BENEFICE. [WAQI'.) BENEFICENCE (Ara.llie 1..4.-

~) il eOllUllended by )(u\l_&4 &I .. of Ua. 'Tidenc .. of fal"," (Jli.JiUl, Book L Co I. parU.)

BESTIALITY

41

AmI' ibn 'Abaratah relatee: II I __ to the Prophet and said,' 0 Prophet, what i. Islam?' And he laid, ' It is purity of speech and hospitality.' I then said,' And what il faitll? ' And he said, 'Patience and 6elltficence:"

BENJAMIN. Hcb.l"~~'~' Arabic (;)'"..~ Binyamin. The youngest of t he children of J aco b. He is not mentioned by name in tbe Qnr'an, but he il referred to in Siirah xii. 69, " And when they entered in unto Joseph, he took his brother (i.e. Benjamin) to stay with him. He said Verily I am thy brother, then take not that ill which they have been doing. AndwheD he had equipped them with their equipment, he placed tbe drinking-cup in hia brother'1 pack," &0. [JOSEPH.)

BEQUESTS. Arl\hic l.~, wa~iyah, pI. wa.iiyii. A bequest or will can be made verba lly, although it is held to be better to execute it in wl'iting. Two lawful witnesses are necessary to establish either a vorhal bequest or a written will. A bequest in favour of a stranger to the amount of one-third of the whole property, i~ valid, but a bequest to any amount beyond that is in .. alid, unl8l~ the heirs gil'e their consent. If " peraon make a bequest in favour of another from whom he has received a mortal wound, it i. not valid, and if a lllgatee slay his testator the bequest in hie favour is void. A bequeat made to part of the heirs is not valid nnle .. the otber heirs gi,.e their oonsent. The bequest of a Muslim in favour of an unbeliever, or of an unbeliever in favour of a Muslim, is valid. If a person be involved in debt, legacies bequeathed by him Are not lawful. A bequest in favour of a child yet unborn is valid, provided the !letua happen to be less than aix months old at the time of the making of the will.

If a teatator den, hia bequest, aDd the legatee produce witness81 to pron it, it i. generally held not to be a retractation of it. If a person on hie death-bed emancipate a .lan, it takes effect after hia death.

If a person will that "the pilgrimage iDcumbent on him be performed o. hi' behalf after hi. death," hia heirs must depute a persoD for the purpoee, and .npply him with the necllliary espenae.. (HamiltOD'1 HiJ41aA, ToL iT. "66.)

BESTIALITY i. lIIoid by Muslim Inrilt. to b. the relult of the mOlt Titiated app.tit. and the utmOlt d'prnitr of .. nti· mInt. But if a maD commit i., h. dO'1 DOt incur the l1udd, or .tated pUDilbm.ni. &I the act iw DOt cousidered to hu. tb. propertl •• of whoredom i the olender II W be punilhM by a eli.er.tionarJ correction (T"'lir). Aecordinc to Muslim la .. , the ~ 11l0uld be killed, and if it be of aD .. table 1ptCi'" " .hould be b1ll'lJt. (Hid41alt, ToL Ii. 21.) Oba. Aeeonliar W ih. Kotaie •• , • _ pilty of ihi. eria. .&1 .vely M lie pU te ~ (k:niii. 11.)

42 BITBQTRAL

BETROTHAL. [n!TUB.] BI'AH (Iaet). A Chri.till.D. church.

The word ocnur. in a tradition in the Mi.1Ikat (i'l'. c. 'l'ii. 2), and il tranllated by 'Abdu '1- I;Iaqq "KaiuaA." [CBBOR.]

BID'AH (oLt,..). A novelty or inDontion in religion; here.y; .chilm.

BIER.. Arabic IJu.. jindfIQ.h and jGtti.zaA. The lame word il ued for the corple, the bier, and the funeral. In mOlt MUQammadan countriel the ordinary c1aarpOf' or" bedstead," il ued for the bier, which, m the cale of a female, il covered with a canopy. [IIUBUL.]

( BIHISHT (o.:-LeI). The Persian word for the celestial regioD.l. [P-'lUJ)lIB, olW.ur, nBDAUI.]

BILADU 'L-ISLAM (,-1-" .tlt)·.

"The countrie. of Illim." A term ued m Mul)ammadan law for Mulim countriel. It il .ynonymou. with the term Diru '1-11 lim. [D .... U'I.-DUlL]

BILAL (Jlt). The fitlt M"I4!'Ein or caller to prayer appointed byllul)ammad. He wal an Abyllinian lla.,. who had been ranlomed by Abil Ban. He wal tall, dark, and ,aunt, with Degro featurea and buhy hair. Mul)ammad hODOured-ud diltinguished him a. the "Srlt fmite of AbYIsinia." He • urri.,.d the Prophet.

BILQIS (~). The Queen of

Saba', who 'l'ilited Solomon and became one of hil queeu. An accolUit of her, al it il giTOn in the Qur'in, will be found in the ItOry of King Solomon. [IOW.OX.]

BINT LAB'O'N «:)",s ~): II The

daughter of a milk-ginr." A female camel two yeara old j 10 called becaue the mother il then .uclding another foaL The proper age for a camel given in %{lleat, or "legal alm.," for camel. from thirtY-lix in number up to forty-live.

BINT MAlWA~ ("",\ai..e ~).

"The daughter of a pregnant." A female camel palled one year j 10 called becaue the mo>ther ia again pregnant. Thil II the proper age for a camel given in :ralcal, or " alml," for lIamelR from twenty-flve in number up'to thirty-five.

BIOG RAPHERS OF MUI;IAMMAD. Although the Qur'in may be .aid to be the key-stone to the biography of Muqammad, yet it containl but comparatively few referencel to the perloul hinory of the Prophet. The. Traditionl, .or .Alai.di" f~rm ~he chief matenal for all biographical histonll. [TIlJ.Dmox.) The flrst who attempted to compile an account of Muqammad in the form of a hiltory, was az·Zuqri, who died A.B. 12-&, and whoae work. no longer extant, il mentioned by Ibn Khallikin. The earliest biographical writerl whose workl are extant are-Ibn IIqiq, J..B 151 j AI-Wiqidi, A.B.

BIRTH

201; Ibn Hilhim, J..IL 218; Al-BukJlirl (history), A.B. 256 j At-Tabari, .A.IL 810. Amonglt more recent biographies, the mOl' noted .. rethoae by Ibnu 'I-A~ir, A.R. 630, and lami'n Abu '1-fldi', J..IL 732. Abu 'I-tidi'l work was tranllated into Latin by John G&gIIier, Professor of Arabic at Oxford, .A.D. 1728, aud into English by the Rev. W. Murray, Episcopal clergymen at Duffus in Scotland, and published (without date) at Elgin. The flrst life of Mu~ammad published in English il that by Dean Prideaux, which first appeared in 1723, and afterwards passed through aeveral editions. Dr. Sprenger commenced a life of Muqammad in Eng\ilh, and printed the fb:st part at Allahabad, India, A.D. 1851 j but it waa never completed. The learned author afterwards published the whole of Lis work in German, at Berlin, 1809. The only complete life of Muqamm .. d in English which has any pretension to original research, il the well-known Life of MaAomt!t, by Sir William Muir, LL.D. (First Edition, four vola., London, 1858-61; Second Edition, one vol., London, 1877).

BIOGRAPHY. A Dictionary of Biography is called JI..;, .4.., anna'" 'r-rijal (fit." The Names of Men"). Tbemost celebrated of these ia, amongst Muliml, that by Ibn Kballikin, which haa alwaYI been eonsidered a work of the highest importance for the civil and literary hiltCIry of the Mu~ammadan people. Ibn Kballikin died A.B • 881 (A.D. 1282), but hil dictionary reo,lnd numerou additioD.l from aub.equent writel'l. It hal been tranllated into Engliah by MacGuckin De Slane (paril, 1MB).

BIRDS. It is commonly believed by the Muqammadans that all kinde of birds, and many, if not all, beasts, have a language by which they communicate their thoughtl to each other, and in the Qur'in (Siirah xxvii. 16) it II stated tHat King Solomon wa. taught the language of birds.

BI'R ZAMZAM (~J _r,). The well of Zamzam. [ZAll-ZJ. •• ]

BI'R MAI(jNAH (&1,- ~). The

well of Ma'iinah. A celebrated spot four marches from Makkah, where a party of Muqammad's followers were slain by the Banii 'A.mir and Banii Sulaim. He profesaed to ha.,. received a apecial message from heaven regarding theae martyrs, which runl fllu :-" Acquaint our people that we have met our Lord. He i. well pleaaed with u, and we are well pleased with Him." It ia a remarkable verle, a8 having for lome reaaon or other been cancelled, and removed from the Qllr'in. (Muir'l Life of MaAO'l1Ut, vol. Iii. p. 207.)

BIRTH, Evidence of. According to the Imim Abu !;Ianifah, if a manied woman should olaim to be the mother of a ohlld, her claim is not to be valid unless the birth of of the child i. attllted by the testimony of au _ But in the cue of a father, iou-

B181lA.lUB

BRIBER!

much as ilIe claim of parentage is a matter which relates purely to himself, his testimouy alone is to be accepted.

The testimony of the midwife alone is aufticient with respect to birth, but with regard to parentage, it is established by the fact of the mother of the child being the wife of the husband.

U the woman be in her 'iddGh ['mD.t.B] from a complete divoree, the testimony of the mid wife is not sufilcient with respect to birth, but the evidence of two men, or of one man and two women, is requisite. (Hamilton's Hidiyala, vol iii. p. 184.)

It is also ruled that it is not lawful for a person to give e,.idence to anything which he has not oeen, except iJl the cases of' birth, death, and marriage. (Vol. ii. 676.)

BISHARAH (I)Uot). [BuaBBA..]

[ BI.SHAR' (tye. uI). Lit. II Wit,h-

but the law." A term applied to those mystios who totally disregard the teaching of ilIe Qur'in. Antinomiaua. [llun.]

BISMITJLAH (All' ,-t). Lit. II In

the name of God." An ejaculation frequently 1lIed at the commencement of any undertaking. There are two forms of the BismIllah:-

1. Bi-"mi 'lltiM 'r-rabllla.ni 'r-raMm, i.e.

"In the name of God, tbe Companionate, the Merciful" Thil is used' at the commenoement cf meals, putting on new clothes, begiDDing any new ,vork, and at the commencement of books. It occurs at the head of every chapter ol'-.ilraQ in the Qur'in, with the exceptien of ilIe u:th (i.e. the Suratll 'l-Barti'ala).

2. Bi-',mi 'lfilli 'lliihi 'l-akba», i.e. "In the. name of God, God the Most Great." Used at th. time of 8laughtering of animals, at the commencement of a battle, &c., the attribute of mercy being omitted on such occasione.

The formula Bi-'",.i 'lliJli 'r-rallmiini 'rrabim is of J e ... ish origin. It was in the tint iuatance taught to the Quraish by Umaiyah of T"if, the poe~, who was a contemporary but somewhat older than, ltIul).ammad, and who, during his mercantile journeys into Arabia Petraea and Syria, had made bimself acquainted with the sacred books and doctrines of Jews and Christians. (Kitiibu 't.Aghini, 16, Dolhi; quoted by Rodwell.)

BI~.A.'AH (kYt). A share in a. mercantile adventure. Property entrusted to another to be employed in trade.

BLACK STONE. [.u-HUA.RU'L.uWAD.)

BLASPHEMY. Arabic;S kufr.

Lit. " to hide" (the truth). It includes a denial of any of the essentiAl principles of Islim.

A Muslim convicted of blasphemy is sentenced to death in Mul).ammadan countries. [APOIT.uy.]

BLEEDING. Ara.bic Ll.,.. lJijamoh. The two great cures recommended by Mnl1-ammad were blood-letting and drinking

honey; and he taught that it was DDiucky to be bled on a Friday, Saturday, or Sunday, ,the most lucky day being Tuesday, and t~e most lucky dato the seventeenth of the month. (Mi,llkiit, :l:li. c. 1.)

BTJIND, The: Arabic .A'ma, pl. , [llllyiin. It is not incumbent upon a blind man to engage in Jihad, or a religi01ll war. And, according to the Imim Abiil;lanifah, the evidence of a blind person is not admillible, but the Imim Zufar maintain. tbat luch evidence is lawful when it affects a matter in which hearsay prevails. Sales and purchasel made by a blind person are l .. wful (Hamilton's Hidiiyala, vol ii., pp. 141,402,682.)

BLOOD. The sale of blood il

unlawful (Hamilton's Hidiiyala, vol. ii.

p.428.)

BLOOD, The Avenger of. [QIS.u.] BLOOD, Issue of. [ISTIHAUB.] BOASTING. Arabic '""",- muja.

Marala. Mul).ammad is related to have said, .. I awear by God, a_ tribe m1llt desist from boa.ting of their forefathere; for they are nothing mort than coals from hell-tire (i ... they were idolaters); and if you do not leave off boa.ting, urily you will be more hateful in the sight of God than a blaok-beetle. Mankind are all the Ions of Adam, anlL' Adam wa. of the earth." (MWaktit, :uii. c. 18.)

BOOKS OF MOSES. [UUBAT.] BOOKS, Stea.ling. The ba.nd of .. thief is not to be cut off for stealing a book, whatever be the subject of which It treats, because the object of the theft can only be the content, of the book, and not the book iuelf. But yet, it Is to be observed, the hand is to be cut off for steaWig .. an account book," because in this cas. i\ ia el'ident that the object of the theft is not the contents of the book, but the paper and material of which the book is made. (Hamilton's Hidiiyala, vol ii. 92.)

BOOTS. [SHOBS.]

BREACH OF TRUST. Arabic 8J~ kl!iyana,h. The punishment of' amputation of the hand is not infticted for a breach of trust. And if a guest steal the property of hiB host ... hilst he is staying in his house, the hand is not cut off. Breach of trust in Muslim law being a less offence than ordinary theft, the punishment for breach of trust is left to the discretion of the judge . (Hamilton's Hidiiyala, vel, ii, pp. 98-102.)

BRIBERY (Arabic ,,.) ri.hwah) is not mentiened in the Qur'in. In the l'atiiwG 'Alamgiri it is stated that presents to magietrates are of ,..rious kinds; for &:lample, if ~ present be made in order to establish a friendship, it is lawful; bnt if it be given to induence the decision of tbl'l judge in the donor', favour, it is unlawful It is alao said, it a present be made to a judge from a .en .. of

48

7

fear, it II lawf1ll to rln it, but unlawful to accept it. (Ramiltoa'i BidayaJa, ~ol. iii. p.88~.)

BU'AS, Battle of. Ara.bic w\,q .... r: lJarb Bu'i,. A battle fought between the Banu Kbazraj and Banu Aua, about Iix- 11&n before the dight of Muqammad from Makbh.

BUHTAN (<:)~). A fa.lse accu-

lation j oalumn1.

Th. word oeeurs twic. in the QUr'in :Siirah i~. 112: "Whoao oommits a fault or lin, and tbrowl it upon one who ia innocent, h. hath to bear ca1umn1 (buJitlin) and manif.ata in. "

Siirah ltxl~. 15: "And why did ye not aay when ye heard it, ' It ia not for ua to apeak of thil'? Celebrated be Thy praiaes, this is a mi&'h~oa1umny (buhtin)." [BACKBlTllfG.]

BUKA (.~). Reb'M:J:l 1t.e wept.

Weepm, and lamentation forth; dead. Immoderate weeping and lamentation onr the graTeS of the dead II clearly forbidden by MUQamIDa"', .. ho il related to ha~e laid, "Wh ... te~er i. from tll' 81" (i.. tean), and whatever is ~om the he&I1.(i.t. scrrow), are frem God j but .. hat i. from the hands and tongue ie from the de"iL A.Mp youreeh'es, 0 women, from wailiDlr, which 11 the noile of the devil," (Mi,/,kit, ~. c. Tii.) The cllltom of wailinr at the tumbl of ill. dead ia, uowner. common in all Kullammaian o<)untriea. (See Jirabian Ni!}/lt" Lane'. Jlodern EgyptiGRI, Shaw'a TruwJ. in &r~.) [aLJILU..)

A.L-BUlUIARI (",)~I). A short title given to the welH,nown collection of SUIlDi traditiolll b1 Abu' Abdu "lib Mullammad iltn lsmi'i! ibnlLl'ibim Ibn al-Mughirab al-Ju'fj al-liuADllri, who .. al boni at Bukhil'i, .. IL 1114 (A.D. IUO), and died at the ~iUage d lQlartaDg near bamarqand, A.IL :106 (A.D. b'O). hi. cLmpilation cLmpl1sei upwill,d. of 7,0\,0 tl'&ditiolll Gf the acte and aayiogl of the Propuet, selected from a ma .. of bOO,OOO. His boos is caUed the .:;alIib 0/ a/-Buls!J.iri, and ia laid to have been the result ot lixteen yeari labour. It il uid that he waa so anxious to record only tl'U6tworthy tradltionl that he performed a prostration in worship before the Almighty before be recorded each tradition.

BUIalTU NA~AR (_,..; wW::).

.. Nebuchadnezzar." It 18 tbought by Jalilu 'd-dlD tbat there il a reference to his army taking Jerusalem in the Qur'in, Surah uii. Il, .. And when the threat lor the last (crime) came (to b. iDdicted, we sent an enemy) to barm your facea, and to enter tbe temple aa they entered it the firet timo." The autbor of the Qimu. lays that Buk!J.t is "son," and N:II,ar, .. an idol," i.e; "tile son of Nanar."

BOLAS (vJ,.). II Despair." The

11&111. of ODe of tbe chambers "f beli, where the F.ud will drink of the yellew water of tbllmemal regions, (Mi,hlcit, mi. c. 20.)

lSUBUL

BURAQ (oJ',,). Lil ... The bright

one." The animar upon which Mubammad is said to have performed the nocturnAl journe1 called Mi'rij. He was a wbite llllimal~ between the size of a mule and an aSI, baving two wings. (Maj"ra'u 'I.BiMr, p. 89.) Mul;1ammad's conception of thia inyaterious animal is not unlike tbe Aasyrian gryphon, of which Mr. Layard gives a ak.etch. [JU'B4J.]

'1'JIB .A.B1ITJLl.A.l( GIlTPBOX (Layard ii .• 69). BURGLARY is punished as an ordinary theft, namely by tbe amputation of the band, but it il one of the niceties of MuI)ammadan law, according to tbe ,ijaDafi cede, tkat if a thief break tbrough the wall of the bouse, and enter therein, and take the property, and deliver it to an accomplice IIt.ndinr at tbe entrance of tbe breacb, amputation of the band is not incurred b1 either of the parties, becaua. tl:. thief who 8l1tered the hOUie did DOt C&rr1 out the propert1. (Hidiyah, vol, ii. 108.)

BURIAL OF THE DEAD (1;4 JinazaJa or JGniizali). The term JGflazah ia ueed both for the bier and for the Muhammadan funeral serviee. Tbe bDl'ial service ia founded upon tho practice of MUQammad, Ind varie. but little in different countries, although tb. ceremonies connected with the funeral procession are diversified. In Egypt and Bukhiri, for instance, the male relations snd frieDds of the deceased precede tbe corpse, while,t tbe female mournera follow behind. In India and Afghinistin, women do not lII\1ally attend funerals, and the friends and relatives of the de celled walk behind the bier. There is a tradition amoDgst acme Mull.mmadans that no on. should precede the corpse, as the aDgela go before. Funeral processionl in Afgbinistu are u8ually ~ery aimple in their arrangements', and are said to be more in accordance with the practice of the Prophet, than those of El!ypt and Turkey. It is considered a very D18ri~rious act to calTY the bier, and four from among the near relations, every now and then relieved by an equal number, carrJ it au their shoulders. Unlike our Christian custom of walkinr slowly to the gran, the Mul;lammadans cany Iheir dead quickly to the place of interment j for MUQammad is related 10 ha ~e said, I hat it ia good to ClrrJ tHe'dead quickly to the gran, to cause the righteoul person to arrin soon at hap pines.,

1I11BIAL

and if he be a bad man, it il well to put wickedness away from one's shoulders. Funerals should al waYI be attended on foot; for it is said that Muhammad on one occasion rebuked his people' for following .on horseback. .. Have you. no shame?" said be, "since God's angels go on foot, and you go upon the backs of quadrupeds?" It is a highly meritorious act to attend a funeral, whetber it be that of a MUllim, a Jew, or a Christian. There are, however, two traditionl which appear to mark a change of feeling on the part of the Prophet of Arabia towards the Jews and Christians. .. A bier passed by the Prophet, and he stood up; and it was said to the Prophet, this is the bier of a Jew. 'It is the holder of a soul,' he replied,' fl'om which we should take warning and fear.'" This rule iuaid to have been abrogated, for, .. on one one ocealion the Prophet sitting on tbe road when a bier passed, and the Prophet disliked that the bier of a Jew should be higher than his bead, and he therefore stood up." (Mi.hleit, v. o. v.) Notwithstanding these contradictory traditions, we believe that in all countries MUl}ammadans are wont to pay great re.pect to the funerala of both Jews and Christian I.

Tbe Mlil}ammadan funeral service il not recited in the graveyard, it being too polluted a place for so 8&cred an office j but either in a mosque, or in some open space near the dwelling of the deceased person or the graveyard. Tbe owner of the corpse, i.e, the nearelt relative, is the proper person to recite the lervice j but it il usually said by the family Imim, or tbe Qi~i.

The following il the order of the service:Some one present caUl out,-

" Here begin the prayerll for the dead." Then thOle present arrange tbemsel ves in

three, tive, or leven rows opposite the ecrpse, with their facell Qiblnh-wards (i.e. towards Ma'kkah). The ImiDI stands in front of tbe ranks opposite the head (tbe Shi'ahl stand opposite' the loinl of a man) of the corpse, if it be that of male, or the waist, if it be that of a (emale.

The wbole com;p'any having taken up tbe Qigim,or standing pOlition, the ImiDI recitel tbe Niyab.

"I purpose to perform prayers to God for this dead persoD, consisting of four Talcbir •. " Then placing his hands to the lobes of his ears, he sayl tbe first TaHir.

" God is great I"

Then folding his hands, the rigbt hand placed upon the left, below the navel, he recite. the Subl&in:-

" Holineu to Thee, 0 God, .A!ld to Thee be praise. Great is Thy Name. Great is Thy Greatnels. Great il Thy Praise.

There is no deity but Thee. H Then follows the second Takbir:"God is great I "

Then the Durild:-

"0 God, have mercy on MUQRmmad anA npon his delclIDd&1ltl, as Thou didat beltow

lIUllUL

45

mercy, and peace, and bIassing, and compa.sion, and great kindness upon Abraham and upon his descendants.

.. Thou art praised, and Thou art great I "0 God, bless MUl}ammad and his descendants, as Thou didst bless and did8t have compassicn and great kindness upon Abra· ham and upon his descendants."

Then follows the third Takbir:.. God il great I "

After which the following prayer (Du'i) il recited:-

.. 0 God, for¢ve our living and our dead and those of us who are present, and those who are absent, and our children, and our full grown persons, our men and our women. 0 God, those whom Thou dost keep ali"e amongst us, keep alive in Islim, and those wham Thou causest to die, let them die in the Faith."

Then follow8 the fourth Talcbtr:.. God is great I "

Turning the head round to the right, he says:-

.. Peace and mercy be to Thee."

Turning the head round to the left, he says:-

.. Peace and mercy be to Tbee."

The Tukbir is recited by the Imim aloud. but the SuMan, the SalGm, the Dum, and the Du·ii., are recited by the Imim and the people in a low voice.

'The people then seat themselves on the ground, .and raise their hands in silent prayer in behalf of the deceased'. soul, and afterwards addressing the relatives they say, .. It is the decree of God." To wbich the chief mourner replies, .. I am pleaaed with the will of God." HA then givel permission to the people to retire by saying," There is permi.lion to depart."

Those who wiah to return to their houle. do so at this time, and the relt proceed to the grave. The cOl'pse is then plaeed on it. back in the grave, with the head to the north and feet to the south, the face being turned towards Makkah. The persons who plaoe the corp"e in the grave repeat the following sentence: .. We commit thee to earth in the name of God and in the religion of the Prophet."

Tbe bands of the shroud ha"ing been Ioosed, the reeess, which il called the la[ad, I. closed .in with unburnt brick. and the grave filled in with earth. [OR.A.VE.] In some countries it is usnal to recite verse 67 of the xxth Siirah of the Qur'ill as the clodl of earth are thrown into the grave; but thi. practice is objected to by the Wahhibi., and by many learned divine.. The verse is .. followl:-

.. From it (the earth) have W. (God) created you, and unto it will We ret·urn you. and out of it will W. bring you forth the second time."

After the burial, the people oBer afitiW (i.e. the first chapter of the Qur'in) in the name of the decease d, and again when th.y have proceeded about forty pacell frem the gra ve they oBer another ratiluzA; for at thia

46

BUltUL

juncture, it il laid, the two augels Mnnkir anll N akir examine the deceued as to hie faith. [rpNISBJlEII'TII or THE a.AVE.] After this, food ill dilltributed to beggarl and religious mendicants as a propitiatory offering to God, in the name of the deceased person.

If the grave be for the body of a woman, it should be to the heigh~ of a man's chest, if for a man, to the height of the waist. At the bottom of the grave the recess is made on the side to receive the corpse, which i8 called the 1a.[I'd or la[ld. The dead are seldom interred in cotlins, although they are not prohibited.

To build tombs with stones or burnt bricks, or to write a verse of the Qur'in upon them, is forbidden in the Radis; but large stone and brick tombs are common to all Mn~ammadan countries, and very frequently they bear inscriptions.

On the third day after the burial of the dead, it i. Ulual for the relatives to visit the gl'ave, and to recite selections from the Qur'in. Those who can afford to pal. Maulavil, employ these learned men to recite the whole of the Qur'im at the graves of their deceased relatives; and, the Qur'in is divided into lIections to admit of its being recited by the leveral Maulavis at once. During the daYII of mourning the relativell abstain from wear!Dr any article of drlln of a bright colour, and their soiled garmentll remain unchanged.

A funeral procession in Egypt Is graphically described by Mr. Lane in his Modnn .t'g~tiafll. We give the account as it contra.ts strikingly with the simple proceselons of Sunni Muhammadans in India.

II The first' persons are about .ix or more poor men, caUed' Yamaniyah,' mostly blind, who proceed two and two, or three and three, together. Walking at a moderate pace, or ratber ~lowly, they chant incessantly, in a melancholy tone, the profession of faith (' There is no deity but God; Muhammad is Ood's A postle; God fa vour and preserve him I'). They are followed by some male relationll and friends of the deceased, and, in many cases, by two or more persons of some sect of darwcshes, bearing the flags of their order. Tbis iM a general custom at the funeral of a darwesh. Next follow three or four or more schoolboys; one of them carries a Inu4(1af (or copy of the Qur.'iin), or .a volume cons~~tiug of one of the thirty sections of the Qur an, placed upon a kind of desk formed of .palmIticks, and covered over, genel'ally WIth an embroidered kerchief. These boys chant, in a higher and livelier voice than the Yamaniyah, usually some words of a poem called the I;l<llJnri.'Iah, descriptive of the events of the last day, the judgment, &c. T~e scho.olboys immediately precede the bier, which IS borne head-foremost. Three or four friends of the deceased usually carry it for a short distance; then three or four other friends bear. it a little further; and then these are in like manner relieved. Casual paslengers, also, often tak~ part in ~his. serTic" which is esteemed highly meritcrioua. Behind the bier .. alk the female mournell;

BlJ'BtAL

lometimel a group of more than a dozen, or twenty; with their h&ir dishevell,d, tho118'h generally concealed by the bead-veil; crying and shrieking, as before delcribed ; and often, the hired mourners accompany them, celebrating the pr&ises of the deceased. Among the women, the relation8 and dome8tics of the deceased are distinguished by a IItrip of linen or cotton stuff or muslin, generally blue, bound round the head, and tied in a single knot behind: the endl hanglug down a few inches. Each of these also carries a handkerchief, usually dyed blue, which she sometimes holds over her ahculders, and at other times twirls with both handl over her head, or before her face. The cries of the women, the lively chanting of the youths, and the deep tones uttered by the Yamaniyah, com. pose a strange dilcord .

.. The funeral proceslion of a man of wealth, or of a person of the middle cla8ses, is lometimes preceded by three or four or more camell, bearing bread and water to give k the poor at the tomb, and ill composed of a more numerOUI and varied allemblage of persona. The foremost of theae are the YamaDiyah, who chant the profeasion of the faith, as de8cribed above. They are generally folia wed by some mal, friend. of ~e dec.ealed, and lome learned and devout persons who have been invited to attend the funeral. Next foliowl a group of four or more f.qihs, ,ohantlug the ' Siiratu '-An'im ' (the nth chapter at the Qur'iD); and lometimel, another group, chantilli the 'Silrat Yi-lin' (the :u;xnth ohapter); another, ohantlng the • Siirldu 'IRahf' (the svmth ohapter); and another chanting the' Stiratu 'd-DuihiD' (the XLlVth chapter). These are followed by some mnnIhids, singing the 'Burdah;' and theBe by certain perlons called • A'9ibu 'l'AQzib,' who are members of reUgious orders founded by oelebrated shai khs. There are generall:~ four or more of the order of the Hizbu 's.Sidit, a similar group of the l;Iizbu 'sh-Shizili, and another of the Rizbu 'sh-Sha'riwi; eachjiP"pup chants a particular form of prayer. After them are generany borne two or more halffurled flags, the banners of one or other 01 the principal orders of darweshea. Then follow the Ichool-boYI, the bier, and the female mourners, a8 in the procession before described, and, perhaps, the led horses (If the bearers, if tbese he men of rank. A bu.tfalo, to be sacrificed at the tomb, whel!8 its flesh is to be distributed to the poor, sometimel closes the procession.

.. The funeral of a devout shaikh, or of one of the great 'Uiamii, il 8till more numeroully attended, and the bier of such a person is not covered with a shawl. A' wali' il further honoured in his funeral by a remarkabls custom. Women follow his bier, but, iDlltead of wailing, as they would after the corpse of an ordinary mqrtal, they rend the air with the shrill and quavering cries of joy called , zaghiiri~ , ; and if these cries are dilcontinued hut for a minute, the bearers of the bier protest that they oannot prooeed, that a supernatural power rivets them k the spot OD

BURIAL

whioh they .~nd. Very often. it il l&id. a , wali' impeb the bearers of hia corpae to a particular spot. The following anecdote. deacribing an ingenious mode of puzzling a dead laint in a case of thia kind. waa related to me by one of my friends. Some men .... ere lately bearing the eorpae of a ' wah' to a tomb prepared for it in the great cemetery on the north of the metro{,olia. but qn arriving at the gate called Bibu n.Na~r ..... hich leads to the cemetery. they found themaelves unable to proceed further. from the cause above-mentioned. ' It seems.' laid one of the bearers, 'that the shaikh is determined not to be buried in the cemetery of Bibu 'n-Nasr, and what .hall we do?' They were all much perplexed. but being as obstinate as the saint himself. they did not immediately yield to his caprice. Retreating a lew paces. and' then aduncing with,. quick step. they thonght by such an impetus to fprce the corpse through the gate .... ay i but their efforts were unsuccesaful i and the aame eltperiment they repeat-d in vain several times. They then placed the bier on the ground to rest and consult i and one of them. beckoning a ... ay his comrades to a diltance beyond the hearing of the dead lAint, laid to them. 'Let ua take up the bier again. and turn it round several times till the Ihajkh becomes giddy i he then will not know in what direction ... e are going. and we may take him eaaily through the gate.' Thia they did i the aaint waa puzzled as they expected, and quietly buried in the place which he had 10 Itriven to avoid.

"In the funerals of femalea and boya. the bier il uaually only preceded by the Yamani· yah, chanting the profession of the faith. and by lome male relationa of the deceased i and followed by the female mourners; unless the deceased were 01 a family of ... ealtb, or of ecasiderable Itation in the world i in which cale, the funeral proceasion is distinguished by aome additional display. I shall gi\"e a Ihort description of one of the most genteel and deccrcus funerals of this kind that I ha~e witnessed: it was that of a young. unmarried lady. Two men, each bearing a large. furled. green Hag, headed the procession. preceding the Yamaniyah, who chanted in an unnsually low and solemn manner. These Iaqirs, who were in number about eight. were followed by a group of fakihs, chantinK a chapter of the Qur'in. Neltt after the latter ... as a man bearing a large branch of 'N abq' (or lotetree), an emblem of the deceased. On each • i<l.e of him walked a person bearing a tall st utJ or cane. to the top of which were attachod several hoops ornamented with strips of various coloured paper. These were Iollowed by two Turkish soldiers, side by side. one bearing, on a small round tray, a gilt lil~er 'qumqum' of rose- water, and the otber bearing, on a similar tray. a 'mibkharah' of gilt silver. in which some odoriferous subItauce (al benzoin, or frankincense) was burning. These vessels diffused the odour of their contents on the way. and were after· wardft ueed to perfume the lepulchral vault. PalleDgerl were occalionally Iprinkled

BUBNING

47

with the rOle-water. Nest followed four men. each of whom bore. upon a Imall tray, several small lighted tapers of .... alt. stuck in lumps of paste of '~inni.' The bier wal covered with rich shawls. and itl shihid ... al decorated with handsome ornaments of the head. having, besides the ,afi. a 'qu~~ah almlis' (a long ornament of gold aud dia· monda worn over the forehead). and, upon its flat tor, a rich diamond qurs. These were the jewels of the deceased, or were. perhape, as is often the case, borrowed for the cecasion. The female mcumers, in number about seven or eight. clad in the Ulual maDDer of the ladies of Egypt (with the black silk covering. &c.). followed the bier. not on foot, as is the common custom in funerals in this country. but mounted on high-ssddled asses i and only the last t ... o or three of them were wailing; theRe being, probably, hired mournen. In another funeral-proceeslcn of a Iemale, the daughter of a Turk of high rank, the Yama· niyah wero followed by silt slaves, walking two by two. The first t .... o Ilaves bore IlBch a ailrer qumqum of rose- ... ater .... hich they sprinkled on the passengers i and one of thelll honoured me so profusely al to wet my dresl \"cry uncomfortably i after which, he poured a small quantity into my hands j and I ... etted my face with it, according to custom. Each of the neltt two bore a silver IIlib"arah, with perfume i and the other two carried a silver ·ii.zqi (or hanging eeeser), with bumiDg charcoal of frankincense. The je_ll on the shiiohid of the bier ware of a cOltly description. Eleven ladies. mounted on high. saddled allel, together with several naddibahs, follo ... ed."

BURNING THE DEAD.

There

is no eltpress injunction. in eitber the Qur'in or the TI'aditions, regarding the burning of dead bodies, although the burning of the living is strictly forbiddeu. For Mu~ammad said, "Punish not with God's punishment (which is fire), for it is not fit for anyone to punish with fire but God." (Mi.hktit, ltiv

c. r. part 1.)

The teaching of the Traditions is that a dead body;'s as fully conscious of pain as a living body. for'Ayishah said. that the Prophet said. " The breaking of the bones of a corpse is the same as doing it in life." (Mishlctit, v.

c. vi. part 2.)

It is. therefore, pretty clearly established that cremation of the dead is strictly forbidden by the Mu~ammadan religion. There is • however. nothing to confirm the impression that the burning of a corpse in any ... ay prevents its soul entering paradise.

BURNING TO DEATH is strictiv forbidden by Muslim law. 'Ikrimah l'elat8s that some apostates from Islam were brought to the Khahfab 'Ali, and he burnt them i and when 11m 'Abbas heard of it, he said." Had they been brought to me. I would not ha\"e burnt them; for the Prophet said, 'Punilh not with God's punishment. Verily it is not fit for anyone to punish with fire but God.''' (Mi.A/ciit, ltiv. ,.. - .,art 1.)

48

BUJlQA.'

BUBQA' (ea,,) , The Yeil or COTer· Illif ued for the aecluion of women when walkiDI abroact [vall.tIfG O. WOMB1(.]

BURO"J (S,,.), Lit, "Towl'rs," which lome Intel'pret al real towers wherelll the &lIIfela keep watch. A term ued for the twelYe ligns of tbe zodiac, [IIG .. O. TWa IODue.' AI.Burllj i, the title of the LXXltvth 8ilrah 01 the Qur'b,

BURYING OF THE DEAD, It ie laid by commenutora that God talllfht m&llkind to bury their del\d when " God sent a crow to .cratch the e&rth, to ahow him

~&in) how he might hide his brother'. body.", ariD, Silrahv, 8(,: Tqfrir·j.l,1u,aini, ill .) The oUltom of burying their dead il unh'eraal in Islim, The ceremomea con. nected with funeral. will be found in the article on Burial [BOJW.L.]

BURYING.QROUND, Arabic I~ _glxarat or lIIaqbaru.4, .. the place of graves," P.rsian Qa6r-giA, or Qabn.tm., They u. lometimel .poken of by religion. MusUms as Jlarqad, a .. cemetery" or "aleeplng.place," but the ame has not obtained a genenl

.,./' c.

~

C&S~R, The Arabic and Persian form of the Latin O.lar in Qaj,ar, The won! OCCllrl in the traditioDi of the $abi~u 'I· Mllllh·,. (vol U, p. 99), where It is applied to the Emperor Herac!iu, who received a letter from Mu",ammad invltilli him to I,lam, when he wu at Ede .. a on hil way to .Jerusalem, ADg1lIIt, A.D, S28. The origin of the title is uncertain. SpartianuI, in hi. life of Aeliul verq (0. 11.), mantiolll four dllJerent opinions rl8plcting It. origin: (1) That the word lig. nified an eleph&llt In the 1anguage of the Maori, and wa. given al a sumame to one of tb,Julil becau .. &e had killed an elephant i or (2) That It wa. given to one of t.he Julii beeause he had been out (0_) out of hie mother's womb after her aeathl or (3) Because he had been born with" a great quautity of hair (cauariu) 011 hi. head i or (4) Because he had azure· ooloured (ca~i) eyel. Of these opinions the .eoond i. the one adopted by the Arabic~ Penian Dictionary the (}Myi~u 'l.Luglait.

Tbe firat of the Julian family who occun in bi,tory aa havllllf obtained the 'Burname of O.,lar II Suo JuliUl OllBlar, prllltor in D.C, 2OS. It waa flr.t .a.umed al an imperial title by AuguitUi al tbe adopted .on of the dictator, and 1I'a8 by Augustu8 handed ","own to hi. adopted son Tiberiul. It continued to be uaed by Caligula, Claudius, and Nero, &I members, eitber by adoption or female descent, of Cl1lsar', family; but thougb the family became extinct witb Nero, aucceeding Gmpiiovoa itill o.t.iiled is al pint of their

(JALIlB

application to burial-rroDD4e ill the Btlet II ii hal in tbe Welt. Tbeyaregenerallylilt_ted outlide the city, the gravel being 'co"ered witb pebblea, and diatinguiahed by healiltonel, tbole on tbe gravel of men being with a turban· like Iaead. l'he araves an dug from north to south. The grave·yarda arl Dlually !llIlch neglected. The Wahhihi. hold it to be a Jl"eritorioul act, in accordanoe ",ith the Injunctlona of the Proppet, to neglect the gravel of the dead, the erection of bricllr. tombi being forbidden. (HidiiyaA, Arabic ed., va!. I. p. 90.) A araTe.yard doea not becoml' p.blic property until the prl)prietor formally malt .. a gift Of bequelt of It. (BidiiyaJa, vol iI., p.861.)

BUSHRA «(,,$~). "Good nlltWI; " "'he gospe!." A word uaed in the Tr:aditionl for the publication of Ialam. (Mi,hk,it,:uiv. q. i.) ". Accept good ne .. l, () ye 10111 of Tami~" wbich 'Abdu 'l.J.iaqq layl mealll .. ~brace 1I1am."

BUYING. [BAl'.]

BUZURG (.d~) Lit." !l~A.t;," A Persian word ued III tbe Ealt for.a eaintly par.on, an old mID, or a per.on of rank •

tltl.l, and it wal the practice to pre:Bx It to their own name, ai, for Inltanoe, I~,perat(W' C-ar DOlllitianu.Augultu., The title wa. ,uperaeded. in the Greek Empire under Alexia Commenul by thlt of SeLaatocrator. In .the weat, it wa. conferred on Chari" tbe Great, and W88 borne by those who succeeded him on the imperial throne. Although thi. dignity came to an end with the resignation cf Francis IL in 1806, the title Kaiser ia .till aBsumed by the Emperors of Auatria and Germany, and more recently by the Q:ueen of England a. Qpi,ar·i·Bind, or Empress of IndiL

CAIN, Arabic JI\J Qdbil U;?abiZ), The account of Cain and Abel as given in the Qur'iD, Sill'ah v, 50, will be found in the article ABEL. The Commentators 8ay tbat the occasion of making the olJering wal a. follow8: Each of them being born .. itb • twin lister, Adam by God's direction ordered Cain to marry Abel's twin sister, and Abel t·o marry Cain's, but that Cain refused. They ..... ,re then ordered to submit the question by m;alr.illlf a IlIcriHce, and Cain olJered a ahed of t.he very worst of hiB corn, whillt Abel olJered 'the best tatted lamb of hia fiock. (Tqf.iru 'l.l~ai,ii1l;f. ill loco.)

CALEB. Arabic Kalab, T:be son of Jephunneh (1'Ii/a""411). He ia nl)t men· tioned in the Qur'in, but hi. name OI:Cllrl in tbe Taj.iru 'I·Bai,iillli, ill Silrab iv, 18.

OAL),

CALF, GOLDEN, The, which the Iaraelitea worlhipped, II mentioned 11'8 tlmea in the Qur'in. Siirabl ii. ~8, 88; iv. 102; vii. 146; u. 90. In Surah xx. 90, the person who made It II said to be u-Simiri. [1108 .... ]

CALIPH. [:KBA.Lll'AlI.] CALUMNY is expressed by the word (lhibali, whioh meanB anything whilpered to the detriment of an absent person, althongh it be trne. Buhltin, expre •• ing a falae aoousation. It i. striotly forbidden in both the Qnr'in and I;hdi.,. [OIlJJWl.]

CAMEL. Arabic na. In the Qur'in (Siirah lUXTiii. 17), the institution of oamels to ride upon is mentioned as an example of God's wisdom and kindne •• : "Do they not look then at the camel how she il oreated." AI a proof of the great usefulne8s of the camel to the Arabian, and of the manner in whioh Ita very existence hu influenoed his language, it is remarkable that in almost every page of the Arabio Dictionary Qam... (as also in Rlohardson'. edition), there II some reference to a camel.

Camela are a lawful sacrifice on the great f8ltivau and on other oocasions. And although It il lawful to Ilay a camel by laM, or by merely outting its throat, the most eligible method, according to Muslim law, is to llay a camel by fI<Il\r,or by spearing it in the hollow of the throat near the breast-bone, becaUBe, say. Abu aanitah, it is aooording to the _h, or practice of Mul;lammad, and auo because in that part of the throat three bloodves8eu of a camel are combined. (Hamilton's Hldiiyall, vol, Iv. p. 72.) There is zalciil, or legal alms, on camels. [ZAKAT.] Hul;lammadan law rules that the person who leads a string of camels Is responsible for .. nything anyone .of the camels may injure or tread down. (Ibid., iv. 879.)

CANAAN. Ara.bic Kan'iin. Ac. cording to al-Jalilt.in and al-Bai~iwi, the commentators, Canaan was the unbelieving Bon of Noah, but, according to the CbimtU dictionary, the grandson., who was drowned In the flood, and whose case is recorded In the Qnr'in (Surah xi U). He is said to be a son of Noah's wife Wa'ilah, who was an infidel "And the Ark moved on them amid waves like mountains: and Noah called to his Ron-for he was apart--' Embark with us, o my child! and be not with the unbelievers.' He said, 'I will betake me to a mountain that shall secure me from the water.' He said, 'None shall be secure this day from the tlecree of God, save him on wbom He shall have mercy.' And a wave passed between ~hem, and he was among the drowned."

CAPTIVES. ABir, pl. Usfirii and UBar~. With respect to captives, tbe Imiim, or leader of the army, has it in his choice to slay them, "because the Prophet put capUves to death, and also because slaying them terminates wickedness"; or, he may if he choose make them slaves. It is not lawful

OA'l"l'LlII

for the Imim to HDd eaptin, back k their home and oountry, becau .. that would be k strengthen the cause of iIIfIdeUty agalnat Islam. If they become Muslim, after their oapture, they must not be put to death, but they may be sold after their cooversion. A co~vertedcaptive must not be ln1fered to return to hi. country, and it is not lawful to release a captive gratuitously. The only method of dividing plunder whioh conal,ta of .laves, i, by selling them at the end of the e!pedition and then dividing the mouey. (HidiiyaA, ii. 166.) [ILUUT.]

C.A.R.A. V AN. Persian Ktirwcin,

Arabic Cbiftlall. A. the road, in the Eaat are often uUBafe and lead tllrough dreary wastes, merchants and travellers .... ociate together for mutual defence and comfort. These companles are oalled both """ill and qiftlali. The part, II alway' under the direction of a paid dlJ'ector, who is called Karwin· or Qifllah.Blilhi. If a caravan i. attacked on the road. the Mul1.ammadan law allows the ]lunilhment of oruoilxion for the offence. (Hidi.yah, vol ii. ] 81.) But it ts a ourious provi.ion of the KUlIim law that if some of the traveUer, in .. caravan oommit a robbery upon otherl of the .ame oaravan, puni.hment (i.e. of amputation) II not in· cnrred by them. (Vol iL 181.)

CARRION (Arabic.JCaif4A) is forbidden in the Qur'in, Stlrah ii. 80. "1'.\4, which dieth of illelf, and blood, and ,wine', flelh, and that over whioh any other nMIl. than that of God hath been invoked, iI- for. bidden. But he who ,hall partake of them by conltraint, without lust or wilfulnell, no lin shall be upon him."

CASTING LOTS. Zalam, or :

oasting lots by shooting arrowe, was an ancient Arabic oustom, whioh i8 forbidden by Mul;lammad in hie Qur'in, Siirah v. '; but qur'ah, or oasting lots, in ita ordinary 18IIS., is not forbidden, for '.A.yiahah relateB that when the Prophet went on a journey, he uaed to ca8t lots &8 to which wife he should take with him. (Hi.hleit Bibu 'l-Qa,am.)

CATS. Ara.bic Hi'frtzh.. Accord. ing to a I;hdi" of Abu Qutidah, who waa one of the Oompanions, Mul;lammad said, " Oata are not impure, they kesp watch around us." He used water from which a cat had drunk for hi. purifioations, and his wife • .A.yiahah ate from .. vessel from which a cat had .aten. (Hi.lJcil, book iii., c. 10, pt. 2.)

CATTLE. Ara.bic An'tim. They are said in the Qur'in to be the gift of God, Siirah xl, 79, "God it is who hath made for you cattle, that ye may ride on some and eat others."

Cattle kept for the purpose of labour, such as carrying burthens, drawing ploughs, ·&c., are not subject to zakiit, neither is there zakiil on cattle who are left to forage for one half year or more. (Hiddyah, i. 18.)

AI-An'im is the title of the Bixth Siirah of the Qur'in.

50

OAVl!I

CA VE, The Companions of the (Arabic A,&ibu 'l-kalIf), or the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus, form the subject of one of the chapters of the Qur'in, Siirah xviii. 6. (UILUIU'L'JLUIJ'.)

CELIBACY (Arabic 'U:l1tbah), although not absolutely condemned by Mu· ~amma.t, is held to be a lower form of life to that of marriage. It is related that 'U~miin ibn Ma!lj'iin wished to lead a celebate life, and the Prophetforbade him, for, said he, "When a Muslim marries he perfects his religion." (Mi,hleii.t, book xii. c. xx.)

CEYLON. Arabic Sarandib. The Commentators say that when Adam and Eve were cast out of Paradisa, Adam fell on the isle.nd of Ceylon, and Eve near Jiddah in Arabia, and that after a separation of 200 years, Adam was, on his repentance, conducted by-the angel Gabriel to a mountain near Makkah, where he found and knew his wife, the mountain being named' Arafah ; and .

- that afterwards he retired with her to Ceylon, when they continued to propagate their species. (D'Herbelot, B!bl. Orient., p. 65.)

CHASTITY. "Neither their (the Ml1.Ilima') tenets nor their practice will in aDy respect bear to eome Into competition with Ohristian, or eTen with Jewish morality. • • • . For instance, we call the Muslims chaste beoal1.le they abstained from indis· criminate profligaoy, and kept carefully within the bounds prescribed as licit by their Prophet. But those bounds, beside. the utmost freedom of divorce and change of wival, admitted an illimitable licence of cohabitatioD with 'all that the right hand of the believer might pOlsess,' ot, in other worell, with any posalble number of damsela he might ehoose to purchase, or receive in gift, or take captive in war." (Muir's Life of

_ Mahomet, vol. i, 272. [COlllCUBIlU.GE,8L.lVB8, IIUT'.lJI, DIVORCE, II.lRBUGE.]

CHARITY, as it implies tenderness and alJection, is expressed by bubb, or mahab. bah; as it denotes almsgiving, it is sadaqah. He who is liberal and charitable to the poor is called 1IIubibbu 'l·fuqartr.

CHERUBIM. Arabic Karim, pl.

Kanlbin; Lit. "Those who are near." H'eb.

O,=+~.,~. The word kanlbin is used by the commentator al·lJailliiwi, for the angela mentioned in the Qur'in, Siirah xl. 70: .. Those around it (the throne of God) celebra.te the pra.ise of their Lord, and believe in Him, and a.k pardon for those who believe." AI·Dai~iiwi lays the Kariibin are the highest rank, and the first created angela. Husain says there are 70,000 ranks of them round the throne of God. (TafsiTU 'I.Bai.ii.wi, TafBiTU Husain, in loco.)

CHESS. Arabic Sha1.ranj. According to the Hidiiyah, "It i. an abomipation to play at chsas, dice, or any other

OHILDREN

game, for if anything be staked it Is gambling (llIaiBir), which is expre8sly forbidden in the Qur'iin; or if, on the other ha.nd, nothing be ha.zarded, it is usele8s and vain. Besides, the Prophet has declared all the ensertainments of a Muslim to be vain except three: the breaking in ofbia horse, the dra.wing of his bow, and playing and aDtlusing himself with his wives. Several of the learned, however, deem the game at chess lawfbi as having a. tendency to quicken the understanding. This is the opinion of ash. Shiiji·i. If a ma.n pla.y at chess for a stake, it destroys the integrity of his character, but if he do not play for a sta.ke, the integri~y of his character is not affected. (Hamilton's Hida. yah, voL iv. p. 122.)

CHILDREN.

Ara.bic .A ulfi.d.

There are no special injunctions in the Qur'an regarding the customs to be observed at the birth of an infa.nt (eircumclsion not being even once mentioned ill tha.t book), nor with reference to the training and instruotion of ths young i but the subject ia frequently referred to in the Tra· ditions and in Muhammadan books on Ethics. Mu~ammadan8 have so largely incorporated the customa of the Hindus in India with their own, especially thOle obaerved at the births of children, that it I. sometimes difficult to distingui.b those which are special 6hara"teriatici of Islim i many of the custom8 recorded in Herklot's MURaimaRl, for example, being merely those common to Hindus as well aa Mu~ammadans. We shall, however, endeavour to describe those which are generally admitted to have some authority in the precepts of the Muslim religion.

(1.) At the birth, of a child, after he lias beon properly washed with wator and bound in swaddling clothes, he is carried by the midwife to the assembly of ma.le relativel! and friends, who have met on the occasion, when the chief Maulawi; or some person present, recites the A;a", or summons to p,rayer r AZA1II1, in the infant's right ear, and the lqii.mal, which is the A~in with the a.ddition of the words, "We are standing up for prayers" [IQAMAU]. in the left ear; a. custom which is founded on the example of the, Prophet, who is related to have done so at the birth of his grandson l;Iasan (Mi.hkii.t, book xviii. c. iv. 2). Tho Maulawi then chews a little date fruit and inserts it into the infant'R mouth, a custom also founded upon the example of Mu~ammad. (Jlishkii.t, book xviii. c. iv. 1.) This ceremony being over, alms are distributed, and fii.li6ahs are recited for the health and prosperity of the child. According to the traditions, the amount of silver given in alms should be of the same weight as the hair on the infant's head-the child's head being, sha ved for this purpose. (1~Ji8h. leii.t, ibid., part 2.) The friends and neigh. bours then visit the home, and bring presents, and pay congra.tulatory compliments 011 the joyfnl occasion.

(2.) The naming of the child should, aceording to the Tradition8 (Mi.hkit, ibid.), be

OHILDBEN

ginn on the aeventh day i the child being either named after aome member of the family, or after lOme aaint venerated by the family, or SOIDl! name suggested by the auspicious hour, the planet, or the sign of the zodiac. [BXOBCI8J1.]

(3.) On this, the snenth day, is observed also tho certlRony of • Aqiqah, established by MuJ:tammad himself (Bahu '1-' A'liqah in Arabic Ed. $altill of Abu Diud, vol. ii. p. 36) It consists of a sacrifice to God, in the name of the child, of two he-goats for a 'boy, and one he-goat for a girl. The goats must be not above a year old, and without spot or blemish. The animal is dressed and cooked, and whilst the friends eat of it they offer the following prayer :-" 0 God I I '>ffer to thee inHtcad of my own offspring, life for life, blood for blood, head for head, bone for bone, hair for hair, skin for skin. In the name of the gl'eat God,.1 do sacrifice this goat J "

(4.) The mother is purified on the fortieth day, when she is at liberty to ao about al usual, and it il on this day that the infant is generally placed in the swiuginl: cradle peculiar to eastern households. It is a day of some rejoicing amongst the membere of the Haram.

. (5.) As soon as the child ia able to talk, or when he has attained the age of four years, four months, and four days, he is taught the Bl,millaJa j that is, to recite the inacription which occurs at the commencement of the Qur'in: "Bi-""Ii 'Utihi 'r-ralamani 'r-ra[aim." In the name of God the Merciful, the Graciona. After this ceremony, the child i. lent to school and taught the alphabet, and to recite certain chapters of the Qur'in by rote.

(6.) According to the opinion of Bunni doctora, the circvmcilion of the child sholiid take place in his seventh year j the operation being generally performed by the barber. [CIBCUKCI810Jlf.] The child is not reqnired to obAerve alUhe customs of the Mualim law nntil he has arrived at puberty [pulIUTY]; bnt it i. held incumbent on parenti and guardiana to teach him the prayera &I 800n as he haa been eircnmcised.

(7.) The time when the child has finished ruitlng the whole of the (luran, once through, il allo regarded al an important epoch in the life of a child. On this occasion the scholar makel hi. obeisance to his tutor and presentl him with trays of sweetmeats, a suit of clothes, and money.

AI we have a).ready remarked, the instruction of youth is A freqnent subject of dilcualion 'in books of Muslim Ethics. The following, wJ::.ich is taken from the Akhlliq-i-JaliJi, is an interesting specimen of Mu~ammAdan ideas on the lubject:The first requisite is to employ a proper nurse of a wcll-balanced temperament, .for the qualities, both temperamental And spiritnal, of the nurse are communicated tG the infant. Next, since we are recommended by the 'rraditionl to give the name on the leventh day (after birth), the precef.t had better be conformed to. In delaying It, however, there is thia advantage, that time il given for a

OHILDBBN

51

deliberate aeleotion of an appropriate name. For, if we give the child an Ill-aslorted. one. his whole life ia embittered in conaequ~oe Hence caution in determining the name il one of the parent'l obligationl towardl hil offspring.

If, we would prevent the child'i aCquiring culpable habitl, we mUlt apply ourlelYel to educate him al loon al weaned. For though men have a oapacity for perfection, the tendency to vice ie naturally implanted in the souL The first requisite il to restrain hilll ablolutely from all acquaintance with thOle excesael which are ebaractertsed al vice. For the mind of children i8 like a clear tablet, equally open to any inlcription. Next to that, he should be tAught the institutes of r-aligion and rules of propriety, and, according all his power and CApacity may admit, confined to their practice, and reprehended and restrained from their neglect. Thus, at the age of seven, we are told by the Traditionl to enjoiu him merely to lay his prayers j at the age of ten, if he omits them, to admonish him by blowa, By praisiug the good and cenluriug the bad, we should render him emulous' of right and apprehenlive of wrong. We ehould commend him when he performs a creditable action, and intimidate him when he commits a reprehensible one; and yet we should avoid, if possible, subjecting him to pOSH-ive eensure, imputing it rather to overlight, 1e.t he grow audacious. If he keep hil fault a lecret, we are not to rend away the dilgui.e j but if he do so repeatedly, we mnat rebuke him leverely in private, aggravating the heinousness of luch a practice, and iptlmidating him from ita repetition. We mUlt beware, however, of too much frequency of deteetioll and reproof, fOJ: fear of hie growing u.ed to censure, and contracting a habit of reckles.neS8; -and thue, according to the proverb, U Men grow eager for that which il Withheld," feeling a tendency to repeat the olfence. For these reasonl we should prefer to work by enhancing the attraction of virtue.

On meat, drink, and fine clothing, he mUlt be taught to look with contempt, and deepl31 Impressed with the conviction that it il the practice of women only to prize the colouring and f\guriBg of dress ; that men ought to hold themselves above it. The proprietiel of meal-taking are thOle in whioh he Ihould be earliest inltructed, as far aa he can acquire them. He ehould be made to understand thet the proper end of eating i8 health and not gratification; that food and drink are a sort of medicine for the cure of hunger and thint j and juat as medicinel are only to be t.,Jten in the measure of need, accordiug a. dobea. may require their influence, food and drin" are only to be used in qnantity euftioient til satisfy hnnger and remove thirst. He should be forbidden to vary his diet, and taught to prefer limiting himself to II sinele dilh. Hie appetite should also be ch~,oked that he may be satisfied with meals at the Itated hour •• Let him not be a lo",r 0' deliaacie.. He should now and then be kept 011 dry bJUd only, in order that in time of need h. maT be

52

CHILDREN

able to subsilt on that. Habits like these are bettel' than riches. Let his principal meal be made in the evening rather than the morning, or he will be overpowered by drowsiness and lauitude during the day. Flesh let him han sparingly, or he will grow heavy and dull, Sweetmeat8 and other sueh aperient food should be forbidden him, as likewise all liquid at the time of meala. Incumbent a8 it is on all men to e8chew strong drinks, there are obvious reasons why it is superlatively so on boys, impaiPing them both in mind and body, and leading to anger, rasbues" audacity, and levity, qualities which such a practice is sure to confirm. Parties of this nature he should not be allowed unnecessarily to frequent, nor to listen to reprehensible conversation. HiB food should not be given to him till he has despatched his ta8k8, unless suffering from positive exhaustion. He must be forbidden to conceal any of hi8 actions, lest he grow bold in impropriety j for, manife8tly, the motive to concealment can be no other than an idea that they are culpable. Sleeping in the day and sleeping overmuch at night should be prohibited. Soft clothing and all the uses of luxury, such a8 cool retreats in the hot season, and fires and fur in the cold, he should be taught to abstain from j he should be inured to exercise, foot-walking, horse-riding, and all other appropriate accomplishments.

Next, let him learn the proprieties of conTersation and behaviour. Let him not be tricked out with trimmings of the hair and womanly attention to dress, nor be presented with rings till the proper time for wearing them. Let him be forbidden to boast to his companions of his ancestry OT worldly advantages. Let him be restrained from speaking untruths or from swearing in any case, whether true or false; for an oath is wrongful in anyone, and repugnant to the letter 'of the Traditions, saving when required by. the interest of the public. ~d even though oaths may be requisite to men, to boys they never can be so. Let him be trained to silence, to speaking only when addressed, to listening in the presence of hi8 elders, and expressing himlelf correctly.

For an instructor he should have a man of principle and intelligence, well acquainted with the discipline of morals, fond of cleanlinell, noted for Itataliness, dignity, and humanity, well acquamt,d with the dispositions of kingl, with the etiquette of dining in their company, and with the terms of intercour.e with all classes of mankind. It is desirable that others· of hil kind, and especially .onl of noblemeD, who.e manners have alwaYI a distinguished elegRee, .hould beat lahaol with him, '0 that in their loaiety he may elcape lalsitude, learn demeanour, and exert him.elf with emulation in his Itudies. If the inltruetor correct him with blowl, he must be forbidden to cry, for that is the practice of sian. and imbeciles. On the other hand, the inatructOi JIlust be careful Dot to neort to blow., _~ he il wit... of an offence opealy c-ntei. WIt ..

OHILDREN

compelled to inflict them, it i. deliI'&ble in the outlet to make them small in number and great in pain; otherwise the warning il8 not 10 efficacious, and he may grow audacioul enough to repeat the olfence.

Let him be encouraged to liberality, and taqht to look with contempt on the perishable things of this world; for more ill comes from the love of money than from the simoom fi. the desert or the serpent of the field. The lDI.im al-Ghazzili, in commenting on the text, "Pre~erve me and them from idolatry," say. that by idols is here meant gold and. silver; and Abraham's prayer is that he and hi. descendants may be kept far removed from the worship of gold and silver, and from fixing their affections on them; because the Ion of these '11'&1 the root of all evil, In hil leisure hours he may be allowed to play, provided it does not lead to excess of fatigue or the commission of anythiug wrong.

When the discerning power begins to preponderate, it should be explained to him that the original object of worldly po.s8llsiona is the maintenance of health; so that the body may be made to last the period requisite to the Ipirit's qualifying itself for ·the me eternal. Then, if he is to belong to the scientific classes, let him be instructed in the sciences. Let him be employed (as soon a. disengaged from studying the essentials of the religion) in acquiring the sciences. The b8II\ course is to ascertain, by es:amination of the youth'. character, for what science or art he is best qualified, and to employ him accordingly; for, agreeably to the proverb, "All faclUties are not created to the same person "j everyone is not qualified for every profe .. - sion, but each for a particular one.

This, indeed, is the expression of a principle by which the fortunes of man and of the world are regulated. With the old philoaoph81'S it was a practice to inspect the horoscope of nativity, and to devote the child to that profession which appeared from the planetary positions to be suitable to his nature. When a person is adapted to a profession, he can acquire it with little pains j and when 1lll&dapted, the utmost he can do i. but to waste his time and defer his establishment in life. When a profes.ion bears an incongruity with his nature, and. mean. and appliances are unpropitious, we, should noi urge him to pursue it, but 8xehaDiir8 it for some other, provided that there il no hope at all of sucoeeding with the flrlt j otherwile it may lead to lUI perplexity. In the proleeution of every profe8llon, let him ndopt a system which '11'111 call into play the ardour of hi. nature, a .. llt ~ In preler'rintl~ health, and prennt obtuslty and lallitude.

AI loon &8 he is perfect in a prClfeliioD, let him be required to gain hil linlihood thereby; in order that, from an ex:perienOl of it. advantajres, he may .trive to maater i$ completely, and make full prOflT888 in the minutia of ttl principl... And for ihi. linlihood he must be U'ainM to leek to

that hOMvable emol_t ~ -

ten.. tbe well-connecW. ...

OHILD STEALING

depend on the provision afforded by his father. For it generally happens, when the son8 of the wealthy, by the pride of their parents' opulence, are debarred from acquiring a profession, that they sink by the vicissitudes of fortune into utter insignificance. Therefore, when he has so far mastered his profession as to earn a livelihood, it is expedient to provide him with a consort, and let him depend on his separate earning. The Kings of Fars, forbearing to bring their sons up surrounded by domestics and retinue, sent them off to a distance, in order to habituate them to a life of hardship. The Dilemite chiefs had th!l same practice. A person bred ilpon the oppesite principle can hardly be brorighl to good, especially if at all advanced in years; like hard wood which is with difficulty ~traightened. And this was the answer Socrates gave, when asked why his intimacies lay chiefly among the young.

In training daughters to that which befits them, domestic ministration, rigid seclusion, chastity, modesty, and the other qualities already appropriated to women-no care can be too great. They should be made emulous of acquiring the virtues of their lex, but must be altogether forbidden to read and "rite. When they reach. the marriageable age, no time should be lost in marrying them to proper mates. (See A!!l!liiq-i-Jaliili, Thompson's ed.)

CHILD STEALING. The hand of a thief is not to be cut off for stealing a free-born child, although there be ornaments upon it, because a free person is not property, and the ornaments are only appendages i and also because the thief may plead that he took the child up "hen it was crying, with a view to appease it, and to deliver it to the nurse. But Abu Y iisuf does not.agree with l;Ianifah; for he says where the v.:Iue of the ornaments amounts to ten dirms, amputation is incurred. Amputation is also intlicted for stealing an infant slave, because a sl~v.e i8 prope~t, althongh Abii Yusnf says It II not. (HuMgah, ii. 91.)

CHOSROES. Ara.bie Klliluraw.

The King of Persia to whom Mu~ammad lent a letter inviting him to Islam. He is laid to be Naulherwin. (See GhiyiifU '1- Lughiit, in loco; refer allo to Muir's Life of MahoInet, vol. ii. 5~ n.)

CHRIST. [JJlstr8 CBBI8T.] CHRISTIANITY and CHRIS· TIANS. Arabic, N4Irittiyah, .. Ohriltiuity"; the term. ued for Ohri,tianl being N4Irin, pl N4IGra, or <[lallli.

OhrietlaDity leemlto have been wid,ly dif· fnIecl ba Arabia at the time of Mu~ammac1. Accordhqr to OaUIISin de Perceval, who qnotel from Arabic writen, Christianity exilted UII0 .... t the Banii Taghlib of Mllopotamia, \1M BeAii "AMu 'I-Qail, the Banii Hirl, of Najria, tile Bani Ghallin of Syria, and ~ tribee betwlllll &l.)(adiaab and al· :utU.

OHRISTIANITY

58

The historian Philostorgea (Hid. Ecclu. lib. 1, c. S) teUs U8 that a monk named Theophilus, who was an Indian bishop, was sent by the Emperor Constance, A.D M2, to the l;Iimyarite King of Yaman, -sad obtained per. mission to build three Christian' churches for those who professed Christianity; one at Zafar, another at 'Adan, and a third at Hurmuz on the Persian Gnlf. According to the same author, the Christian religion was introduced into Najrin in the fifth century. A bishop sent by the Patriarch of Alexandria was established in the city of Zafar, and we are told by Muslim authors, quoted by Cauuin de Perceval, that a Christian church was built at !;ian'a' which was the wonder of the age, the Roman Emperor and the Viceroy of AbY88inia furnishing the materiala and workmen for the building. The Arabs of YamaD "ere ordered by the ruler of Abyssinia tb perform a pilgrimage to this new church instead of to the Ka"bah; an edict which is said to have been resilted and to have ginn rise to the" War of the Ele; phant," when Abrahah, the Viceroy of Egypt. took an oath that he would destroy the Meccan temple, and marched at the head of an army of Abys8inians, mounted on an elephant. This" War of the Elephant" marks the rriod of Mul].ammad'l birth. [IlUHAIUUD.

The Christianity of this period is delcribed by Mosheim as .. expiring under a motley and enormous heap of superstitious inventiou, with neither the courage nor t.he foroe to raile her head or display her national oharm. to a darkened and deluded world." Doubtllll8 much of the SUC0888 of hlim in ite earlier stage was due to the state of degradation into which the Christian Church had fallen. The bitter dissensions of the Greeks, Nlltoriana, Eutychians, and Monophysitel are matters of history, and must have held up the religion of Jesus to the ridicule of the heathen world. The controversies regarding the nature and person of our Divine Lord had begotten a sect of Tritheists, led by a Syrian philcsopher named John Philoponu. of Alexandria, and are sufficient to account for Mnhammad'. conception of the Bles.ed Trinity. The worship of the Virgin Mary had also given riee to a religious controversy between the btiduo. Marianites and the Collyridiana j the former holding that the Virgin was not immaculate, and the latter raiaing her \0 a polition of a godd.... Under the circUlDltanc.. it is not lurprising to find that the miud of the Arabian reformer t1ll'Ded away from OhriatlaDity and endeavoured to coutrnot a relijrioD OD the line. of Jndaiam. [JUIWDL)

Al·BaI""i and other Muslim commema. ton, admit that Mu~ammad received Ohri.tian lutrnctioD from learned Obriniana, named Jubrl aDd Yasira (al·Ba4iwi OD Sirah xvi. 106), and that on thi. acC01lDt the Quraiah laid, II It i. only lome mortal that teach.. him I " For the TraditioDl relate thet M~ammad uaed to etop and lineD to· thee. two ChriltiaDl as they read &load \1M Book. of Mo_ (Tarat) and the N_ T .... _10 (1,,11). But it il remarllable that lb.

04

OBBI8TJANITY

IJ.ammad Ihciuld, after aU, hue obtained Buoh a curaory lmowledge of Chriltianity. For from the text of the Qur'in (extracts of which are lulljoined), it is evident that he was 1lIIder the imprelsion that the Sacrament of Baptism was $ibg/JaA, or the dyeing of the Ohristians' clothes; and if the Chapter of the Table refers to the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper (which is 1lIIcertain), it was" a table Bont out of heaven that it may be a recmTing festival." The doctrine of the Tlinity is supposed to be a Tritheism of God, Jesus Christ, and the Virgin Mary; and a proof against the Divinity of Christ is urged hom the fllct that He and His mother "both ate food." The crucifixion is denied, and Mary the mother of ~esU8 is coufounded with Mary the aister of Aaron. Such mistakes and omissions could only arise from a most imperfect acquaintance with the urdinary institutions and beliefs of the Christian communitiea, with whom :Mui).ammad must have been brought in contact. The gentler tone lind spirit of the Cluistians seems to have won the sympathy of Mui).ammad, and hia expressions regarding them are less severe than with reference to tile Jews; but the abstruse character of their creed, as shown in their endless sehisma regarding the nature of the Trinity and the person of Christ, and the idolatrous cbaracter of their worship, as still seen in the ancient Syrian and Ooptic churches, led him to tum from Christianity to Judaism as a model whereby to effect the reformation of a degl'8ded and idolatl'ous people like the ancient Arabians. The Jewish and Mosaic character of Muhammad's system wi\l be treated of in anotlier place. [JDDAUII.,

The following selections from the Qur'iin will show the actual teaching of that book regarding Christianity. In the whole of the Qur'in there is not a single quotation from the New Testament, and it is noticeable that nearly all the allusions to Christianity are contained in Meccan Siirahs; Siirah ii. being according to Jalilu 'd-din Suyiiti, one of the earliest chapters given at Makkah, and Siirah v. the last.

Biirah v. 8Ii :~

.. Of all men thou wilt -certainly find the Jews, and those who join other gods with God, to be the most intense in hatred of those who believe; and thou shalt certainly find thOle to be nearest in affection to them who aay, 'We are Christiana.' This, becauae there are amongst them priests (qi.lirin) and monks, and because they are not proud.. ..

Siirah ii 69:-

.. Verily, they who believe (Jh.slims), and they who follow the Jewish religion, and the Ohristians, and the Sabeites-whoever of these believeth iii God and the last day, and doeth that which is right, shall have their reward with ~heir Lord: fear shall not come urn them, neither shall they- be griend.

(TAs • __ .e occur, a!/*in in SMraA v.

7")

OHRISTIANITY Surah Ii. 106:-

.. And they lay,' None but Jews or Christians shall entel' Paradise:' This Is their wish. BAY: Give your proofs if y8 speak the truth, But they who set their faco with resignation Godward, and do what is right,-their reward il with their Lord ; no fear shall come on them, neither shall they be ifrieved. :Moreover, the Jews say, • The Christians lean on naught:' • On • naught lean the Jews,' say the Christianll. Yet both are readers of the Book. So with like words say they who have no lmeowledgo. But on the resurrection day, God shall judge between them as to that ill which they differ. And who committeth a greater wrong than he who hindereth God"s name from being remembered in His temples, and who hasteth to nun them? Such men cannot enter them but with fear. Theirs is shame in this world, and a severe torment in the next. The East and the mst is God's: therefore, whichever way ye turn, there is the face of God, Tluly God is inlmense and knoweth all. And they say, • God hath a son:' No I Praise, be to Him 1 But-His, whatever is in the Heavens and the Earth 1 All obeyeth Him, sole maker of the Heavens and of the Earth! And when He decreeth a thing, He only saith to it, 'Be,' and it is. And tb,ey who have no knowledge say,' Unl41S8 God apeak to us, or thou shew us a . sign .... ! ' 80, with like words, said those who were before them: their hearts are alike. Olear signs have we already shc.wn for those who han firm faith. Verily, with the Truth have we sent thee, a bearer of good tidings and a warner: and of the pe6ple of Hell thou shalt not be queationed, Bllt until thou follow their religion" neither Jews nor Ohristians will be satisflilHi with thee. B,u : Verily, guidance of God,that is the guidance I And if, after 'the Knowledge,' which hath reached thee, thou follow their desires, thou shalt find neither helper nor protector against God."

Siirah iv. 156:-

.. Nay, but God hath sealed them up '01' their unbelief, so that but few believe. And for their unbelief,-and fOl' their having spoken against Mary a -irrievous calumny,-and fOl' their saying, • Ve,rily we have slain the Messiah (Ma8il1), JeslLB ('IBlJ) the son of Mary, an Apostle of Go,!.' Yet they slew him not, and they crucified him not, but they had only hislikeneu. And tliley who differed about him were in doubt eonceming him. No sure lmowledge had thelr about him, but followed only an opinion, and they did not really slay him, but GDd took him up to Himself. And God is :Mighty, Wise I "

8iirah ii. 180 :-

.. They say, moreover, 'Become J'ews or Christians that ye may have the tMMl guidance.' SAy: Nay 1 the relil!ri9n of Abraham, the 101llld hi faith, alld not one of thOle who join gods rib God 1

OHRISTIANITY

Say ye: 'We believe in God, and that which hath been sent down to us, and that whioh hath been .sent down to Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac and Jacob and the tribes: and that which hath been gi "en to Moses and to J esua, and that which was given to the prophets from their Lord. No difference do we make between any of them: and to God are we resigned (Muslims).' If, therefore, they believe even as ye believe, then have they true guidance j but if they turn back, then do, they cut themselves off from !Iou, and God will luffice to protect thee against them, for He is the Hearer, the Knower. The Baptism of God, and who is better to baptize than God? And Him do we serve."

Surah v. 75:-

" They surely are Infidels who say, 'God is the third of three:' for there is no God but one 'God: and if they refrain not from what they say, a grievous chastisement .hall light on such of them as are Infidels. Will they not, therefore, be turned unto God, and ask pardon of Him? since God is Forgiving, Merciful I The MesRiah, Son of Mary, is but an Apostle j other Apostles have flourished before him j and his mother was a just person: they both .ate food. Behold! how we make clear to them the signs! then behold how they turn aside! SAT: Will ye worship, beside God, that which can neither hurt nor help? But God! He only Henreth, Knoweth. SAT: o people of the Book! outstep not bounds of truth in your religion j neither follow the dl'sires of those who have already gone astray, and who have caused many to go astray, and have themselves gone astray -{rom the evenness of the way. Those

among the children of Israel who believed not were cursed by the tongue of David, and of Jesus, Son of Mary. This, because they were rebellious, and became transgressors: they forbade not one another the iniquity which they wrought! detestable are their actions I "

Sorah v. 18:-

"And of those who say, 'We are Christians,' have we accepted the covenant. But they too have forgotten a part of what they were taught j wherefore we have stirred up enmity and hatred amoDg them that Ihall lalt till the day of the Relurrection j and in the end will God tell them of their dolugs. o people of the Scripturell now ·Is ollor Apoltle come to you to clear up to you much that ye concealed of those Scripturel, and to pass over many things. Now hath a light and a clear Book come to you from God, by which God will guide him who shall follow after His good pleasure to paths of peace, and will bring them out of the darkness to the light, by His will: and to the straight path will He guide them. Infidels now are they who say, 'Verily God il al-Ma.il!- Ibn Maryam (th41 Melliah, Ion of Mary) I SAT: And who could aught ohtala from God, if He chose to W!stroy at·)(uD!. Ibn Maryam, and his mother, and

E

CHRISTIANITY

55

all who are on the earth together? For with God is the sovereignty of the Hea. vens and of the Earth, and of all that il between them I He cl'8ateth what He will; and over all things is God potent. Say the Jew8 and Christiana, 'SoDa are we of God and His beloved.' SAT: Why then doth He chaltise you for your sinl? Nay I ye are but a pllrt of the men whom He hath created I "

Silrah v. 58:-

"0 Believers I take not the J eWI or Christians as friends. They are but one another's friends. If anyone of you taketh them for hie friends, be surely is one of them I God will not guide the evll-doers, So shalt thou see the diseased at heart speed away to them, and 8ay, 'We fear lelt a change of fortune befall us.' But hapl~ God will of Himself bring about some vic-' tory 01' event of His own ordering: then aoon will they repent them of their secret imaginings."

Surah xxii. 18:-

"As to those who believe, and the Jewa, and the Sabeitea, and the Christiana, and the Magians, and those who join other gods with God, of a truth, God shall decide between them on the day of resurrection: for God i. witnesl of all things."

Siirah v, 112:-

"Remember when the Apostle. said-'·O J esus, Son of Mary I is Tby Lord able to Hnd down a furnished TABLE to us out of Heaven?' He said-' Fear God if ye be believers.' They said-' We desire to eat therefrom, and to have our hearts .. aured j and to know that thou hast indeed spoken truth to UI, and to be witnesses thereof.' J esus, Son of Mary, said-' 0 God, our Lord I Bend down a table to us out of Heaven, that it may become a recurririg festival to UB, to the first of ua and to the laat of us, and a sign from Thee j and do Thou nourilh us, for Thou art the best of nourishera.' And God laid-Verily, I will cause it to descend unto you j but whoever among you after that shall disbelieve, I will lurely chastise him with s chastiaement wherewith I will not chastile any other creature. And when God shall "y-' 0 JeauI, Son of Mary, hast Thou laid unto mankind.. Take me and my mother al two GOdl, beside God P " , He Ihall lay-' Glory be unto Thee I it is not for me to lay that which I know to be not the truth; had I laid that, verily Thou wouldeat have known It: Thou knowe.t what il in me, but I know not what iB in Thee; for Thou wel~ knowelt thingl unseen I"

Surah xix. 86:-

" This is JeauI, the Ion of Mary j thill. a statement of the truth concerning which they doubt. It beseemeth not God to beget a 80n. Glory be to Him I when He decreeth a thing, He only laith to it, Be, and it il. And verily, God il my Lord and you Lord; adore Him theD. Thil is the right way. But The Sectl have fallen to varianoe among themselves abattt Juu,: but woe,

56

.CRBISTUNITY

because of the assembly of a great day, to those who believe not I "

The only New Testament saints mentioned by name in the Qur'itn, are John the Baptist, Zacharias, and the Virgin Mary.

In the Mishkiiltt 'l-Jla~iibi~, there are recorded in the traditional sayings of Muhammad, about six apparent plagiarism. from the New Testament; but whether they are the plagiarisms of M uhammad himself or of those who profess to record his sayings, it is impossible to tell :-

Abu Hurairah RllyS the Prophet said, " Of the seven persons whom God, in the last-day, will drllw to Himself, will be II man who hRS given alms lind concealed it, so that his left hand knoweth not what the right hand doeth." (Book i. c. viii. pt. 1 ; comp. Matt. vi. 3.)

. Again:" God accepts not the prayers of those who pray in long robes," (Book i,

c. ix. pt. 2; eomp, Matt. xii. 88.)

Again: "The doors of the celestial regions shall not open to them (the wicked) until a camel pass through the eye of a needle." ~ok V. c. iii. pt. 8; camp. Mark x.

Xbii Umamah relates that the Prophet said, .. Blessed be Him who hath seen me. And blessed be him who hath not seen me and yet hath believed." (Book xxiv. c. uvi. pt. 3; camp. John u. 29.)

Mu'a! relates that the Prophet said, " Do unto all men as you would they should do unto you, and reject for others what you would reject for yourself." (Book i. e, i. pt. 8; Matt. vii. 12.)

Abu Hurairah relates that the Prophet said, "Verily God will say in the day of resurrection, 0 ye sons of men I I was sick and ye did not visit .me. And the sons of men wil'" say, 0 Thou defender, how could we visit Thee, for Thou art the Lord of the universe, and art free from sickness? And God will say, 0 ye sons of men, did you not know that such a one of my servants was sick and ye did not visit him," &c. &c. (Book V. C. i. pt. 1; camp. Matt. uv. 21.)

Although it would be difficult to prove it from the text of the Qur'in, the general belief of Muhammadans is that Christians are not in a state of salvation, and Laza, or the "blazing fire," mentioned in Surah Ixx. 15, is, according to the Imam al-Baghawi, reserved for them.

The condition of a Christian in a Muslim state ia that of a Zimmi, or one who pays tribute to a Muhammadan governor, for which he enjoys protection. He is allowed to repair any old church which may have been in existence at the time the country was subdued by Isliim, but he is not allowed to erect new ones; "for," says Abu ij;anifah, " the construction of churches or synagogues in Muslim territory is unlawful, being forbidden in the Traditions." " It also behoves the Imam to make distinction between Muslims and ZimmUi (i.e. Christians, Jews, and others paying tribute). It is therefore not

OHUR.CHES

allowable for them to ride upon horses or use armour, or to wear the same dresses as Muslims." The reason for this, says Abu ij;anifah," is that Muhammadana are to be held in honour and Zilnmis are not."

The wives also of Zimmis are to be kept apart from those of Muslims on the public roads and baths. And it is also ordered that a mark should be placed on their doors, in order that when Muslim beggars come to them they should not prs.y for them I

The learned have ruled that a ~;imml should not be allowed to ride at all, except in cases of necessity, and if he be thus of necessity allowed to ride, he should dismount when he meets a Muslim. (Hidiiyah, vol. ii, 219.)

A judge when he administers an oath to a Christian, must direct him to say:

"I swear by God who sent the Gospel to Jesus."

It is a singular ruling of the Mul)ammadan law that a claim of parentage made by a Christian is prefera ble to a claim of bonduoe advanced by a Muslim. Abu Hanifah says if a boy be in the possession of two men, the one a Muslim and the other a Christian, and the Christian aSSArt that the boy is his son, and the Muslim assert that he is Ws slave, ' he must be decreed to be the son of the Christian and free, because although Islam ls the superior religion, there can be no balance between the claim of offspring and the claim of bondage. (Idem, vol. iv. ISS.)

Sir William Muir, referring to Mul)am.mad's reception of the Banu Hanifah and other Christian tribes, A..R; 9, says, "On the departure of the embassy the Prophet gave them a vessel with some water in it running over from his own ablutions, and said to them, 'When ye reach your country break down your church, sprinkle its site with this water, and build a Masjid in its place.' These command. they carried into effect, and abandoned Ohristianity without compunction. To another Christian tribe he prohibited the practice of baptism; so that although the adults continued to be nominally Christian, their children grew up with no provision but that of the Qur'in .•.•. It is no wonder that Christianity, thns insulted and trampled under foot, languished and soon disappeared from the peninsula." (Life of Mahomet, vol.

iv. 219.)

CHURCHES. Arabic Bia'k and Kanisah, which terms include equally churches and synagoguea. The construction of churches or synagogues in Muslim territory is unlawful, this being forbidden i.n the Traditions; but as for places of worshipw hich belonged to the Jews or Christians before the country wall conquered by the Mul)ammadan power, they are at liberty to repair them, because the buildings cannot endure for ever, and, as the Imam of the Muslim army has left these people to the exercise of their own religion, it is a necessary inf4lrence

OlRCUMCISION

that he has eng aged not to prevent them from building or repairing their churches or synagogues. If, however, they attempt to remove these, and to build them in a place different from their former situation, tho Imam must prevent them, since this is an actual construction. Monasteries and hermitages are under the same law. Places of prayer within their dwellings are allowed to be constructed, because they are merely an appurtenance to a private habitation. What is here said is held to be the rule with regard to cities, but not with respect to villages, because as the "tokens of Islam ~ (i.e. prayer, festivals,&c.) appear in cities, gimmis (i.e. those paying tax for protection) should not be permitted to exhibit the tokens of their infidelity in the face of Islam. But as the tokens of Islam do not appear in villages, the erection of churches and synagogues is not prohibited there. But the Imam Abii J,lanifah held that this exemption merely applied to the village of Kusa, where the greater part of the inhabitants were ~immis. He adds that in the country of Arabia, Jews and Christians are prohibited from constructing synagogues and churches, either in cities or villages, according to the saying of the Prophet, "Two re/l~'ORII cannot exist in the country of .Arabia." (Hidtiyah, book ix. c. viii.)

If a Jew or a Christian, being in sound health, build a church or a synagogue and then die, such building is an inheritance, and descends to the heirs of the founder. According to Abii ~anifah, it is a pious appropriation j but his two disciples hold such erections to be ,inful, and only to be considered as ordinary property. If a Jew or a Christian will that his house after his death shall be converted into either a synagogue or church, the bequest is valid. (Hidayah, book lii. c. vi.)

The following tradition related by Talaq ibn 'Ali (Mi,hkat, iv. c. viii. 2) exhibits Mul).ammad's determination to destroy Christian churches : " We told the Prophet that there was a church on our ground j and we requested the favour of his giving us the water which remained after he had performed wa:u. And the Prophet called for water, p~rformed wa~u and washed out his mouth; after which he poured the water for us into a vessel and ordered us to return, saying, • When you arrive, destroy your church (Arabic bi'ah), and pour this water on the spot, and build a mosque there."

cmCUMCISION. Arabic suu«. &i!itanah, or khatnah. Circumcisionis not once alluded to in the Qur'in. The omission is remarkable, and Muslim writers do not attempt any explanation of it. It is held to be ftmnah, or founded upon the customs of the Prophet (Fatawa 'Alumgiri, vol. iv. p. 237), and dating its institution from the time of Abraham. There is no authentic account of the circumcision of Mul:tammad, but it is asserted by Rome writers. that he was born circumcised. This, however.Js denied by the most eminent scholars. (Radd" 'I-Mu!J;1ltar, vol. v. p. 835.)

CL:KAN ANIMALS

57

In the $aWIU 'I-Bu!Mri, p. 931, a short chapter is devoted to the subject of !J;1lltan, or "circumcision," in which there are three traditions :-

Abii Hurairah relates that the Prophet said one of the observances of Fitrah ia circumcision.

Abii Hurairah rela.tes that the Prophet said that Abraham was circumcised when he was eighty 'ycars old.

Said ibn Jubair relates that it was asked of Ibn 'Abbas, " How old were you when the Prophet died? " He said, " I was circumcised in the days when it occurred." And Jubair says they did not circumcise in those days until men were full grown.

It is recommended to be performed upon a boy between the ages of seven and hrehe, but it is lawful to circumcise a child Benn days after his birth. In the case of a eon vert to Islam from some other creed, to whom the operation may be an occasion of great sulfering, it can be dispensed with, although it is considered expedient and proper for all new converts to be circumcised. In all cases an adult is expected to circumcise himself, &8 it is a shame for an adult person to uncover himself to another.

The circumcision oJ females is also allowed, and is commonly practised in Arabia. (Fatawa 'Alamgiri, vol. iv. p. 287.)

The barber is generally the person employed for the circumcision of boy., and the operation as practised by Mui),ammadans in India is performed in the following manner. A bit of stick i~ used as a probe, and carried round and round between the glans and prepuce, to ascertain the exact extent of the frlllnum, and that no unnatural adhesions exist. The foream is then drawn forward. and a pair of forceps, consieting of a couple of pieces of split bamboo, five or six inches long and a quarter of an inch thiok, tied firmly together at one end with a string to the extent of an inch, applied from above in an oblique direction, so as to exclude about an inch and a half of the prepuce above and three-quarters of an inch below. The forceps severely grasping it, causes a good deal of pain, but thia state 01 suffering does not continue long, since the next thing to be done is the removal, which is done by one stroke of the razor drawn directly downwards. The hlilmorrhage which follows is inconsiderable and easily stopped by the application of burnt rags and ashes.

According to several Mui),ammadandoctors, there were seventeen of the prophets bam in a circumcised state, namely, Zakariya, Shis, Idris, Yiisuf, Hanzalah, 'laa, Miisa, Adam, Niil), Shu'aib, Saim, Lii~, !>wi)" Sulaimin, Yal)ya, Hiid, and Muqammad. (DumA '1-, Mu!J;1ltiir, p. 619.)

CLEAN AND UNCLEAN ANI-

MALS. All quadrupeds that seize their prey with their teeth, and all birds 1<hich seize it with thoir talons, are unlawful (ba"am), the Prophet having prohibited mankind from eating them.

68

otEROY

Hyenas and foxes, being both included under the olall of animals of prey, are unlawful. (Thia i. tbe doctrine of Abu I.lanifah, but ash-Shill'i holds that they are lawful.) Elephants and weasels are alao animals of prey. Pelicans and kites are abominable (1IIaknUi), because they de't'our dead bodies.

Crows which feed on grain .re mu6tib, or indi!erent, but carrion crowl and ra't'ens are unlawful Abu I.lanifah say. the magpie is indi!erent (mu6tib), but the Imam Yusuf says it is abominable (makniA).

Crocodiles and otters and wasps, and, in general, all insects are maknill, or abominable. The ails and the mule are both unlawful. AccordiDg to Abii I.lanifah and Milik, horse-l!esh il unlawful, but ash-Shifi'j says it il indifferent. The l!esh of hares is also indifferent.

No animal that 1i .... 1 in the water, except fish, is lawful. But Milik allows them.

Filhes dying of themlelves are unlawful, and so are all animals who are 1I0t slain by lahtib. (Hidti.vaA, vel, i't'. p. 74.) [ZABAH.]

It must be o'hlerved that in Muhammadan law animals are either laaliil, II lawful," or muhtib, II indifferent,· or maknIla, "abominable" (i.e. which is condemned but still is lawful), or (lariim, "unlawful.·

CLERGY. The Christian clergy are mentioned in the Qur'in with expressions of comparati't'e prai... Siirah v. 85: "Thou wilt surely find that the strongest in enmity against those who belie .... are the Jewl, and the idolater.; and thou wilt find those to be neareat in affection to them who say 'We are Christians'; that i. because there are amongst them priests (qillirill) and monka, and becau.e they are not proud."

The MUhammadans ha .... no class of people occupyiDg the precise position of priests or cleqy, although the Imams, I)r leaders of prayers iJI the public &8wembly, are person. of learning appointed by the congregation. In Central A.ia, it il Dlnal to set apart a learned man (well Ikilled in theology) by binding the turban round hi. head, the act being performed by a leading maulawi or scholar.

In Turkey and the western portion of 18lim, tho.e. who are qnalifled to give an opinion in religious mattera, and to take the lead in guiding the people in spiritual affairs, are caUed 'ulallui' (pl. of 'alim), a term which hu, in Hindustiu and Central A.sia, assumod the form of IIIQulalDi, a word derived from maula, " lord."

The recognised offices in Ialim corresponding to that of a priest or religious teacher, are, Imam, Mufti, and Qa,i. Imam (in addition to itl being used for the Khalifah, or Caliph, in the Traditions), i. the person who leads the public prayers, an office answering to the Latin Alltidu. This official is appointed either by the congregation, or by the pariah or section of the town or ~iIIage, who frequent the mosque in which he lead, the pray,R. IIMfti is the legal ad~iler, who aeoidee di.fllculi reUtriou queaUolIII, and &Ilia" \he QjJi, or j1Ulp. Qifiia Uae judie

COMMANDMENTS

and the administrator of the law. The appointments of Mllfti and Qiizi are in the hands of the Muslim government of the place. It is usual for the Qiizi to take the lead in prayers at funerals, whilelt the Imim of the pariah generally performs the lIikaJ.a, or religious service at marriages. [IIARRIAGE.]

These offices are not necessarily hereditary, but it is usual in Muhammadan countries for them to pass from' father to son. In India at the present time there are families who retain the titles of Mufti and Qti~i, although the duties connected with theae offices are no longer performed by them ..

CAUTION (Arabic Ifa~ar) is enjoined by MUQammad, who is related to have said, "A Muslim is not bitten twice at the same hole." "He is no perfect man who has not fallen into trouble, for there ia no skilful physician but experience." "When 8, man has spoken, and has then looked first to his right and then to his left, what he hall said is sacred to those present, and they must not disclose it to others." (Mi.hktit, xxii.

c. xviii.)

COINAGE. [HONEY.] COLLECTOR OF TAXES. Arabic

'Ashir, a collector of the tenths; and 'Am,l mutasaddiq, a collector of alms.

The Khalifah is to allow the officeI' employed in the collection of the zakat a8 :much out of it as is in proportion to his labour, and will remunerate himself and his assisl~ants. (Hidiiyah, vol. i. p. 54.)

COMMANDMENTS, The Ten.

In the Qur'in it is stated that God gne Moaes certain monitions on tables ( of atone), and also that he gave him nine clear ,signs. (See Surah 't'ii. 142, and Siirah xvii. 103.) These two statements have perplexed the commentators very much, and every eff,ort is made by them to reconcile the nine signs with tlfe Ten Commandments, although it is evident from the Qur'lin itself, that the nine clear signs refer to the miracles of lloses. [1'LAGUE8 01' EGYPl'.]

According to the Traditions, the Pr,ophet himself waB a little confused in the matter, and may to some extent be relponlible for the mistakes of the commentators on hi' beck, for it iA related (Misllkat, book i. c. ii. pt. 2,) that a Jew came to the Prophet and ask eel him about the nille (sir) wonders which appeared by the hands of Moses. The Prophet said, " Do not Rssociate anyt~ng with God, do not steal, do not commit adultery, do not kill, do not take an innocent before the killg to be kiJIed, do not practise magic, do not take interest, do not accuse an innocent 100m, an of adultery, do not run away in battle, and especially for you,O Jews, no. to work on the Sabbath." 'A.bdu 'I-I.laqq remarks on this tradition.that the Jew aaked about the nine ('ie) miracloa(or platuea) of Egypt" and the Prophet gaYe him the Ten CoIDll:aaaclmenil.

COMMANDER

A comparilon of the Ten Oommalldmentl linn by the great J ewilh law-liver with tho.e reoorded in the above tl'adition and in the nth Siirah of the Ql1r'in, verle 1152, wlllehow how Imperfectly the Arabian Propbet 11'''' aoqualnted with the Old Te.tament seripture •.

The oommentator I;In.aln, who wrote four ~undred years ago, .ay. the following verae. In the Siiratu 'I-An"m (vI.) al'e tho •• Ten Commandmentl whloh In .nry di.penl&tlon are Inoumbent on mankind, and cannot be abroiated (meanlll8' undoubtedly the Ten Oommandment. Iliven to Mo ••• ).

" S. T: Oom., r 11'111 rehear.e ",hat your Lord hath made blndlll8' on you--( 1) that ye alliin not IUiht to Him a. partner: (2) and that ye b. &,ood to your parenti: (8) and that. y •• lay not ,,01U' olllldrNl, b.can.. of ponrt,,; for th.m and for you ",111 we prond.: (~) and thlt ". oom. not near to poUutlon., out"'ard or Inwlrd: (II) Ind that " •. day not an"on. ",hom God hath forbldd'lI you, unI ... for a lu.t OIU... Thl. hAth h. .nloln.d on you, to the int.nt that y. may und.r.tllld. (6) And Oom. nnt nlih to the .ub.tlno. of the orphln, hut to Improu It, until h. oom. of 18" I (1) and u •• I full mea.ur., alld I

IIl.t balano.: W. ",llIl1ot ta.1r. a .oul b,,,olld t. Ihlllt1. (8) And wh.n ". &,Ive l11d8'lll.nt, ohlin. lu.tlo., ."n thollih It b, the affair of I 1l1n.man, <") and fu181 the connant of God. Thl. hlth God .nloill.d you for your. mollitioll - Alld, 'tht. Ii my rllfht wI\Y.' 1'0110'" It th.1I : (10) .nd follow not oIlier path. lilt '1" b •• oatter.d from HI. patll. Thl. bath 'B •• nJoln.d "ol1,that ye JII'" f.arHlm." (Bnrlh ,1. 152.)

COMMANDER OF THE FAITH.

FUL. Arabic .Amf'l'u 'l·Mu·minhl (~rl' "...'). A title given by the MiliUm. In the Br.t III.tanoe to tb. Ilr.t 1tlI1. lUlb, AM Balr.r. Ind afterwlrd. retlill.d b" • uoo .. dlll8' Khallflh.. It I. ...um.d by IlmO.t IIny lfut)ammadln rlll.r In the pr.· lint dl".

COMMENTARIES. [Qt1a' AN.]

OOMMEROE. Arabic 'l'ijdrQ,1&

(I).,). Oommerce and merchandile Ire .ald in the Qur'la to be of God." Snrah utl. 88: "It I. your Lord ",ho drive. the

• hlp. for you in tb. • ... that y. may ... k I'ter pl.nty from HIm i uril" H.I. ever mer- 0lfl11 to "ou. And ",h.1I dl.trlll touoh •• you In the .... tho .. ",hom ". 0111 lipan. uo.pt Him •• trly aw&\, from you i but ",h.u H. h ... brou&,ht you .at. to .hor •• ". 11.0 turn .. ",ay (from God); f.r man I •• nr qrateful."

Zalttil f. due on m.rohlndl.e of .very dlloriptloll. In proportion to 15 ".r o.nt.

COMPANIONS, The. [AI.AB.]

OOMPULSION. Arabic Ikr41&

(1'1'). }f u4a.mmadan law makel pro,I.lon for p.r. on ... otin&, under oompul. .Ion. ",h.n the per. on ",ho oompel. hal It In Ill. po",.r to lIteout. wh .. t h. order •• b. h.

OONCOBINJ!:

59

" king or a thl.f. (BidiyaA. 'f01. Iii. p. ~152.) E.g. a penon forced Into & oOlltr .. ct m .. " dilsolve it. A MllIlim m .. y laWfully e .. t food which ia prohibited If he be compelled to do eo, being thre .. t.ned with 10 •• of life or limb. N or is a Mu.lim iuilty of .In who d.olare. him. elf an unb.liever whell the 10 •• of .. 11mb or of life i. thre .. tened. Aooordiq to the Imam Abii ]Janif .. h. If .. MllIlim b.oompelled to divorce hil "if •• the divoroe I. valid; but with him the other thr.. Imim. ..re not &lreed iu till. ruling.

CONCUBINE. Ara.bic Surrir"

(&tr). pl. .a.r4ri. The Mu4ammadan l'eUlion app ... re to aiv. ..Imo.t unlimited 11o.n.e to oonoubinag •• pro,.lded the ",om .. n

b 1. VI ... lid not I fr .. MiliUm ",OlDln.

Th '.m .. l •• 1"vII mu.t b •• Ith.r (1)

t .. ken o .. ptlve In ",ar. <I) or pareh ... ed by mou.,. (8) or the dllo.nd .. nt. of llave •. EVln mlrri.d wOm.n, If t .. kell lu ", .. r ... r •• looordln&, to an Inl unotlon of the QIlr'In. Snrah Iv. 28 •• ntlrel" .. t the dl.po ... l of the Mu.lIm conqueror. "(Unl .. wflll) to you Ire m .. rrl.d. ",om.lI. "c'pl .uob ... "our rlrht h .. nd po ..... (i.l. t .. k.1I In ", .. r. or pvoha.ed .Iavll)." Till. In.tltutlon of oOlloublAll. II

foullded upon tb. n .. mpl. of Ma~ m""

hlm •• If. "'ho took RI~inah the J.", hi.

oonoubln. after the b .. ttl. ",Ith the Ban'

Qur .. I ... h (A. •• 6) nd .. 1.0 M .. ril the Oap',

1\'ho '11'1' i.nt him 1 .. " b" the GO"rDor

of Eiypt.

Should • oonoubln,. b.ar her mll.t.r II ohlld. the Mu~ .. mm.dan la'" rul •• ,h .. t Ih. and h.r olllprlll8' .. re iplO facto free. ror .. further tr.atm.nt or thll aubleat, ..... niol. on .1..,. ••.

Amoft&'lt the Bhl, .. b •• the t.mporlry m ..... riAl' o .. U.d Mut' .. h llI:hlblii the ",ore' form of oonoublnlge. [1I1I'l" ..... )

It I. Inter •• tlft&' to oomp .. r. the ~ndi\lon of the oonoubln. und.r Mu.lIm la", and und .. the 1401110. Und.r the Ilw of 140 ...... OOD • oubln. ",ould &,.n.r .. n" be .1,h.l· .. B.bre", girl bou&,ht of h.r f .. ther. or .. Gentlil oaptf,.. tlk.n In ",111'. So tb .. t ",bll.t the )(afl,lmmldln I .. ", forhld. oonoublUff' ",Ith .. f .... ",om&ll. the Moulo I .. " permltt.d " .. nd Ilfl •• llt.d for it. See Ellodu. ul.: .. U II m .. n •• U hi. dlUlhtlr to be .. m .. ld-II" .. n ••• he .hlll not 10 out II. mill-linin'. do. U.he pi ..... not her muter ",ho hath betrothed h .. to hlm .. lf. then .hlll b. I.t h.r b. reclllllled • to •• 11 her unto I .trange n .. tlon h •• h .. U ha"~ no power .... 1111 h. hath d ... lt d.o.ltfully wI.n her."

With r., .. rd to f.m .. l •• lave. t .. klll in ", .. r, the Mo.alo I .. ", I"Illed. D.ut. l1li1. 10: .. When thou &,o •• t to "'ar &I .. ln.t thin. .n.mill Ind the Lord th" God h .. th d.Uvered th.a:

Into thin. hilld.. ..nd tbou hut t .. ken them o .. pt! VI. Ind .... t .. be .. utiful ",omlln, .. nd h ... t a d •• lr. unto her. th .. t thou ",ould .. h .. v. h.r to th" wif.; th.n thou .hllit hrilll h.r to tbln. hom.. to. . . . And It .h .. n be, If tholl ha" no d,U&,ht In bIT. tb.n tboll .h .. lt I •• her &,0 ",hither .b. will; but thou .h .. l, not 1111 ber." &0.

60 CONGREGATION

OONGREGATION. TheAaaembly of people in a "mosque is called Jam'ali (4.,.. )" the term allo being used in Afghanistan for the mo •. que it.elf.

There are spe'bial rewards for those Mu. hammadans who assembll! together for the stated prayers; for MUQammad has said, .. The prayers which are said in a cong;egation increase the rewards of the worehlpper twenty-seven degrees." "Say your prayers in a congregation, far a wolf does not eat the sheep except one has strayed from the flock." (Mislakal, book Iv, ch. xxiv,)

The Sunni style themselves AMu S~,!nala IDa Jam'aIa, i.e. " t·he people of the traditIOns and of the congregation," in eontradlstinction to the Shi'ahs, who do not worship in a congregation unless the Imam, or leader, be a man entirely free from sin. r lIulII.l

The word jam'ah is also used for an aSlembly of people collected to decide a question of law or theology. tbe iJma' being their decision, more frequently called iJma'u 'I· Ullimala.

CONSCIENCE. There is no word 'in the Qur'in which exactly expresses the Christian conception of conscience. The word nqf. (vo-'I ), which, according to Arabic lexioons, 'expresses very much the same idea

as the Hebrew U;C~ 'fIIlplaula, "life, animal spirit breatla" (Job ~li. 21), seems to be used in th~ Qur'in to convey the meaning of consoience, although English translators render it" soul" Muslim theologians Aay tbere are four kinds of consciences spoken of in the Qur'in: (1) Nafs lawwiimala, the "selfaccusing soul or conscience ,. (Sflrah Ixxv. 8). (2) Nqf/l ammarala, the" sou! or conscience prone to evil" (Siirah xii .. 53). (3) Naf. lNut,ma'innala, the "peaceful soul or conscience" (Siirah Ixxxix. 12)_ (4) Nqfs mul· laammala the "soul or conscience in which is breaihed both bad and good" (Siirah lxxxiv. 27.)

. It occurs also in the sense of conscience in the Traditione (M;.hkiit, book i. eh. i. pt. S) :

"When anything pricks your soul (nafB) forsake it." Abdu 'I-aaqq, in his Persian commentary on the Mishkiil, renders it by :fIal, but the English word conscience would seem to express the precise. idea. In Persian Muqammadan works, as well,as in comm0l! eO,nvereation, the word nars IS now used In Its evil sense, of desire or passion, but it must be evident that this is not its Qur'anic meaning. The word LJ rilllmala, which in later Arabic, together with ~ ~amir, is used to express conscience, has in the only pasBage where it ?ccurs in ~he Q1;U"an a decidedly diiJerent meanmg, e.g, Surah IX. 8, 10, where it means .clientabip, Sale and Rodwell both translate it "faith," but Palmer more aceurately render. it "ties of ellentehi p."

OONVER,I3ATION.

The follow-

illl inatructi~ns are given in th? Qur'~_ reo garding ta.JkltJg and ennversation, SurAh

OONVERSATION

xW. 17, II Be moderate in thy walk, and lower thy voice; verily the most disagreeable of voices is the voice of asses." Siirah ii. 77, "Speak to men kindly." In tbe T~ditions, Ibn Mas'iid relates that MUQiLmmad said, " May those people go to the flre of hell who'speak much," . .. .

On the subject of eonversatlcn, Faql.l· Janl Muhammad As'sd, the author of the celebrated ethical work entitled the A&~/iik-i-

Jalali, p, 288, says :-. ,..

II He should not talk much, for It IS a Sign of levity in feeling and weakness in judgment, and tends to lower him in point of consideration and position. We are told that the Pro. phet used to observe the strictes: medium in his language; so much so, that, In the moat protracted intervlews, you might have counted the words he uttered: Buzurg Jamihl~ used to say, ' When you see a person ~alking mnc,h without occasion, be sure he IS out 01 hiS senses,' Let him not gi ve vent to expressions till he has determined in hie own mind what be. is going to say. When anyone is relating a story, however well known to the listener, the latter is .not to intimate his acquaintance with it till the narrative is coneluded, A question put to others he must not himself reply to ; if put to a body of which he is a member, let him not prevent the others; and if another is eng&@:ed in answering what himself could answer better, let him keep silence till the other's statement is completed, and then give his own, but in such sort as not to annoy the former speaker. Let him not commence his reply till the querist's sentence is concluded. Conversa'tions and discussions which do not concern him, although held in his presence, he is not to interfere in; and if people conceal what they are saying, he must not attempt furtively to overhear. To his elders he should speak with judgment, pitching his voice at a medium between high and low. Should any abatruse topic present itself, he should gi ve it per· spicuity by comparison. Prolixity he B~ould never aim at. when not absolutely required ; on the contrary, let it be his endea vour to compress all he'has to say, Neither should he employ unusual terms or far-fetched· figures. He should beware of obscenity and bad Ianguage ; or if he m~st needs refer ~o an in~e. cent subject let him be content With allusion by metaphdr. Of all things, let him keep clear of a taste for indelicacy, which tends to lower his breeding, degrade his respectability, and bring him into general disagreement and dislik'e. Let his language upon every occasion correspond with the exigency of his posltion : and if accompanied by gesticulation of the hand or eye or eyebrow, let it be only of that graceful sort which his situation calls for. Let him never, for right or wrong, engage in disputes with others of the co~pany ; least of all with the elders or the trlfillrs of it: and when embarked in suoh dispute, let him be rigidly observant of the rules of candour.

"Let him not deal in profound observation beyond the intellect of those he iR addressing;

OONVERTS

but adapt his dlseonrse to the judgment 0' his hearers. Tbna even the Prophet has declared, We of the prophetic order are enjoined to address men in the measure of their understandings ': and Jesus (blessed be he) said, 'Use not wisdom with the unwise to their annoyance' (St. Matthew vii. 6 ?). In all his conversation let him adhere to the ways of courtesy. Never let him mimic anyone's gestures, actions, or words, nor give utterance to the langl\age of menace.

" When addressing a great person, let him begin with something ominous of good, as the permanence of his fortune, felicity, and so forth.

"From all back-biting, carping, slander, and falsehood, whether heard or spoken, let him hold it essential to keep clear j nay, even from any partnership with those addicted to sneh practices. Let him listen more than he speaks. It waa the answer of a wise mlln to those who asked him why he did so, '·Because,' said he,' God has given me two ears and only one tongue' j which was as much as to say, 'Hear twice as much aa you apeak.' "

CO:NVERTS TO THE MUHAMMADAN RELIGION. Ac(rding to the author of the Hidayah (vol. ii. 170), if a hostile infidel embrace Islam in a hostile country, hia person is his own, and he il not made a alave, nor can his children be enalaved. His property is also his own. But it is not so in the case of one who has been first conquered and then embraces Islam, for hia own person and his children become slaves, and his wives are at the mercy of the victorious Muslim, whilst his lands also become the prop'erty of the

State. .

COVENANT. The word in the Qur'i.n and the TraditioDl for God'i Covenant with His people is MIIOq. Mul].ammad taught, both in the Qur'i.n and in the Traditions, that in the beginninJr God called all the souls of mankind together and took a promise (wa'claIt) and a covenant (mi,taq) from them.

The acconnt of this transaction is given as follows in the Qur'in, Siirah vii. 171:-

II Thy Lord brought forth their desoendant. from the reins of the sons of Adam and took. them to witneBs against themselve., 'Am I not,' said He, , your Lol;.d? ' They said, 'Yes, we witness it.' This we did, lest ye should say 011 the Day of Resurrection, 'Truly, of this were we heedless, because uninformed.'

"Or lelt ye should say, 'Our fathers, indeed, aforetime joined other gods with our God, and we are their seed after them: wilt thou destroy us for the doings of vain men?'"

But the story as told in the Traditiona is more graphic :-

"Ubll! ibn Ka'b relates, in explanation of the verse in the SUratn 'l-A'rif (verse 171) :

When God created (the spirits of) the sana of Adam, he collected them together and made them of different .tribes, and of different

OORRUPTION

61

appearances, and ga ve them powers of lpeeoh. Then they began to speak, and God took from them a promise (wa'dah) , and a covenant (mi"iiq). and said, • Am I not thy Lord?' They all answered and said, 'Thou an.' Then God said, 'Swear by the seven heavens and the seven earths, and by Adam your father, that you will not say in the resurrection, We did not understand this. Know ye therefore that there is no Deity but Me, and there is no God but Me. Do not alsociate anything with Me. I will verily send to you your own apostles who shall remind you of this Promise and of this Coveuant, aud I will send to you your own books.' The sonl of Adam then replied, 'We are witnesses that Thou art ow' Lord (Rabb), and our God (Allah). There is no Lord but Thee and no God but Thee.' Then they confeased - this and made it knowli to Adam. Then Adam looked at them and beheld that there were amongst them those that Wbi'e rich and poor, handsome and ugly, and he said, '0 Lord why didst Thou not make them all alike?' And the Lord said, ! Truly I willed it thus in order that some of my servants may be thankful.' Then Adam saw amongst his po.terity, prophets, like unto lamps, and upon t~ese lamps there wei'S lights, and they were appointed by special covenants of proplaecy (nabiiwah) and of apostleship (raBlilah). And thus it is written in the Qur'i.n (Surah xxxiii. 7),' Remember we have entered into covonant with the Prophets, with thee MuQ,ammad, and with Noah, and with Abraham, and with Musa, and with Jesus the Son of Mary, and we made with them a covenant.' -And (continues Ubai) Jesus was'amoQgst the spirits." (MuhkGt, Arabio Ed. Bibu'l-Qadr.)

COVERING THE HEAD. There is no injunction in either the Qur'iIl or Traditions as to a man coveriDg his head during prayers, although it is generally held to be more modest and correct for him to do so.

With reference to women, the law is imperative, for 'Ayishah relates that Mui1-ammad said, "God accepts not the prayer of an adult woman unless she oover her head." (Mi,Wt,

iv. c. ix.) ,

CORRUPTION OF THE SCR.IPTURES. Mui1-ammadsns chqe the Jews and Christiana with having altered their sacred books. The word used by Mu\lammadan writers for this supposed corruption of the sacrad Scripturea..ol the Jews and Ohristians is TaJ.arij.

The Imiln Fakbru 'd-diu ~i, in his commentary, Tafsir-i-Kabir, explains TaJ,arij to mean II to change, alter, or turn asid.e anytLing from the truth." Muslim divines say there are two kinds of taJ.arif, namely, tall. nj-j-ma'nalDi, a corruption of the meani.1lg; and ta/.lrij-j-laf7,i, a corruption of the words.

Mul;lammadan controversialists, when they become acquainted with the nature of the contents of the sacred books of the Jews and Christians, and of the impossibilit:y of reconciling the contents of the Qur'ii.rJ. With those of

62

OOBRUPTION

tb. ,&elm Soript1U'l" charg. the Obi.luau with tb. tabrif·j·la/,i, Tbey lay the OhrlRfan. ha .... eKpunged the word alamad from tbe propheol8l, and have Inlert.d the e .. pz,I.lon .. Son of God," and the ItOry of tbl oruolfhtlon, death, and resUlTectlon of our bl_ed Lord. Thi. vi .... , however, I. not the one·b.ld by ths mOlt oel.brated of the Mu.- 11m oommentatora.

Th. Imim Muqammad I.mi'n al·Bllkhiri (po 1127, Un. 7), recordl that Ibn 'Abbil .,Id that" the word Tabrif (corruption) IlgnUle. to oh&DI' a thlnr from Ita orlrinal nature i ed that th.re la no man who Gould oorrupt a .IDl1I word of what proc •• ded from God, • 0 tbAt the Jew. and Ohrlltlanl could oorrupt oll1y by mlar.pre .. ntiDI the tII'arai", of til. "orcll of God."

Ibn Xlear and Ibn Abl B&tlm .tlt., In tb. ooIDSD.ntlr'y kno"n a. the Tqfllr Du"..iM"",llr, tat th.y hUI It Oil thl authority of Ibn 1iI1ID1,lh, that the Tallrlit (i •• , the book. of KO.I.), IIId th.l"jll (i .•• thl Go.p.I.), arl ID tb •• aml .tltl of purlt, ill "hloh ~h., ",re • ,at down from hllnn, Ind that no Iltlra· tloll. had bHII. mlde ID them, but thlt the JI'" ".N "Ollt to d.o.l", tb. pI,opl. by UII' .0IlDellrram.llt., Ind b, wrlltlar the •• 11 .. of SOrlpt1U'l.

Shili WII~ 'llih, III hi. oommlntlry, the PGUIIV 'I.Kablr, Inelilio Ibn 'Abbil, .upport thl .am. ~llw.

Thi. Ippelr. to b. the oorr.ot Int.rpr.~ •• tlon of the .. rlou. ~er... of the Qur'iII ohlrriar the J.". "Ith hniDI oorrupted tb. ZDllulnr of thl lacrld Scrfpturll.

'or ... ampl., Sllrltu All 'Imrill (111.), 7i :

II Thlre arl o.rtlllnl, .0111. of tbem who NIcl tb. SOripturl' perver .. I", tblt ye mly thlllk "bit thl1 r.lel to b. re1111111 the Sorlptur .. , J'1t It I. 1I0t III thl Sorlpturll; Illd th'1 .11 thl.l. frOIll Got&, but It II not frolll God; Ind thl, .peak that "hlob I. fal .. oOllolmlnr God arlln.t th.1r own &1I0"I.dlll,"

Th. Imim '1I)pou 'd·dln, ID hi. 00111111'11- tary Oil thi. v.r .. , Illel 1111111 oth.ra of tbl .11111 obar~otlr "blah ooour In thl Qur'in, '11' It r.flr. to I talarf/.j.ma'lItJlIIl, Illd tblt It dOli 1I0t 1111111 tblt thl J I'" Ilt.rld tb, tl .. t, but lII.r.l" th,t tb'1I11ad. alterltlolll ID tbe oour.1 of rladlll8"

But "bll.t all ih. old OOIlllll.lItatora, "ho ilion probabl1 bael nlver ... 11 a OOp1 of tbl l&elreCl boolu of tb. J'''I alld Ohrl.tlan., onl" oharp th.1II "Ith a tlliarV·I'.ma'IItJIIII, all lIIodern oOlltronralall.t. lIIIolII.t the Mu· ~llIIlIIld&D.I oontlild for' I tolarll-i·lqf,l, a. heiDI thl onl1 .olutlon of the dlMoult,.

In deallDc "Itb .uoh 0ppolI.nt., tbl Obrl.· tllll dI vln. will avail hIm.11I of the toUoq arrumlnt.:-

1. Tb. Qur'iII dOli not obarre tbl J.". alld Ohrl.tlln. "Ith oorruptlq tb. t ... t odf ib.lr 1I0red booi.; and lIIan1 I.arnld Hili' Um oOIllIll.ntatorl Idmlt thli .uob II not the 0 ....

i. Th. Qur'iII IIlIrt. tbat the Bol, Sorlp tv .. of tb. J.". and Obrl"luI w.t.d In the da1' of Hull.lllllllld, "ho IDvarllbl1 .p.ake of tb'lII with r.ver.no. and r .. peot.

OREATION

8, 1'here no" e&llt lIIanuoript. of til!! Old and New Tlltalllents of an earlier date than that of Mu~ammad {.A.D, 610-682.}

., Th.r. are ver.lonlof the Old and N.w:

Teltament now I .. tant, whioh e&l.ted blltoN Muqamm.d; for eumple, the Sept1l&fiU, the Latin Vula.t" the Syrllo, the Ooptlo, and the ArmeDlan Tenlonl.

IS, The He .. apla, or Oot.pl. of O",.n, "hloh datee tour ceaturi.1 before Mu~ammad, !live. V.riOUI nr.lonl of the Old T .. tllll.nt Sclrlp. turea In parallel column •.

6. The Syrian Ohrl.tlan. of St. Thoma .. of M.llbar and TrlTanoore, In the .outll, 01 India, "ho "er. I'parated frolll the "I.t.rn world for o.nivl .. , po..... the .allll Selrlp • tVI'.

7. In th. "orlll of Jutln Mlrtyr, "bo lived frOIll .A.D. 108 to 167, th.re are nllae. rou quotailoll. frolll our lacred booi., ,,1:1loh prove tbat tb.y "ere '''Iotly tbl .alll'. al tho .. ". hlv, now, Thl 11m. 1111,' b. ,IIld at other .arl1 Obrl.tlall writer.,

Kull.llllllllcllll oOlltrourilaUlt. at the :pre.ent dl)" urI that the nUlllerou. read:lDf • "blah ... I.t In the Ohrl.tlln book. are I p:roof tblt thlY bIT. b.en oorrupt.d, But thll" do not I!ect, ID the l.a.t, the 1111111 polntll It 111110. b.t" .. n tb. Ohrl.dln and tb. Mu.lllm. Th. DI~ln. Son.hlp of Ohrllt, the 'Itll.r. hood of God, tb. OruoUI:r.Ion, Death, Ind R •• lurrectloll of Ohrl.t, alld the A tonllll'lIt IN all 01.ar11 .tlt,d In allllo.t .very book 01 the N." Tlltllllent, "hll.t th'1 Ir. reJ.ct.d. b1 tb, Qur·iD.

Th. 1II0.t pllu.lbla ot modlrn ObJIOtlolll wor.d b1 Ku.11m dlnn .. I., thlt tb, Obrl •• tlall. hive 100t the /",'11 "hlch "" lint dClwn frolll beaven to J.IUI· Ind that the N." 1' ... tllllint oontlln. mlrely thl .f/IJdl" or S",,:w -the traditjOfll hlnded do"n by Mlttbl", Mar&, Luke, John, Paul, Ind otherl. It I., of oour.l, I lII,r. ,,"rtlon, UIIIupported by In1 proof; but It applln to b, I lin, of Irgum.nt "hloh oOlllmend. It .. lf to 1II.,n1· 1II0dlrn MIIo.lIm •.

OREATION. Arabib 1{~lq4~. 1:'he followinr Ir. th.lllD.lolI. to the OteaticlI "hioh ooour In tb, Qur'iII, Sarlh 1. 87: "Of old 'WI (God) orlltld tbe hllv.n.lnd th ... rth and III that I. b.twe,n thelll In .1 .. day', Illd no ".a· rlne .. touoh,d V •. " SQrlh sU, 8; "Do y. Illdted dllb.Uev, III Him whl) In t"o d"1' or ... tad the earth' Do ye 1 .. lm Him ~lIolll. P Tb. Lord of the World I. HI. And B. h.,th pllo.d on the earth the IIrm 1II0'CIDt.ln. "h:loh to"lr above It, alld H. h.th bl .... d It, .,nd dl.trlbut,d Iii nourl.hmlDt. tbroqhollot It (for tb. oravina'i of aU are llilte), ID f.,v cll,', Th.n H'. Ipplled HIm .. U to lib. h •• ven, whloh "" but .1II0k.: and to It ',lId to the IIrtb H, .ald, If 001111 1.1, In obedl.llo. or Iflllllt 10ur "Ill P" Ind tb.y both ... Id, "We 00111. obedlellt," And B. oomplat.ed ah.1II II •• v.n hllUII. In t"o dI1" and In lIoit h.av.n mid. kllOWD It. oasOI; Illd WI fv.rnln.d the 10"lr heaven "Ith lirhil aDd ruardlan IIlI,iI. Thl. I. the d1lpo.Won of the Almirhty, the IU'QO"1na on •. " Sllrah

OBBED

:1\'1. S: "He created the heavena and the earth to aet forth his truth, high let Him be exalted above the godl they join with Him I Man hath He created out of a moiat germ j yet 10 I man ia an open caviller. And the cattle I for you hath He created them, .to •.... Shall He who hath created be as he who hath not created P Will ye not conllder p. " Siirah xlii. 2: ,,'It la Ood who hath reared the henena without pillara, thou canst beheld; then leated Hlmaelf upon His throne, and imposed la'll'l on the lun and moon i each tranlleth to It! appolnteth goal. He ordereth all thlnas. He maketh His Ilpl clear. Haply ye will haTe firm faith In a meeting with your Lcrd. And He It II who hath out· It retched the earth, and placed on It the I1rm mountalnl, and riTera; and of e"l1 fruit He hath placed on It two klndl. He caueeth the night to enlhroud the day." SOrah xuv. U: "God created you of dUlt-then of the lierml of life-then mlde you two 18&11."

According to the Tradltlonl (Mi,hktit, Sliv.

c. I. pt. 8), God created the earth on Satur. day, the hl111 on Sunday, the tre .. on Monday, all unpleallnt thlDgs on TUlllday, the U,ht on W.dneaday, the bealtl on Thurlday,IDd Adam, who '11'11 the lilt of OreatloD, '11'11 created after the time of Ifternoon prayerl on Frida,.

CREED. The Mul,.a.mmadanCreed, or Xu/imalll '.h·.hahtidah (shortly Ka/a'''lQh) II the well· known formula:-

"I t .. tlfy that the]e II no deity but God, aDd Mul),ammacr II the Apoltle of Ood."

It II the beUef of Mul),ammadans that the Brat part of thll oreod, 'II'hloh II oaUed the ntiflaua a'ft6tit, namely, " There II no deity but GOd," hal been the expreliion 01 beUef of every prophet Ilncl! the daYI of Adam, and that the lloond portion hal been chlDlled according to the dllpenlltion j' lor exlmple, that In tho day. of MOld t would be:

"There II no deity but God, and MO"1 II the OonTeraer with God," In the Ohrlstlan dllplnlltlon It '11'11: "There II no deity but God" and Jeaul I. the Spirit of God,"

Jiblr relat .. that Mul),ammad Illd "the keys of Paradll' are bearlni wltnea. that thore II no deity but God."

The recital of the Kala'ma/., or Oreed, II the lint of five plllu8 of practical rollilon In hliim; and whon anyone II converted to blim he II required to repeat thll formula, and the following aro the condition I required of every MUIUm with referenoe to It:_

1, That It Ihl\l1 be repeated aloud, at loaHt onco in a IIfe·tlme,

2. Thnt tho menning of It Ihall be fully under.tood,

S, Thnt It Ihnll be bcllevod In II by the

heart."

4, That It Ihall be prolelled until doath, 6, That It Ihan bo recited correctly,

6, That It suall be always prof .... d and declared without helltalion,

(SAar(a1i 'I. Wigayuh,)

ORUELTY

68

CREMATION. [BUBIUlfa TR.

D'U,D.]

CRESCENT. The figure of the cresoent Ie the Turkish symbol, and hence It hal been regarded by Europeans al the speclal emblem of the Mul,1ammadan rellaion, although it II unknown to the MUQalDlDadanl of the East. Thll fipre, however, did not originate with the Turkl, but It 'II'al the Iymbol of sovereignty In the city of Byzan. tlum previous to the MUllim conquest, al may be I&en from the medall Itruok In honour of Augustul Trajan and otherl, The creacent hal been the Iymbol of three dif. ferent orderl of knlihthood; the Brit of whloh wal Inltltut.d by Ohlrl .. L, K111i of Naplel, ~,D. 1268; the lIoond In lU8 by Ren' of Anj ou; the third by Sultan SeUm In 1801. It mUlt have been adoptod iy Mu· l),lmmadlnl for the firlt tim. upon the over. throw of the BYllntlne Emplr. by Mul)alDlDad II., and It II now ienually ulld by thl Turkl a. the Inlfin.la of thllir creed.

CROOODILE. Arabic TifM4 ••

The S .. h of I orooodil. II u.nlawful fOT food to a Mul)lmmadan. (Hamilton'. HidtiIJah, Iv. U,)

CROSS, The. Arabic A,-~a.Zib. The Qur'in d.ni.. the oruclll&lon of our ble .. ed Lord r OaCOIrIXloR], and It II related by II. Wiqldl that Mul),ammad had luch a rep\1f. nance to the form of the cro .. that he broke everythlni brouiht Into hll houll with that figure upon It. (Muir, III, 61.) According to Abd Huralrah, tho Prophet laid, " Ilwear by heaven, It II near, whln J .. UI the Son of Mary '11'111 d .. cend from b.nen upon your plopl., I jUlt king, and He will breok tA. era", and kill the Iwlno. (Mi,/iktit, nliL e, vI.) Thl Imllll Abd Yalut eayl that If a croll or a cruclB& II Itolen from a church, amputation (the punllh. ment for theft.) II not Inourr.d; but If It II Itolen from a prlnte dwelling It II 'thlft. (Hamllton'l Hiiltiyah, vol. II. p, 90.)

CRUCIFIXION. The OrucifbioD of the Lord Jeaul Ohl'llt II denied by the teaohlni of the Qur'in. [".I"IODlIT,] It II a puni.hment lanotioneer by the KuQ,imma· dill rellrlon fOI' 1:I1I'hway robb.,.. (Hamilton'. HiiitiyuA, '01, h. 181.)

CRUELTY. A Itrikin,- in.t&nce of the oruelty of M ul)ammad I charaoter oocura In a tradition glvon In the $alailau 'I· BIlk!1ari (p. 1011)). ....n.. relat .. , II Some of the people of the tribe of 'Ukl came to the Prophet and embraood blllll; but the air of al·Mldinah did not agroe with them, and they wanted to lene the place. And the Prophot .ordored thom to go whero the oamele alTOn In aim ..... ore allemblod, and to drink their milk, whloh they did, and reoonred from their sloknell. But aftel' thll they became apoItatel, and renounoed blllll, and Itol. the oameh, Then the Proph.t Hnt ~ome plopl. after them, and I,hey were •• iaed Ind bro\1fh,

64

DABBATU 'L-ARZ

baok to al-Madinah. Then the Prophet ordered their hand. and their feet to be out off al a punishment for theft, and their eyel to be pulled out. But the Prophet did 'not ltop the bleeding, and they died." And in another it reads, "The Prophet ordered hot irons to be drawn across their eyes, and then to be cut on the plain of al-Madinah i and when they asked for water it wal not given

them, and they died." ~

Sir William Muir (voL iv. p. 807) lays:

"Magnanimity or moderation are nowhere discernible as featwes in the conduct of MuI).ammad towards such' of his enemies as failed to tender a timely allegiance. Over the bodies of the Quraish who fell at Badr he exulted with savage satisfaction j and several

DABBATU 'L-AR~ (loP)" &t,.I).

Lit. "The Reptile of the Earth." A monster who shall arise in the last day, and shall cry unto the people of the earth that mankind have not believed in the revelations of God (vide Qur'iu, Siirah xxvii. 84): "And when sentence falls upon them we will bring forth a beast out of the earth, that shall speak to them and say, 'Men of our signs would not be sure. .. , According to the Traditions he will be the third sign of the coming resurrection, and will come forth from the mountain of eufah. (MiB1ikat, xxiii. c. iv.) Both Sale and Rodwell have confounded the Dibbat.u 'I-Ar, with Al-Jassissh, the spy, mentioned in a tradition by Fitiniah (Mi.ltkat, xxiii. c. iv.). and which is held to be a demon bow in existen!,e. [-U.-.JJ.88.lUB.] For a description of the Dibbah, see the article on the U81JJUU1O'l'I01l'.

( DABOR ()r-f.l). "The West wind." A· term used by the eiifil to express the lust of the flesh,. and its overwhelmiDg power in the heart of man. (Abdu 'rRazziq's Dictirmary of $ilfi Tenns.)

DABH.!. ~IO». Plural of the

Persia.n • .1, ten. The ten days of the Muharram, during which public mourning for 'Ali and his sons is observed by Shi'ah Muqammadans. (Wilson's GloB.argof Indian Tenns.)

AD-DAHR ( ,..~'). "A long space of time." A title given to the L:u:vtth chapter of the Qur'iD j called also Siiratu '1- Ins&n, "The Chapter of Man." The title is taken from the first verse of the chapter i " Did not there pass over man a long space of time? ..

( DAHRI (~.,.a.l). One who believes in the eternity of matter, and asserts that the duration of this world is from eternity, and denies the Day of Resurrection and Judg-

l>AMA.SOUB

prieoners, accused of no crime but of scepticism and political opposition, were deliberately executed at his command. The Prince of Khaibar, after being subjeoted to ill.human torture for the purpose of discovering. the treasures of his tribe, was, with his cousin, put to death on the pretext of havinj~ treacheroully ooncealed them, and his wife was led away captive to the tent of the conqueror. Sentence of exile wu emor·oed by Mul).ammad with rigorous severity on two whole Jewish tribes at al-Madinah j &!lId of a third, likewise his neighbours, the WOIIten and children were sold into distant ca:ptivity, while the men, amounting to several hundreds, were butchered in cold blood before his eyes."

D.

ment j an Atheist. ({Ejiytiau 'I-Lu~Jlyi.t, in loco.)

DAIN «(:)01.1). A debt contracted with some detlnite term tlxed for repayment, as distinguished from gar;, which is nsed for a loan given without any tilted term for repayment. [DBBT.J

DAJJ.!.L (JI.-.I). Lit. " false, lying." The name givell in the ~I~dift to cert,in religious impostors who shall appear in the world; a term equivalent to our use of the word Antichrist. Muhammad is related to have said there would be'about thirty.

The Mali(&u 'd.Dajjal, or .. the lying Chriet," it is said, will be the last of the Dajjiils, for an account of' whom rlefer to artIcle on KUlHU 'D-DUJ.u..

DALIL (J-l.l). "An argument ; a proof." Dalil burltani, .. a convincin~r argo' ment." Dalil qat.'i, .. a decisive pr~of("

DAMASCUS. Arabic DimaBhq

According to Jalilu 'd-din Suyii~i, Damascus is the second sacred city in Syria, Jerusalem being the first; and some have thought it must be the "Iram of the columns" mentioned in the Qur'&n, Siirah lxxxix. 6, although this is not the view of most Muslim writers. [DUM.]. Dama.scus is not mentioned in the Qur'in. With regard to the date of the erection of the city, Mul).ammadan historians differ. Some say it was bnilt by a slave named Dimashq, who belonged to Abraham, having been given to tho patriarch by Nimrod; others say Dimashq was a slave belonging to Alexander the Great, and that the city was built in his day.

Damascus was taken by Khii.lid in the reign of the Khalifah 'Umar, A.H. 13, and it became the capital of the Umaiyade Khalifahs under Mu'iwiyah, .l.B. 41; and remained the chief city of Islim until the fall of that

DAMASOUS

dynuty, A.B. 182, when the Abbusides moved their capital first to al-Kiifah and then to Bagdad.

The great mosque at Damascul was erected by 'Abdu 'I-Malik ibn Marwin, tile fifth Khalifah of the Umaiyades. It was commenced A.B. 86, and finished in ten years, being erected on the \ ruins of an ancient Greek temple and of a Christian church.

The account, as given b)' Jalalu 'd-din Suyiiti, in his History of the Temple of Jeru.ale"" is curious and interesting, showingth~t for a time the Muslims and Christians worshipped in the same building together.

II Here (m Damascus) all the servants of God joined, and built a church to worship God in. Some say, however, that this church was built by the Greeks: for' Abdu 'llih Ibn 'Abbie, having marched against Damascus and besieged it, demolished the walls, after he had entered the city by storm. Then there fell down a stone, having certain letters inscribed thereon in the Greek language. They. therefore sent to bring a certain monk who could read Greek; but he said, 'Bring me in pitch the impression of the letters on the stone, which he found to be as follows: 'Woe unto thee, mother of shame J Pious is he who Inflicts upon thee with usury the ill which God designs for thee in retribution. Woe unto thee from fi ve eyes, who shall destroy thy wall after four thousand years.' Now, 'Abdu 'llih's entire namewas'Abdu 'IlihIbn 'AliIbn 'Abdi 'Ilih Ibn 'Abbie Ibn 'Abdu 'l-Muqallib.

"Again, the historian Ibn Isahir says:

When God had granted unto the Muslims the possession, as conquerors of the whole of Syria, He granted them among other cities that of Damascus with its dependencies. Thus God sent down His mercy upon them, and the commander-in-chief of the army (besieging Damascus), who was either Abii 'Ubaidah or, ss aome say, Khilid Ibn al-Walid, wrote a

. treaty of capitulation and articles of surrender. By these he settled and appointed fourteen churches to remain in the hands cif the Mualims. The church of which we have spoken above was left open and free for future consideration. This was on the plea that Khilid had entered the city at the sword's point by the eastern gate; but that the Christians at the same time were allowed to surrender by Abii 'Ubaidah, who entered at the western gate, opened under articles. This caused dissension; but at length it was agreed that half the place should be regarded as having capitulated and half as stormed.

"The Muslims therefore took this church, and Abii 'Ubaidahmade it into a mosque. He was afterwards appointed Emir of Syria, and was the first who prayed here, all the company of _ Companions praying after him in the open area, now called the Companions' Tower; but tho wall must then have been cut through, hard by the leaning tower, if the Companions really prayed in the' blessed precinct.' At first the Christians and 'Muslims entered by the same gate, which was 'the gate of Adoration and Prayer,' over against the Qiblah, where the great tower now

DAMASOUS

65

stands. Afterwards the Ohrlstlane changed and went into their church by the gate facing the west; the Muslims taking the right-hand mosque. But the Ohristiana were not sufferred to chant aloud, or recite their books or strIke their beIl~ (or clappers), in order to honour the Companions with reverence and fear. Also, Mu'iwiyah built in hil daYI a house for the Amir, right oppolite the mosque. Here he built a green chapel. This palace was noted for ita perfectIon. Here MU'iwiyah dwelt forty yean; nor did this state of things chauge from .LII. U to A.B. 86. But AI-Walid Ibn 'Abdu 'I-Malik begau to think of destroying the churches, and of adding some. to those already in the hands of the Muslims, so as to construct olie great mosque; and this because some of the Muslims were sore troubled by hearing the recitations of the OhristianB from the Gospel, and their uplifted voices in prayer. _ He designed, therefore, to remove them from the MWllims and to annex this spot to the other, so as to make one grea .. mosque, Therefcue he called for the Christiana, and asked them whether they would depart from those placee which were in their hand., receiving m exchange greater portions in lieu thereof; and also retaining four churches not mentioned in the treaty-the Church of Marla, the Ohurch of the Crucified, just within the e".teiri gate, the church Tallu 'I-I;Iabn, and the Ohurch of the Glorious Mother, occupied previonaly by the burnishers. This, however, they vehemently refused to do. Th.,.eupoD the lAali. fah said, 'Bring me then the treaty whioh you possess since the time of the Companions.' They brought it, therefore, and It was read in al- WaJid's presence; when, 10 J the Church of Thomas, outside the gate of Thomas, hard by the river, did not enter into the treaty, and was one of those called 'the greater of churches left upon' (for future disposal). 'There,' he said, 'this will I destroy and convert it into a mosque.' They said, 'Nay, let it alone, 0 commander of the Faithful, even although not mentioned among the churches, for we are content that you take the chapel of the church.' To thi. agreement, then, he held them, and received from them the Qubbah (or chapel vault, dome) of the church. Then he summoned workmen able to pull down, and as.embled all the amir., chiefs, and great men. But the Chrll. tian bishops and priests coming, said, '0 commander of the Faithful, we find in our books tha\ whosoever shall demolish this churoh will go mad.' Then said the Khalifah, 'And I am very willing to be mad with God's inspiration; therefore no one shall demolish it before me.' Then he a.cended the western tower, which had two spirel, and contained a monastic cell. Here he found a monk, whom he ordered to descend, The monk making difficulties, and linger. ing, al-Walid took him by the back of hi. neck, and ceased not puehing him until he had thrown him down stairs. Then he ascended to the most lofty spot in the church, above the great altar, called 'the Altsr of

66

DAMASOlTS

the Martyrs,' Here he aeized the endl of his sash, which was of a bright yellow cclour, and fl:r.ed them into hia belt, Taking, then, an a:r.e intq his hand, he struck agMnst the very topmost stone, and brought it down, Then he called the amlrs, and desired them to pull down the building as quickly as possible, Hereupon all the Muslims shouted, , God is great I' three times; also the Christians loudly cried out with their wailing and' woe upon the stepa of Jairiin, where they had allembled, Al-Walid therefore desired the commander of his guard to indict biowl upon them until they should depart, 1\' hich he did, The Mu.lims then demoUshed all that the Chrlltlan. had built In the great .quare here-altarl nnd buildlni'. and clol~terluntil the whole square WIU one fiRt lurface, B6 thon relolved to build a ~plolldld pill, 1111· I'lval1.d for boauly of Irchltectllre, which none could hel'eafter surPllU, AI· Walld thereforo commiliioned the mOlt eminent arohitect. and matbemnticiall' to build the mOlque, accordlnll' to the model they mOlt preferred, HII brothel' cldeli:; moved and Itlrred him up to thia un~ertl\klng. and nut to him prelided Sulilmin 'Abdu '1·!'ola1lk, It il IIld that ai- Walid lent to the kini' of Greece to demand atollo·mllonR and other workmen, for the purPOIO of buildini thil mo.que ill the way he delired, lending word, that If the king refulad, he would ovenun hil territory with hll army, Ind reduco to utter rlLln every ohurob in hil domlnlonl, oven tbe Cburcb of tbo Holy Olty, and the Ohurob of Ede .. a, Ind uttel'ly dOlt roy evory "'ltllI'O of the Greeks ltill remRlnln" Tbe kin, of Greeoe, .oat, thsrefore, numorouM workmen, with I letter, upreulng him.elf tbuI: • It thy father knoweth whit thou doelt, Ind por. mitl It, then truly I nocull him of dllgraceful oonduot, Ind hllmo him more thAIl tbee, If he under.tladeth it not, but thou only art oon.clou., then r blame thee a han him.' When tho letter came to al·Walid, he wllhe4 to reply unto It, and ,,"milled ""Ira I per· lonl for oon.ultltlon. One of thele 11''' a wIlI·known poet, who lIid, 'I will anlwer him, 0 Oommllndllr of the Faithful I out of the Book of God.' So laid al- Wand, 'Whore, then, II that an.wor?' Ue roplled thl. \'8l'1e, 'David and Solomon, lo! thoy Ruuml a rli'ht to the eern- field, n right to the plao. where the peoplo al'8 .hearlni' their Iheep, Ailo, we are witne .. " of their decree; for Solo· mon hlth/l,."n u~ to underltnnd it, and both (David 11:1 Solomon) hAve COIlIO to UIII jud,el Ind learned men.' AI-Walld. QY thi. reply, cauted great Iw'prhe to tho kin, of Greece, AI·Fluuk alludes to thll In thllo verael :-

, tt I have made a •• plIl'ation bet'l'o'een th.

Obriltlanl Ind tbelr chur.h •• ; 1111(1 between the people who Ihlne and tholO who nl'e in dll'k· n ... ."

tt 1 aei'lected for a IIlIon tbu. to Ipportion their happla.lI, I being I procra.tinltlni' via. dloator of their grlennceR."

tt Thy Lord hlth mldo thee to 1'.lolve upon remol'lng their churoh.1 from tho.e mORqueR wherein i'ood wordl are recitod,"

D,UlASOU8

tt Whilst they were to,..ther in one plaoe, lome wereprsying and prostrating them.selve. on their faces, slightly separated from other. who, behold I were adoring God and Idols."

tt How shall the people of the Oroll unite to ring their bells, when the reading e)f the Qur'in il perpetually intermingled? "

",I resclved then to remove them, jUlt aM did thOle wise men when they decreed them. leI ves a right to the seed· field and the flookl,"

.. When aI- Walid re.oh'ed to blLlld the ohapel which is in the midst of the cloilter, called 'the Vulture'. Ohapel' (a Ilame ,1"111 to it by the country-people, beoause tho portlco. on eaoh aide look IIketwow!IIi'I), Iledlli' d .. p It the four oorner. of the int'ended ohlpel, until tbe, Oame to .weet Ind limpid water, aere they flr.t plaoed the foundation of the wall of the vineyard, Upon thia tbey built with Itone, and 1\'hen the four O')l'ner. ,.,.ere of luIBoient height, they then blLllt th.reoa the chi pel i bllt "t fen down lI,ain. 'l'hen laid II. Walid to lome one of the alatbe. mltlelaal, who well know the plan 'Jf the Vulture'R Chapol', I I wl.h you to build tbll ohapel jtor tbe lajunctloll of God hRth been (l'ivea me, and I 'am oonfldeat that no ane but thy"" may build It.' He theretot e bui It th~ fOUl' oornerR, and covered them with wicker, and dlaappoal'ed for a whole yORI', al·Walld not knowing where he 11'11, After a year, Rl.Walid dug down to the tour oornor foun· dat'lonl, Then he (I',r, ,tbe architect) u.ld, 'Do not be in a hurry, 0 commander (If the Faithtull' Then be found the mlthllmltl. clan, who had a man'l head with him, He Oame to the four oornen, and unccvered the wioker work, Ind 10 I all that had been bllllt above the earth had tallen down, until they were on a le'l'el with the earth, So h. IIld, I From thla (work h",e I come).' TheIn he prooelded to buJld, and firmly fiud and IUp. ported a beautiful fahrlc,

.. Some penon allo .aid al·Walld wllbed to oonltmct a brillilnt ohapel at pure (l'old, whereby 'he rank of the mOlque mig:at be mall'nlfled, Hereupon the luperlnteadeDt laid unto him 'You OanDot elfeot th1l.' Upon whioh al.Walld Itruok him fifty biowl 1I'lth a w,hip, "yinII', 'Am I then inoapable ot efteot. Iiii' thll P , The man replied, 'Certl~inly.' Then he lAid, 'I 11'111, then, find out a way to know the truth, Bring forth all the ,old thou ha.t' j' which he did: and II·l'ValId melted it, and formed It into one Ilrge briok, whioh contllned one thoullnd piec'l ot ,oleL Bllt the mill Inld, '0 Oommaader at the F,lthful! we Ihall require .0 many thotllanel briok. of thll lort, If thou dOlt po ..... tlaem I Dor 11'111 thil .dce tor our 'I'o'ork, AI· WalId .. elnll' thlt he wa. true and jUlt, prll"Dt.d him with fllty dlnir.; and when al·~faliel roofed the i'reat preolnot, h. adorned the roof, &I well n. the Whole IIItent of the pan· ment, with a lurfac. of gold, Some of al. Walid'i family alia lAid unto him, ' They who oome after thee 1\'111 emulate thee!JI rer.derllll the outer root ot thil mo.que more commoeilo,.1 every yeal'.' Upon this al;WaUd ordereel aU the

DAMASOUS

lead of the country to be collected together, in order to construct therewith an exterlor outward covering, answering to the interior, which should be light upon the roof, and on the side-posts that supported the roof. So they collected lead throughout all Syria lind many other countries ; and whilst they were returning, they met with a certain woman who possessed a weight of lead-a weight of many talents. They began to chaffer with the woman for it; but she refused to sell it, except for its weight in silvet. So they wrote to the Commander of the Faithful, informing him of this, who replied, 'Buy it from her, even for ita weight in silver.' When, then, they offered this sum unto her, she said, ' Now that you have agreed to my propoeal, and are satisfied to give the weight in lilver, I give the weight as an offering unto God, to serve for the roof of the mosque.' Hereupon they marked one corner of the weight with the impression of a. seal, 'This is God's.' Some say the woman was an Israelite; some say that they sought for lead in open ditches or holes, and came to a. s$ono sepulchre, within which was & leaden sepulchre, whence they brought forth a dead body, and laid it on the ground. Whilst riragging it out, the head fell to the ground, and the neck being broken, much blood flowed forth from the mouth, which terrified them so much, that they rapidly fled away. Tkis is said to have been the burial-place of King Saul. Also, the guardian of the mosque came unto al·Walid and said, '0 Commander of the Faithful! men say that al- W@-lid hath expended the money of the treasury unjustly.' Hereupon al-Walid desired that all the people should be summoned to prayer. When all were assembled, al-Walid mounted the pulpit, and said,' Such and such reports have reached me.' Then he said, '0 'Vmar Ibn al-Muhajir I stand up and produce the money of the treasury.' Now it "'80S carried upon mules. Therefore, pieces of hide being placed in the midst, beneath the chapel, he poured out all the gold and silver, to such a height, that those who stood on either side could not lee one another. Scales being then brought out, the whole was weighed, when it was found that the amount would suffice for the public use for three years to come, even if nothing were added to the amount. Then all the people rejoiced, prailing and gtorifying God for this. Then said the Khalifah, '0 people of Damascus I you boalt among men of four things; of yow' air, of your water, of YOUl' cheerfulness, JLnd of your gracefulness. Would that you would add to these a fifth, and become of the number of those who praise God, a.nd are liberal in his service. Would that, thus changing, you would becomethankful Bupplia.nts.'

.. In the Qiblah of this mosque were three golden scimitars, enamelled in lapis luuli. Upon each scimitar wal engraved the following 88nten08: 'In the name of God, the Merciful aDd Companionate I Th_ il no god but God. a. il the everli.mr. the eelf .. ubsismrc BeiDc. who never

D.UUSCUS

67

slumbers nor sleeps. There is no rod but God. He has no partner. We will neTel' adore any but our Lord, the one God. Our faith is Islam, and OU1' Prophet il Mul)ammad. This mosque was built, and the churchel which stood on the lite of the chapel were demolished, by order of the servant of God, the Commander of the Faithful, al-Walid Ibn 'Abdu 'I· Malik Ibn Marwin, in the month zu 'l-Qa'dah, A.B. 86.' Upon another tablet was inscribed the whole of the first oMpter of the Qur'in. Here also were depicted the stars, then the morning twilight. then the spiral course of the sun, then the wa.y of living which obtained after the arrival of the Faithful at Da.mascus. Also. it il laid, that all the floor of this mosque was divided into small slabs, and that the stone (oa.rving) of the walls extended to the utmost pinnacle. Above was a grea.t golden vine, and above this were splendid enamelled knobs of green, red, blue, and white, whereby were figured and expressed all countries and regions, "especi8olly the Ka·b8oh, above the tower; also all the count riel to the righ~ and left (of Makk8oh), and all the mOlt beautiful shrubs and trees of every region, famous either for their fruits or flowera. The roof had cornices of gola. Here wal auspeaded a chain of gold and silver. which branched off into seven separate lights. In the tower of the Compa.nions were two Iton!ls-beryls (some lay they were the jewell called pearll); they were called • The Little On81.' When the candles were put out, they in1lamed the eyes by their brilliant light. In the time of al-Amin Ibn ar-Rashid, Sulaimin, captain of the guard, w80s sent by that Khalifah to Da.lIIasous, to steal those stones and bring them to him'; which he did. When al-Ma'miiD discovered this, he sent them to Damalcus, al a proof of hil brother's misconduct. They afterwards again vanished, and in their place is a gla.ss vessel In this mosque all the ~ates, from the dome (gallery) unto the entrance, are open, and have no bara or locke. Over each is a loose curtain. In like manner there is a curtain upon all tbe wall. al far al the baBOS of the golden vine, above which are the enamelled knobs. The capitals of the pillarl were thickly covered 'With dead gilding. Here were allo Imall galleries. to look. down from, enclosed on the four lidu. of the skirting waIL AI-Walid also built the northern minaret, now called" 'the Bridegroom's Tower.' AI to the western gallery, tha.t existed many agel before, in each corner of this was a cell, railed upon very lofty walls, and used by the Greeks al an observatory. The two northern of thele fell, and the two opposite remained. In the year 7.0, part of the ealtern had been burnt. It then fell down, but was bnilt up anew out of the Ohriltians' money, because tliey had me- . ditated the deltruction (of it) by fire. It then wa.s reltored after a most beautiful plan. Thia il the tower (but God knows) upon which Jeaul Ion of Maria will alight. for KuI!-ammad is reported to bave ,aid, • I .. w Jesus lOll of ){aria com. fonh fro .. Deal' &h.

68

DAMASClIS

white mjnaret, east of the mosque, placing his hands upon the wings of two angels, firmly bound to him. Upon him was the Divine glory (~he Shechinah). He was marked by the red tinge of baptism. This is the mark of original sin.' J e8US (it is also said) shall come forth from the White Tower by the eastern gate, and shall enter the mosque. Then shall the word come forth for Jesus to fight with Antichrist at the corner of the city, &8 long as it shall please God. Now, when this mosque (the slaves' mosque) was completed, there was not to be found upon the face of the earth a building more beautiful, more splendid, more graceful, than this. On whatever side, or area, or place, the spectator looked, he still thought that side or spot the most preferable for beauty. In this mosque were certain talismans, placed therein since the time of the Greeks; so that no venomous or stinging creature could by any means obtain entrance into this enclosure, neither lerpent, scorpion, beetle, nor spider. They I&Y, also, that neither sparrows nor pigeons built their nests there, nor was anything to be found there which could annoy people. Most, or all, of those talismans were burnt by the fire that consumed the mosque, which fire took place in the night of Sha'bin, •. B. 461. AI-WaJid frequently prayed in the mosque. One uight (it is related) ho said to his people, 'I -wish to pray to-night in the mosque; let no one remain there whilst I pray therein.' So when he came unto the gate of the Two Moments, he desired the gate to be opened, and entering in, he saw a man standing between the gate of the Two Moments and the gate of St. George, praying .. He was rather nearer to the gate of St. George than to the other. So the Khalifah said unto his people, 'Did I not charge you

/ that no one should remain whilst I 'Was praying in the mosque?' Then oae of them said, '0 Commander of the Faithful I this is St George, who prays every night in the mosque.' Again, one prayer in this mosque equals thirty thousand prayers.

If Again. A certain man, going out of the gate of the mosque which is near the Jairiin, met Ka'b the scribe, who said, 'Whither bound?' He replied, 'To the Baitu 'I-Muqaddas, therein to pray.' Then said Ka'b, 'I will show you a spot wherein whosoever prayeth shall receive the same blessings as if he prayed in the Baitu 'l-Muqaddas.' The man, therefore, went with him. Then Ka'b showed him the spaee between the little gate from whence you go to Abyssinia, that

. is, the space covered by the arch of the gate, containing about one hundred yards, to the west, and said, 'Whoso prayeth within those two points shall be regarded as praying within the Baitu 'l-Muqaddas.' Now, tbis spot is said to he a spot fit to be sought by pilgrims. Here, it is asserted, is the head of John, son of Zacharias (Peace be with him I,. For alWalid Ibn Muslim being desired to show where J()hn's head was to be found, pointed with hil hand to the plastered pillar-the fourth from the east comer. Zaid Ibn Wakad

DAMASOUS

says, , At the time it was proposed to build the mosque of Damascus, I saw the head of John, son of Zacharias, brought forth from underneath one of the corners of the chapel. The hair of the head was unchanged.' He says in another place, 'Being nominated by al-Walid superintendent of the building, we found a cave, of which discovery we informed al-Walid. He came, therefore, unto us at night, with a wax taper in his ha.nd. Upon descending we found an elaborately carved little shrine, three within three (i.e. 'within the first a. second, within the second a I~hird). Within this last was a sarcophagus, and within this a casket; within which was the head of John, son of Zacharias. OVE'r the casket was written, " Here is the head of John, son of Zacharias. Peace be with him I" By al-Walid's command we restored the head to the spot whence it had been taken. The pillars which are above this spot are inclined obliquely to the others to distinguish the place. There is also over it a pillar with a head in plaster.' He asserts again, that when the happy event occurred of the conquest of Damascus, a certain person went up the stairs which led to the church, then standing where the mosque now stands. Here the blood of John, son of Zacharia.s was seen to flow in torrents and to boil up, nor did the blood sink down and become still until that seventy thousand had been slain over him. The spot where the head was found is now called al-Sakasu (perhapa, the Nail of the Narrow Cave).

"In the days of 'Umar, the ·Chriltial18 requested that he would confirm their claim to the right of meeting in these places whi.ch alWalid hali taken from them and converted into mosques. They, therefore, claimed the whole inner area as their own from 'Gmar. The latter thought it right to restore them what al-Walid had taken from them, but upon examination he found that the churches without the suburbs were not comprehended in the articles of surrender by the Companions, such, for example, as the great Church of the Monastery of Observants or Ca.rmelitllB, the Church of the Convent behind the Church of St. Thomas, and all the churches of the neighbouriUf ·villages. 'Umar therefore, gave them the choice, either to r"store theln the churches they denianded, demolishing in that case all the other churches, or to leave those churches unmolested; and to receive from them a full consent to the. free use of the open space by the Muslims. To this latter proposal they, after three days deliberation, agreed; and proper writings were drawn up all. both sides. They gave the Muslims a deed of grant, and 'Umar gave them full security and assurance of protection. N "thing was to be compared to this mosque. It is said to be one of the stronghollls of Paradise, and that no inhabitant of Damascus would long for Paradise when he looks upon. his beautiful mosque. AI-Ma'miin carne to Damascus in company with his brother alMu'ta~im, and the ~i Y 41)ya Ibn Alt§am. Whilst viewing the mosque he said, ' Wbat is

DANCING

the, most wondrous sight here?' His brother said, 'These-offerings and pledges.' The Qui said,' The uiarble and the columns. 'Then said ~l-Ma'miin, 'The most wondrous..thing to me IS, whether any other could be built at an-like this.''' (Hist. Temple of Jerusalem, by Jalalu 'd-din, translated by Reynolds, p. 407.)

DAN C I N G . Arabic Raqe.

Dancing is generally held to be unlawful, although it does not appear to be forbidden in either the Qur'in 01' the Traditions, but according to al-Bukhiri (Arabic ed., p. 185), the Prophet expressly permitted it on the day of the great festival. Those who hold it to be unlawful quote the following verse from the Qur'in, Siirah xvii. 89," Walk not proudly on the earth," as a prohibition, although it does not seem to refer to the subject.

(The Siifis make dancing a religious exercisa,but the Sunni Muslims consider it unlawful. (Hidiiyatu 's-Sii'il, p. 107.)

DANIEL. Arabic Diiniyiil. ·A

prophet celebrated amongst Mu~ammadans as an interpreter of dreams. He is not mentioned in either the Qur'in or the Traditions, but in the Qa$a$u 'l-Ambiyii', p. 281, it is stated that in the reign of Bu!fiJ.tu NaHaT (Nebuchadnezzor) he was imprisoned; and when he was in prison, the king had a dream which he had forgotten, and hearing that Daniel was an interpreter of dreams, he sent for him. When Daniel was in the presence of the King, he refused to prostrate, saying, it was Ia wfnl to prostrate alone to the Lord Almighty. For this he nearly lost his life, but was spared to interpret the lUng's dream, which was as follows: "He saw a great idol, the head of which was of gold, above the navel of silver, below the navel of copper, the legs of iron, and the feet of clay. And suddenly a stone fell from heaven upon the idol, and ground it to powder, and mixed all the substances, so that the wind blew them in all directions; but the stone grew gradually, and to such an extent that it covered the whole earth." The interpretation of it, as given by Daniel is said to be this: The idol represented different nations; the gold was the kingdom of Nebuchadnezzar, the silver the kingdom of his son, the copper the Romans, the iron the Persians, and the clay the tribe Zauzan, from which the kings of Persia and Rome should be descended j the great stone being lL religion which should spread itself over the whole earth in the last day.

DAR ( )'ol). "A house, dwelling, habitation, land, country." A word which IS used in various combinations, e.g. :-

ad-DiiT The abode-the city of

al-Madinah.

ad-Diirain The two abodes-this

world and the next.

Diiru 'l-adab A seat of learning j a

university.

DiiTU 'I-baqii.' The abode which re-

maineth-haa vea,

DaTU'I-fanii The abode which paaaeth

a1l'ay_arth.

DARU 'L-HABB

69

DiiTU'I-glJuri4r. The abode of delUlionthe world.

The vale of tears-the earth.

Tile abode of temptation -the world.

Diiru '1-!fiJ.iliifak The seat of the Imam or Khalifah-capital Diiru 'l-kutub . A library.

Daru '1-!fiJ.uld • The home of eternityParadise.

ad-Ddru 'n-na'im The blessed abode-Paradise.

The Qa~i's court. A hospital.

The abode of joy-Paradise.

DiiTU 'z-zarb A mint.

DiiTU '~-~iYiifak A·banqueting-room. [DARU 'L-B&W.ut, DARU'L-H.uuI, DARU'L-

I8LAM, D&BU 'L-Q&llABj DARU 'S-I!&LoUI, DARU 'S-S&LTANAH, DARU 'S-8AW.uI-]

DARGAH (6\$)ol). A roya.l court (Persian). In India it is a term used for a Mu~ammadaD shrine or tomb of some reputed holy person, and which is the object of pilgrimage and adoration. (Wilson's GlolSary of Indian Terms.)

DARU 'L-BA WAR U,.J\ )\ol).

Lit. "The abode of perdition." A term used for hell in the Qur'in, Siirah xiv. S3: "And have made their people to alight at the abode of perdition."

DARU 'L-I;IARB ( ..... ,,_J\ )',,).

"The land of warfare." According to the Dictionary @yii,u 'I-LuglJiit, DiiTU '1-lJ,tirb is " a country belonging to infidels which has not been subdued by Islam." According to the QiimiU, it is "a country in which peace has not been proclaimed between Muslims and unbelievers."

In the Fatiiwa'Alamgiri, voL ii. p. 85~, it is written that a DaTU 'l-harb becomes a DiiTU 'l-lIliim on one condition: namely, the promulgation of the edicts of Islam. The Imam Mul;1ammad, in his book called the Ziyii.dak, says a Diiru 'I-Isldm again becomes a DaTU '1- barb, according to Abii l;Ianifah, on three conditions, namely: (1) That the edicts of the unbelievers be promulgated, and the edicts of Islim be suppressed j (2) That the country in question be adjoining a DaTU 'I-barb and no other Muslim country lie bet1l'een them (that is, when the duty of Jihad or religious war becomes incumbent on them, and they have not the power to carry it on). (8) That DO protection (amiin) remains for either a Muslim or a il1l17lli j viz. that amiinu 'I-awwal, d' that first protection which was given them when the country was first conquered by Islim. The Imams Yiisuf and Muqammad both .ay that when the edicts of unbelievers are promulgated in a country, it is sufBcient to COlllltitute it a DiiTU 'l-karb.

. In the Raddu 'I-Mufol!tiir, vol. iii. p. 891, it IS stated, "If the edicts of Islam remain in force, together with the edicts of the unbelieverl, then the country CaJIJlot _bo laid to be

DiiTU 'I-/.Iu%n

Diiru 'I-ibtilii'

Diiru 'l-qal?ii' DiiTU'sk-skifii' DiiTU 'S-SUTUT

70

DARU tL-ISLAK.

a DinA 'I.(!arb." The important questien as to whether a country in the position of Hindustin mav be considered a Daru 'l./,Ianl or a Daru 'l·~al'b Ilas been fully discussed by Dr. W. W. Hunter, of the Bengal CiTii Service, in his work entitled, Indian MU8ufmail8, which is the result of careful inquiry as to the necessary conditions of a Jihad, or a Crescentade, instituted at the time of the excitement which existed in India in 1810-11, in consequence of a WahhiLbi conspiracy for the overthrow of Christian rule in that country. The whole matter, uccording to the Sunni Musulmins, hinges upon the question whether India is Daru '{·(!a,·b, "a land of warfare," or Daru 'I·Islalll, "a land of Islam."

The Muftis belonging to the aanifl and Shifl'i sects at 1Iiakkah decided that, .. ns long as even some of the peculiar observances of Islam prevail in a country, it is Dam 'l·l,/atll."

The decision of the Mufti of the Miliki sect was very similar, being to the following effect: .. A country does not become Ddru 'l-harb a. soon liS it passes into the hands of the infidel8, but when all or most of the injunctions of Islam disappear therefrom."

The law· doctors of North India decided that, "the absence of protection and liberty to Musulmins is essential in a Jillad, or religious war, and also that there should be a p,nbabiIity of victory to the armies of Islam."

The Shi'ah decision on the .ubject was as follow8: "A JihiLd is lawful only when the armies of Isliim are led by the rightful Imim, when arms and ammunitions of war and experienced warriors are ready, when it is against the enemies of God, when he who makes war is in poaseesion of his reason, and when he has secured the permission of his parenta, and has Rufficient money to meet the expenses of his journey."

- The '8unnis and Shi'ahs alike believe. in the eventual triumph of Ishi.m, when the whole world shall become followers of the Prophet of Arabia; but whilst the Sunnis are, of course, ready to undertake the accomplishment of this great end," whenever there is a probability of victory to the Mu· .ulmins," the Shi'ahA, true to the one great principle of their seot, must wait until the appearance of a rightful Imam. [JDUD.]

DARU 'L-ISLAM (,_1--Jt )'.1).

"Land of Islim." According to the Raddu '1- Mukl!tar, vol. iii. p. 891, it is a country in which the edicts of IBlim. are fully promulgated.

In a Itate brought UlIder Mu.slims, all those woo do not embrace the faith are placed uder certain disabilitiel. They can worship God acoordiDf to their own cUltoml, provided tMI ar. not adolater,; but ·it must be done without any ostentation, and, whilst churches and I~oguel may be repaired,lIo new place of _MIP cmI be erected. .. The conltruction of churches, or Iynagogues, in MUilim territory it 1IIIlawful, thil beiDg forbiddeD in the TnditiODl; bllt if p1acea of wonhip beloaeinc to J,wI,or Chriltianl, be d .. troyecl, or

DAUGHTERS

fall into decay, they are at liberty to repair them, because buildings cannot endure for ever."

Idol temples must be destroyed, and idolatry suppressed by force in all countries ruled according to stl'ict Muslim law. (Hidauall, vel, ii. p. 219.)

For further particulars, 888 article D.lBU 'L-JUIUI.

DARU 'L-QARAR (}, .. A.J' )'..1).

"The abode that abideth." AIr e~pres8ion which occurs in the Qur'iLn, Surah xl, ~l2: "0 my people I this present life is only a :passlng joy, but the life to come is the mansion tha: abickth."

D.A.RU 'S-SALAM (,J\--l' }..I).

" The abode of peace." An expression which oecurs in the Qur'iD, Silrah vi. 127: "For them is a dwelling of peace with their Lord! and in recompense for their works, shall He be their protector."

DARU 'S-S.ALTANAI:I (UoI-.n }..I) .

"The leat of government." A term given to the capital of a province, or a Muslim atate,

DARU 'l.H~AWAB ( ...... '.rJ' )1..1).

" The house of recompense:' A name. given to the Jannatu 'Adn, 01' Garden of Eden, by the commentator al.Bai,iLwi.

DARVESH, DARWISH (~.2)..I).

A Persian word for a religious mendicant. A dervesh, It is derived from the word dar, " a door"; lit. one who goes from door to door. Amongst religious Mul)ammadans, the danesh is called a faqir, which is the, word generally used for religious mendicant orders in A!:abic books. The subject is, therefore, considered in the article on J'.lQIB.

DAUGHTERS. Arabic Bint,

pl. BantU; Heb. Batk (ro). In

the law of inheri tance, the position of a daughter is secured by a verse in the (~ur'iin, Surah iv, 12: "With regard to your children, God haa commanded you to give the sons the portion of two daugLters, lind if there be daughters, more than two, then they. shall have two-thirds of that which their father hath left, but if she be an only daughtel' Ih' shall have the half."

The Sirajigall explains the above a. follows :-

"Daughters begotten by tho deceased. take in threo cases: half goos to one only,and two. thirds to two or more: and, if thero be a acn, the male bas the share of two females, and he makes them residuarics. The son's daughter" are like the daughters begotten by the deceased; and they may be 111I sis cases : half goes to ODe only, lind two-thirds to two or more, on failure of daughters begotten by the deceased; with a slnglo daughter of the deceased, they haTo a sixth, completing (with the daughtel"s half) two.titJirds ; but, with two daughters of the deceased, they have DO lhare of the inheritance, 1IIIless th"'e be, in an equal degree with, or in a lower

DA.UGHTII:BS

71

DA.VID

degree 'han, them, • boy, .... ho m.kea 'hem rallldu.riea. As to the remainder bet .... een 'hem, the m.le h.s the portion of two females; and .ll of the lon's daughters are 81cluded by the son himself.

"U a man leave three son's d.ughters, lome of them in lower degrees th.n others, snd three daughters of the son of .nother acn, some of them in lower degree than others, and three daughters of the son's 80n of another son, some of them in lower degrees than others, as in the following table, thi8 is called the case of ta,kbik.

Firat eet- Second set. Third let.

Son. Son. Son.

SOD, daughter. Son. Son

Son, daughter. Son, daughter. Son.

Son, daughter. Son, daughter. Son, daughter.

Son, daughter. Son, daughter.

Son, daughter.

"Here the eldest of the first line has none equal in degree with her; the middle one of the first line is equalled in degree by the eldelt of the seccnd, sad the youngest of the firlt line is equalled by the middle one of the second, and by the eldest of the third line; the youngeat of the second line is equalled by the middle one of the third line, and the youngest of the third let hal no equal in d881""o When thou hast comprehended thil, then we •• y : the eldest of the first line h.s • moiety; the middle one of the first line h.s • Ilxth, together with her equal in degree, to make up two-thirds; and thOle in lower degreel nenr t.ke anything, unlell there be • son with them, "ho makel them relidu.riel, both her who il equal to him in degree, .nd her .... ho is .bove him, bnt .... ho il not entitled to • Ih.re; those below him .re excluded." (Rams.y's ed. A.-SirtiJiyalt.)

The age of puberty, or majority, of • daughter ia elt.blisheJ by the usual ligna of wom.nhood; but in the absence of thele ligna, .ccording to Abu aanifah, ahe ia not of- age until .he ia eighteen. But the two Iinims, Muh.mmad .nd Yusuf, fix the age.t flf~n, and' .... ith this opinion the Imim •• h-ShiIN agree ••

With reg.rd to • daughter'l freedom in • m.rriage contract, Sh.ikh 'Abdu '1-~aqq, in hil comment.ry on the Traditionl ("oL iii. p. 106), S.YI, "All 'he learned doctors are agreed th.t • virgin daughter, until.he h •• .rrind .t the age of puberty, i. entlrely.t the dI.poa.1 of her f.ther or l ..... ful guardl.n, but that in the ennt of ..... oman h.Ting bean left ..... Ido.... .fter .he h.. .ttalned. the age of pberty, .he i. entirely .t liberty to m.rry whom Ihellke •• " There I., howe"er, he lay', 10_ difference of oplDion a. to tile freedom of a alrl who hal not been married and h... IJIf'riHtl at' eM • of puWty. Aba ~anlfah rnle. that Ihe I. entirely free from the oollirol of her guardian with retrard to her marriage, but a.h--Shifl'i ruiN otherwl ... Alain, a. regard. a wido.... ....ho I. not of age, AM aanifah lay. .he oannot marry without her guardian'. permi •• ion, but •• hShifl'i aaye .he is free.

F

DO'MAH (.t..,,,). A fortified town held by the Christi.n chief Uk.id.r, .... ho ....... defe.ted by the Muslim general KAilid, and by him oOIl"erted to Mui),ammadanilm, A.B. 9. But the mercenary ch.r.cter of Ukaidar'. cOllnrsion led him to re"olt after )lui1-amm.d'. de.th. (Muir'. Life of MGAo.et, 'lOt i". p. 191.)

D A. V I D . .Arabic D4tt1tul, or Ditrid. A kiDi of Iar.el and a Prophet, to .hom God renaled the Za6ir, or Book of P.alm.. [.ABu •. ] Be hal no .peelal title or J:alJ'IIIIJA, •• .11 MusUma .... ..,.... th.t he ...... not. iaw-riTer or the fo_er of • dI'~Dlatioll. The aooout of.him Ia the Qur ill I. eaceedlnalr meacre. It II gi"ell al follow., with the co_.nillior'. remarke t_iated in itaUO.:!Mr. Lane :-

"Alld God g&'le him (Dan the kingahip over tM cltildrett of [mut, wiedom, qft.tM deGtA of SamwM and Savl, and tAer

According to the te.ching of the Prophet, " a "irgin daughter gives her consent to marriage by silence." He also taught "that a .woman ripe in years shall b.lLve her coneent asked, and if she remain silent her silence ie consent, but if she do not consent, she .hall not be forced." But this tradition is .110 to be compared with another, in which he said, "There is no marriage without the pennia.ion of the guardians." (Mi,hktit, xiii. e. i". pt. 2.) Hence the difference between the learuecl doctors on this subject.

The author of the AMlaq-i·Jala/i aays it i. not advisable to teach girle to read and write, and this is the general feeling .moug" Mui).ammadans in all partl of the world, although it is considered right to euable them to recite the Qur'i\n and the liturgical prayers.

The father or guardian is to be blamed .... ho does not marry his daughter at an early &Ile, for Mul:lammad ia related to h.n said, "It is written in the Book of Moses, that whosoever does not marry his daughter when ahe hath reached the age of t .... elre years il responsible for any sin she may commit."

The ancient Arabs used to call the ange .. the" daughters of God," and objected Itrongly, al the Badiwis do in the preaent day, io female olJspring, and they used to bury their illfant daughter. ali ve. The.e practiae. )Illl).mm.d reprob.tes in the Qur'.n, Siir.h an 1i9: "And they ascribe d.ughterl unto God I Glory be to Him I But they deaire them not for themselnl. For whell the birth of a danghter il .nnounced to .ny one of them, d.rk shadows aettle on his face, and he ielad; hr, hideth him from the people because _ of the ill tidings. Shall he keep it with diagraoe, or bury it in the dust P .\re not their judgmentl wroug' "

Mr. Rodwell rem.rka 'On this "erae: "Thus Rabbinilm teaches that to be. ....oman II a gre.t degradation. The modern Jew •• y.1a hi. D.ily Pr.yers, fol. 0,6, " Ble.led.rt thon, o Lord our God I King of the Univerae I who hath not m.de me • woman."

DAVID

(-IJ these two gifts] Taad IIOt ",_ gavel! togetlaer to anyone before laim; and He taught him what, He pleased, (U tlle art of 7lIa/Ci"9 oOaU of mail, and tAe language of birch. And were It not for God's repelling men, one by another, aurely the earth had become corrupt by tlae predominance of the polytAei.t. and tAe .lavglater of tlle Mus{ims and the ruin of the plDcu of worship: but God is beneficent to the peoples, and Aath repelled .ome by otller •. " (Siirah li, 221.)

" Hath the story of the two opposing partiel oome unto thee, when they ascended over the walla of the oratory of David, Aaving been preunted ~oi"9 in unto Aim by the door, because of hi, beIng e"9agetl in det'otion' When they went in unto David, and he was frightened at them, they said, Fear not: we are two opposing Jl&rtiea. It iB said IAat they were two parhu of more tllan one weA; arid It i. said tltat tlaey were tlDO individllah, angeh, IOAo ea_ (J8 t'!o litigant., to admoni.1t David, who laad ninety-nine wivu, and had de8ired tile lOVe of a per.on 10M had none but her, a'id ,named W and talc~ Iter (U Itu lDife. [One of them said,] One of us hath wronged the other; therefore judge between U8 1!ith truth, and be not 1IDjust, but direCt U8 into the right way. Verily this my brother in religion had uine-and-ninety ewel, and I had one ewe; and he said, )lake me her keeper. And he overoame me in the dispute.-And tile otller confu- Aim to Mve .~o/cen trutA.-rnavid] Wel, Verily he hath wronged thee in .remandIDr thy ewe to add lIer to his ewe8; and verily many a .. ociates wrong one another, except thOle who believe and do righteous deeds: and few Indeed are they.-And tlae two angeh mid, 1UC#IfIdi,,!/ in tltei,' [proper or !L8sumed] forru to Awven, TAe man lIatA paued .entence a9l1in8t Iti'R8elj. So David wak adnloni.Aed. And David perceived that We hid tried him 6y 1aU kwe of tlaat woman; wherefore he asked pardon of his Lord, and fen down bowing him .. lf (or proatrating Ai'nBelj), and repented. So We forgave him thst; and verily for him rWal ordained] a high rank with Us (tAat iB, all iller_ of good fortune in tAi. world), and (Ulare lhall be for him] an excellent retreat

• 11 tile ",arid to come." (Siirah lI.lI.xviii. 20-2~.)

II We compelled the m01lDtains to glorify UI, with David, and the birds aho, on Iti. com.-dIitg t_ to do 80, when he ezperienced ~, &Del We dIcl tlai.. Anel We taught bUD tbll art of maklDf coati of mail (for ~ fail 'illl' plat" Of ""tal _. wed) for you GIIII1fII fllliMind ira gerllf'Gl, that the, mJrht defend you from your IderiD, .ra tllGl'rillg witl JOVr _i".-WIIl ye th8ll, o ~ oj M_, be tbankful Jor Ji, [tI_" believillf tlle apoIt"'," (81lrah lI.lI.i. 19, eo.)

Sale oblenes tbat Ya1!.ya the commentator, mali rationally 1IDdaratands hereby the divine renlationa which David received from God, anel not the art of making coats of maiLThe cause of his applying himself to this art fa thus related in the Miratu 'z-Zawuin :-He uecl to go forth in disguise; and when he fOUDd any people wbo knew him not, he ap-

DA'WAH

proacbed them and allked them respecting the conduct of David, and they praised him and prayed for him; but one day, al he was alking questions respecting himself as usual, God sent to him an angel in the form of a human being, who said, "An excellent man were David if he did not take from the public treasury." Whereupon the heart of David was contracted, and he begged of God to render him independent: 80 He made iron soft to him, and it became in his hands as thread; and he used to sell a coat of mail Ior four thou8and [pieces of money-whether gold or silver is not said], and with part of 'this he obtained food for himself, and part he gave in aims, and with part he fed his family. Hence an excellent coat of mail is often called by the Arabs" Diiwudi," i.e. "Davidean." (See Lane's translation of The TltouBand and One Night., chap. viii. note 5.)

David, it is said, divided his timereg'1llarly, setting apart one day for the service of God, another day for renderiug jU8ticeto his people, another day for preaching to them, and another day for his own allain.

DA'WA kSjl.l). A cla.im in I' law. suit. A claim or demand. (See Hanwton'l Hid4yalt, vol iii. p. 63.)

DA'WAH (1,..,). Lit." A call, invocation (i.e. of God's help)." A term uaed to express a Iystem of incantation which i. held to be lawful by orthodox )lu1!.ammlidana; whilst lilar, " magic," and kalaanaA, "f"rtaIUItelling," are laid to be unlawful, the Prophet having forbidden both.

From the Muslim books it appear. that.

Mu1!.ammad is believed to have sanctioned the use of spells and incantations, so long as the words used were ouly those of the names of God, or of the good augela, and of the good genii; although the more strict amongst them (the Wahhibis, for exampli}\!:ald say that only an invocation of God . ,If was lawful-teaching which appears to 114, more in accordance with that of Mu4ammad, who il related to have Baid, "There is mlothing wrong in using spells BO long as you do not associate anything with God." (Mi.lakat, xxi . e. i.) It is therefore clearly lawful to use charms and amulets on which the name of God ouly il inacribed, and to invoke the help of God by any ceremony, provided no one II alloelated with Him.

The lolence of da'lDCIA has, howen:r, been nry muoh elaborated, and In maDy relpeote I .. teacher •• _ to han departed from the original teaehlDfl' of their Prophet on tb" .ub. Ject.

In India, the malt popular work on da'1IJGI&

I. the JawMiru '1- KlJanualt, by 8haikb Abtl 'l-)luwayyid of Gnjerat,.LB. 956, in wbloh he saY8 the science is used for the foUowlur purpoees, (1) To establish frieadship or enmity between two personl. (2) To cause the cure, or the licknels and death, of a person. (S) To .ecure the accomplilhment of one's wilhes, both temporal and spiritual (~) To obtain defeat or nctary in batUa.

DA'W.UI

Thil book i. largely made up of Hindu customs which, in India, have become part of Mul;lammadanism; but we shall endeavour to confine ourselves to a consideration of those sections which exhibit the so-called science as it exists in its relation to Islii.m.

In order to explain this occult science, we shall consider it under the following divisions: 1. The qualifications necessary for the 'timil, or the person who practices it.

2. The tables required by the teacher, and their usel.

S. An explanation of the terms lIifUb,zakat, 'IIdr, flUft. daur, bazl, tdatm. and .an'u '1- i_jibaA, and their uses.

,. The methods employed for commanding the presence of thA genii.

L When anyone enters upon tbe study of the Icience, he must begin by paying the utmost attention to cleanliness. ~ 0 dog, or cat, or any .tranger, is allowed to enter his dwellingplace. and he must purify his house by burnIng wood-aloes, pastiles, and other sweetIcented perfumes. He must take the utmost care that hi. body is in no way daflled, ann he must bathe and perform the legal ablutions coustantly. A most important preparation lor the exercise of the art is a forty-days' fast (cM/JQ), when he must sleep on a mat spread on the ground, sleep as little aa possible. and not enter into general conversation. ExoroJata not unfrequently repair to some cave or retired Ipot in order to undergo complete abatinence.

The diet of the exorcist must depend upon

DA'WAH

78

the kind of anna. or names of God he intends to recite. If they are the annd'u'I-_jaLili"u.. or "terrible attributes" of the Almighty, then he must refrain from the use of meat, fish, eggs, honey, and musk. If they are the llJIllla'U 'l-Jamtiliyah, or " amiable attributes," he must abstain from butter, curds, vinegar, salt, and ambergriae, If he intend. to recite both attributes, he must then abstain from auch things as garlic, onions, and assafretlda.

It is also of the utmost importanoe that the exorcist should eat things which are lawful, always speak the truth, and not oherilh a proud or haughty spirit. He should be care. ful not to make a display of his power. before the world,'but treasure np in his bosom the knowledge of his acquirementa. It is considered very dangerous to his own life for, novice to practice the science of exorcism.

II. Previous to reciting any of the nameR or attributes of God for the establishment of friendship or enmity in behalf of any penon, it is necessary to aseertain the initials of his or her name in the Arabic alphabet, whioh letters aTe considered by exorcists to be COD. nected with the twelve signs of the zodiac, the seven planets, and the four elementa. The following tables, which are taken from tbe Jnwa/airu '{·KA_aII, occur, in a similar form, in all books on exorciam,gintheabove com. binations, together witb the nature of the per_ fume to be burnt, anll the namea of tbe pl"Nld. iDg genius and guardian &lIBel Theae tabl .. may be considered tbe key to the whole science of exorcism.

Letterlof the Alphabet arranged 1 , 2 ... 8 I • ., 5 I
according to the A.b_jad (J.B.J4D],
with their respective number.
The Special Attributes or Names AU' ~1. .ff,,~ C:)\a., ~.,~
of God. ~lla/a. IIU • DafYiin. Hiclt.
The Nnmber of the Attribute. 66 118 lU 611 20
The Meaning of the Attribute. God. Eternal Assembler. Reckoner. Gnide.
The Olass of the Attribute. ,Terrible. Amiable. Terrible & Terrible. Amiable.
Amiable
combined.
The Qualiiy, Vice, or Virtue of Friendship. Love. Love. Enmity. Enmity.
the Letter.
Thl E18JlleDil. (~r6a'(JA I~ni,ir.) Fire. Air. Water. Elrth. Fire,
-----
The Perfume of the Letter. BlackAI081 Sugar. OlunamoJl. Red Sandal White
Slnd,l.
The Simi of the Zodiac. Qal1lal. Jaulli' 'tattin• $aur. Qamal.
(Burii_j.) Ram. Twin •• tab. Bull Ram.
The Planet •. Zubal. MUlAtari: Mi,.ri&l!. SIuzmI. ZuAraA.
(KawGkib.) Saturn. Jupiter. Mars. Sun. Venul.
The Genii. {Jlnn.) Qayupush. Dan1ish. Nulu,b. Twayush. RUlh.
-----
The Guardian Angels. (Muwakkil.) Isram. Jibri'il Kalka'll. Dardi'iL Durbi'iL I

74

DA'WAH

Letters of the Alphabet arranged 6 , 7 j 8 e 9 J. 10 ~
according to the Abjad [ABJ.w),
with their reapective number,
The Special Attributes or N allle8 ~i g;i. IJa- ~~r. ~rlt
of God. IJaqq. cUin.
The NUIIlber of the Attribute. 46 37 108 215 UiO
The Heaning of t.he Attribute. Friend. Purifier. Truth. Holy. Chief.
. The Clal8 of the Attribute. AlIliable. COIll bined. Combined. . Terrible. Ami:able.
The Quality, Vice, or Virtue of Love. Love. Hatred. Desire. Attl'l.ction.
the Letter.
-- ----
The Elelllenta. Air. Water. Earth. Fire. Air.
(Arba<aA 'Ana,ir.)
The Perfume of the lAtter. Oamphor. Honey. Salron. Husk. R(I.'
Lea"e"
The Signs of the Zodiac. JbuzU? Sarar,tin. .Tady. /famal. MiJ~tin.
(Bu~.) Twinl. Crab. Goat. Ram. Scalel.
Th. PlaDetl. 'Utiirid. (lamar. Zubal. MU8htari. Min-.M! •
(KaVlilib) Hercury. Moon. Saturn. . Jupiter. Marl.
---
The Genii. (Jinn.) Puyilih. Kapiish. 'Ayilah. Badyiish. Shah'~ii.h.
----
The Guardian ADgeL Raftlni'iL Sharki'iL TankafiL Iahmi'il. SarakiU'D.
(MuVlGA:kiI. )
-
Letteu of the Alphabet arranged 20 .., 30 J 40 ,. 50 ~ 60 1.1'"
according to the Abjad [ABJm),
with their 'reapective number.
The Special Attributes or Nallles it~ .~ ..u.. itur. ~-
. of God. LaW· Malik . -,
~ ..
The Number of the Attribute. 111 129 90 256 180
The Meaning of the Attribute. SWBcient Benignant. King. Light. Hearer.
The Cla8s of the Attribute. Amiable. Amiable. Terrible. AlIliable. Combined.
The Quality, Vice, Jr Virtue of Love. Separo.tion. Lnve. Hatred. Desire.
the Letter.
The Elements. Water. Earth. Fire. Air. Water.
('Arba'aA 'Anii';r.)
The Perfume of the Letter. Whiteroae. Apples. Quince. Hyacinth. Dilel~nt
leavel. Idndu of
Scentl.
The Silnl of the Z.odiao. 'Aqr.6. $our. • bad. Mi,an . (lalil.
(Bunji.) Scorpion. BuU. Lion. 80al ... Aroher.
The Planetl. 8Aa"". ZuAraA. 'Ut.iirid. --
Qamar. Zujal.
(Kalllilci6.) SDD •. VenUi. Meroury. Moon. Saturn.
The Genii. (Jinn.) Kadyilih. --
'Adylllh. Majbll.h. Dalllalyil.h Fa'yfilh.
I The Guardian ~I. Kharuri'iL Tali'iL' Riiyi'il. HUli'il. Ham-
(Mu '1.) wikit DA'WAR

75

Letten of the Alphabet arranged 70 e 80 ...J 90 .., 100 '" 200 )
accordiDg to the Abjad [AJIJ.U>] ,
with their respective number.
The Special Attributel or Names ~ tW ~ (/.U B:6b.
of God. Fatta(&' $amad. -dir.
The Number of the Attribute. 110 489 1M 805 202
-
The Meaufug of the Attribute. Exalted. Opener. E.ta- Powerful. Lord.
bU.hed.
The OIal. of the Attribute. Terrible. Amiable. Terrible. Oomblned. Terrible.
The Quality, Vice, or Virtue of Richel. Enmity. Intimacy. De.ire. Friend-
the Letter. lhip.
The Elements. Earth. Fire. Air. Water. Earth.
(Arba'ah 'Arui,ir.)
Tho. Perfume of the Letter. White Walnut. Nutmeg. Orange. ROlewater.
Pepper.
The SIgna of the Zodiac. Sumbulah. A.ad. Mizan. /;lut. SUlllbulala.\
(Bunii.) Virgin. Lion. Seales. Fish. V~
The Planetl. Mu.htari. Mirri!d!. S!aama. Zu/arah. 'Ut.arid.
(KawGkib.) Jupiter. Marl. San. Venus. HerclU'y.
The Genii. Kashpiish. Latyiish. Kalapiilh. Shamylilh. Rahiilh.
(Jintl.)
The Guardian Angels. Lumi'il. Sarhmi'll. !.hjmi'll. 'Itri'll. AmwikiJ.
(MuwakkiL)
Letten of the Alphabet arranged SOO J- 400 ..., 600 "'" 600 t
according to the AbJad [AIIJ.U>],
with their respective number.
The Special Attributes or Names ;tifi'. ~'i WIoof~ ,-"w.
of God. Tawwab. $Gbit. KltGliq.
The Number of the Attribute. 460 409 908 781
The Meaning of the Attribute. Accepter. Forgiver. Stable. Oreator.
The CIaII of the Attribute. Amiable. Amiable. Terrible. Oomblned.
The QuaUty, Vice, or Virtue of Eumity. Sleeplell- Hatred. Love.
the Letter. neSl.
Th. Elements. Fire. Air. Water. Earth
(Arb<ah 'Ana,..r.)
The Perfume of the Letter. White Aloes. Amber. White Aloe •. Violet.
TQ Signs of the Zodiac. 'Aqrab. Dalw. Qut. Jady.
(Bu"';;;:) Scorpion.. Watering Pot; Fish. ·Goat.
The P~ets. Qamar. Z~L Mu.lttari. Mirri1c_!.
(KawGkib.) Moon. Saturn Jupiter. Han.
The Genii. (Jinn.) Tashyiish. Latyiish. Twahyiish. Diliyii.h.
The Guardian ~s. Amri'll. Azri'iL Miki'il. Mahki.'iL
(MillO 'L) 76

DACW.ut

---,
Letters of the Alphabet arrauged 100 ~ 800 ..; 900 L 1000 t.
according to the Abjad (AJI.J£D],
with their respective number.
---
The Special Attributes or Names Jii. ~ ~'Il: J!:.ir.
of God. ~IT. Ir.
--
The Number of the Attribnte. 921 1001 1106 128~,
The Meaning of the Attribute. Rememberer. PunIsher. Evident. Great
Forgiver.
The CIall of the Attribute. Combined. Terrible. Terrible. Amiable.
The Quality, Vice, or Virtue of Hatred. Hatred. Enmity. Conn-
the Letter. lescence.
The Elements. Fire. Air. Water. Earth.
(Arba'ah 'Araa,ir.)
The Perfume of the Letter. Sweet Laburnam. Jasmine. OlOveR.
BasiL
The Slgnl of the Zodiac. Qatu. Dolw. u«. Qut.
(Bu';;j.) Archer. Watering Fish. Fish.
Pot.
The Planets. SltallU. Zultrah. • Uland. Qamal·.
(Kawikib.) Sun. Venus. Mercury. Moon.
The GeniL Twaltapilsh. Ghayil8h. Ghafilpiilh. 'Arkupillh.
(Jinn.)
The Guardian AngeL HaZ1i'll. 'Ati'll. Nuri'il. Nulshi'iL
(MuwakkiL) The lilt of the lignl of the Zodiac (bung) hal been determined as in the following table.

Between malee and females exists friendship; between males and hermaphrodites Bomei.imeB friendlhip sometime8 enmity; between femalel and hermaphrodites the most invet.arate eumity:-

JULES.

• Burj-i-QanI41.

· Burj-j-A4ad.

· Burj-i-'Aqrab.

· Bu,:j-i-Qut.

· Bur;j-i-QaUII.

I'BJlALBS.

· Burj-i-$aur.

• Bur;j-i-Mb:in.

· Burj-i-Sarat.an.

ID!:BJlAPBBODJTB8.

• Burj-i-Jauza.

· Burj-i-Sumbulala. • Burj-i-Jady.

Ram Lion Scorpion Fish . Archer

Bull . Scales. Crab.

Twins. Virgin Goats. Watering

Pot.

• Burj.i-Dalw.

A8trologists have determined the relative dispositions of the planets (kawcikib) to be a8 fo11ows:-

Venus Venul Jupiter Jupiter Sun Jupiter Sun } Friendship.
and and and and and and and
Saturn. Moon. Venus. Sun. Moon. Moon. Venus.
or
Moon Saturn Jupiter Mara Venus Marl Sun } Mixed Friendship .and
and and and and and and and Enmity OJ" IndifFer-
Mercury. Mercury. Mercury. Mercury. Mercury. Venul. Mercury. ence.
Saturn Saturn Mars Mal's Saturn Jupiter Jupiter jEllmity•
and and and and and and and
Sun. Moon. Moon. Sun. Sun. Mara. Saturn. DA.'WA.B

Th. four .lemlllU (ar6o'al'ClllliJir) lUnd iD r.lation to .ach other as.fcllows:-

71

Waw and Waur. Fire and Fire.

Earth and Earth. Air and Air.

} Friendahip.

Fire Io1ld Air.

Air and Waur.

} Mixed Friendship and Enmity or Indifference.

Fire and Waw. Fire and Earth.

Earth and Water.

J.. an illutration of the use of these tables, two perlonl, Akram and Ral1.imah, contemplate a matrimonial alliance, and wish to bow if it will be a happy union or otherwiI ••

The exorcllt mut ftrlt ascertain if .the element. (ar6a'ah 'allifir), the Signl of the aodiac (burij), and the planetl (ka.,tikib ), are amicably or inimicably disposed to each other in the CAles of thele two individuals, and also If -there i. a combination expressed in the i_ or name of God connected with their initial letters.

In the present instance the initial letter of Akram Is alif, and that of Ral).imah, ra, and a reference to the foregoing tables will produce the followiDg re.ult. :-

Akram.

(I"Y').

InIt1&lletter. Alif'- HiJ.
The ,ulity of
the etter. Friendship. Friendship.
The element. Fire. Earth.
The attribute. A11ih. Rabb.
The q utii)' of Terrible.
the attribute; Terrible.
The planet. Saturn Mercury.
The sign of the The virgiD.
zodiac. The ram.
The perfume. Black aloes. ROle waur.
The geDiu. Qayupiish. RahUsh.
The angel Isri.fil. AmwikiL In conaidering this case, the exorcist will oblene that there is a combination in the attributes of God, both belonging to the amui'u 'l-jaltiligaJa, or terrible attributes. There is also a combination in the quality of the letters, both implying friondship. Their respectiv.e planets, Saturn and Mercury, sbow a eombiuation of either mixed friendship and enmity, or, perhaps, indifference. The sign of the zodiac, tbe ram being a male, and that of the virgin a hermaphrodite, show a possible alternation of friendship and enmity between ~he parties. The element., fire and earth, belDg opposed, imply enmity. It therefore appears that there will be nothing again3t these two per. sone, Akram and RaQimah forming a matrimonial alliance, and that they may reasonably exPlCt a' much happiness from their union as u.ually faUa to the lot of the human race. ~hould the good ollices of the exorcist be re-

} Enmity.

quested, he will, by incantation, according to the table given, appeal to the Almighty ... Allih and Ra b b, call in the aid of the glDii Qayupulh and Rahush, and of the prdian angels, Isrifil and Amwikit The perl1lm .. he will burn in his numerous recitals will be blaok aloes and rose-water, and SO bring about .. speedy increase in the happinels of the persons of Akram and RaQimah I

III. As we have already explained, the in· cantatious used by exorcist. conlist in the recital of either the uamel or attribute. of God, or of certain formuiJe which are giv_ in books on the subject. In the JalDiihirv 'lo KJ.a_ah, there were many forms of incet&tion, but we select the following one to illutrate the subject:-

';J', , ,_,. J! .... J o.a.J\ " 41' , "»1.....,_~, "'J'»

Sublltinaka I 14 iliiha ina aw I &/)6a. kuIli·,ha,'in! IDa IDciri.aAu I VIa rciziqaAu I _ rci/lilllahu I

Glory be to Thee I There i. no deity bu' .

Thee I The Lord of AlII and the Inheritor thereof I and the Provider therefor I and the

Merciful thereon I .

This incantation consi.t. of forty-foar letters, exclusive of vowel poiDt., ... is mo_ by the following table:-

1

2 S 4 5 6 7 8 9

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Sin Hi H'

• a

Alif Nim Kif Lim Alif Alif Lim Hi Alif LiJll Lim Alif Alif Niin Ti

60 2 8 1

60 20 80

1 1 80 ~ 1 80

80 1 1 60

400

.... e ,

78 DA'WAH
19 J Ra 200
20 .... Hii 2
21 .... Hii 2
22 <&I Kiif 20
23 j Liim 30
M Liim 30
25 ..;. Shin 300
26 I.S Yo. 10
27 • Hamzah 1
28 , Wau 6
29 f Wau 6
SO Alif 1
31 ) Rii 200
32 "" ~ii 500
SS ,Ib Hii 5
34 , Wau 6
S5 ~ Rii 200
36 Alif 1
37 J Za 'I
38 '" Qaf 100
39 ,Ib Hii 5
4.0 , Wau 6
41 ~ Rii 200
42 Alif 1
4.3 t Hii 8
4.4. r Mim 4.0
4.5 ,Ib Hii '5
261S In reciting such an invocation, units are reckoned as hundreds, tens as thousands, hundreds as tens of thousands, and thousands as hundreds of thousands.

In the above formula-

Its ni~ab, 01' fixed estate, is the number of letters (s.e, 45) pu~

into thousands =. , . 4,500

Its zakat, or alms, is the half of

the ni,ab added to itself,

4,500 and 2,250=. . . 6,750

Its 'ushr, or tithes, is half of the

above half added to the :t:akiit,

6,750 and 1,125=.. 7,875

Its qufl, or lock, is half of 1,125 = 1i68 Its daur, or circle, is obtained by

adding to its qufl the sum of

the 'usll,' and then doubling the total 1-

1i63 7,875

8,438 8,438

16,876

Its ba, I, or gift, is the fixed

number. . " 7,000

Its Maim, or seal, is tho fixed

number. . " 1,200

Its ,an'u '[-jJiiball, or speedy

answer, is the fixed number , 12,000

Total 56,764

-

DA'WAH

After the exorcist has recited the formula the above number of times, he should, in order to make a reply more certain, treble the ni~iib, making it 135,000, and then add 2,613, the value of the combined number of letters, making a total of 137,613 recitals. The number of these recitals should be divided as nearly as possible in equal parts for each day's readiJIg, provided it be completed ,rithin forty days, By a rehearsal of these, .ay. our author, the mind of the exorcist becomes com • pletely transported, and, whether asleep or awake, he finds himself accompanied by spirits and genii (Jinn) to the highest hellvens and the lowest depths of earth. These s]pirit. then reveal to him hidden mysteries, and render souls and spirits obedient to the will of the exorcist.

IV. If the exorcist wish to command the presence of genii in behalf of a certain person, it is generally supposed to be effected ill the following manner, He must, first of all, shut himself up in a room and fast for forty days. He should besmear the chamber with red ochre, and, having purified himself, should sit on n small carpet, and proceed to call the genius or demon. He must, however, first find out what special genii are required to effect his purpose. If, for example, he is a bout to call in the aid of these spirits in behalf of a person named Bahram (,.~) he will find out, first, the special genii presiding IJver the name, the letters of which are, omitting the vowel points, B H RAM. Upon reference to the table it will be seen that they are Danush, Hush, Rahiish, Qayupush, and Maj. bush. He must then find out whlLt are the special names of God indicated by these letters, which we find in the table are al-Bdqi, " the Eternal," al-Hiidi,» the Guide," ar-Rabb, "the Lord," Allah, .. God," ai-Malik, " the King." He must then ascertain the powe:r of the letters, indicating the number of times for the recital, which will be thus :_

B, 2 equal to 200

H, 5 500

R, 200 20,000

A, 1 100

M, 40 4,000

Total 24,800

The exorcist should then, in order to call in the help of the genii, recite the followillg formula, not fewer than 24,800 times :_

Yii Danushu! for the sake of the Eternal

One!

Yi Rushu! for the sake of the Guide!

Yi Rahiishu! for the sake of the Lord I Yii Qayupiishu! for the sake of Allah !

Yi Majbiishu! for the sake of the King I The exorcist will perform this recital with

his face turned towards the house of the object he wishes to affect, and bum the per. fumes indicated according to the table for the letters of Bahram's name.

There are vcl"J many other methods of performing this exorcism, but the foregoillg will suffice as a specimen of the kind of service. [KAGIC,]

DAY

DAY. The Mubammadan da.y

oommences at sun-set j our Thursday enn· ing, for example, being the begiuning of the Muslim Friday. The Arabic Yaum denotes the day of twenty·four hours, and Nahtir, the day in contradistinction to the night (lail). The days of the week are as follows:-

Yaulnu'/·a8ad, fi1'st.day, SWlday. Yaumu '/·ianain, second day, Monday. YauTliu 'a·.ala,li', third day, Tuesday. Yau1llU 'l'arbli', fourth day, Wednesday. Yaumu 'I'MamiB, Thursday.

Yaulllu 'l·julII'ah, Day of ASlembly, Friday. Yaumu "',abt, Sabbath· day, Saturday.

Of the days of the week, Monday, Wednes· day, Thursday, and Friday, al'e esteemed good and auspicious; the others evil. ("iinNn.i·J,kim, p. ~3.) Fl'iday is the spaoial day appointed by MUQammad for meeting in the chief mosque for public worship. [I'UDAY.]

DAY OF JUDGMENT. [BEBUJI,UOTlO •• ]

DEATH. Arabic Maut; Wafut.

It il diltinctlv taught in the Qur'iIl that the hour of death il fixed for every living creature.

Siirah xvi. 68 : "If God were to punish men for their wrong.doing, He would not leave on the earth a single living creature j but He respites them until a li,JIted time; and when their time comes they cannot delay it an hour, nor can they hasten it."

Siirah iii. 182: "Every soul must taste death, and ye shall only be paid your hire on the day of resusrecticn."

Sorah L 17: "The agony of death shall come in truth, that is what thou didst shun."

In the Traditions, MUQammad has taught that it is sinful to wish for death: " Wish not for death, not enn if thou art a doer of goat works, for peradventure thou mayest increaae them with an increase of life. Nor even if thou art a sinner, for with inorease of life thou mayest obtain God's pardon."

One day the Prophet said: "Whosoever loves to mpet God, God will love to meet him, and whoever dislikes to meet God, God will di.like to meet him." Then' Ayishah said, " Truly we all dislike death and consider it a great afBiction." The Prophet replied, " Thou dost not understand me. When death oomes near a believer, then God gives him a spirit of resignation, and so it is that there is nothiug which a believer likes 80 much as death. II

AI·BariL' ibn 'A!ib, one of the Companions, S&y8:-

"I oame out with the Prophet at the funeral of one of the assistants, and we arrived just at the grave, before they had interred the body, and the Prophet sat down, and we lat around him with our heads down, and were so silent, that you might say that birds were sitting upon our heads. And there was a stiok in the Prophet's hand with which he kept Itriking the ground. Then he raised his head and said twice or thrice to his companions, 'Seek the protection of God Irom tho

DEATH

79

pUDiebmentl of the grave.' After that he Baid: 'Verily, when a Muslim leparateth from the world and bringeth hie soul to wtu· rity, angels descend to him from the celestial regions, wholle face. are white. You might Bay their faces are the sun, and they han a shroud of the shrouds of paradise, and per· !umes thel'efrom. So they sit apart from the deceased, as far as the eyee can 180. .After which the Angel of Death (Malaku '/·Mallf) comes to the deceased and eite at hie head, and says, "0 pure soul, come forth to God'. pardon and pleasure," Then the eoul comee out, issuing like water from a bag, and the Angel of Death takes it; and when he takel it, the angela do not allow it to remain in hi. hands for the twinkling of an eye. But when the Angel of Death has taken the soul of a servant of God, he relisn. it to hie aseietantl, in whose hands is a shroud, and they put it into the shroud and with the perfumes, when a fragrance issues from the soul like the ameli of the best musk tbat is to be found all the face of the earth. Then the augels carry it upwards, and they do not pass by any eeacourse of angels who do not lay, " What il this pure soul, and who is owner of it P .. And they say, " Such a one, thl! son of such a one," callilli him by the beat nAmes by which he was known in the world, till they r!lach the lowest region of heaven with him. And the angels ask the door to be opened for him, which is done. Then angels follow it through each heaven, the angel of ODe region to thOI. of the next, and so on till it reacheB the seventh heaven, when God says, "Write the name of My servant in 'Illiyiin, and mum him towards the earth, that is, to his body whish is buried in the earth, because I have created man from earth and return him to it, and will briug hi.m out from it again a. I brought him out at first." Then the 10Uia are returned into their bodies, when two angel. [IlUNK.u& and N.UtIa] come to the dead ~an and cause him to ait up, and say to him, " Who is thy Lord?" He replies, " My Lord is God." Then they say," What is thy religion?" He says, II Islim. II Then they lay, "What is this man who is 8ent to you?" (i.e. the Prophet). He 8ays, "He i8 the Prophet of God." Then they say, "What il your proof of his mission?" He says, "I read the book of God, and believed in it, and I proved it to be true." Then a voice calls out from the celestial regions, "My servant hath spoken true, therefore throw for him a bed from Paradise, and dress him in clothes from Para· dise, and open a door for him towards Paradise." Then peace and perfumes come for hil;ll from Paradise, and his grave is enlarged for him as far as the eye can see. Then a man with a beautiful face comes to him, elegantly dressed, and perfumed, and he. says, " Be joyful in that which hath made thee so, this is the day which was promised thee." Then the dead person says to him, " Who art thou, for thy facie is perfectly beautiful?" And ~he man replies, "I am thy good deeds." Then the dead person cries out, "0 Lord, hasten the resurrection for my sake! ",

80

DEATH

" 'But,' continued the Prophet, 'wheD an Infidel die .. and is about to pass from the world and bring hil aoul to futurity, blackfaced &llgels come down to him and with them lackcloths. Then they sit from the dead u far as the eye can lee, after which tbe Angel of Death come8 in order to sit at hi. head, and says, "0 impure loull come forth to the wrath of God.". Then the soul ia dilturbed in the infidel's body. Then the Angel of Death draw. ill out al a hot spit is drawn out of wet wooL

" , Than the Angel of Death takel the seul of the infidel, and having takeu it, the angela do not allow it to remain with him the twinkling of an eye, but they take it in the sackoloth, and a dilagreeable smell iBlues from the loul, like that of the most fetid careaSl that can be met with upon the face of the earth. Th,!I"the. angel. carry it upwardl and do not pa •• by any allembly of angell who do not uk whose filthy 10ul i, thill. Thllf answer luch an one, tbe Bon of luch an one, and they mention him by the woret name. that he bore in the world, till they arrive with it at the lowest heaven, and can the door to be opened, bit it cannot be done.' Then the Prophet re~ated this v_ : ' Tiae door. of tM celutial regaom ,hall not IN f1IWMdfor tMm, !lor Mall tMr enter i"to parodi" tilT II eomel ~ tArougA the eye of II needle.' Then God • ay., 'Write hil hiltory in Sijjin,' which ia the low .. t earth j then hi. 10ul i. thrown down with violence. Afterward. the Prophet repeated thi. verle: 'Unite rIO ~tMr lIIitA 9od,for Vl1aoever ""itetA gorb ",itA God i, Ii" tAIIt tDAiel falletA from AigA, and the birrb _teA it a_,,, or tM wind IIIlIftetla it to II autarat pla«.' Then hil 10ul ia replaced in hil body, and two angell [1l1lK1Ull and lUKlBl aome to him and let him up, and lay,' Who is thy Lord P , He layl, 'AlaI I alaI I I do not know.' Then they .ay, • What il thy religion P , He layl, • Alas I alaal I do Dot know.' And they lay to him, 'What il the condition of the man who i. lent down to you P' He lays, • AlaI I alaI I I do not know.'

" Then a voice comel from above, sayinr, 'He lieth j therefore Ipread a bed of fire for him and open a door for him towards hell.' Then the heat and hot windl of hell come to him, and hil grave is inade tight upon him, so al to lqueeZtl hi. ribll. And a man with a hideeus countenance comes to him Ihockingly drelsed, of a vile smell, and he saYI, 'Be joyful in that which maketh thee miserable j thil il the day that wal promised thee.' Then the dead man 8ayl, 'Who art thou? Thy face h hideous, and brings wickedness.' He 8ayl, , I &Dl thy impure actions.' Then the dead person lays, '0 Lord, delay the resurreotion on my account I ,,,

The ceremonies attending the death of a Muslim are described al followl by JiJlr Shirif in Herklot's Qiinun-i-I.lim, as fol- 10wl:-

Four or five daYI previoul to a sick man's approaching his dissolution, he makes hil will in favour of hiR son or any other person, in the presence of two or more witneasos, and eithor

DEATH

delivers it to othere or retaina it by Mm. In it he likewise appointl hil exeoutor. When about to expire, any learned reader of the Qur'in i8 sent for, and requested t.) repeat with a loud voice the Silrah Yi Sin'(or chap. xxxvi.), in order that the spirit of j,he man, by the hearing of ita sound, may experience an easy concentration. It is said thllt when the apirit was commanded to enter j,he body of Adam, the soul having looked into it once, observed that it was a bad and da"k place, and unworthy of ita presence I Then the Just and Moat Holy God illuminated i.he body of Adam with "lamps of light," and commanded the spirit, to re-enter. It lI'ent in a second time, beheld the light, and Ilaw the whole d'lfelling, and laid, " There is no pleaso ing sound here for me to li.ten te,." It i8 generally understood from the belt ·"ork. of the mystic. of the East, that it wal owing to this oiroumstance that the Almighty created muslo. The holy spirit, on hearing tbe 10und of this mUlic became 10 delighted that it entered Adam's body. Oommentato!·. on the Qur'in, expositors of the Traditi'~ns and divines have written, that that sound relembled that produced by the reptl&ting of the Sfintu Yi Sin; it is therefore a,dvisable to read at the hour of death thl. chapter for tn'it~!i:,ing the soul.

The . atu 'sh-shahidah [OIiBliDl i •

allo read· with an audible voioe by tliole present. They do Dot require thtl patient ttl read it himlelf, u at luoh a tilDe he il in a diltre81ing situation, and llot In a fit .tate of mind to repeat the Kalimah.

Mo.t people lie ina8D1ible, and cannot even apeak, but the pious retain their menj,al facultfel and converse till the very lalt. The following is a most serious religious rule amongn us, viz. that if a person delire the p.atient to repeat the Kalimah, and the lick man expire without being able to do 10, hiB faith i. considered dubious; whillt the nlan who directed him 10 to do thereby inOllll'l guilt. It il therefore beat that the littera-by read it, in antlolpation of the hope that the Riok man, by hearing the sound of it, may bring it to his recollection, and repeat it either aloud or in his own mind. In general, when a peraon is on the point of death, they pour IlIarbat, made of sugar and water, down his throat, to faoilitate the exit of the vital spark, and somo procure tho holy water of the Zamz&Dl well at Makkah. The momont the ~Ipirit has fled, the mouth is closed j becauae, if left open, it would present a disagreeable spectacle. The two great toes are brought in contact and fastened together with a thin Alip of cloth, to prevent the logs romaini:ng apart. They hum perfumes near the corpse. Should the individual have died in tho evening, the shrouding and bnrial take place before mid. night; if he die at a later hour, or should the artie les required not be proctJra ble at that late hour, he is buried early on the following morning. The soener these'pulehral rites are performed the better, for it is not proper to keep a corpse long in tho house and for this reason tho Prophet aaid thli

DEATH

If he wall a good man, the looner he I. buried the more quickly he will reach heaven j if a bad man, he should be speedily buried, In order that his unhappy lot may not fall upon others in the house j as also that the relativel of the deceased may not, 'by holding the corpse, weep too much or go without food. There are male and female washers, whose province it is to wash and shroud the corpse for payment. Sometimes, however, the relatives do it themselvea. In undertaking the operation of washing, they dig a hole in the earth to receive the water used in the proceaa, and prevent its apreading over a large lurface, aa aome men and women consider it bad to tread on such water. Then they place the corpse on a bed, country-cot, plank, or Itraw. Some women, who are particular in thele matters, are afraid even to venture near the place where the body has been washed. Having Itripped the corpse and laid it on its back, with its head to the east and feet to the weat, they cover it with a cloth-reaching, if it be a man, from the navel to the calves of the leg., if a woman, extending from the chest to the feet-and waah it with warm or with cold water. They raise the body gently and rub the abdomen four or five times, then pour plenty of water, and wash olt all the dirt and 81th with aoap, &c., by means of flocks of cotton or cloth j after which, laying the body on the aides, they wash them j then the back, and thereat of the body; but gently, because, life having but just departed, the body is .till warm and not inaensible to pain. After thi. they walh and clean it well, so that no oltenain smell may remain. They never throw water into the nostrils or mouth, but clean them with wicks of cloth or cotton. After that they perform wu~,;' for him, i.e. they wash his mouth, the two upper extremities up to the elbows, make 71uuab [MAHAR]

"on his head, and throw water on his feet j theae latter constituting the four parts of the IDU~'; ceremony [ABLUTIONS]. They then put some camphor with water into a new large earthen pot, and with a new earthen pot they take out water and pour it three times, first from the head to the feet, then from the right shoulder to the feet, lastly from the left ahoulder to the feet. Every time that a pot of water is poured the Kalimalu 'Bh-shahiidah is repeated, either by the person washing or another_ Having bathed the body and wiped it dry with a new piece of cloth, they put on the shroud. The shroud consists of three pieces of cloth, if for a man, and five if for a woman.

Those for men comprise, 1st, a lungi, or iziir, reaching from the navel down to the knees or ankle-joints; 2nd, a qami" or kurta, or alfii j its length is from the neck to the knees or ankles j 3rd, a lU'iijah, or sheet, from above the head to below the feet. Women have two additional pieces of cloth: one a ainah-band, or breast-band, extending from the arm-pits to above the ankle-joints j the other a da.nni, which encircles the head once and ha. ita two ends dangling on each side. The mauner of shrouding is as follow a :

DEBT

81

having plaoed the shrouds OD a new mat and fumigated them with the smoke of perfumes, the l(fiifaA is spread first on the mat, over it the lungi or iziir, and above that the qami, j and on the latter the rinah-band, if it be " woman j the damni is kept separate and tied on afterwards. The corpse must be carefully brought by itself from the place whe", it was bathed, and laid in the shrouda. Surmah is to be applied to the eyes with a teut made of paper rolled up, ,.ith a ring, or with a pice, and 'camphor to aeven placea, viz. on the forehead, including the noae, on the palma of the hands, on the kneea and great toel, after which the different shrouds are to be properly put on one after another as they lay. The colour of the ahroud ia to be white; no other is admisaible. It is of no consequence, however, lif a coloured cloth is spread over the bier j which, after the funeral, or after the fortieth day, is given away to the faqir who residea in the burying-ground, or to. any other person, in charity. Previous to ahrouding the body, they tllar shreds from the cloths for the purpose of tying them on j and after shrouding the body, they t~ one band above the head, a second below the 'feet, and a third about the cheat, leaving about six or seven fingers' breadth of cloth above the head and below the feet, to admit of the enda being fastened. Should the relict of the deceased be preaent, they undo the cloth of the head and show her his face, and get her, in presence of two witneasea, to remit the dowry which he had settled upon her j but it is preferable that ahe remit it while he Is still alive. Should the wife, owing to journeying, be at a distance from him, she is to remit It on receiving the intelligence of his demise.

Should his mother be preaent, she likewile , says, " The milk with which I Buckled thee I freely bestow on thee" j but this is merely a custom in India; it is neither enjoined in books of theology nor by the law of lalim. Then they place on the corpse a flower-sheet or merely wreatha of flowers. [GilA VB, BUIlLU.]

DEATH, EVIDENCE OF. The

Muhammadan law admits of the evidence of death given in a court Qf justice being merely by report or hearsay. The reason of this I, that death ia an event of such a nature aa to admit the privacy ouly of a few. But aome have advanced that, in cases of death, the information of one ma. or woman is snfficient, "because death is not seen by many, since, as it occasions horror, the sight of it i, avoided. "

If a person say he was present at the burial of another, this amounts to the same as an actual sight of his death. (Hidiiyah, vol. iv.

p. 678.)

DEBT. In Muhammadan 1a.w there are two words us~d for debt. Dain (~.I), or money borrowed with some fixed term of payment, and qar~ (~:J)' or money lent without any definite understanding as to

DEOORUlI

it. repayment. Imprisonment for debt i. allowed. (HidD!JaA, voL ii. p. 62'.)

Upon the decease of a debtor, the law demands that after the payment of the funeral expenses, hi. just debts must be paid before payment of legacies.

To engage in a Jihad or religious war, is said by Mul;lammad to remit every sin except that of being in debt. [JDLLD, D~, QUZ.J

DECORUM, or modesty of demes.nov between the sexes, i. strict I,y ellj oined in M11Iliim law, and a special ohapter i8 devoted to it in the DuITU 'l-Mu&!!tar and other works on Muhammadan law.

A m'an is not allowed to look at a woman except at her hands and face, nor is he'allowed to touoh her. But a physician is permitted to exercise the duties of his profession without restriction.

A judge in the exercise of his office may look in the face of a woman, and witnesses are under the same necessity.

DECREES OF GOD, The. Arabic Qadar or Taqdir. [PUDEBTIN.A.TIOII.]

DEEDS. Written deeds a.re, according to Mul;lammadan law, of three kinds:

L MUBtabin-i-marsulR, or regular documents, such as are executed on paper,and have a regular title, supersoription, &0., which are equivalent to oral declaration, whether the person be present or absent. IL MUBtabin-ighair-i-mar.um, or irregular docwnents, such aB are not written on paper, but upon a wall or the leaf of a tree, or upon paper without any title or superscriptioa or signature. m Ghair-i-7IIustabin, writings wbich are not documents in any sense, such as are delineated in the air or in the water by the motions of a dumb perBon,

DEFENDANT. Arabic mudda'a 'alaihi (AolA ~~). Lit." A claim

upon him."

The author of the Hidayah (vol, iii. p, 63) says a defendant is a person who, if he 'should wish to avoid the litigation, is compellable to sustain it. Some have defined a plaintiff, with respect to any article of property, to be a person who, from his being disseized of the said article, has no right to it but by the establishment of proof; and a defendant to be a person who has a plea of right to that article from his seizing or possession of it,

The Imim Muhammad has said that a defendant is a person who denies. This is correct; but it requires a skill and knowledge of jurisprudence to distinguish the denier in a suit, as the reality and not the appearance is efficient, and it frequently happens that a person is in appearance the plaintitJ, whilst in reality he is the defendant. Thns a trustee, when he says to the owner of the deposit, " I have restored to you your deposit," appears to be plaintiff, inasmuch as he pleads the return of the deposit; yet in reality he is the defendant, since he. denies the obligation of responsibility, and hence his assertion, cerroborated by an oath, must be credited.

DlIILUGB

DE LI BE RA T I ON (A.ra.bic ta'anni jlr) is enjoined by Mu. hammad in the Traditions. He is rallated to have said, "Deliberation' in your undertaking. is'pleasing to God, and hurry e,ajaWa) is plea.ing to the devil. ~ "Deliberlotion i. best in everything except in the things concerning eternity." (Qad" ... i-Tirmili.)

DELUGE, The. Arabic 'fiJ!4R

{(:)U,s.). The story of the deluge ill given by Mul;lammad in hi. Qur'in, to the Arabians as a ""cret hi.tory, revealed to them (Siirah xi. 51). The following are the allusions to it in the Qur'in:-

Siirah lxix. 11:-

" When the Flood rose high, we bani' you in the Ark,

" i'hat we might make that event 8, warning to you, and that the retaining ea:r might retain it."

Siirah liv. 9:-

"Before them the peopte of, ·Noah treated the truth as a lie, Our senant did they charge with falsehood, and said, 'D"lIIoniac I ' and he

was rejected. ,

"Then cried he to his Lord, (Verilly, they prevail against me; come thou therefore to my SUIlCOur.'

" So we opened the gates of HeavE,n .vith water which fell in torrents,

"And we caused the earth to break forth with springs, and their waters met,by settled 'decree,

"And we bare him on a vu,el made with planks and nails,

"Under our eyes it floated on: a recompense to him who had been rejected with unbelief.

" And we left it a sign: but, is there any one who receives the warning?

" And ho1w great was my vengeance lind my menace L.."

Siirah xi., 88 :-

"And it was revealed unto Noah: 'Verily, none of thy people shall believe, san they who have believed already; therefore be not thou grieved at their doings.

"But build the Ark under our eye and after our revelation: and plead not w'ith me for the evil-doers, for they are to be drowned.'

" So he built the Ark; and whene'ver tbe chiefs of his people passed by they lILughed him to scorn: said he,' Though ye langh at us, we truly shall langh at you, even as y8 laugh at us; and in the end ye shall know

" On whom a punishment shall come that shall sha.me him; and on whom shall Iight a lasting punishment.'

" Thu« was it until our sentence came to pass, a.nd the earth's surface boiled ul" We esid, ' Carry into it one pair of every kind, and thy family, except him on whom sentence hath before been passed, and those who have believed.' But there believed not with him except a few.

"And he said, 'Embark ye therein, In the DlllDIj of God be its course and its riding

DEMONS

at anchor! Truly my Lord is right Gracious, Merciful.'

" And the Ark moved on with them amid waves like mountains: and Noah called to his son-fol' he was apart-' Embark with us, 0 my child I and be not with the unbelievers, '

"He said,' I will betake me to a mountain that shall secure me from the water.' He laid,' None shall be secure this day from the decree of God, save him on whom He shall have mercy.' And a wave passed between them, and he was among the drowned.

Ii And it was said,' 0 Earth I swallow up thy water' j and ' cease, 0 Heaven!' And the water abated, and the decree was fulfilled, and the Ark rested upon al-Judl ; and it was laid, 'Avaunt! ye tribe of the wicked I '

Ii And Noah called on his Lord and said, , 0 Lord I verily my son is of my family: 'and thy promise is true, and thou art the most just of judges.'

"He said, ' 0 Noah I verily, he is not of thy family: in this thou actest not aright. Ask not of me that whereof thou knowest nought:

I warn thee that thou become not of the ignorant.'

"He said, , To thee verily, 0 my Lord, do I repair lest I aBk that of thee wherein I have DO knowledge: unless thou forgiTe me and be merciful to me I shall be one of the

101t.' ,

"It wal said to him, , 0 Noah I debark with peace from Us, and with bleniugs on thee and on people I from those who are with thee; but al for part, we "ill sulJer them to enjoy themselves, but afterwards they shall sulfer a grievous punishment from us to be inllicted.'

" This is a secret history which we reveal to thee. Thou didst not know them, thou nor thy people before this."

DEMONS. [m:vIL8, GENII.]

DEPORTMENT. Arabic 'umu

'l-mu't.i8hara.h (i;At\aJ\ ~). Persian fti.haat u barkhtist. The Traditionists take some pains to explain the precise manner in which their Prophet walked, sat, slept, and rose, but their accounts are not always uniform and consistent. For example, whilst 'Abbid relates that he saw the Prophet sleepiug on his back with one leg over the other, J ii.bir says the Prophet distinctly forbade it.

Modesty of deportment is enjoined in the QU'in, Siirah xvii. 89: "Walk not proudly on the earth," which the commentatOl"l say mean. that the believer is not to to.1 hi. head or hi. arm. aa h. walk.. Siirah Itxv. 6': " Th ••• rvant. of the Meroilul On. are thOle who walk upon the .arth lowly, and when the iporant adch.) •• them lay, ' Peaoe I ..

Faqu- Jbi Muq.ammad AI'ad, the author of the celebrated ethioal work, the AM,ldq-jJaldli, givel the following advice al l-egarda gen.ral deportment:-

"He should hot hurry as he walks, for that i8 a sign of levity j neither should he be 1IIIrIalonably tardy, for that il a token of dul-

l I

I

f

I

DEPOSIT

8S

ness. Let him neither ltalk like the OTerbearing, nor agitate himself in the way of women and eunuchs; but constantly observe the middle eonrse. Let him avoid going often backwards and forwardl, for that betokens bewilderment j and holding hie head downwards, for that indicatell a mind overcome by sorrow and awety. In riding, no less, the same medium is to be observed. When he aits, lot him not extend hi. feet, nor put one upon another. He must never kn.el except in deference to hie kiug, his preceptor, and his father, or other such person. Let him not rest his head on his knee or his hand, for that is a mark of dejection and indolence. Neither let him hold his neck awry, nor indulge in foolish tricks, such as playiug with his fingers or other joints. Let him &Toid twist.ing round or stretching himself. In lpi.ting and blowiug his nose, let him be careful that no one sees or hears him j that he blow it not towards the Qiblah, nor upon his hand, his skirt, or sleeve-lappet.

"When he enters an aseembtj, let him sit neither lower nor higher than his proper station. If he be himself the head of the party, he can sit al he likes, for hi. place muat be the highest wherever it may be. If he haa inadvertently taken a wrong place, let him exchange it for his own as loon aa he diecovers his miltakej should hi. own beooou- pied, he muat return without di.tubing othll'l or annoying himself.

"In the presence of his male .or female domestios, let him never bar. anything but his hands and his face: the parts from his knee to his navel let him never upo .. at all ; neither in public nor private, except OD oooasions of necessity for (ablution and the like. (Vide Gen. ix. 20; LeT. xvii. 6, n. 11 j D81lt. nii.80.)

" He must not eleep in the prBlenoe of other persons, or lie on his back, partioularly al the habit of snoriug is thereby encourBJed.

"Should sleep overpower him in the midst of a party, let him get up, if possible, or el.e dispel the drowsiness by relating some story, enteling on some debate, and the like. But if he is with a set of persons who sleep themselves, let him either bear them company or leave them.

" The upshot of the whole is this: Let him so behave as not to incommode or diaguat others; and should any of these observance. appear troublesome, let him rellect, that to be formed to their contraries would be Itill more odious and still more unpleal&llt than any fains which their acquirement may COlt him. .A&b.laq-j-J"lili, 'l'homplon'l Tr&lllla. tion, p. 292.)

DE PO SIT (Ara.bio toCIdrlJ" Iaa.l". pl. wa.ddi'), in the 1aDg~ of the law, signifies a thing entruried to the care of another. The proprietor of the thJDa" is called miidj', or depositor j the p.rlOn .ntrusted with it is IlIiUla', or trustee, and the property deposited is wadi'ala, whioh literally means the lealJing of a thing with another.

DBvtL

According to the Hidtiya/l, the following are the rules of Islam regarding deposits.

A trustlle iA not responsible for deposit unless he transgress with respect to it. If therefore it be lost whilst it is in his care, and the loss has not been occasioned by any fault of his, the trustee has not to make good the loss, because the Prophet said, .. all /aonelt tnutee i, not rupomible."

A trustee may also keep the deposit him.eU or he may entrust it to another, provided the person i. a member of his own family, but it he give. it to a stranger he renders himself responsible.

If the deposit is demanded by the depo.itor, ADd the trustee ueglects to give it up, it is a transgression, and the trustee becomes responsible.

If the trustee mix the deposit (as of grain, oil, &c.) with his own property, in such a manner that the property cannot be separated, the depositor can claim to share equally in the whole property. But if the mixture be the result of accident, the proprietor becomes a proportionate .harer in the whole.

U the t1"118t88 deny the deposit upon demand, he is responsible in case of the lo.s of it. But not if the denial be made to a stranger, because (say. Abu Yusuf)the denial may be made for the sake of preserving it.

In the case of a deposit by two persons, the trustee cannot deliver to either his share, except it be in the presence of the other. And when two persons receive a divisible article in trust, each must keep one half, although these re.trictions are not regarded when they are held to be inconvenient, or contrary to custom.

DEVIL, The. The devil is believed ~o be descended from Jinn, the progenitor of the evil genii. He is said to hare been named 'Azizil, and to have possessed authority over the animal and spirit kingdom. But when God created Adam, the devil refused to prostrate before him, and he was therefore expelled from Eden. The sentence of death was then pronounced upon Satan; but upon seeking a respite, he obtained it until the Day of Judgment, when he will be destroyed. (Vide Qur'in, Siirah vii. 18.) According to the Qu'rin, the devil W&8 created of fire, whilst Adam was created of clay. There are two words used in the Qur'in to denote this great

Ipirit of evil: (1) SAait.an ((:)\Ioe.Ao, ~IV), an Arabic word derived fl'om ./aal.n, " o;p~lition," i.e. .. one who oppotel i (2) 16/" (~', 8uJ.fJOAot), .. devil," from 6a1tu, .. a wicked or proDigale perlon," i.e ... the wicked one." The former ex.prenion occurs in the Qur'in fifty-two timei, and the latter only nine, whilst in some verses (e.g. Siirah Ii. 82- 84) the two words S"ai,an and Ibli, OCCUI' for the same p'ersonality. According to the .1IC1jllUl'U '-ElM,', ,/tajlan denotes one who is far from the truth, and iblis one who is without hope.

The following is the teaching of ~lul:Jl1mmad n the Traditions concerning the machinations of the devil (Mi,hkat, book i. c. iii.):-

DINAR

.. , Verily, the devil enters into man as the blood into his body .

.. • There is not one amongst YOll. but; has AD angel and a devil appointed over him.' The Companions said, • Do you include yourself in this? ' He said, • Yes, for me alao; but God has given me victory over the devil, and he does not direct me except in what is good.'

.. There is not one of the children of Adam, except Mary and her son (Jesus), but is touched by the devil at the time of its birth, hence the child makes a loud noise from the touch .

.. Devil r8sts his throne upon the waters, and senda his armies to excite contention ADd strife amongst mankind; and those in hie armies who are nearest to him in po,,,er and rauk, are those who do the most m.ischief. One of them returns to the devil and lays, • I have done so and so.' and he sayll, • You have done nothing'; after that another' comes, and says. • I did not quit him till I made a division between him and his wife'; then the devil appoints him a place near himself, and say., • You are a good assistant.'

U The devil .ticks close to the sons of Adam, and an angel also; the businesa of the devil is to do evil, and that of the angel to teach him the truth; and he who meets with truth and goodness in his mind, let him know it proceeds from God, and let him praise God i and he who finds the other, let him s.,ek for an asylum from the devil in God.

.. Then the Prophet read this verse of the Qur'in : • The devil threatens Y011 with poverty if ye bestow in charity; and order. you to pursue avarice; but God promises you grace and abundance from charity.'

"'U~min said, • 0 Prophet of God I indeed the devil intrudes himself between me and my prayers, and my J'eading perplexes me.' Then the Prophet said,' This is a demon called Khanzab, who casts doubt into prayer: when you are aware of it, take protection with God, and spit over your le~t ,anD three times.' 'U~min said, 'Be it so'; SOlId all doubt and perplexity was dispelled."

DEVIL, The Ma.chinations of the. [W.uWA8.uL]

DIBAGHAH (L.b4.,). "Ta.m:ling."

According to t!te Traditions, the s~dns of animals are unclean until thel. al'8 tanned. Mul).ammad 'aid, .. Take notlllDg fllr ADy animale thatllhall han died until yOll tan their lid • ." Ahd &gam, .. T&IIDlDr puriDe .. ' (Mi./akit, book iii. e. zi. II.)

DlMASHQ (~.,). [D.UUlIC17I.] DIN (1:>1.,). The Arabic word for OJ religion... It is used especially for tile religion of the Prophets and their inspired boou, but it il .Iso used for idolatrous religion. [RELIGION.]

DINAR UoIl.,). Greek ~1AfW1I" A gold coin of one lIIi,Tqal weight, or ninetysix barley grain., worth about ten shillings.

DIRHut

According to Mr. Hussey (.4.ncimt Weight" p. U2), the average weight of the Roman denarii, at the end of the Commonwealth was si~ty g;ains, w~ilst the English shilling contains eighty grains. Mr. Lane, in his Arabic dictionary, says, "its weight is seventy-one barley-corns and a half, nearly, reckoning the daniq as eight grains of wheat aud two-fifths;

DITCH

85

but if it be said that the daniq is eight grains of wheat, then the dinar is sixty-eight grains of wheat and four-sevenths. It is the same as the mi,wal." The dinar is only mentioned once in the Qur'in, Siirah ii. 66: "And some of them if thou entrust them with a dinar, he will not give it back." It frequently occurs in books of law.

A. GOLD DINA.R OF HBRACLIU8, A..D. 621. waGHT SIXTY GBA.IN8. ACTUAL SIZE.

A GOLD Dll'!ll 0., TJIB CITY ~I' GlLUl'!l, A..lL 616. A.C7UAL SIZE

DmHAM (,...),). Greek 8pax,,~.

A silver coin, the shape of which resembled that of a date stone. During the caliphate of 'Umar, it wal changed into a circular form; and in the time of Zubair, it was impressed wi\h the words AUiilI, II God," barakah II blessing." I;lajjij stamped upon it the chapter of the Qur'in called Ikhl~ (exii.), and others lay he imprinted it with his own name. Various accounts are given of their weights; some saying that they were of ten, or nine, or six, or five mi.qiils; whilst others give the weights of twenty, twelve, and ten qiral8, asserting at the same time that 'Umar had taken a dirham of each kind, and formed a coin of fourteen qirals, being the third part of the aggregate swn. (Blochmann's' Ain-iAkbari, p. 86.)

The dirham, although it is frequently mentioned in bookl of law, oll1y OCCurl once In the Qur'l.D, Siirah z.ii. 2(), "And they lold

him (Joseph) for a mean price, dirha_ counted out, and they parted with him cheaply."

DIRRAH (I),). Vulg. durrah.

A scourge made either of a llat piece of leather or of twisted thongs, and used by \he public censor of morals and religion, called the mubtasib. , This scourge is in1licted either for the omission of the daily prayer, or for the committal of sins, which are punishable by the law with the infliction of stripell, such as fornication, scandal, and drunkenness. Itis related that the Khalifah 'Umar punished his son with the dlfT'ah for drunkennels, and that he died from its effects. (Tarilda-i-K!araia, vol. ii. p. 262.)

The word used in the Qur'in and J;1adi. for this loourge is jald41a, and in theological werkl, 'GU~; but dirrala ia now the word ganarally used amollilt modern MuslimJ.

DITCH, Battle of the, Arabic Ghazwatu 'l-Kkandaq (J.u.a;,n i,~), The defence of al-Madinah against the Banii Qurai1;ah, A.B. 6, when a trench was dng by the advice of Salmin, and the army of al-

A DIlUU.B UBED BY A JlUll'l'AIlB Il'! TBlD PEIUWll VA.Lf&t".

Madinah was posted within it. After & month's siege, the enemy retired and the almost bloodless victory is a8cri~d by Mul:1ammad in the Qur'in to the interposition of Providenee, Siirah xxxiiI. 9: II Remember God's favours to you when hosts e&me to;you

86

DmNATION

DIVOROE

and we sent against them a wind and hosts (of angels), that ye could not see, but God knew what ye were doing." (Muir's Life of Mahomet, vol iii. p. 258.)

DIVINATION. Kahanah, or for. telling future events, is unlawful in Islam.

Mtrawiyah ibn I;lakiIl\ relates: J I said to 'he Prophet, '0 Messenger of God, we used to do some things in the time of ignorance of which we are not sure now. For example, we used to consult diviners about future events" The Prophet said, 'Now that you have embraced Islim yon must not consult them.' Then I said, 'And we used to take bad omens?' The Prophet said, ' If from a bad omen you are thrown into perplexity, let it not hinder you from doing the work you had intended to do.' Then I said,' And we used to draw lines Oft the ground?' And the Prophet said, ' There was one of the Prophets who used to draw lines on the ground, therefore if you can draw a line like him it is good, otherwise it is vain.'''

'Ayishah says "the people asked the Prophet about diviners, whether they spoke true or not. And he said, 'You must not believe anything they say.' The people then said, , But, 0 Prophet I they sometimes tell what is true?' The Prophet replied, 'Because one of the genii steals away the truth and carries it into the diviner's ear; and the divinen mix a hundred lies to one truth.''' [IUGIO.]

DIVORCE. ,Ara.bic l,aZ(iq (.JlIo).

In its primitive sense the word t.a7ciq means dilmission, but in law it signifies a release from the marriage tie.

The Muhammadan law of divorce is founded upon express injunctions contained in the Qur'in, as well as in the Traditions, and its rules occupy a very large section in all Mu1!.ammadan works on jurisprudence.

L_ TM teacking of tAe Qur'an on the subject il &I follow8 :-

Siirah il. 226 :-

"They who intend to abstain from their wiv88 .hall wait four months j but if they go back from their purpose, then nrily God is GraoioUB, Merciful :

"And if they resolve on a divorce, then verily God is He who Heareth, Knoweth.

.. The divorced shall wait the result, until they have had their courses thrice, nor ought they to conceal what God hath created in their wombs, if they believe In God and the la.t day; and It will be more jnst in their hUiband. to bring them baok when in this .tate, U they d.llre what I. ~ht. And it is for the women to 40t al they (the husbands) act by them, In all falrne .. ; but the men are

, a ltep above them. God II Mighty, Wile.

.. Ye may give lentenee of divoroe to your wi ..... twloe: Keep them honourably, or put them away with kindnell. But it Is not allowed you to appropriate to yourselves aught of what ye have given to them, unless both fear that they cannot keep within the bounds set up by God. And if ye fear that they can-

not observe the ordinances of God, no blame shall attach to either of you for ,vhat the wife shall herself give for her redemption. These are the bounds of God: therefore overstep them not j for whoever oversteppeth the bounds of God, they are evil doers.

" But if the h us band give sentence of divorce to her a third time, it is not lawful for him to take her again, until she shall have married another husband; and if he also divorce her then shall no blame attach to them if they return to each other, thinking that they can keep within the bounds fixed by God. And these are the bounds of God; He maketh them clear to those who have knowledge.

"But when ye divorce women, and the time for sending them away is come, either retain them with generosity, or put them away with generosity: but retain them not by constraint so as to be unjust towards them. He who doth so, doth in fact injure himsel.f. And make not the signs of God a jest; but remember God's favour towards you, and the Book and the Wisdom which He hath sent down "0 you for your warning, and fear God, and know that God's knowledge embraceth everything.

"And when ye divorce your wives, and they have waited the prescribed time, hinder them not from marrying the husbands when they have agreed among themselves in an .hononrable way. This warning is for him among you who believeth in God and in the last day. This is most pure for you, and most decent. God knoweth, but ye know not.

"Mothers, when divorced, shall gin suck to their children two full years, if the father desire that the suckling be completed j and such maintenance anti clothing as is fall' for them, shall devolve on the father. Naperson shall be charged beyond his means, A mo~er shall not be pressed unfairly for her child, nor a father for his child: Alld the same with the father's heir. But if they choose to wean the child by consent and by bargain, it shall be no fault in them. And if ye choose to have a nurse for your children, it shall be no fault in you, in case ye pay what ye promised her according to tha·t which is fair. Fear God, and know that God seeth what ye do.

*

*

*

*

*

" It shall be no crime in you if ye divorce your wives so long as ye have not consummated the marriage, nor Bettled any de,wry on them. And provide what is needful for them -he who is in ample oircumstances according to his means, and he who il stnitened, according to hi. meana-with falrnes.: This II blndinr on thOle who do what is right.

"But If ye divorce them before consUD1". mation, and have already lettled a dowry on them, 18 .hall give tAm halt 01 what ye han settled, uula.. they make a relea .. , or he make a release In whose hand i. the marriage tie. But if ye malts a release, it 'will be nearer to piety."

Siirah lxv. 1:-

"0 Prophet I when ye divorce '"omen,

DIVOROIII

di.,.orco them at their special timoR. And rockon those times exactly, and foar God your Lord. Put them not forth from their houses, nor 1L1I0w them to depart, unlesa they hn vo committed a proven adultery, ThiN iii tho precept of God; and WhOHO trnnHgreRHoth tho precept of God, assuredly imporilloth his own solf. Thou knowost not whether, nftor this, God mny not onuso somethil1l( new to oeeur wllic'h nlfl.y "rin!! you toqether "!I"in.

"And whon they navo reached their Rot time, then either koop them with kindnesa, or in kindness part from thcm. And take upright witnoases from among you, and bear witness as unto God. ThiN is a caution for him who believeth in God and in the Inttor day. And whoso foareth God, to him will He grant a pro"pOrOUA is Rue, and will provide for him whonce he reckoned not upon it.

"And for him who puttoth his truAt in Him will God be all-sufficiont. Ged truly will attain his purpose. For everything hath God assignod a period.

" As to such of your wivos as have no hope of the roeurroneo of their timos, if yo ha vo doubts in regard to thorn, then reckon throe months, and let the "arne be the term of those who havo not yot had thom. And as to those who are with child, their period shall be until thoy are doli vered of thoir burden, God will mako His command oasy to Him who feareth Him.

" Lodge the divorced wherovor ye lodge, according to your means; and distress thom not by putting them to straits. And if thoy are pregnant, then be at chargeR for them tIll they are delivored of their burden j and if they suckle your children, then pay them their hire and consult among yoursolves, and act generously; And if herein yo meet with obstacles, then let another female suckle for him."

II. TIle teachinq of Mu/.UJmlllnd 011 tile gl!Mral subject of 'bit'oree is expressed in the Traditio", flR follow .• :-

" The thillj( which i~ lawful but disliked by God is divorce."

"The woman who asks her huaband to divorce her without a cauae, tho smell of Paradise is forbidden her."

"There are three things which,' whethor done in joko or in earnest, "hall be considered serious and effectual, namoly, marriage, divorce, and taking a wife hack."

"Every divorce is lawful except a madman's."

" Cursed be the second husband who make" the wife (divorced) lawful for her first huaband, and cursed be the fir.t husband for whom she is made lawful."-(Mi.hkat, xiii.

c. xv.)

III. Sunni MUQalllmaditn Doctor» are not a!Jreecl ns to the Mora{ Stldus of Divorce.

The Imam ash·Shiifi'i, refcl"l'illj( to the three kfuda of divorce (which will be afterwards explained), laY8; "They are unexceptionable and legal because divorce i. in itself

• lawful act, whence it Is that cm.in law8

G

DIVOBO.

87

han been inRtitutod rospecting it j and thla lfljfallty pre'f'Onta any idea of danger beiDl annexed to it. But, on tho other IIIlnd, the Imilm Abii 1.Illnifah and his disciples aay thllt di voree ia in itNelf IL dl~ngOl'OU8 and die. approved procedure, as it diM80lves marriage, an iustitution which involvos many circumstancos both of 11 spiritual aR well' aA of a tompornl nature, N 01' is it. propriety at all admitted, hut on tho grolln(l of urgency of roloaao from lin unsuitable wifo. And in reply to aHh-ShiHi'i, thoy Hay that tho legalit!J of divorce dOOR not prevent itN being considered dangerous, boeuuse it involvos matters of both IL spiritual-end temporal character.

The author of tho Slmrl,,, 'l- WiqliyaA, p. lOll, says ;-" Divorco is an ubomineble transaotion in tho sight of God, theroforo such aD act should only take placo from nocessity, and it is beRt to only mako the one senteaee of divorce (i.e. ,II/a' I" 'l-tillMn).

IV. TIle Sunni Law of lJivorce :-Divorce may be givon either in the prosent time or may he referred to some futuro period. It may be pronounced by tho husband eithor before 01' after the consummation of tho marriage. It may be either given in writing or vorblllly.

The words by which divorce can be given aro of two kinds ;-8arib, or "oxpre8s," as when the husband says, " Thou art divorced" j and kina.'1(Jt, or "metaphorical,~ as whon ~e 8"YS, "'l'hou art froo; thou art cut olf; veil yoursolf I AriMO J seek for a mate," &0. &c.

Divorco iR divided into' "alaqM '.-_IIaA, or that which i8 according to tho Qur'in and the Traditions, and ,aliiqu 'l-badi«, or a novel or hotorodox divorce, which, although it i. oonsidered lawful, is not considered religious.

Ttlla'l" 's-8u"n"/I is either tho "b,na, or " the most laudable," or ItllNun, the "laudable" method. Tnla'lIJ '1-lI/mln, or the" most laudable" method of divorce, is whon the husband once oxpressly pronounces to his enjoyod but nnpregnant wifo the sentence, "Thou art dlvorcod I" whon she iR in ,,""r or a stato of purity, durinl( which he has had no carnal connection with her, and then loaves her to complcte the prescribed 'iddah, or .. period of three months." Until the expiration of the 'idclill., the di vorco is revocable, but after the period i" complete, it is irroversible, and if tho husband wishos to take his wile back, they must go through the ceremony of marriage. But it must be observed that after the !lIla'lu '1-11&".,,,,, tho woman is not, as in tho othcr kinds of divorce, compelled to malTY another man, and be divorced bofore she can return to her fonner husband. All that i. required iN a re-marriage, The author of the llicliiyllh Hays thiN mode of divorce. is called 1I(lslIn, or "moHt laudable," because it WIlB usually adopted by the Companion. of the Prophot, anti "IRo because it leaves it in the power of the husband to take his wife back, and she thus remains a lawful subject for remarrilLj(c to him. Some European writer. on Mu4ammadanism have overlooked this fact in condemning the Muslim system of divoroe.

The t uldqu '1-(IIINUlI, 01''' laudable divorce,~

88

DIVORCE

II when the husband repudiates an enjoyold wife by three sentences of divorce, either oxpress or metaphorical, gh'ing one sentence in each ruhr, or .. period of purity." Imiim Malik condemns this kind of divorce, and aays it is irregular. But Abu Hunifuh holds it to be ~asan, or " I,(ood."

The ta1tiIfU 'l-badi-, or" irregular form of divorce," is when the husband repudiates his wife by three sentences, either cxpress or metaphorical, given them one at a time:

"Thou art divorced I Thou' art divorced I Thou art divorced I" Or," Thou art free I Thou art free I Thou art frce I " Even holding up three fingers, or dropping three atonea, is 'held to be a sufficiently implied divorce to take legal effect. The Muslim who thul divorces his wife is held, in the Hiddyalt, te be an offender against the law, but the divorce, however irregular, takea legal effect.

In both these kinds of divorce, badi: and (lasan,the divorce is revocable (rqji') after the first and second sentences, but it ia irrevocable (bti'in) after the third sentence. After both ~an and badi' divorces, the divorced wife oannot, under any circumstances, return to her husband until she has been married, and enjoyed, and divorced by another husband .. Mul)ammadan doctors say the law has instituted this (somewhat disgracoful) arrangemeat in order to prevent divorces other than l.awqu'l-ala.an.

A husband may divorce his wife without any misbehaviour on her part, or wjthout aSligning any cause. The divorce of every huaband is effective if he be of a sound understanding and of mature ago; but that of a boy, or a lunatic, or one talking in hi" alecp, is not eltective.

If a man pronounce a divorce whilst in a state of inebriety from drinking ferment ell liqoor, such aa wine, the divorce takeR place. RepUdiation by any husband who is sane and adult, is effective, whether ho he Ireo or II alave, willing, or acting under compulsion; and even thongh it were uttered in sport or

lest, or by a mere slip of the tongue, natead of aome other word. (Jt'lIlriwa-i-' ,Ilamgirl, voL L p. 497.)

A .iok man may divorce his wife, even though be be on his death-bed.

An agent or agents may be appointed by a husband to di'force his wife.

In addition to the will and caprice of the husband, there are also certain conditions which require a divorce.

The following are causes fOl' divorce, but generally require to be ratified by a decree from tbe Qa,i or " judge":-

(1.) Jubb. Tbat iA ...... hen the husband has heen by any cause deprived of his organ _of leneration. This condition is called I/II!; bub. In tbi8 case tbe wife can obtain instant divorce If thedefect eccurred before marriago. Cases of evident madnel' and leprosy are treated in the lame ",ay. Divorce CAn be ebtained at once.

(2.) 'U"IIGA, or "impotenoe. .. (Tbia includes ""'I, ",wlla imperII"' _'i" ; and

DIVORCB

qarn, ..• ",llIa lJfI'eriore parte ellCUCeIU.") In cases of impotency in either husband or wife, a year of probation can be granted by the judge.

(3.) Inrt/u,tli/y of mce or tribe. A. woman cannot be compelled to marry a man who belong" to an inferior tribe, and, in case of euch n marriage, the elders of the superior t.ibe can demand a divorce; but if the di.vorce i. not demanded, the marriage contract :remainL

(4.) Insufficieiu dourer, If the stipulated dowry is not given when demanded, divorce takes place.

(0.) Refusa! of [shim. If one of l.he partieR embrace Is!iun. the judge must olter It to the other three distinct times, and if he or she refuse to embrace the faith, divorce tak81 place,

(G.) La-n, or "imprecation." 'I'hat iI, when a husband charges his wife with adultery, the charge i, invostigated, but if there is no proof, and tbe man swears his wife i, guilty, and the wife "wcars she is innocent, a divorce must be decreed.

(7.) 1"", or ., vow." When a husband

makes n vow not to have carnal interccurse with hi. wife for no I~RS than four monthe, nnd keeps tho vow inviolate, an irreversible

divorce take" place. '.

(8.) Rc« . .,,,, of /17·0l'''·/Y' If a husband becomo the proprietor of his wife (a aIava), or the wife tho proprietor of her husband (a "I:He). divorce takes place.

(~l.) A II inralid lIIf1rrirr!l" of any kind, arising from incomplete lIihi~, or II marri;,ge ceremany:' or from affinity, or from consanguinity.

(10.) Ih:tFrPllcP of ~olmtry For example, if n husbund tloo from a dar" 'l-harb, or "land of onmitv,' i.e ... a ncn-Mualijn country," to a "",." "I-I.,Ir'",. or ., country "f Isliim," a.nd hi. wif" n-Iu so to perform l.iJmh (flight) and to .I'·""1ll1",ny him, she i" divorced.

(11.) .1,,, .. /,,,.'/ fro", islam. The author of t h,' /:"",f" ., .. 11"kht"r (vol. ii. p. 64:l) say.: .. Whou " ruun or woman "postatiees from Islam, tlu-n all immediate dissolution (fas!Ili) of the marriage takeR place, whether the apostu .• y he of the man or of the woman, without" deer .. e from the (la;i." And again, (p. (45), .. If hath husband and wife apOltatise at tho sumo time, their marriage bond remains; and if at :Illy future time the parties again return to I"lum, no re-marriage il nocossury to constitute them man and wife; but if one of tho pnrties should apostatile before tho ot her, II dissoluticn of the Inarriage takel place ;p'0.lice/o."

Mr. J. D. l-\, Boyle, of Lahoro, says: "AI relevant to thiR subject, I givo a quotation from Mr. Currie's excellent work on the JIlth"1I11 Crin,iRf,1 Ctx/rs, p. 445. The question is a8 to the elTect of apoKtilAy from Islim upon the matTiago relation, and whethor sexual intereourse with the apoRtate renders a person liable to be convicted for adultery under Scction 497 of the Indian Penal Oodo. A. and B., Mahommedans, married under l.he Mahommedan law, .aro converted to Chriltianity. The wife, B., i. Ilr.t con .. ned, but cODtinll81 to livI Wltb her busband ; lublequeilltly 'he

DIVORCB

huaband, A., il converted. Sublequent to the conversion of B., A. and B., It ill living together ae husband alid wife, both professing Christianity, B. hal sexual intercourse with G. Will a conviction hold against C. under l:!ection .07? Both Macnaghten and Baillie say the marriage become. dieeolved by apoetasy of either part)', and Grady, in his version of Hamilton's Hidii!!aA, p. 66, says: .. If eitber husband or wIfe apostatize from the faith, a separation takes place, without divorce j according to Abu Haneefa and Abil y oosut. lmiID Mahommed alleges if the apostasy ie on the part of the husband.

.. Apostasy annuls marriage in Haneefa'l opinion, and in apostasy aeparation takes place without any decree of the magistrate. Cales which might decide this point have been lately tried both at Lucknow and Allahabad: at the former place in re Afnl Hosein 1'. Harke Begum, and at the latter Zuburdust KAan 1'. Wife. But from certain remarks to be found in the judgment of the High Court, N. W. P., the Courts of Oudh And N. W. P., appear to differ on the most essential point. The point before the Oudh Court was (Hadee Begum's plea) that her marriage contract was diesolved by reason of her own apostaay, a sufficient answer to a suit bronght by her Mahommedan husban~or restitution of conjngal rights; ,i.e. Does the apostasy of a Mahommedan wife dissolve a marriage contract against the express wish of a Mahommedan husband in dar-col-barb (land of war)? for India, it is contended, is not, under its present administration, dar-ool- Islam (land of .afety). The Oudh Court held (admitting that apostasy by the husband dissolved the marriage and freed the wife) that apostasy by the wife did not free her if her husband sued for restitution of conjugal rights. They argued that apolta.y by ,the wife, without the wish of the husband, could not be entertained; in fact, that a8 regards her huaband's volitios, the apoltasy could not exist, and would not be recoguised. That a suit for restitution of conjugal rights before the competent court of the time, seemed to them to be equivalent of the anit before theCazee (Judge). TheOudh judges, in the absence of distillct precedent, say they fell back on the customs ·r the people amongst whom they lived. Thb Oudh Court evidently considered there 11'&1 an essential difference between apostasy of a man and apostasy of a woman, of the hnsband or the wife; also between apostasy to a faith in a book and apostasy to the idol worship Mahommed and his followers renounce. Ilpes such an essential difference exist? The point before the High Court N. W. P. WaR:

Can a Mahommedan professing Christianity subsequent to his marriage with a ?rlussulmani, according to the Mahommedan law, obtain a decree for dissolution of that marriage under Act IV. of 1869, hi. wife having subsequently to him prof ... ed ChriRtianity, and they under their new faith having lived together as man and wife? or whether the wife's con\entionl. sound, that her marriage waa cancelled by her husband'. apoRtaey?

DlVORCE

89

They held the ·apostaay of the husband dissolved the marriage tie. Tbil the Oadh Court admits, but the point before the Oudh Court was not before the High Court, N; W. P.; nevertheless from comments made by the Higb Court, N. W. P., on the Oudh decision, they evidently did not agrl'e with the finding come to by t.he'tatter CIUlrt, on the point before it.

"Now, Mr. Currieaaks in the above extract, does such an essential difference exist be. tween apo,tasy to a book-that is, to a htabee faith-and apostasy to idol worship? Anawer. ing this question necessitatel a few remarks upon the judgments above mentioned. Ac. cording to Mahommedan law, a man may lawfully marry a kitabeeaA, but marriage with a Pagan or polytheist is unlawful. But the principle in Mahommednn law is, that when one of the parties turns to a state of religion tllat would render the marriage contract illegal if it were still to be entered into, wbat was legal before is made void. A Mahammed an 11 oman, becoming a i.:itubeeall, does not render the marriage void, for there is nothing to render tha marriage contract illegal if it were still to be entered into.; but if the Ma.hommedan woman becomes all idolatres., the marriage is void, for the woman has turned to a state of religion that would render the marriago contract illegal if it were still to be entered into j a Mahommedan woman, becoming a Christian, consequently, would not be separated from her hushand, because ahe belongs to the religion of the book, that is, a kitabee faith. If a kitabeeaA beeomeaan idola tress, the marriage is dissolved, but if she change from one religion to another, and still- remain, a lcilabeeaA, the marriage is not vitiated. So far the Oudh Court is correct in itl decision, that the Mahommedan wile'. eonversion to Christianity did not render the mar· riage null and void, but that a suit for restitution of conjugal rightl would iie; and taking the case of C. having lexual inter., course with B. the wife of, A. convened to Christianity. a conviction under Section 491, Indiab Pcnal Code, would hold good. But with all deference, I do not think that the Oudh Court is correct when it states that , apostssy by tho wife witbout the wish of the husband could not be entertained j in fact, that aR regards her hnsband's volition, the apostasy could not exist, and would not be recognised.'

" So far as regard. a woman's Apostatiaing to a kitabe« faith, this holds good; but if a woman turns to Paganism, ip.o facto the mar· riage il void, and does not depend upon the volition of the husband (having regard to tbe principle we ha ve adverted to above), a., that the husband under such circWDstancescould not maintain a suit for conjugal rightl, ner would a conviction hold good against C., under Section 4t11, Indian Penal Code for sexual intercourse with B., the wife of A., who hal apostatiRed to Pagani.m. The decision. of the two Courts, however, leem correct, on the principle. of Mahommedan law, aR to tla. effect of Ii husband Ilpostatiling hom lslim.

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