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DEDICATION
This Project Report is dedicated to all my fellow men and women irrespective of cast, creed, colour, or religion, who are longing for health and happiness and to those who have a kind and philanthropic mind to help the needy people by mitigating their physical or mental sufferings in all possible ways. C.S.C.Manisundar

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This book would never have been possible without the relentless support of Dr.Lim Siow Jin (Founder and CEO, DXN, Malaysia), Dr.RathnaVasupal, Prof.K.N.Vasupalaiah, Dr.R.S.Rathnam, R.Seshasayee, (my brothers and sponsors) Dr.Thangaraj, Dr.Venkataramani, Dr.Malathi Venkataramani, Dr.Gurusundar, Dr.Ravichandran, Mr.Nazeer Babu and many other friends.

My special thanks to my wife M.Umanitya, son M.Gokulakrishna, and daughter M.Akshara, for their continuing support in every endeavor I dare to undertake. They have supported me with lot of tips and suggestions which has helped me to bring out this report with many useful information.

My heartfelt appreciation to all my teammates especially Mr.R.Radhakrishnan (Senior Diamond), Auditor R.Ramachandran, Mr.T.N.Venkatram, Mr.K.R.Velusamy, Mr.K.R.V.Nataraj, Mr.K.Rajeev, Mr.P.S.Shersha, Mr.T.Surya Prakasa Rao, Mr.R.Senthilkumar, Mr.Kandasamy, Mr.N.S.Maniraj, Mr.Rajmohan, Mr.Saravanan, Mr.R.Gurunathan, Mr.Sudan, Mr.Gunadurai, Mr.Arputharaj, Mr.Jeevakumar, Mr.J.Ramar. Mr.Ramakrishnan, Mr.Rathinam Vishwambaran, Mr..C.V.Gopichandran, Mr.N.Dhamodaran, for standing by me from the beginning.

A debt of gratitude goes to Mr.T.N.Venkatram for his laudable service in making arrangements to broadcast my speech in All India Radio, Coimbatore and Trichy.

Finally, my gratitude and deep admiration for my assistant K.R.Anandhababu, who has taken so much pains to edit and print the project report spending long hours even at odd times

Last but not the least, my humble and sincere thanks to the ALMIGHTY, who has saved me very many deadly dreaded disasters in my life, during the 15 years and blessed me with all the things and achievements one can aspire in life, by giving me a golden opportunity in the form of DXN and driving me day in and day out to spread the sacred message of securing Health, Wealth, Happiness to the humanity in the whole world.

Yours affectionately, C.S.C.Manisundar

CONTENTS
Page No. A. ABOUT DXN COMPANY............................................................................2 A.01 Company Profile.....................................................................................2 A.02 DXN’s Objectives..................................................................................3 B. HOW TO GET BACK OUR HAPPINESS ?...........................................4 B.01 B.02 B.03 B.04 What Is Happiness.................................................................................5 Why We Loose Our Health..................................................................5 Why Inadequate Income or Wealth Affects Our Happiness.................5 Why We Loose Happiness Due To Strained Relations........................6

C. HEALTH ( Man’s most precious possession )............................................8 C.01 C.02 C.03 C.04 C.05 C.06 C.07 C.08 C.09 C.10 C.11 Importance Of Health............................................................................9 Physical Dimension ...............................................................................9 Mental Dimension ...............................................................................10 Social Dimension ................................................................................10 Healthy Life .........................................................................................10 Food – What To Eat, When To Eat, How To Eat ? .............................11 Exercise ...........................................................................................11 Rest And Sleep ................................................................................12 Personal Hygiene..................................................................................13 Balanced Mind ( Positive Mental Attitude ).........................................14 Clean Environment .............................................................................14

D. FOOD - WHY DO WE NEED ?............................................................15 D.01 D.02 D.03 D.04 Why We Need Food ? .......................................................................16 Renewing Old Cells Or Tissues .....................................................16 For The Growth Of The Body ............................................................16 To Provide Protection Against Diseases ..........................................16

E. ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS BALANCED DIET.........................................17 E.01 E.02 E.03 E.04 E.05 E.06 E.07 Essential Nutrients ...........................................................................18 Carbohydrates ....................................................................................18 Lipids ( Fats ) ....................................................................................18 Proteins .............................................................................................18 Mineral Salts ........................................................................ .............19 Vitamins ...........................................................................................20 Water ..............................................................................................23

F. NUTRITION...................................................................................................24 F.01 F.02 F.03 F.04 F.05 Ingestion. .............................................................................................24 Digestion. .............................................................................................24 Absorption. ..........................................................................................24 Assimilation. ........................................................................................24 Egestion ...............................................................................................24

G. WHY WE LOOSE HEALTH....................................................................25 G.01 G.02 G.03 G.04 G.05 G.06 G.07 G.08 G.09 G.10 G.11 G.12 Why Our Health Gets Affected ? ........................................................26 Toxins Through Food – Adulteration ..............................................26 Toxins Through Water – Contamination ..........................................27 Toxins Through Air – Pollution ........................................................28 Sound Pollution .................................................................... ..........28 Light Pollution .................................................................................29 Toxins Through Bad Habits ..............................................................30 Accumulation Of Excess Amount Of Required Items ........................30 Organ Degradation Due Deficiency In Food ..................................30 Mental Tension And Physical Tension .............................................30 Genetic Reasons ..................................................................................31 Accident ..............................................................................................31

H. TYPES OF MEDICINES..............................................................................32 H.01 H.02 H.03 H.04 H.05 Likes Cures Like .............................................................................33 Opposite Cures Opposite ................................................................33 Poison Cures Poison ........................................................................33 System Cures System .......................................................... .............34 Which Is The Best System Of Medicine .....................................34

I. WHO IS THE BEST DOCTOR IN THE WORLD ?..........................36 I.01 I.02 I.03 I.04 Our Body Is The Best Doctor ...............................................................36 Immune System And Natural Healing Ability ..................................36 How Our Immune System Works ........................................................37 Can The Body Cure By Itself ............................................................37

J. WHAT IS MEDICINE ?..............................................................................38 J.01 J.02 J.03 J.04 J.05 J.06 J.07 J.08 What Is Medicine : ...............................................................................39 Food : ......................................................................................................39 Water : ....................................................................................................39 Words :....................................................................................................40 Exercise : ..............................................................................................40 Music : ...................................................................................................41 Fasting : .................................................................................................41 Drugs And Others : ................................................................................41

K. HOW THE DOCTOR TREATS THE PATIENT ?................................42 K.01 K.02 K.03 K.04 How The Doctor Treats A Patient : ..................................................43 Rest Or Restricted Activity : .................................................................43 Food Or Restricted Food : ..................................................................43 Medicine : .............................................................................................43

L. IS THERE ANY FOOD / VEGETABLE WHICH WILL CAN REMOVE THE ACCUMULATED TOXINS FROM OUR BODY AND PROVIDE ALL THE DEFICIENT VITAMINS AND MINERALS SO THAT WE GET RECOVERED FROM DISEASES AS WELL AS DISORDERS AND GET GOOD HEALTH ?..........................44 M. WHAT IS GANODERMA ?.......................................................................45 N. WHAT IS THE ROLE OF THE GANODERMA IN CURING DISEASES AND DISORDERS ?........................46 N.01 What We Get From Ganoderma .......................................................46 N.02 Who Cures The Ailments ..................................................................46 N.03. How Can Ganoderma Cure So Many Diseases ?...................................46 O. BASIC THEOROMS OF GANOTHERAPY..........................................47 P. SALIENT FEATURES OF GANOTHERAPY.........................................48 Q. LIMITATIONS OF GANOTHERAPY......................................................50 ANNEXURE A CELLULAR ORGANISATION A.01 A.02 A.03 A.04 A.05 A.06 Cell – The Basic Unit Of Life.....................................................................53 Cell Theory.................................................................................................53 The Cell Membrane Or Plasma Membrane............................................53 The Cytoplasm............................................................................................54 Cell Inclusions Cytoplasmic Inclusions And Their Functions....................54 The Nucleus.................................................................................................55

ANNEXURE B ORGAN SYSTEMS IN HUMAN BODY B.01 B.02 B.03 B.04 B.05 B.06 B.07 B.08 B.09 B.10 The Skeletal System....................................................................................56 The Muscular System...................................................................................57 The Digestive System...................................................................................57 The Respiratory System...............................................................................57 The Circulatory System................................................................................58 The Excretory System..................................................................................58 The Nervous System....................................................................................58 The Endocrine System.................................................................................59 The Reproductive System............................................................................60 The Integumentary System..........................................................................60 ANNEXURE C ABOUT OUR IMMUNE SYSTEM C.10 C.20 C.30 C.40 C.41 C.42 C.43 C.44 C.45 C.46 C.47 C.48 C.49 C.50 Introduction to How Our Immune System Works......................................62 Seeing our Immune System..........................................................................62 Basics of the Immune System......................................................................63 Components of the Immune System............................................................65 Brain.............................................................................................................66 Thymus.........................................................................................................66 Spleen...........................................................................................................66 Lymph system .............................................................................................67 Bone marrow................................................................................................67 White blood cells..........................................................................................68 Leukocytes...................................................................................................68 Antibodies ...................................................................................................71 Complement system....................................................................................72 How antibiotics work.................................................................................73

ANNEXURE D SIGNS OF AILMENTS REFLECTION DA.10 EXTERNAL SIGNS................................................................................75 DA.11 DA.12 DA.13 DA.14 DA.15 DA.16 DA.17 DA.18 Face – Eyes ..............................................................................................75 Face – Nose...............................................................................................75 Face – Throat.............................................................................................76 Face – Lips................................................................................................77 Face – Mouth & Tongue ..........................................................................77 Face – Ear .................................................................................................78 Skin...........................................................................................................78 Joints, Hands & Feet.................................................................................79

DB.10 INTERNAL SIGNS................................................................................80 DB.11 Head...........................................................................................................80 DB.12 Mouth / Throat...........................................................................................80 DB.13 Urination....................................................................................................81 DB.14 Stool...........................................................................................................81 DB.15. Body Reaction ........................................................................................82 DB.16 Emotional Reaction ................................................................................82 ANNEXURE E GANOTHERAPY IN BRIEF E.1 E.2 E.3 E.4 E.5 E.6 E.7 About the Products......................................................................................84 DXN Ganoderma Production Process Technical Background...................85 Contents of RG & GL.................................................................................87 Function of RG...........................................................................................88 Function of GL............................................................................................90 Effects of RG..............................................................................................91 Effects of GL...............................................................................................92

TO MAKE SICK PEOPLE HEALTHY

TO MAKE HEALTHY PEOPLE WEALTHY

HEALTH WITHOUT WEALTH IS ILLUSION WEALTH WITHOUT HEALTH IS DISAPPOINTMENT LET US GET HEALTH, WEALTH, HAPPINESS, FREEDOM & SECURITY WITH DXN

A.01 COMPANY PROFILE :

A reputed Malaysian Multinational company (MNC) by name “DXN Marketing Sdn. Bhd” has opened its 9th international branch in India on 10.04.2000 to market its health care products in the form of capsules, beverages and cosmetics. The products are made from a special variety of mushroom called Ganoderma Lucidum containing more than 200 micro nutrients, which are very much essential for the well being of our internal organs in the body. DXN was started on 11th December 1993 by Doctor Lim Siow Jin (Founder and CEO) in Alor Setar, Malaysia. He is an engineering graduate from IIT, Kharagpur India. He did extensive research in Ganoderma and human health at Malaysia as well as abroad for more than 10 years and invented the miraculous King of Herb called the “GANODERMA LUCIDUM ”. He was conferred Ph.D (Doctorate) in 1997 in Holistic Medicine by the Indian Board of Alternative Medicines. Recently on 7.9.2002 he was awarded three prestigious awards in India namely Doctorate of Science, by Indian Board of Alternative Medicines, Millennium Award, by International Association of Educators for world peace and Albert Schweitzer Award, by Positive Life Foundation, India. Also he has been awarded Darjah Seri Melaka by His Excellency the Governor of Malacca, Malaysia on 12th October 2002. DXN has bagged several awards in the international scenario namely, ISO 9002, ISO 14001 (Singapore), GMP Award (Malaysia), TGA approval (Australia) and recently FDA (USA) approval also which explains the credentials of the company as well as it’s products. As on today more than 25 countries are using the DXN products which includes, America, Australia, Canada, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Philippines, Brunei, Indonesia, India, Moritious, Germany, Sri Lanka, England, Nepal, Switzerland, Howai, South Africa, Cyprus, Bangladesh, China, Lavos, Thailand, Singapore, Dubai, etc. Now there are more than 1,000 authorized DXN Stockists all over India.

A.02 DXN’s OBJECTIVES :

DXN Company has twin objectives. First to make sick people healthy and the Second to make healthy people wealthy. People all over the world are suffering from very many ailments and suffer a lot. Further, like adding fuel to fire, most of them suffer financially also due to poverty or insufficient income. DXN has successfully provided Health, Wealth and Happiness to its members all over world with its quality products which are very much essential to human race and not a comfort or luxury products. DXN managed to progress very fast by virtue of one dragon, one market, one mind concept. One Dragon means, the entire process from cultivation upto marketing is solely handled by the company. One Market means the distributors will enjoy world wide bonus with single membership card. One mind means the company is concentrating on how to achieve the global vision and hope that all the distributors will grasp this great opportunity and single mindedly concentrate on doing the DXN business.

MAN HAS ACHEIVED SO MANY THINGS DURING THE PAST 100 YEARS BEYOND IMAGINATION AND OUR ANCESTORS COULD NOT BELEIVE THEM IF THEY ARE STILL AILVE !!! TODAY, WITH SO MANY SCIENTIFIC ADVANCEMENTS, DO WE ENJOY BETTER HEALTH AND HAPPINESS THAN WHAT OUR ANCESTORS HAD ?

WE HAVE LOST OUR HAPPINESS MAINLY DUE TO 1. LOSS OF HEALTH 2. INADEQUATE INCOME / WEALTH 3. STRAINED RELATIONS IN THE SOCIETY HOW TO GET BACK OUR HAPPINESS ?

B.01 WHAT IS HAPPINESS : -

To be Happy always is the nature of human beings. Of all the innumerable creations of God, man is the only creation with unique qualities like Creativity, Logical thinking, Sense of humor, etc., We are born to live in this world of wonders, happily and not to loose our happiness under any circumstances, at any cost. Always man attempts to find out new methods and things to amplify his happiness by inventing something or other. But in spite of the best efforts to maximize his happiness we find majority of us are all unhappy due to very many reasons. Though we can attribute many reasons for that, there seems to be three broad categories through which we loose our happiness namely (1). LOSS OF HEALTH, (2). INADEQUATE INCOME / WEALTH, AND (3). STRAINED RELATIONS IN THE SOCIETY

B.02 WHY WE LOOSE OUR HEALTH

Health is man’s most precious possession. Whether poor or rich, men or women, young or old everybody wants health, be active, agile and energetic always, as long as possible like a cine star or an athelet. Unfortunately most of us have very little knowledge about health and the ways and means of attaining it. We pay attention to our health only when we become sick. Almost all of us suffer from one ailment or other and treatments under different types of medications yield only temporary relief and there seems to be no permanent solution at all. Further we have no inclination to take preventive measures to maintain and uphold our health due to very many reasons. In this busy world, where people are chasing the time, complete health has become a dream for many of us. But still we can get health, if we decide to get it with a determined mind. Where there is a will there is a way.
B.03 WHY INADEQUATE INCOME / WEALTH AFFECTS OUR HAPPINESS

With ever growing population even basic amenities and needs are becoming costlier day by day and governments all over the world find it difficult to cope up with the situation at a reasonable cost. Money has become very important for our existence and one cannot just ignore it’s significance today. Many families are struggling a lot to meet their basic monthly expenditure out of their earnings and at least two persons must earn in a family to have a comfortable living. Employment is also very competitive and we see unemployment all everywhere. People finds it very tough to meet the education expenses, medical expenses etc which could be planned or controlled. Collective efforts alone will pay dividends in the years to come and many advanced countries like USA have already taken

steps to provide ample opportunities to all the people through innovative marketing techniques. One should work hard to increase his income and face the challenge boldly or else be contented with what he gets and reduce his needs to the bearest minimum possible. Anyhow one can still get out of inadequate financial resources and regain his happiness. After all happiness is very well within our mind and not elsewhere. A poor person with contented mind is a rich person and a rich person without contentment is still a poor person.
B.04 WHY WE LOOSE HAPPINESS DUE TO STRAINED RELATIONS

It is most unfortunate to see that love and concern towards fellow human beings are becoming rare and rare all over the world. The basic reason is that Individuals must have a right mental attitude and broad outlook. Unless individual development is promoted by governments, families cannot get happiness. Once the families are happy the society and in turn the whole country and world will ecbecome happy. It may sound ridiculous or impossible but the fact remains. We all must develop the tendency to get adjusted with each other and have the tendency to sacrifice for our fellow men. All religions all over the world preach only LOVE and other good qualities. There is nothing to loose if one has the open mind to shed down his ego and be prepared for sacrifice. So we can always achieve happiness by renewing our strained relations with a positive mind.

SHALL WE SEE A SHORT STORY BEFORE LOOKING INTO WHAT IS HEALTH ?

A SHORT STORY The Pandit and the Boat Man
Once upon a time there lived a great and learned Pandit ( Scholar ). He was a master of so many arts and sciences that even the King was respecting him so much. He had toiled a lot for years together to achieve such honour. He always feel proud of his achievements. One day the panidit wanted to go to the neighbouring city which was on the other side of the river. He engaged a boat man to cross the river. There was no one in the boat other than the Pandit and the boat man. To pass the time during traveling Pandit was talking to the boat man. The Pandit asked “ Do you know Vedas ”. The poor boat man replied “ “ No Sir. I don’t ” . The Pandit. was surprised to hear that and said “What you don’t know Vedas ! What a pity ! You have wasted 25 % of your life !” He further asked him “ Do you know Bhagavat Geetha and Puranas ” Again the poor man said the same answer . Now the Pandit said “ Oh God ! You have wasted 50 % of your precious life ” . Finally he asked the boat man “ Do you have any idea about Ramayana or Mahabharatha atleast ? ” Irritated by the satire and pride of the learned Pandit the boat man said “ No Sir. I am not an educated person like you as I hail from a poor family. But I know what I have to do in order to earn a decent income for my livelyhood in a honest way ” The Pandit was now lamenting that “ I really feel sorry for you. What is the use of living without education. Education is the real eye for human beings. Without that we will be like a blind man. You have wasted 75 % of life !! ” Now comes the climax. Suddenly there was flood in the river. Now it is the turn of the boat man. He asked the learned Pandit “ By the by, Sir, do you know swimming ? ” But the Pandit noded his head with panic and said “ Sorry I don’t know swimming ”. Now the boat man said “ You have wasted 100 % of your life Sir ” and without wasting even a second he jumped into the river and escaped from the flood. But the poor Pandit, lost his life as he didn’t know swimming.

What is the Moral we should learn ?
Like the Pandit many of us today have achieved new and great heights in life but we seldom realise the imporatnce of health which is as important as swimming. We work hard day and night to become Doctors, Engineers, Auditors, Lawyers, successful businessman etc, paying very little attention to our health. This human body is the most wonderful creation of God among all other living and non-living things. We have not realised the value of our body. A healthy mind needs a healthy body. Can anyone sell his eyes to buy a world famous Portrait? But many of us do. It is ridiculous to achieve impossible things in life, ignoring our health. What is earthly use if the operation is success but the patient died ? So let us learn and pay some attention to our HEALTH from today !!!

( Man’s most precious possession )

Physical
Dimension

Mental
Dimension

Social
Dimension

1. Good Complexion 2. A clear skin 3. Bright Eyes 4. Lustrous hair 5. Correct weight 6. Good appetite 7. Sound Sleep

1. Free from mental Conflicts 2. Well adjusted 3. Neither underestimates nor over-estimates own abilities 4. Knows clearly needs, problems and goals 5. Good self control

1. Self Esteem 2. Recognition 3. Respect 4. Fame 5. Friendship 6. Wealth and Comforts

8. Regular Bowel movement 9. Regular Urination 10. Smooth, easy co-ordinated body movements

C.01 : IMPORTANCE OF HEALTH

“ Health is Wealth ” is an old saying. This saying indicates the importance of health. Health is the key factor to Education, Success, good citizenship and Happy Life. Without good health an individual cannot perform efficiently. A healthy individual is like a pillar of a society. The health of an individual and society are interlinked. A healthy individual by keeping himself free from diseases helps in stopping the spread of disease in one’s own community and neighbourhood or society as a whole. Health is man’s most precious possession. It influences all his activities and shapes his destiny. It is the solid foundation on which man’s happiness rests. Health is a fundamental human right and is an integral part of development. Health is world wide social goal. Health is often taken for granted and not fully appreciated untill it is lost . The widely accepted definition of health is that given by World Health Organization ( WHO 1948 ) which is as follows :“ Health is a stage of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely an absence of disease or infirmity ” The important determinants of health are Heredity, Environment, Life style, Socio-economic condition, health and family welfare services and other factors. Health is multi dimensional. The three specific dimensions are physical, mental and social
C.02 : PHYSICAL DIMENSION

The state of physical health implies the notion of “ perfect functioning ” of the body. The signs of physical health in an individual are “ a good complexion, a clear skin, Bright Eyes, Lustrous hair with a body well clothed with firm flesh, not too fat, a good appetite, sound Sleep, regular activity of bowels and bladder and smooth, easy co-ordinated bodily movements

C.03 : MENTAL DIMENSION

Mental health is not mere absence of mental illness. A mentally healthy person has the following characteristics namely :1. 2. 3. 4. 5. He is free from internal conflicts He is well adjusted. He is able to get along well with others. He neither under-estimates nor over-estimates his own abilities. He knows himself; his needs, problems and goals. He has good self control

One of the keys to good mental health is a positive mental health or positive mental attitude ( PMA )
C.04 : SOCIAL DIMENSION

Social well being implies harmony and integration within the individual, between each individual and other members of the society and between individuals and the world in which they live. Each individual aspires for self esteem, self recognition, fame, respect, rewards etc from the society and when one desire or goal is achieved he will perceive the other and work hard to attain it. Every one wants to enjoy all comforts like car, cell phone, freedom of travel, physical / financial freedom and security as well. But, man being a social animal, he will get a complete and comprehensive happiness and well being only when all his family members, neighbours, people at large are also equally better placed like him. That is the reason why many people go abroad ( developed countries like USA, Australia etc ) and settle there itself.

C.05 : HEALTHY LIFE

Life is for living. Nothing is more precious than health. Preservation of health is the prime duty. In order to acquire health we must adhere to the principles of healthy living. Through health education, hygiene, ethics, drug abuse individuals can be made to realize the importance of health and to develop the habits for the attainment of healthy life. In order to achieve the healthy living one must pay attention to the under mentioned facts:1. 2. 3. 4. Balanced diet, proper food, proper manner, correct quantity, timely in take, etc Proper exercises Proper rest and sleep Personal hygiene

5. Balanced mind ( Positive mental attitude ) 6. Clean environment ( in and out of the place where we reside )
C.06 : FOOD – WHAT TO EAT, WHEN TO EAT, HOW TO EAT ?

Balanced diet consists of all the required nutrients in the proper proportion on a day to day basis. Best food for human beings is available from the nature itself like fruits, raw vegetables etc. Due to heat cooked food contains very less nutrients as the nutrients are lost during cooking. Fried and spicy food items are not at all good for our health as there are meagre nutritive value only in them. We should grind the food in the mouth, mix it with saliva and only then swallow. Many of us just swallow the food in a hurry. The digestion of carbohydrates starts in the mouth, the digestion of proteins starts in the stomach and that of fat begins at duodenum ( the begining portion of the small intestine ). When we eat oily food items like poori, pappad, chips, bajji, bonda, mixer, pakkoda etc the carbohydrates and proteins in them are covered by oil coating and they are not digested at the mouth, instead the small intestine is given the additional work load to digest all at one place. Hence to the extend possible it is better to take natural food for healthy living. In foreign countries a health care movement called “ Close the Kitchen ” is gaining mass appreciation now-a-days. Food has to be taken in time because our body works on chronological manner. The last meal of the day should be taken before 7 p.m. in the evening. But we see many people take food even at late hours in the night. Our body is a wonderful machine which deserves ISO certification. We must take food on time to help our system work well. Further we must know under what circumstances we should not eat food. When we have no appetite, when we are worried, when we feel like sleeping ( drowsy ) when we have to work more, when we are angry, when we are sick, we should never take food. Also we should not eat food just to satisfy others or just not to waste the food or just for taste or just for time passing etc

C.07 : EXCERCISE

Proper exercise for the body is very much essential for our well being. Muscles are said to be the second heart of the human body. When we do exercise the blood circulation is activated and all parts of the body get oxygen and nutrients on time resulting in better health. Added to this our heart get some relaxation and it’s health and live span increases. Many of us take one or other lame excuse to do exercise. Where there is a will there is a way. Let us spare some time and do

washing of cloths, sweeping the floor, gardening, etc. Wherever possible we should walk and avoid using two or four wheelers.
C.08 : REST AND SLEEP

Rest and sleep are very important for our health. The body requires rest at frequent intervals so as get ready for the next day’s activities. Most adult people seem to need 7 to 9 hours of sleep a night. You know how much sleep you need in an average night to feel your best. The amount of sleep you need decreases with age. A newborn baby might sleep 20 hours a day. By age four, the average is 12 hours a day. By age 10, the average falls to 10 hours a day. Senior citizens can often get by with six or seven hours a day. One way to understand why we sleep is to look at what happens when we don't get enough:

As you know if you have ever pulled an all-nighter, missing one night of sleep is not fatal. A person will generally be irritable during the next day and will either slow down (become tired easily) or will be totally wired because of adrenalin. If a person misses two nights of sleep, it gets worse. Concentration is difficult, and attention span falls by the wayside. Mistakes increase. After three days, a person will start to hallucinate and clear thinking is impossible. With continued wakefulness a person can lose grasp of reality. Rats forced to stay awake continuously will eventually die, proving that sleep is essential. A person who gets just a few hours of sleep per night can experience many of the same problems over time. Two other things are known to happen during sleep. Growth hormone in children is secreted during sleep, and chemicals important to the immune system are secreted during sleep. You can become more prone to disease if you don't get enough sleep, and a child's growth can be stunted by sleep deprivation. But the question remains -- why do we need to sleep? No one really knows. There are all kinds of theories, including these Sleep gives the body a chance to repair muscles and other tissues, replace aging or dead cells, etc. Sleep gives the brain a chance to organize and archive memories. Dreams are thought by some to be part of this process. Sleep lowers our energy consumption, so we need three meals a day rather than four or five. Since we can't do anything in the dark anyway, we might as well "turn off" and save the energy.

• •

• • • •

Sleep may be a way of recharging the brain, using adenosine as a signal that the brain needs to rest: "Since adenosine secretion reflects brain cell activity, rising concentrations of this chemical may be how the organ gauges that it has been burning up its energy reserves and needs to shut down for a while." Adenosine levels in the brain rise during wakefulness and decline during sleep. What we all know is that, with a good night's sleep, everything looks and feels better in the morning. Both the brain and the body are refreshed and ready for a new day

Tips to Improve Your Sleep
• • • •

Exercise regularly. Exercise helps tire and relax your body. Don't consume caffeine after 4:00 p.m. or so. Avoid other stimulants like cigarettes as well. Avoid alcohol before bedtime. Alcohol disrupts the brain's normal patterns during sleep. Try to stay in a pattern with a regular bedtime and wakeup time, even on weekends
C.09 : PERSONAL HYGIENE

Right from childhood one should cultivate clean habits for a healthy living. Personal hygiene is yet another key factor for maintaining good health. Following are some of the important tips to have better personal hygiene :1. Cutting the unwanted hair and nails at regular intervals. 2. Using only washed cloths everyday 3. Washing the hands before every meal 4. Brushing the teeth both morning and night at bed time 5. Avoiding food at unhygienic places 6. Using kerchief while sneezing or coughing 7. Avoid public toilets as far as possible 8. Drinking pure water wherever possible 9. Avoiding unwanted habits like smoking, drinking etc

C.10 : BALANCED MIND ( POSITIVE MENTAL ATTITUDE )

A healthy body needs a health mind and vise-versa. But mind is dominating the body at all times. One should know how to bring the mind under his control. Man has animal behavior to some extent which cannot be ignored. Mass prayers, cultural activities, education are all focused towards directing man in the right path as a good human being. So we all must be in the midst of good company so that we get constant motivation from them to keep track in the right path. In our house our father, mother, brothers, sisters, friends and all others in the society influence us to a very great extent in improving our mental health. Further we all must develop the tendency of Positive Mental Attitude or PMA to get better health. All the time we cannot expect things to happen in the way we like it to be. All the people may not behave in the way we like them to be. We may fail miserably on several occasions in our life. At times we may encounter with some untoward or unexpected calamities in our life. But one should develop a positive mental attitude to face the challenges in life with courage and sportive spirit. Many people become very weak mentally due to failures or disappointments in life and consequently their physical health is also affected to a very great extent. Today we have lot of ways and means to keep the mind in a balanced way. Meditation, group prayers, participating in self development programs etc are some of them.

C.11 : CLEAN ENVIRONMENT :-

Our health depends very much on the environment we live in. At home we need cleanliness to the maximum. Major cause of several disease is the untidy atmosphere in the home where we spend most of our time. Dirt must be removed from all places in the house on a daily basis. Toilets must be kept clean at all times. The bed where we sleep for more than 6 hours a day, is a potential source for allergies like asthma etc,. The book shelves, show cases, furniture and all the things that we use everyday must be kept clean. We should avoid dumping waste in front of the house and in public places. When the individuals houses and the area surrounding the houses are kept clean, the street, the city, the State and the Country will automatically become clean and hygienic. Let us all try make our city and country clean and neat.
HAVING DISCUSSED ALL ABOUT HEALTH SHALL WE SEE WHAT FOOD IS AND ALSO IT’S ROLE TO BUILD OUR HEALTH ?

1. TO PROVIDE ENERGY FOR OUR ACTIVITIES

-

Carbohydrates, fats, Proteins

2. TO REPAIR OR REPLACE THE OLD CELLS AND TISSUES 3. TO GET THE RAW MATERIALS FOR BODY’S GROWTH 4. TO PROVIDE PROTECTION AGAINST DISEASES

-

Proteins, Vitamins, Minerals

- Proteins, Vitamins, Minerals

- Proteins, Vitamins, Minerals and water.

D.01 WHY WE NEED FOOD ?

All machines need fuel to drive. For example a car runs on petrol. The petrol is burnt to provide energy to make the car run. Similarly human body also needs energy. Food provides energy to carry out the activities of life such as movement, respiration, reproduction etc. The energy is obtained by the oxidation of food substances.

D.02

RENEWING OLD CELLS OR TISSUES :

Food is required to provide materials necessary to repair or replace the protoplasm in worn out cells and tissues.

D.03 FOR THE GROWTH OF THE BODY :

All living cells are made up of protoplasm. Food is required as it has all the raw materials from which new compounds can be built up to form new protoplasm.

D.04 TO PROVIDE PROTECTION AGAINST DISEASES :

For maintaining the health of the body and for protecting it against various diseases, substances like vitamins and mineral salts are needed. These are obtained through food only.

ENERGY BUILDERS

BODY BUILDERS

REGULATORS

1. CARBOHYDRATES 2. FATS

1. PROTEINS 2. MINERAL SALTS 3. WATER

1. MINERAL SALTS 2. VITAMINS

E.01

ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS :

Our food should contain substances which are essential for our body. These are called nutrients. The main nutrients in food are classified into carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, vitamins and water.

E.02

CARBOHYDRATES :

Carbohydrates are the chief energy producers to the body. They are oxidised into glucose and absorbed by the body. The excess glucose is stored in the liver and skeletal muscles in the form of glycogen. Carbohydrates play a vital role in the metabolism of amino acids and fatty acids. In India the staple food is either rice or wheat. Potatoes, milk fruits etc are also eaten. All these items contain carbohydrates. The three main types of carbohydrates are 1. Monosaccharides ( Glucose ) 2. Disaccharides and ( Sucrose ) 3. Polysaccharides ( Starch )

E.03

LIPIDS ( FATS ) :

Fats and their derivates are collectively known as lipids. Fat contains twice as much energy as carbohydrates and forms the chief source of energy. They are said to be the high energy compounds. Vegetable oils, butter, meat etc are natural sources of fat. At the end of digestion fats are converted into fatty acids and glycerol. Excess of fat will be stored as adipose tissue for later use. they are used as shock absorbers and insulators of our body. The three main types of lipids are 1. Simple Lipids ( Wax ) 2. Compound Lipids ( Phospholipids ) and 3. Derived Lipids ( Cholesterol )
E.04 PROTEINS :

Proteins are the most important major organic constituents of protoplasm. They are complex substances and are formed from simpler units aclled amino acids. Among food constituents meat, cheese, egg milk, beans, peas are the richest source of proteins. Proteins occupy a key position in general body growth. Some proteins serve as structural components of cells. They provide ability to function

within living cells as reaction – catalyzing enzymes. Proteins have been classified into three main types namely 1. Simple proteins ( Albumins and globulins ) 2. Conjugated proteins ( Glycoproteins and Haemoglobin ) 3. Derived Proteins ( Peptones and Peptides )

E.05

MINERAL SALTS :

Mineral salts by their presence in small quantities serve to regulate the different metabolic activities. For the normal functioning of the body the following mineral salts are important ELEMENTS Calcium IMPORTANCE COMMON SOURCE

For bone and tooth structure, Milk, cheese, green leafy Clotting of blood, growth, vegetables, butter, contraction of muscles and orange and eggs. excitability of nerves

Calcium deficiency results in weak bones, dental disorder, stunted growth and rickets in children Phosphorous For formation of bones, teeth, Milk, egg yolk, meat fish muscles, blood and for and vegetables. activation of enzymes Its deficiency leads to poor development of skeleton and retardation of growth. For conduction of nerve Various nuts, soyabeans, impulses, maintenance of ionic and some sea foods. . balance. Magnesium deficiency results in nervousness, retarded growth and irregular heart beat.

Magnesium

Potassium

For maintaining the acid-base Bananas, balance in the cells. It is chicken essential for synthesis of glycogen. Its deficiency leads to poor muscular control, nervous disorders.

potatoes,

Sodium

For tissue fluids, kidney Common salt, carrot, functioning, transmission of cauliflower, eggs, nerve impulses legumes, and radish Its deficiency leads to nervous disorders.

Iron

For the formation of green vegetables, liver, haemoglobins & chromatins. fish and meat Deficiency of iron leads to anaemia. For thyroxine hormone of the Drinking water, thyroid gland. foods, iodized salts Iodine deficiency causes simple goitre For formation of body proteins lean meat and fish Especially for hair, nails, horny layers of skin Essential water balance. It is Common salt highly concentrated in the cerebro-spinal fluid.

Iodine

sea

Sulphur

Chlorine

E.06

VITAMINS :

These are substances which are present in very small quantities in food and are essential for growth and for the regulation of the body matabolism and for the prevention of certain diseases like deficiency diseases. Dr.Funk ( 1912 ) called them vitamins. Vitamins are organic substances whose presence is indispensable for life, but not required as a source of energy. They act as catalysts similar to digestive enzymes. Vitamins can be divided into two groups based on their solubility in water and oils.

1. Fat soluble vitamins 2. Water soluble vitamins

- Vitamins A, D, E, and K - Vitamins B complex group and C

ELEMENTS Vitamin A (Retinol, or Antixeropthalamic vitamin)

IMPORTANCE

COMMON SOURCE

It influences growth of the Liver oil, butter and body, essential for epithelial cream, carrot, yellow tissues of the organs including maize and spinach. cornea and conjuctiva.

Vitamin A deficiency results in dryness of cornea and defective Vision called night blindness. Vitamin D For healthy bones and teeth Milk, fish liver oil, (Calciferol development. especially those of cod or and in the yolk of eggs. antirachitic Its deficiency results in rickets Also manufactured by vitamin) and dental decay and in the body by the action of children knock knees, ultra violet rays of bowlegs, pigeon-chest & sunlight on a substance distorted joints. For adults it in skin called ergosterol. results in Osteomalacia, characterized by softening of the bones. Vitamin E Essential for normal fertility. Wheat germ of oil, milk, (Tocopherol/ butter, leafy vegetable Antisterility and lettuce. vitamin) Vitamin K (Antihaemorrhagic vitamin) For production of prothrombin Liver, green vegetables the precursor of thrombin like spinach, caulifolwer which is involved in clotting and cabbage of blood. Its deficiency causes haemorrhages especially in new born babies.

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)

For normal growth, appetite, Whole grains, husk of proper functioning of nervous whole grains, egg yolk system. dry yeast and milk. Its deficiency ( due to polishing of rice ) causes a disease called Beriberi.

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

For cellular respiration. Deficiency of Vitamin B2 results in reddening of eyes, roughness of cornea, soreness of the tongue, soreness of the corners of the lips.

Milk, liver and yeast

Nicotinic Acid (Niacin)

Essential for oxidation Yeast, meat metabolism of the cells. soyabeans. It’s deficiency causes soreness and inflammation of the tongue and mouth, pigmentation and thickening of the skin followed by degeneration of nervous system.

and

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)

Plays an active role in the Egg yolk, liver, meat, metabolism of proteins, fats fish and leguminous and carbohydrates. plants. It’s deficiency causes dermatitis, anemia & extreme nervousness

Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamine)

Essential for formation of red Found plenty in animal blood corposcles. product s like liver, kidney and eggs. It’s deficiency causes pernicious anaemia in man.

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid )

Essential for intracellular metabolism and maintains the collidal state of intracellular substances. Its deficiency causes bleeding gums, loosening and falling out of teeth and intramuscular haemorrhages

Citrus fruits, lemons, oranges, tomatoes. (This vitamin is destroyed by cooking )

E.07

WATER : -

Water forms an essential constituent of protoplasm. It acts as a medium of transport of food materials. It regulates the body temperature. It is a lubricating as well as cooling agent. It carries hormones and other secretary materials from the place of formation to the place where it is required. It carries excretory materials to the excretory organs. It takes part in the formation of urine and faeces ( motion or stools ). Two thirds of our body weight consists of water only. Hence no cell can function without water.

Having seen What Food is Shall we see what Nutrion is ?

INGESTION DIGESTION ABSORPTION ASSIMILATION EGESTION
The process of nutrition begins with taking in of food or ingestion. Then food is broken down into simple soluble and absorbable substances. The process is known as digestion. Digestion is followed by absorption. The absorbed food is made a part of the different cells and tissues and this process is assimilation. Egestion is the process by which undigested food material is expelled. Except assimilation all other processes occur within a special tube like structure known as the alimentary canal.

NOW WE SHALL SEE WHY WE LOOSE OUR HEALTH AND SUFFER A LOT

ILL HEALTH
DISEASE DISORDER

TOXINS
1. FOOD ADULTERATION 2. WATER
CONTAMINATION

IMBALANCE
1. ORGAN DEGRADATION DUE TO DIFICIENCY

.......................IN FOOD
2. MENTAL TENSION &
PHYSICAL TENSION

3. AIR - POLLUTION 4. SOUND POLLUTION 5. LIGHT POLLUTION 6. BAD / WRONG HABITS 7. ACCUMULATION OF EXCESSIVE ITEMS

3. GENETIC REASONS 4. ACCIDENT

G.01 WHY OUR HEALTH GETS AFFECTED ?

Ill health can be classified under two broad categories. First Disease and second Disorder. Diseases / Disorders occur mainly due to alteration in the pattern of our body cells. Diseases may be due to infection / invasion by bacteria, virus, microbes, toxins, parasites etc. Now-a-days our body is full of toxins due to factors beyond our control. Toxin means poisonous substances, which our body doesn't require at all. The food we take, the water we drink, the air we inhale are all very much adulterated, contaminated or polluted. Added to this some of us have bad habits like smoking, drinking alcohol, pan parag (Gutka) / tobacco chewing, or drug addiction (brown sugar, ganja, abin, pethadin injection etc). Always we accumulate toxins in our body whether knowingly or unknowingly. These toxins are mainly responsible for our diseases. Further we accumulate many substances in excess of our body's normal requirements. For example most of us take more quantity of carbohydrates and fats resulting in cholesterol formation leading to heart attacks. Though carbohydrates and fat are required for our body they should not be more than what is required. Similarly when sugar, which is very much needed for producing energy, exceeds the limit it becomes a toxin and we get affected by diabetics. Added to these, our organs are not functioning in a balanced way. There is always imbalance in our body function and we loose our health due to toxins and imbalance in body function.

G.02 TOXINS THROUGH FOOD – ADULTERATION :

The mixing of undesirable substances in food is called food adulteration. This is a serious health hazard because many of the adulterations have harmful effects on the body and brain. Food is adulterated due to the a. the rising costs of living tempts the trader to make quick money b. declining moral values c. decrease in the production of food when compared to the growth of population Various food items and their adulterants : Various types of adulterants are mixed in food regardless of its harmful and dangerous consequences. Some them are given in the table given below :

Food Item / beverages Edible Oils

Adulterant

Side effects

Mineral oils, argemone, wild poppy, prickly poppy oil Sweets, puddings non-edible dyes, like coal etc tar dyes, colouring materials Turmeric powder

Swelling of limbs, rash all over the body and gastrointestinal disorders cause cancer

Liquor

starch powder coloured with damages the nervous lead chromate or metanil system, causes anemia, stiff yellow limbs, paralysis, permanent damage to the brain. methyl alcohol, tincture, loss of eyesight, hearing, varnish to give extra speech and vitality and even colouration and make it killed many people more potent

In cereals stones, sand, straw, husk or insect infested grains are added as adulterants. In black pepper dried oil seeds of papaya and in chilli powder saw dust, brick dust and in edible oil foreign cum starch are added as adulterant. It is unfortunate to see that we are eating highly poisonous food only and even if we are prepared to pay three times the present price we cannot get pure or organically cultivated food hereafter.
G.03 TOXINS THROUGH WATER – CONTAMINATION :

A number of factories let their effluent wastages mix directly into the rivers and when people drink the water the are affected by very many ailments. The rivers having been spoiled by very many industries in the nearby cities are a perennial source for diseases as the drinking water from them have become very much contaminated with poisonous substances. People are fond of drinking cool drinks which contain residues of pesticides and powerful acids. These soft drinks melt the bones and pass them through urine. If a teeth, the most strong bone in our body, is put in a cool drink within few hours the teeth will be melted in the cool drink. After a meal if we take a cool drink it will spoil the food that we ate and the very purpose of eating will be defeated. If we splash a cool drink into our toilet the strains will be removed thoroughly and it will look very neat. Apart from these soft drinks many of us are very fond of hot drinks. We never bother to know the fact that they damage our liver which is very important and vital organ in our

body. Liver is the largest gland in our body. It is a marvelous chemical factory and plays a very important role in the immune system.

G.04 TOXINS THROUGH AIR – POLLUTION :

The smoke coming our of exhaust pipe of a vehicle consists of sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and other harmful gases or substances which may even cause cancer ( these toxins are called carcinogens ). Smoke from factory chimneys also pollutes the atmosphere. Some factories let our harmful chemicals into lakes and rivers or into the sea. These chemicals are harmful to water plants, fish and other animals that live in water and to those who drink this water. Nicotin coming out of the Cigarette smoke from those who smoke affects the people who are inhale them. Whether we smoke or not the smoke enters our body and takes away the vitamin C in our body. Vitamin C is very important for oxygen absorption capacity of the blood. Even passive smokers are seen suffering from lung cancer now-a-days. Pollutants coming out of cement factories, paper mills, textile mills and other engineering and chemical industries affect the health of the people to a very large extent beyond human comprehension.

G.05 SOUND POLLUTION

In Modern medicine research is being conducted, during the past 100 years, with the help of sophisticated equipments to analyse the effects of sound on human beings. The incident happened in Vienna. An engineer by name Professor Caw Warrant had a different and new experience. Whenever he went to his classroom, he lost his mental piece and became mentally upset and felt body tiredness. He couldn’t do his normal activities. He then started analysing the reasons for this. One day when was leaning on the wall, he felt the effects of some subtle sound waves on his body. The air-conditioning machine in the adjacent room was working at 7 Heartz frequency. He found that, that was the reason for his disturbed mind. He resigned his job and started doing research on sound waves. He invented an Infrasonic Machine to find out the ill effects of sound waves which cannot be heard by human beings. On hearing the sound waves produced by the infrasonic machine, animals died miserably. Like lightning which chars the human body, these sound waves affected the birds and animals and finally they died. Normally we cannot hear sound waves below 20 heartz ( infrasonic ) and above 20,000 heartz ( ultrasonic ) frequency. But they are very powerful. Using these sound waves scientists achieved a lot of things. Right from breaking the kidney stone upto treating a number of diseases using sound waves has become the order of the day. During second world war, a machine producing high frequency sound waves was invented to make the activities of the enemies ineffective. The famous

American space research institute NASA has found out that sound waves are capable penetrating and making holes in anything. NASA scientists have found out that by sending a powerful sound wave measuring 210 decibels, we can put holes in a concrete building. The experiment done by a scientist in California created an amazing and astonishing result. He created a sound wave measuring 5 crores vibrations per second. Immediately the cotton bags kept there started burning. The heat in the dresses of the scientists who assembled there went up very high that there was a fear that they may burn due to excessive heat. Our ancestors are well aware of the minute technological aspects of science of sound. Linga Purana ( Hindu Myth ) says that there is only ordinary benefit or effect for the chanting of manthras at the house; there is one lakh times benefit or effect for chanting manthras at the river beds; there is one crore times benefits for chanting manthras at holy places, ocean beds, mountain peaks, etc. Scientists have found out that the sound waves travel at a speed of 1,088 feet per second in air and at 5,000 feet per second in water. This confirms that our ancestors have realised this technical aspect of sound long ago.
G.06 LIGHT POLLUTION :

Above the earth’s surface upto 15 Km region there is pure air. Above 15 Km but below 30 Km from earth’s surface is an ‘ ozone ’ layer. Ozone layer is very important to protect us from the harmful effects of UV rays that emanate from the sun radiation as it filters the UV rays. The sunlight contains Ultraviolet rays which are harmful to our skin by killing the skin cells. When cells in the skin called melanocytes are damaged by ultraviolet radiation in sunlight. They change in a characteristic way into a cancerous form of cell. The visible cancer that appears as a tumor on the skin is called melanoma. Today we are loosing the protection from ozone layer because there are a number of holes created in the ozone layer due to the emission of a poisonous gas called chloro Fluoro Carbon released by air-conditioners fitted in houses, cars, factories, offices and other places as well as from refrigerators and cooling or chilling plants. Further the light emitted by vehicles in the night, the powerful lamps in the houses, public places, cinema theatres, television etc have very harmful effect on the eyesight of human beings.

G.07 TOXINS THROUGH BAD HABITS :

Many people are miserably caught by the clutches of bad habits like smoking, drinking, pan parag chewing, and immoral activities. The human body is ruthlessly damaged by these wrong habits and the sufferings are terrific. Ignorance of health and loss of moral values have lead people to become victims of these vises and their families are suffering a lot both financially and mentally.

G.08 ACCUMULATION OF EXCESS AMOUNT OF REQUIRED ITEMS :

We require a balanced diet only for our well being. But some people accumulate certain nutrients over and above the normal requirements. For example some of us will have more quantity of fat or sugar in our body. So anything excess in our body will become a toxin and it will create diseases or disorders in our body like heart attack, ( due to cholesterol ) and diabetics. Our body is one of the most sophisticated and complicated machinery in the world. But if abuse the body beyond a limit we have to pay penalty in the name of diseases and disorders.

G.09 ORGAN DEGRADATION DUE DEFICIENCY IN FOOD :

When the organs in our body are not getting the all the required nutrients or nourishments they become weaker and become inactive due to ageing. This leads to imbalance in body functions. Heart problem, diabetics, kidney failure, hormone imbalance problems, paralytic attack, epilepsy etc are some of the disorders caused because of imbalance in body function due to deficiency.
G.10 MENTAL TENSION AND PHYSICAL TENSION :

When we are under MENTAL TENSION our body cannot function properly. When a candidate is going for an interview for a job, when a dog is chasing a person, when a person sees a snake, when there is a huge loss in business and so on we are all terribly upset mentally. Under these circumstances our body cannot work in a systematic manner. Today right from a school going child upto an old man all are under constant mental tension. Tension leads to many diseases like diabetics, skin problems, heart attaches, mental depression, ulcer, indigestion, constipation etc. Getting angry for a second will deprive us of electricity equivalent to burning a 40 watts bulb for 8 hours continuously. Mind being the ruler of the body one must change his mental outlook in a such a way that he is not affected by anything and he keeps his mind calm and collected at any cost. Meditation and following moral values are some of the remedies to get away from tension. Dis-honesty, greediness, selfishness, immoral attitudes are mainly responsible for lose of mental happiness and they lead to bad habits or vises and

finally put the person into mental tension permanently. There is no medical treatment for the mind by way of medication but only counseling can help. PHYSICAL TENSION is another health problem we face today. A obese person’s ( hefty body ) heart should beat more number of time per minute in order to pump blood to all parts of the body including the unwanted fat accumulated portion of his body. Further his kidney, lungs, and all other vital organs are also getting aged quickly as they have to over work unnecessarily. Occupational hazard is another unavoidable factor for many of us. Those who work in computers are likely to get affected by clotting of blood leading to fatal conditions also. Bus conductors, drivers, factory workers etc who work overtime and also in shift system upset their body functions very much.

G.11 GENETIC REASONS

Those who suffer from asthma or diabetics might have them inherited from their parents due to genetic reasons. Of course we have no control over this factor. But by providing a healthy body to our children we can make sure that our grand children don’t suffer from health problems as a genetic reason.

G.12 ACCIDENT :

Accidents have become very common and frequent all over the world. The problem with accidents is that it is very difficult to assess the damage caused to the internal organs of the body as a consequence of the accident. There are cases where people suffered seriously as a repercussion of an accident that took place long ago. A person met with an accident and recovered from a fracture in the right leg. But 4 years later he underwent an operation for hydrocele and spent Rs.30,000. Another person who met with an accident 4 years back developed a blood clot which slowly rose up to his brain and he died of cerebral heamurrage. So our body will go out of balance when we encounter with an accident.
HAVING DISCUSSED ABOUT THE REASONS FOR ILL HEALTH, SHALL WE SEE THE BRAOD CATEGORIES OF MEDICATIONS ?

1. LIKE CURES LIKE
2.

- HOMEOPATHY AYURVEDHA, SIDHA, UNANI ETC ALLOPATHY GANOTHERAPY

OPPOSITE CURES OPPOSITE

3. POSION CURES POISON 4. SYSTEM CURES SYSTEM

-

H.01 LIKES CURES LIKE :-

Dr.Lim Siow Jin has classified medications under four categories. The first category is like cures like. Homeopathy comes under this type. As per this concept in our body there are 12 types of salts. Deficiency of any one salt or more will lead to diseases. So, if a person has calcium deficiency, then calcium salt will be given to him to treat his disease. But it will not be given as such. Instead, calcium will be diluted several times and in the most diluted form it will be mixed with sweet globules and given as medicine. Alcohol is being used as the base in homeopathy. A patient will be given triangular treatment. That is, at a time 3 medicines will be given to him say A, B, C. Initially only one will be allowed to function in the body of the patient, say A. The other two will remain inactive. The effect of B will be suppressed or nullified by C. If the parient gets good recovery within a reasonable period he will be asked to continue the treatment. Otherwise the doctor will now give a different combination of medicines say A, B, D. Now, the effect of A will be suppressed or nullified by D. So the doctor will go on give treatment under trail and error method. The doctor will have to spent a lot of time with the patient to know the family history and mental attitudes of the patient before giving medicine under homeopathy. The patient must go to the same doctor only and he should not change the doctor often. Recovery under this method may be varying from person to person and some may get cured within 3 months and some may take 3 years even. The problem is not with the doctor. Individual body conditions differ very much and also the complexities. Hence one must be very much patient to get cured under homeopathy.
H.02 OPPOSITE CURES OPPOSITE :-

Ayurvedha, Sidha, Unani, Herbal medicines etc come under this category. In these methods treat will be given in a different way compared to the earlier method. If a person is suffering from cold means, he will be given a hot syrup ( called Kashaayam ). For fever cold fermentation will be given. Ayurvedic treatments are based on the formulations given in Vedhas ( Hindu ), the Sidha treatment is based on the recordings of research findings by Sidhas, ( Saints who lived long long ago like the great Agasthiar ) the Unani medicines are prepared as per the formulae given in the Holy Quiron ( Muslim ) and herbal medicines or home remedies are based on the experience of our ancestors in the past.

H.03 POISON CURES POISON :-

Allopathy comes under this method. Our body has a combination of acid and alkaline media. The proper proportion or blend between acidity and alkalinity is called PH value. The optimum PH value for a normal human body is 7.4 When our

body is invaded by toxins there will be imbalance in the PH value. The natural immune system of the patient will be very weak. To help the function of the immune system, chemicals ( in the form of tablets, capsules, syrups, injections, etc ) will be given to patient to kill the toxins. Only an expert in the field can determine the medicine and its potency called dosage. When we consume medicines under this therapy the chemicals in the form of medicine will react with the acid or alkaline media in the body and there will be a residue left in the human body and that is only causing side effects. All allopathic medicines under the sky except aqua BP ( water used for preparation of medicines ) will create one side effect or other. Whenever a surgery needs to be done the doctor will operate the required part the patients’ body. So we can call Allopathy as “ Injury cures Injury ” also. For example a person who met with an accident will be suffering from an injury and the treatment is another injury on his body but it will heal the injury.
H.04 SYSTEM CURES SYSTEM :-

Our human body is a bundle of millions and millions of cells. ( To know more about cells kindly refer Annexure ). Roughly a full grown man will have more than 100 trillion cells in his body. A group of cells combine together to form tissues and organs are formed from the same tissues. Several organs combined together forms an organ system ( To know more about organ systems kindly refer Annexure ). There is interconnectivity between all the cells in our body and one should have a holistic approach while treating the ailments to get complete cure. Ganotherapy is coming under this unique method. Under Ganotherapy, our immune system will be strengthened to fight against diseases by itself. Also the natural healing system which is an in-built mechanism in our body will also get strengthened and organs which were worn out or become week will get reactivated, rejuvenated and regenerated with the help of ganotherapy. Under this method it is the body which cures the diseases and ganoderma is only a powerful tool.
H.05 WHICH IS THE BEST SYSTEM OF MEDICINE :-

All systems are equally important. Each system has merits and demerits. There is system of medicine in this world which can claimed as a fool proof system altogether. Homeopathy, though aggravate a disease and works slowly, is the best for problems related to mental disorders or those connected with the mind. Allopathy, in spite of its side effects, is the only solution for immediate relief and for surgeries. Ayurvedha, Sidha and other medicines, despite diet restrictions and

prolonged treatment, have their own unique curative properties in healing certain ailments. Ganotherapy, even though works very slowly, is unique in its own way by curing the ailments in a phenomenal way by strengthening the immune system and natural healing ability. Further it is both preventive and curative.
HAVING LEARNED ABOUT THE TYPES OF MEDICATIONS SHALL WE SEE

WHO IS THE BEST DOCTOR IN THE WORLD ?

I.01

OUR BODY IS THE BEST DOCTOR : -

You will be surprised to note that our body is the best doctor in the world. Dr.Sethuraman, a famous doctor from Madurai, Tamilnadu, writes in an article called Postmortem ( published by a reputed Tamil weekly called Junior Vikadan ) that “ 90% of the diseases can be cured naturally. Our body’s immune system or natural healing ability itself will cure them. We require medication only for the rest of 10%. Cancer, Heart problems, etc., are some of the diseases coming under the 10% category which require medical treatment. Research done by the world famous Dr.K.L.White gives shocking results. He says that in curing a disease the role of modern medicine or sophisticated scientific treatment is just 20% only and the rest of 80% is due to the belief that the patient has got in the treatment. A patient who has no belief in any treatment whatsoever can never be cured or treated completely. ” All doctors under various therapies accept the fact that it is the body which cures the diseases and medicine by itself cannot act 100 %. Whenever doctors prescribe anything they will start with a symbol “ Rx ” which means that “we give medicine, but God only heals the patient ”. Further in some hospitals we can see a saying “ The doctor dresses the wound but God only heals it ”

I.02 IMMUNE SYSTEM AND NATURAL HEALING ABILITY : -

In our body there is a system called immune system which fights against various toxins, by throwing them away from the body and cures diseases. Ganoderma is an excellent natural Vegetable which strengthens our body’s immune system ( Immuno-Regulator ). When our immune system is strengthened very rarely we get affected by diseases. Further, Ganoderma , by providing more than 200 vital micro nutrients to the body, strengthens our natural healing ability and set right the imbalance in body function. With the result all the organs in the body starts functioning normally and we get recovered from various disorders. So you will find it is the body’s natural healing ability that is curing the ailments and ganoderma is only a tool.

I.03 HOW OUR IMMUNE SYSTEM WORKS : -

Our body has an amazing healing power to fight against diseases and cure them in a natural way. The immune system in our body plays a vital role in curing the diseases. Let us see something about immune system. Every second our body is being attacked by crores and crores of bacteria, microbes, viruses, toxins and parasites. Our immune system fights against them round the clock and protect us from them like the military force in the country. The major components of Immune system are Brain (head of the Immune System), thymus, spleen, lymph system, bone marrow, white blood cells, antibodies, complement system (Liver) and hormones. All of them work together in co-ordination and fight against the invaded toxins and cures the diseases. Kindly refer Annexure A for complete details about the functioning of immune system
I.04 CAN THE BODY CURE BY ITESELF : -

Recently in Readers Digest, January 2003 issue, page no.58, an article has been published under the caption “ Can the body cure itself ? Yes ” Due to some unknown genetic reason a small boy’s immune system was suppressed and became inactive. The boy who was suffering from SCID (Severe Combined Immunodeficiency) or bubble boy disease which, untreated, generally kills the sufferers by age one. A French team of researchers corrected the problem under gene therapy, which took three years, by awakening the immune system of the boy. Now after 3 years the boy is simply a healthy boy.

NOW LET US SEE WHAT IS MEDICINE

ANYTHING THAT CURES THE AILMENT OF A PATIENT IS CALLED A MEDICINE. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. FOOD WATER WORDS EXCERCISE MUSIC FASTING DRUGS AND OTHERS

J.01 WHAT IS MEDICINE : -

Anything that cures the ailment of a patient is called a medicine. Medicine need not be a tablet, capsule, syrup or other chemical or herbal combination alone. We have a wrong conception about medicines all these days. Following are medicines as they help cure the patient suffering from one ailment or the other.

J.02 FOOD :-

As we saw earlier food itself will be A MEDICINE if it is taken in proper quality and quantity. Patients suffering cancer have been cured just by taking grapes alone for months together. A kidney patient has recovered fully from eating Cucumber continuously as her main food for about 45 days. Each item of food like cereals, vegetables, plantations etc have their own medicinal properties which all of us know very well. Honey ( a pre digested food by bees which will get assimilated by the body so quickly ) is one of the most valued food which when consumed continuously for years together will give longevity ( one can live upto 100 years ). All because food contains vital elements to fight against diseases and provide a well functioning organs thereby avoids imbalance in body functions. But due to the pre-existence of health problems many of us are not in a position to consume good food. For example a sugar patient cannot take honey or even fruits, because the sugar in honey or fruits will raise up the sugar level the diabetic patient and may lead to dire consequences.

J.03 WATER :-

70% of our body consists of water only. Water is one of the most essential elements for our life. There is a therapy called hydro therapy wherein by consuming 1500 ml of water everyday in the early morning all the toxins and waste are eliminated from the body. Further boiled water is one of the best antibiotics and can be given to a person suffering from high fever. Unfortunately this may not be helpful to all because many of us are suffering from kidney problems. Even otherwise water, when taken in excess, may affect the kidneys of a healthy person because the load on kidneys increases with more intake of water.

J.04 WORDS :-

For those who suffer from mental depressions and psychological problems words are the only medicine. Medicines such as tranquilizers are used only as an aid to calm down the patient and they by themselves are not giving cure ultimately. We see the role Psychiatrists in healing the patients who are affected by mental disorders just by talking to them and taming their mind ( Counseling ). There was an interesting case of a lady who was suffering for months together from palpitation and severe pain in the heart. The reason for the problem could not be diagnosed even by various specialists in the city. One day she met her family physician. Being the family doctor he could easily find out that she was mentally disturbed. When asked to come out with the truth she told the fact that she had pledged her jewels and lend money to help her brother without her husband’s knowledge and that was pestering her mind very much. Now the doctor informed the husband about the background of the case. As the husband was loving his wife very much he ignored the mistake of his wife and consoled her with his kind words. From that minute she got recovered completely from her heart problem and was very happy thereafter.
J.05 EXERCISE :-

Exercise is very important for our well being. Muscles are considered as second heart of the human body as they help the heart in pumping the blood to all the cells. Swimming is the best exercise and there are very many exercises like playing, yoga, jogging, walking etc. There was an interesting case of a patient who got cured of her blood cancer just by running ! Her name is Bordes, an Olympic athelet. She was suffering from blood cancer and was at dying condition. Doctors told her parents to inform all the relatives as, in their opinion, she may die anytime. As her last wish she was allowed to do whatever she wanted to. She was fond of running being an athlete. She started running all the time except for eating, sleeping, bathing, etc. Several days, weeks and months passed by. But she was still running and running there was remarkable recovery in her health. When she was examined by the doctors later on her blood cancer was cured completely even without any medication !! So exercise may also cure diseases like a medicine

J.06 MUSIC :-

Sound waves can do good and bad to our body. A famous doctor by name Alexander, at Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, has invented a new therapy called music therapy by which he is able to cure patients suffering from various diseases by playing musical ( ragaas ) tunes according to the nature of ailment. The whole world is fond of music. Even animals and plants are enjoying music.

J.07 : FASTING :-

It has been told that the life span of a man depends on the quantity of food that he consumes. If we consume less we can have better life span. Further if we go on fasting at least once or twice in a month the vital force within our body will get strengthened and a number of diseases are getting cured. Anybody can easily start fasting but only an intelligent man complete it by taking food in a phased manner.
J.08 : DRUGS AND OTHERS :-

The medicines that we take in the form of capsules, tablets, injections etc are also medicines and they are not the only medicines as we normally think. In addition to these things there are lot more medicines / therapies in several forms like Acupuncture, Acupressure, Reiki, touch therapy, laughing therapy, fruit therapy, Veda therapy, Apitherapy , Aromatherapy, Breathwork, Colonic Cleansing, Color Therapy, Flower Essences, Gemstone Therapy, Holistic Health, Iridology, Massage Therapy, Meditation, Mind-Body Medicine, Natural Hygiene, Naturopathy, Polarity Therapy, Pranic Healing, Raw and Living Foods, Sensory Deprivation, Yoga etc

1. REST OR RESTRICTED ACTIVITY 2. FOOD OR RESTRICTED FOOD 3. MEDICINE

K.01 HOW THE DOCTOR TREATS A PATIENT :

After diagnosing the disease, no doctor will give just medicine alone to a patient. He will have three things in the order of priority namely Rest or restricted activity, Food or restricted food and finally medicine.
K.02 REST OR RESTRICTED ACTIVITY :

When a patient comes to a doctor he will either put him in ICU ( Intensive Care Unit ) or in the ward as in-patient or ask him to take a week’s time rest at home. This is the foremost step in treatment because only when rest is given the patient can get quick recovery. We know the body being the best doctor, requires physical and mental rest to act upon the ailing organ and set right the problem.

K.03 FOOD OR RESTRICTED FOOD :

We have already seen that 90% of the time and functioning of the brain is utilised to digest the food that we ate and to eliminate the waste from the body. The brain being the head of the immune system requires more time to attend on the ailing organ. Hence doctors will prescribe a restriction on food so that unnecessarily the brain need not work for digestion and excretion. The food that we consume during treatment must be easily digestible like fruits, liquid food, boiled food etc

K.04 MEDICINE :

Finally medicine will be given to the patient. Medicine by itself acnnot act upon the diseases 100 % and cure them. It is the body’s natural mecahnism that alone works predominantly in curing the ailments One need not take rest in an ICU or ward in a hospital life long. Also medicine is not required after he got cured completely from the ailment. But food is to continued as long as he is alive in this world. We need not require rest or medicines as long as we take quality food, in time, in the proper way. But in today’s condition we can’t get a quality food that has been cultivated with organic manures and fertlisers. In the absence of proper food we are likely to affected by diseases and disorders as often as possible.

WHICH CAN REMOVE THE ACCUMULATED TOXINS FROM OUR BODY AND PROVIDE ALL THE DEFICIENT VITAMINS AND MINERALS SO THAT WE GET RECOVERED FROM DISEASES AS WELL AS DISORDERS AND GET GOOD HEALTH ? YES. WITH THE GRACE OF GOD, TODAY WE HAVE GOT A KING OF HERBS CALLED

FROM MALAYSIA, WHICH HAS CLEANSING AND BALANCING PROPERTIES ! IT IS BOON FROM THE HEAVEN TO MANKIND !!

Ganoderma is a kind of mushroom which has high ranking in the world of fungi. For centuries the chinese regarded it as “ King of Herbs” for its excellent effect in improving overall health, enhancing stamina and promoting longevity. Recent medical research shown that ganoderma can help normalise the functions of the body organs. There are more than 38,000 varieties of mushrooms available in the world. Out of them only 2,000 varieties are edible ( can be taken as food ) by human beings as a food item. Out of the 2000 varieties only 200 varieties are having high therapeutic value. Out of the 200 varieties DXN company has selected 6 varieties (Peacock Gano, Kimshen Gano, Liver Gano, Brain Gano, Heart Gano, Ruyi Gano) of mushrooms which are having very high therapeutic values and produce two capsules called RG and GL. Reishi Gano ( RG ) is prepared from the top portion of mushroom whereas Ganocelium ( GL ) is prepared from the bottom portion of the mushroom . RG cleanses the body of all toxins and the basic reasons for disease will be eradicated totally with the help of RG. Now GL balance back the body and set right the imbalance of body functions by providing all the nutrients to various parts of the body. When imbalance is corrected the disorders will be cured in a natural way.

N.01 WHAT WE GET FROM GANODERMA : -

We require a good or balanced diet for the effective functioning of our organ systems including immune system which is part of the human body. Unfortunately the food we eat has become a slow poison with so much toxins containing the residues of pesticides, fertilizers, chemicals, preservatives, etc., So along with other systems, immune system also becomes weaker and helpless. When we provide proper nutrients to the body the immune system will be strengthened and triggered up and we can get out of ailments in a natural way. The role of ganoderma is to strengthen the immune system by providing more than 200 micro nutrients like Polysaccharides, Organic germanium, Adenosine, Triterpenoids, protein, Fiber, Complete spectrum of Vitamins, Complete spectrum of Minerals, Amino acids etc, Kindly refer Annexure to learn the functions of the above mentioned micro nutrients
N.02 WHO CURES THE AILMENTS : -

So we can realise that Ganoderma cures the body and body only cures the diseases or disorders. Interestingly Ganoderma is the King of Adaptogens in the world. As on date there are only 13 adaptogens known to the medical world and ganoderma ranks number 1. An adaptogen has three properties namely Non-toxic, Non-specific and Overall normalizing effect on the human body. Ganoderma doesn’t contain any toxin, it doesn’t work for only one organ or ailments alone but it works on all parts of the body, it harmonizes the body functions and sees that the person who consumes it gets a complete health – from head to foot.
N.03. HOW CAN GANODERMA CURE SO MANY DISEASES ?

As far as body is concerned there is only one disease. The name of the disease varies according to the place of manifestation or origin. Water in one but it is called in different names in different languages. Gold is only one but ornaments are different. All diseases are caused by accumulation of toxins and imbalance in body function. When both the basic reasons are corrected at the gross root level the disease, by whatever name called, or wherever it appears, get cured naturally.

There are mainly two reasons for anybody getting ailments namely
1.

A. Accumulation of toxins through food, water, air bad habits etc B. Imbalance in body function due to tension, deficiency in vitamins & minerals, genetic reasons, damage due to accident etc Ganoderma cures the body and the body only cures the diseases.
2.

Reaction ( the curing crisis - when toxins are eliminated ) is caused by the body and not by ganoderma.
3.

Dosage of RG & GL is independent of the disease as ganoderma is not a medicine but a food supplement.
4.

1. Ganoderma ( RG, GL ) is not a medicine. 2. It is only a food supplement having more than 200 micro nutrients which are very much essential for the well being of our vital internal organs. 3. It must be taken along with other medicines. It is not a substitute for the existing medication. One should not stop the medicines which he is taking at present. 4. Gradually when the health of the person improves, he can reduce the dosage of the other medicines with the advise of the respective doctor. 5. After sometime when the health of the person improved completely he can stop taking medicines and take RG, GL alone. 6. It is not compulsory that one should continue to take RG, GL all through his life. But in one’s own interest it is better to take them as long as possible so as to abort any disease that may affect him in the near future due to malnutrition. 7. There is absolutely no side effects as ganoderma is not from an animal origin or from a chemical combination but a natural vegetable of edible origin. 8. There is no diet control. There is absolutely no restrictions on the food to be consumed by the person who takes RG, GL capsules as it is not a medicine. 9. We will never become addict to ganoderma. 10. Right from a new born baby, pregnant women, even a 100 years old person can also consume RG, GL as it is one of the best nutritious food supplement. 11. There is no need to fix the dosage for a particular disease. Dosage depends upon the severity of the disease. Even a healthy person can consume 400 pairs of RG, GL capsules in day. 12. Ganoderma works in harmony with other medications. In fact it accelerates the recovery as an adjuvant or co-active therapy

13. Ganoderma helps to prevent diseases by preserving the health of those who consumes it regularly and at the same time it has got curative properties as well both individually and along with other therapies.

14. Following are the unique features of ganoderma : a. b. c. d. Scanning – even hidden diseases are indicated through signs of ailment reflection Detoxification – even deadly poisons like snake poison, etc can be eliminated by giving mega dosages to the victims Preserving Youthfulness – a boon to mankind Prevention of Cancer and other diseases like kidney failure, heart problems etc

1. Immediate relief is not assured. 2. Anything by birth cannot be cured under ganotherapy 3. Mechanical or surgical defects cannot be set right with ganoderma. One should undergo treatment ( operation ) by a surgeon only. 4. If there are more than one disease, no one can predict as to which disease will get cured first 5. Time taken for getting cured from diseases vary from person to person
6.

Some people may misunderstand reaction ( cleaning process ) as side effects.

LIMITATIONS OF GANOTHERAPY :-

1.1

There is limitation for any medication in this world. No treatment can be claimed as 100 % perfect. Ganotherapy is not an exception to this rule. Unless one has a clear cut understanding about the limitations of ganotherapy, the benefits cannot be enjoyed completely. For any acute health problem like headache, stomach pain, fever etc one cannot get any immediate recovery from ganotherapy as RG, GL capsules are not a medicine. One should take the treatment under other therapies like allopathy, homeopathy, ayurvedha, siddha etc. Any problem ( like blind, deaf and dump or polio ) which persists since birth of a person cannot be set right under ganotherapy. Any patient whose condition is such that, he requires an operation within a short span of time, cannot get recovery under ganotherapy. However in some cases by administering mega doses of RG, GL the operation has been averted miraculously. A leg amputaion case due to gangerin formation, a bye pass surgery case wherein 3 valves of the heart had been blocked, an eye removal case due to severe ulcer formation in the right eye of the patient ( 80 years old lady ) were some of the few cases miraculously cured with ganotherapy and operation has been averted permanently. A person may be suffering from more than one ailment. But no one can precisely tell which disease will get cured first, because under ganotherapy it is the body’s natural healing ability and the immune system which works on the diseases and disorders and ganoderma is only a tool to the body. The body being the best doctor in the world, it knows better to treat the diseases in the order of priority and one cannot decide on which disease to be cured first. Of course disease is only one and the name only differs according to the place of its manifestation and gano works on a holistic approach to cure the ailments. Time taken for recovery under ganotherapy vary from person to person according to the extent of damage caused to the body already. Following are some of the factors which determines the time taken for recovery under ganotherapy a. Age of the person b. Nature of ailment c. Number of years of suffering d. Number of ailments e. Quantity of other medicines already taken which causes side effects f. Working condition ( Occupational hazards if any ) g. Environment at the place of residence. ( amount of pollution )

1.2

1.3 1.4

1.5

1.6

h. Level of knowledge and application of principles of hygiene and clean habits i. Mental tension in the family as well as at work spot 1.7 One should be patient patient under ganotherapy. We should not expect quick recovery like other therapies. Anything natural will work slowly but steadily and permanently. Diseases and disorders are caused mainly due to accumulation of toxins and imbalance in body function. Toxins may be of three types. Water soluble, Water non-soluble and volatile. Water soluble toxins will get out through urine or sweat. Water non-soluble toxins will get cleared through blisters or vomiting or motion. Gaseous waste will be eliminated through openings. All the detoxification is done by the body’s natural healing ability or immune system and not by ganoderma. If this fact is not clearly informed well in advance before giving RG, GL capsules some people may mistake such cleaning activity as side effects. So it s the prime duty of the person who recommends RG, GL to another person, to clarify this detoxification phase of ganoderma. But there is no fear at all. We have now identified a method to avoid such reactions by RG, GL by giving only GL capsules for a couple of weeks to those who have higher load of toxins in their body. RG which is the main detoxifying product will be given later in a phased manner.

1.8

GET WELL SOON !! IT IS MY GREEDY WISH THAT THE ENTIRE MANKIND MUST BECOME HEALTHY AND ENJOY THE LIFE TILL THEY ARE DESTINED TO BE IN THIS WONDERFULL WORLD

A.01 CELL – THE BASIC UNIT OF LIFE

The word ‘cell’ was first coined by Robert Hooke in 1667. He saw many small components in a thin slice of cork under his microscope and called them cells. A cell may be defined as the smallest part of a living being which is capable of performing the essential functions of life. A cell is a unit of protoplasm with a membrane around it. Protoplasm is the basic material of which all living thing are made. It is grey, jelly-like material and can be divided into the cytoplasm and a nucleus. Cells are very minute in size. They can be seen only with the help of magnifying instruments called microscope.

A.02 CELL THEORY

Theodore Schwann and Jacob Schleiden put forward the cell theory. This theory states that :
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

all living organisms are made up of cells. cells are formed from pre-existing cells. cells are the structural and functional units of all living organisms. the activites of an organism is the sum total of the activities of all its cells. cell performing the same functions are grouped to form tissues.

A.03 THE CELL MEMBRANE OR PLASMA MEMBRANE

This is a very thin piece of material usually made of fat and protein. It covers the cytoplasm and allows some, but not all, substances to pass through in to the cytoplasm. This property of allowing only some substance to pass through it is called selective permeability. If the cell membrane is damaged, the cell is destroyed.

A.04 THE CYTOPLASM

The cytoplasm consists of all protoplasm in a cell except the nucleus. It contains many different organic chemical compounds and organelles. The cytoplasm is always in a state of movement, with a continuous changs of compounds change of compounds taking place.

A.05 CELL INCLUSIONS CYTOPLASMIC INCLUSIONS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

The various structures present in the cytoplasm are called cytoplasmic inclusions are as follows : Endoplasmic reticulum : this is a network of extremely fine double membranes distributed over the entire cytoplasm of a cell. It contains some enzymes and probably helps in the synthesis of proteins. Mitochondria : These are cylindrical or rod-shaped structures. There are considered to be the power houses of the cell because they use oxygen and other substances in the cytoplasm to set free energy for many of cell’s functions. Ribosomes : They are extremely minute, dense particles scattered in the cytoplasm. They are responsible for the synthesis of proteins in the cells. Golgi bodies : These are very small cavities, each one surrounded by a very fine membrane. They are of several sizes and are flattened and bag like. They are known to help in the collection and transportation of various types of cell secretions. Central apparatus : This is found mostly in animal cells and is rare in plants. The centrosome or central apparatus is an oval or spherical structure which lies near the nucleus. A centrosome consists of one or more minute rods called centrioles. Centrioles lie at right angles to each other and are covered by a sheath of cytoplasm called the centrosphere. The central apparatus plays a vital role in a cell division. Lysosome : These are spherical vesicles filled with fluid. They contain enzymes which when released, destroy unwated material. That is why they are often referred to as suicide bags. Lysosomes release their enzymes and digest the cell.

Vacuoles : Vacuoles are fluid-filled spaces present in the cytoplasm. An animal cell contains only a few, small vacuoles. In plant cells vacuoles are more abundant. Internally, it contains a fluid known as the cell sap and this is a mixture of many inorganic and organic substances.

A.06 THE NUCLEUS

Each cell has one nucleus situated at the centre. The nucleus controls direct all the activities of a cell. It is usually a small spherical or oval mass of specialised protoplasm called nucleoplasm. The nucleoplasm is enclosed by a thin membrane called the nuclear membrane and this outer delicate covering of the nucleus controls the movement of vital material between the nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. The nucleoplasm is also known as nuclear sap. Embedded in the nucleoplasm are a number of elongated structures which are often called chromatic threads. The chromatic threads overlap one another and give the appearance of a network called the chromatic reticulum. At fixed spot, one or more rounded bodies are attached to the chromatic reticulum. They are called nucleoli. Nucleoli do not have membrane covers and are made up of proteins and RNA or ribonucleic acid which is responsible for the synthesis of proteins. The chromic reticulum gives rise to small structures known as chromosomes. Genes are the structural and functional units of chromosomes. They control the different characteristics of an organism such as height, colour, etc. the genes are made up of a nucleic acid called DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid.

Systems 1. 2. 3. Skeletal Muscles Digestive

Organs bones and cartilages Voluntary, involuntary and cardiac muscles mouth, buccal cavity, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, intestine and rectum Nose, nasal passage, larynx, trachea and lungs heart and blood vessels Kidneys and skin Brain, spinal, cord and nerves Pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, etc Testes or ovaries Skin, hair, nail

Functions Protecting, shaping and supporting the body controlling movement in the body Converting food into a simple substance for easy absorption

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Respiratory Circulatory Excretory Nervous Endocrine

9.

Reproductive 10 Integumentary

Taking in oxygen for oxidation and sending out carbon dioxide Transporting food and oxygen to various parts of the body Elimination of metabolic waste products like urea Regulating the various activities of the body System producing hormones which control growth, metabolism development of sex glands, etc. Maintenance of the race Protecion from bacteria, etc and to give good looking.

B.01 THE SKELETAL SYSTEM

The skeletal system is formed of cartilage and bones. There are two types of skeleton, namely exoskeleton and endoskeleton. The term exoskeleton includes the hard skeletal parts present in the external surface of the body ( for e.g., nail of man ). The endoskeleton comprises the skeletal structures which are seen inside the body ( for e.g., the skull ).

The skeletal system supports and gives shape to the body, products its delicate organs and also provides for attachment of muscles which in turn help in locomotion.

B.02 THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

It is made up of muscular tissues. There are three different types of muscular tissues, namely voluntary, involuntary and cardiac. The muscles are responsible for the locomotion of animals and for the movement of most of the visceral organs ( internal organs ) in the body.

B.03 THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

The digestive system consists of the alimentary canel and other accessory organs such as the salivary glands, the tongue, the teeth, the pancreas and the liver. The alimentary canel is a continuous muscular tube which starts from the mouth and opens out at the anus. It consists of the mouth and the buccal cavity (containing the tongue, salivary glands and teeth), pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus. The digestive glands are the salivary glands, gastric glands intestinal glands liver and pancreas. Various enzymes help in the digestion of food.

B.04 THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

The cells in the body not only need food, but also oxygen to release the energy in the food by oxidation. Respiration is the process which results in the release of energy. The respiratory system consists of the respiratory passage and the lungs. The respiratory passage includes the external nostrils, buccal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea and bronchi. In human beings the main respiratory organs are the lungs. For cells of the body, respiration is as important as food. This is because the energy present in the food is only released during the process of oxidation. The cells use this energy to carry out their functions.

B.05 THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

The circulatory system known as transporting system of the body, consists of the heart which pumps blood and a network of blood vessels called arteries, veins and capillaries which actually transport the blood. The arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart while the veins take the impure deoxygenated blood back to the heart. The valves present in the veins allow the blood to flow in one direction only. The nutritious materials absorbed from the digestive tract are transported to every cell in the body. The metabolic waste products produced in the cells are collected by the blood and transported for removal to the excretory organs. Oxygen is carried from the lungs to the cells and carbon dioxide from the cells back to the lungs. The blood helps to transport oxygen, food materials, waste products, enzymes and hormones from one part of the body to another.

B.06 THE EXCRETORY SYSTEM

The excretory system consists of the kidneys, ureters and the urinary bladder. The food supplied by the digestive system and the oxygen supplied by respiratory system change further within cells. They start a series of chemical reactions called life activities. At this time poisonous substances like ammonia, and carbon dioxide are produced. The excretory system is in charge of these metabolic wastes from the cells and removing them from the body. The kidneys have a complicated system of kidney tubules, which extracts the waste products and drains them into the ureter. The urine is discharged by periodic collections of urinary bladder. The urinary bladder leads into the urethra through which the urine is passed outside the body. The skin and lungs also play an important role in the discharge of metabolic wastes from the body.
B.07 THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

The nervous system is made up of billions of nerve cells called neurons. These cells conduct signals from one part of the body to the other. There are 2 main groups of neurons called – sensory neurons and motor neurons. The nervous system consists of the brain, the spinal cord, the nerves and the sense organs. The nervous system totally responsible for controlling and coordinating the working of all the systems of our body so that it can respond to changes within itself and outside. The brain is the controlling center of the nervous system. It is the most sophisticated part of the nervous system. It is the centre of intelligence, memory,

imagination and reasoning. It is protected by the skull. The spinal cord is a long, cylinderical mass of nervous tissue and it passes through vertebral column. It is the main pathway through which messages between the brain and the different parts of the body are conducted. Nerves are the pathway along which the messages travel. Most of the reflex actions take place with the help of the spinal cord. The nervous system conducts impulses to the different parts of the body and it also controls and co-ordinates the different activities of the organism.
B.08 THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

The endocrine system acts as the “Master Mind” of the body by coordinating various functions systematically. This system consists of a number of endocrine glands, (ductless glands) which pour their chemical secretions known as hormones, (the main coordinators) directly into the blood stream. Hormones are growth regulators and control various biological functions. Though the hormones are carried to all parts of our body by blood stream, each organ responds only to a particular hormone. A. Pitutary gland : This is a small gland located at the base of the brain. Its secretions can influence the activities of other endocrine glands. B. thyroid gland : there is a pair of thyroid glands at the base of larynx (voice box), on either side of the trachea (wind pipe). Thyroid gland produces a hormone called thyroxine. Its main function is to regulate the rate of metabolism i.e., all biochemical reactions. C. Pancreas : This is located in the abdominal cavity, close to the stomach and duodenum. It contains scattered islands of tissues called Islets of Langerhans. These cells secrete the hormone insulin (from beta cells) and glucagon (from alpha cells). Insulin helps to lower the blood sugar level while glucagon raises the blood glucose level. If insulin is not produced in sufficient quantity, a vast amount of glucose will enter the blood and eliminated in the urine leading to diabetes mellitus. D. Adrenal gland : There are two adrenal glands, one on top of each kidney. each of the gland is made up of two parts. These glands pour hormones into the blood. These hormones prepare the body for emergency situations like extreme danger, stress, crisis, fright or intense physical activity. At such times when the hormone is poured into the blood, the heart begins to pump faster, blood pressure increases, the pupil of the dilate, more sugar is released into the blood and tiny blood capillaries in the skin becomes narrow. The result is that more blood goes to the muscles of the limbs so that they can prepare for movement.

Adrenal gland also secretes minute quantities of male and female sex hormones. Other hormones regulate the synthesis and breakdown of carbohydrates, fats and proteins.

B.09 THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

This system consists of the reproductive organs and the reproductive ducts. The male reproductive organ is the testis. It produce male germ cells or sperms. The male reproductive duct is the vas deferens. The female reproductive organ is the ovary. It produces female germ cells or ova. The female reproductive duct is the oviduct. The reproductive system and the excretory system or closely associated with each other from the early stages of development and so they are often treated together as a single organ system called the urinogenital system. During reproduction a sperm fuses with the ovum producing a zygote, which is the starting point in the development of a new individual.

B.10 THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

The integumentary system consists of the skin , the hair, and the nails. Healthy skin keeps the germs out of the body. It also products the important organs that lie beneath it from small injuries such as cuts. The skin also regulates the body temperature and helps to get rid of some of the excess body salts.

C.1 Introduction to How our Immune System Works C.2 Seeing our Immune System C.3 Basics of the Immune System C.4 Components of the Immune System
A. Brain ( Head of the immune system ) B. Thymus C. Spleen D. Lymph system E. Bone marrow F. White blood cells G. Antibodies H. Complement system ( Liver )

C.5 How Antibiotics Work

C.10 INTRODUCTION TO HOW OUR IMMUNE SYSTEM WORKS

( Courtesy : www.howstuffworks.com an excellent web site where we can learn all about pin to plane ) Inside our body there is an amazing protection mechanism called the immune system. It is designed to defend you against millions of bacteria, microbes, viruses, toxins and parasites that would love to invade our body. To understand the power of the immune system, all that we have to do is look at what happens to anything once it dies. That sounds gross, but it does show you something very important about your immune system. When something dies its immune system (along with everything else) shuts down. In a matter of hours the body is invaded by all sorts of bacteria, microbes, parasites... None of these things are able to get in when our immune system is working, but the moment our immune system stops the door is wide open. Once we die it only takes a few weeks for these organisms to completely dismantle our body and carry it away, until all that's left is a skeleton. Obviously our immune system is doing something amazing to keep all of that dismantling from happening when we are alive! The immune system is complex, intricate and interesting.

C.20 SEEING OUR IMMUNE SYSTEM

Our immune system works around the clock in thousands of different ways, but it does its work largely unnoticed. One thing that causes us to really notice our immune system is when it fails for some reason. We also notice it when it does something that has a side effect we can see or feel. Here are several examples:

When we get a cut, all sorts of bacteria and viruses enter our body through the break in the skin. When we get a splinter we also have the sliver of wood as a foreign object inside your body. Our immune system responds and eliminates the invaders while the skin heals itself and seals the puncture. In rare cases the immune system misses something and the cut gets infected. It gets inflamed and will often fill with pus. Inflammation and pus are both side-effects of the immune system doing its job. When a mosquito bites us, we get a red, itchy bump. That too is a visible sign of our immune system at work. Each day we inhale thousands of germs (bacteria and viruses) that are floating in the air. Our immune system deals with all of them without a problem. Occasionally a germ gets past the immune system and we catch a cold, get the flu or worse. A cold or flu is a visible sign that our immune system failed to stop the germ. The fact that we get over the cold or flu is a visible sign that

• •

your immune system was able to eliminate the invader after learning about it. If our immune system did nothing, we would never get over a cold or anything else.

Each day we also eat hundreds of germs, and again most of these die in the saliva or the acid of the stomach. Occasionally, however, one gets through and causes food poisoning. There is normally a very visible effect of this breach of the immune system: vomiting and diarrhea are two of the most common symptoms. There are also all kinds of human ailments that are caused by the immune system working in unexpected or incorrect ways that cause problems. For example, some people have allergies. Allergies are really just the immune system overreacting to certain stimuli that other people don't react to at all. Some people have diabetes, which is caused by the immune system inappropriately attacking cells in the pancreas and destroying them. Some people have rheumatoid arthritis, which is caused by the immune system acting inappropriately in the joints. In many different diseases, the cause is actually an immune system error!

Finally, we sometimes see the immune system because it prevents us from doing things that would be otherwise beneficial. For example, organ transplants are much harder than they should be because the immune system often rejects the transplanted organ.
C.30 BASICS OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

Let's start at the beginning. What does it mean when someone says "I feel sick today?" What is a disease? By understanding the different kinds of diseases it is possible to see what types of disease the immune system helps you handle. When we "get sick", our body is not able to work properly or at its full potential. There are many different ways for us to get sick - here are some of them:

Mechanical damage. If we break a bone or tear a ligament we will be "sick" (our body will not be able to perform at its full potential). The cause of the problem is something that is easy to understand and visible. Vitamin or mineral deficiency. If we do not get enough vitamin D our body is not able to metabolize calcium properly and we get a disease known as rickets. People with rickets have weak bones (they break easily) and deformities because the bones do not grow properly. If we do not get enough vitamin C we get scurvy, which causes swollen and bleeding gums, swollen joints and bruising. If we do not get enough iron we get anemia, and so on.

Organ degradation. In some cases an organ is damaged or weakened. For example, one form of "heart disease" is caused by obstructions in the blood vessels leading to the heart muscle, so that the heart does not get enough blood. One form of "liver disease", known as Cirrhosis, is caused by damage to liver cells (drinking too much alcohol is one cause). Genetic disease. A genetic disease is caused by a coding error in the DNA. The coding error causes too much or too little of certain proteins to be made, and that causes problems at the cellular level. For example, albinism is caused by a lack of an enzyme called Tyrosinase. That missing enzyme means that the body cannot manufacture melanin, the natural pigment that causes hair color, eye color and tanning. Because of the lack of melanin, people with this genetic problem are extremely sensitive to the UV rays in sunlight. Cancer. Occasionally a cell will change in a way that causes it to reproduce uncontrollably. For example, when cells in the skin called melanocytes are damaged by ultraviolet radiation in sunlight they change in a characteristic way into a cancerous form of cell. The visible cancer that appears as a tumor on the skin is called melanoma. Viral or bacterial infection. When a virus or bacteria (also known generically as a germ) invades our body and reproduces, it normally causes problems. Generally the germ's presence produces some side effect that makes us sick. For example, the strep throat bacteria (Streptococcus) releases a toxin that causes inflammation in our throat. The polio virus releases toxins that destroy nerve cells (often leading to paralysis). Some bacteria are benign or beneficial (for example, we all have millions of bacteria in our intestines and they help digest food), but many are harmful once they get into the body or the bloodstream.

Viral and bacterial infections are by far the most common causes of illness for most people. They cause things like colds, influenza, measles, mumps, malaria, AIDS and so on. The job of our immune system is to protect our body from these infections. The immune system protects us in three different ways: 1. It creates a barrier that prevents bacteria and viruses from entering our body. 2. If a bacteria or virus does get into the body, the immune system tries to detect and eliminate it before it can make itself at home and reproduce. 3. If the virus or bacteria is able to reproduce and start causing problems, our immune system is in charge of eliminating it. The immune system also has several other important jobs. For example, our immune system can detect cancer in early stages and eliminate it in many cases.

C.40 COMPONENTS OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

One of the funny things about the immune system is that it has been working inside our body our entire life but we probably know almost nothing about it. For example, we are probably aware that inside our chest we have an organ called a "heart". Who doesn't know that they have a heart? We have probably also heard about the fact that we have lungs and a liver and kidneys. But do we ever heard about your thymus??? There's a good chance we don't even know that we have a thymus, yet its there in our chest right next to your heart. There are many other parts of the immune system that are just as obscure, so let's start by learning about all of the parts.

The most obvious part of the immune system is what we can see. For example, SKIN is an important part of the immune system. It acts as a primary boundary between germs and our body. Part of our skin's job is to act as a barrier in much the same way we use plastic wrap to protect food. Skin is tough and generally impermeable to bacteria and viruses. The epidermis contains special cells called Langerhans cells (mixed in with the melanocytes in the basal layer) that are an important early-warning component in the immune system. The skin also secretes antibacterial substances. These substances explain why we don't wake up in the morning with a layer of mold growing on our skin - most bacteria and spores that land on the skin die quickly. Our NOSE, MOUTH AND EYES are also obvious entry points for germs. Tears and mucus contain an enzyme (lysozyme) that breaks down the cell wall of many bacteria. Saliva is also anti-bacterial. Since the nasal passage and lungs are coated in mucus, many germs not killed immediately are trapped in the mucus and soon swallowed. Mast cells also line the nasal passages, throat, lungs and skin. Any bacteria or virus that wants to gain entry to your body must first make it past these defenses. Once inside the body, a germ deals with the immune system at a different level. The major components of the immune system are:
• • • • • • • •

Brain ( Head of the immune system ) Thymus Spleen Lymph system Bone marrow White blood cells Antibodies Complement system ( Liver )

C.41 BRAIN

Our brain is the head of the immune system in our body. 90 % of the time, energy and efficiency of brain is utilized for digesting the food that we take and to eliminate the waste produced thereon. Whenever a WBC dies in a war against a bacteria or virus it will leave a record of the characteristics of the invader which will be stored in the spleen. A number of such records will be recorded in spleen will be stored in thymus and those in thymus will be stored in the brain in a short codified form. Once a bacteria or virus has been defeated in the encounter with our immune system it can never invade again because our immune system has got all the records of the virus which invaded earlier. However when a new virus attacks the body the spleen and thymus will send message ( impulses ) to the brain and brain will create new WBCs from the bone marrow ( tailor made or made to order WBCs ). The power and capabilities of brain are still to be known to the scientists. What we have learned so far about brain is just a small fraction only which can be compared to proportion 1 minute bears to the whole 365 days in a year !

C.42 THYMUS

The thymus lives in our chest, between our breast bone and our heart. It is responsible for producing T-cells and is especially important in newborn babies without a thymus a baby's immune system collapses and the baby will die. The thymus seems to be much less important in adults - for example, we can remove it and an adult will live because other parts of the immune system can handle the load. ( out of experience gained over a period of years ) However, the thymus is important, especially to T cell maturation

C.43 SPLEEN

The spleen filters the blood looking for foreign cells (the spleen is also looking for old red blood cells in need of replacement). A person missing their spleen gets sick much more often than someone with a spleen.

C.44 LYMPH SYSTEM

The lymph system is most familiar to people because doctors and mothers often check for "swollen lymph nodes" in the neck. It turns out that the lymph nodes are just one part of a system that extends throughout our body in much the same way our blood vessels do. The main difference between the blood flowing in the circulatory system and the lymph flowing in the lymph system is that blood is pressurized by the heart, while the lymph system is passive. There is no "lymph pump" like there is a "blood pump" (the heart). Instead, fluids ooze into the lymph system and get pushed by normal body and muscle motion to the lymph nodes. This is very much like the water and sewer systems in a community. Water is actively pressurized, while sewage is passive and flows by gravity. Lymph is a clear liquid that bathes the cells with water and nutrients. Lymph is blood plasma - the liquid that makes up blood minus the red and white cells. Think about it - each cell does not have its own private blood vessel feeding it, yet it has to get food, water, and oxygen to survive. Blood transfers these materials to the lymph through the capillary walls, and lymph carries it to the cells. The cells also produce proteins and waste products and the lymph absorbs these products and carries them away. Any random bacteria that enter the body also find their way into this inter-cell fluid. One job of the lymph system is to drain and filter these fluids to detect and remove the bacteria. Small lymph vessels collect the liquid and move it toward larger vessels so that the fluid finally arrives at the lymph nodes for processing. Lymph nodes contain filtering tissue and a large number of lymph cells. When fighting certain bacterial infections, the lymph nodes swell with bacteria and the cells fighting the bacteria, to the point where we can actually feel them. Swollen lymph nodes are therefore a good indication that we have an infection of some sort. Once lymph has been filtered through the lymph nodes it re-enters the bloodstream.

C.45 BONE MARROW

Bone marrow produces new blood cells, both red and white. In the case of red blood cells the cells are fully formed in the marrow and then enter the bloodstream. In the case of some white blood cells, the cells mature elsewhere. The marrow produces all blood cells from stem cells. They are called "stem cells" because they can branch off and become many different types of cells - they are precursors to different cell types. Stem cells change into actual, specific types of white blood cells.

C.46 WHITE BLOOD CELLS

We are probably aware of the fact that we have "red blood cells" and "white blood cells" in our blood. The white blood cells are probably the most important part of our immune system. And it turns out that "white blood cells" are actually a whole collection of different cells that work together to destroy bacteria and viruses. Here are all of the different types, names and classifications of white blood cells working inside our body right now:
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Leukocytes Lymphocyte Monocytes Granulocytes B-cells Plasma cells T-cells Helper T-cells Killer T-cells Suppressor T-cells Natural killer cells Neutrophils Eosinophils Basophils Phagocytes Macrophages

C.47 LEUKOCYTES

All white blood cells are known officially as Leukocytes. White blood cells are not like normal cells in the body - they actually act like independent, living singlecell organisms able to move and capture things on their own. White blood cells behave very much like amoeba in their movements and are able to engulf other cells and bacteria. Many white blood cells cannot divide and reproduce on their own, but instead have a factory somewhere in the body that produces them. That factory is the bone marrow.

Leukocytes are divided into three classes:

Granulocytes - 50% to 60% of all leukocytes. Granulocytes are themselves divided into three classes: Neutrophils, Eosinophils and Basophils. Granulocytes get their name because they contain granules, and these granules contain different chemicals depending on the type of cell. Lymphocyte -30% to 40% of all leukocytes. Lymphocytes come in two classes: B cells (those that mature in bone marrow) and T cells (those that mature in the thymus).
Monocytes - 7% or so of all leukocytes. Monocytes evolve into macrophages. All white blood cells start in bone marrow as stem cells. Stem cells are generic cells that can form into the many different types of leukocytes as they mature. For example, we can take a mouse, irradiate it to kill off its bone marrow's ability to produce new blood cells, and then inject stem cells into the mouse's blood stream. The stem cells will divide and differentiate into all different types of white blood cells. A "bone marrow transplant" is accomplished simply by injecting stem cells from a donor into the blood stream. The stem cells find their way, almost magically, into the marrow and make their home there.

Each of the different types of white blood cells have a special role in the immune system, and many are able to transform themselves in different ways. The following descriptions help to understand the roles of the different cells.

Neutrophils - Neutrophils are by far the most common form of white blood cells that we have in our body. Our bone marrow produces trillions of them every day and releases them into the bloodstream, but their life span is short generally less than a day. Once in the bloodstream neutrophils can move through capillary walls into tissue. Neutorphils are attracted to foreign material, inflammation and bacteria. If we get a splinter or a cut, neutrophils will be attracted by a process called chemotaxis. Many single-celled organisms use this same process - chemotaxis lets motile cells move toward higher concentrations of a chemical. Once a neutrophil finds a foreign particle or a bacteria it will engulf it, releasing enzymes, hydrogen peroxide and other chemicals from its granules to kill the bacteria. In a site of serious infection (where lots of bacteria have reproduced in the area), pus will form. Pus is simply dead neutrophils and other cellular debris. Eosinophils and Basophils are far less common than neutrophils. Eosinophils seem focused on parasites in the skin and the lungs, while Basophils carry histamine and therefore important (along with mast cells) to causing inflammation. From the immune system's standpoint inflammation is a good thing. It brings in more blood and it dilates capillary walls so that more immune system cells can get to the site of infection. Of all blood cells, macrophages are the biggest (hence the name "macro"). Monocytes are released by the bone marrow, float in the bloodstream, enter

tissue and turn into macrophages. Most boundary tissue has its own devoted macrophages. For example, alveolar macrophages live in the lungs and keep the lungs clean (by ingesting foreign particles like smoke and dust) and disease free (by ingesting bacteria and microbes). Macrophages are called langerhans cells when they live in the skin. Macrophages also swim freely. One of their jobs is to clean up dead neutrophils - macropghages clean up pus, for example, as part of the healing process.

The lymphocytes handle most of the bacterial and viral infections that we get. Lymphocytes start in the bone marrow. Those destined to become B cells develop in the marrow before entering the bloodstream. T cells start in the marrow but migrate through the bloodstream to the thymus and mature there. T cells and B cells are often found in the bloodstream but tend to concentrate in lymph tissue such as the lymph nodes, the thymus and the spleen. There is also quite a bit of lymph tissue in the digestive system. B cells and T cells have different functions. B cells, when stimulated, mature into plasma cells - these are the cells that produce antibodies. A specific B cell is tuned to a specific germ, and when the germ is present in the body the B cell clones itself and produces millions of antibodies designed to eliminate the germ. T cells, on the other hand, actually bump up against cells and kill them. T cells known as Killer T cells can detect cells in your body that are harboring viruses, and when it detects such a cell it kills it. Two other types of T cells, known as Helper and Suppressor T cells, help sensitize killer T cells and control the immune response. Helper T cells are actually quite important and interesting. They are activated by Interleukin-1, produced by macrophages. Once activated, Helper T cells produce Interleukin-2, then interferon and other chemicals. These chemicals activate B cells so that they produce antibodies. The complexity and level of interaction between neutrophils, macrophages, T cells and B cells is really quite amazing. Because white blood cells are so important to the immune system, they are used as a measure of immune system health. When you hear that someone has a "strong immune system" or a "suppressed immune system", one way it was determined was by counting different types of white blood cells in a blood sample. A normal white blood cell count is in the range of 4,000 to 11,000 cells per microliter of blood. 1.8 to 2.0 helper T-cells per suppressor T-cell is normal. A normal absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is in the range of 1,500 to 8,000 cells per microliter.. One important question to ask about white blood cells (and several other parts of the immune system) is, "How does a white blood cell know what to attack

and what to leave alone? Why doesn't a white blood cell attack every cell in the body?" There is a system built into all of the cells in your body called the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) (also known as the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)) that marks the cells in your body as "you". Anything that the immune system finds that does not have these markings (or that has the wrong markings) is definitely "not you" and is therefore fair game. "There are two major types of MHC protein molecules--class I and class II-that span the membrane of almost every cell in an organism. In humans these molecules are encoded by several genes all clustered in the same region on chromosome 6. Each gene has an unusual number of alleles (alternate forms of a gene). As a result, it is very rare for two individuals to have the same set of MHC molecules, which are collectively called a tissue type. MHC molecules are important components of the immune response. They allow cells that have been invaded by an infectious organism to be detected by cells of the immune system called T lymphocytes, or T cells. The MHC molecules do this by presenting fragments of proteins (peptides) belonging to the invader on the surface of the cell. The T cell recognizes the foreign peptide attached to the MHC molecule and binds to it, an action that stimulates the T cell to either destroy or cure the infected cell. In uninfected healthy cells the MHC molecule presents peptides from its own cell (self peptides), to which T cells do not normally react. However, if the immune mechanism malfunctions and T cells react against self peptides, an autoimmune disease arises."
C.48 ANTIBODIES

Antibodies (also referred to as immunoglobulins and gammaglobulins) are produced by white blood cells. They are Y-shaped proteins that each respond to a specific antigen (bacteria, virus or toxin). Each antibody has a special section (at the tips of the two branches of the Y) that is sensitive to a specific antigen and binds to it in some way. When an antibody binds to a toxin it is called an antitoxin (if the toxin comes from some form of venom, it is called an antivenin). The binding generally disables the chemical action of the toxin. When an antibody binds to the outer coat of a virus particle or the cell wall of a bacterium it can stop their movement through cell walls. Or a large number of antibodies can bind to an invader and signal to the complement system that the invader needs to be removed. Antibodies come in five classes: • Immunoglobulin A (IgA) • Immunoglobulin D (IgD) • Immunoglobulin E (IgE)

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) • Immunoglobulin M (IgM) Whenever you see an abbreviation like IgE in a medical document, you now know that what they are talking about is an antibody

C.49 COMPLEMENT SYSTEM

The complement system, like antibodies, is a series of proteins. There are millions of different antibodies in our blood stream, each sensitive to a specific antigen. There are only a handful of proteins in the complement system, and they are floating freely in our blood. Complements are manufactured in the liver. The complement proteins are activated by and work with (complement) the antibodies, hence the name. They cause lysing (bursting) of cells and signal to phagocytes that a cell needs to be removed. Hormones There are several hormones generated by components of the immune system. These hormones are known generally as lymphokines. It is also known that certain hormones in the body suppress the immune system. Steroids and corticosteroids (components of adrenaline) suppress the immune system. Tymosin (thought to be produced by the thymus) is a hormone that encourages lymphocyte production (a lymphocyte is a form of white blood cell - see below). Interleukins are another type of hormone generated by white blood cells. For example, Interleukin-1 is produced by macrophages after they eat a foreign cell. IL-1 has an interesting side-effect - when it reaches the hypothalamus it produces fever and fatigue. The raised temperature of a fever is known to kill some bacteria. Tumor Necrosis Factor Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) is also produced by macrophages. It is able to kill tumor cells, and it also promotes the creation of new blood vessels so it is important to healing. Interferon Interferon interferes with viruses (hence the name) and is produced by most cells in the body. Interferons, like antibodies and complements, are proteins, and their job is to let cells signal to one another. When a cell detects interferon from other cells, it produces proteins that help prevent viral replication in the cell.

C.50 HOW ANTIBIOTICS WORK

Sometimes our immune system is not able to activate itself quickly enough to outpace the reproductive rate of a certain bacteria, or the bacteria is producing a toxin so quickly that it will cause permanent damage before the immune system can eliminate the bacteria. In these cases it would be nice to help the immune system by killing the offending bacteria directly. Antibiotics work on bacterial infections. Antibiotics are chemicals that kill the bacteria cells but do not affect the cells that make up our body. For example, many antibiotics interrupt the machinery inside bacterial cells that builds the cell wall. Human cells do not contain this machinery, so they are unaffected. Different antibiotics work on different parts of bacterial machinery, so each one is more or less effective on specific types of bacteria. We can see that, because a virus is not alive, antibiotics have no effect on a virus. One problem with antibiotics is that they lose effectiveness over time. If we take an antibiotic it will normally kill all of the bacteria it targets over the course of a week or 10 days. We will feel better very quickly (in just a day or two) because the antibiotic kills the majority of the targeted bacteria very quickly. However, on occasion one of the bacterial offspring will contain a mutation that is able to survive the specific antibiotic. This bacteria will then reproduce and the whole disease mutates. Eventually the new strain is infecting everyone and the old antibiotic has no effect on it. This process has become more and more of a problem over time and has become a significant concern in the medical community. When the Immune System makes a Mistake Sometimes the immune system makes a mistake. One type of mistake is called autoimmunity: the immune system for some reason attacks your own body in the same way it would normally attack a germ. Two common diseases are caused by immune system mistakes. Juvenile-onset diabetes is caused by the immune system attacking and eliminating the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. Rheumatoid arthritis is caused by the immune system attacking tissues inside the joints. Allergies are another form of immune system error. For some reason, in people with allergies, the immune system strongly reacts to an allergen that should be ignored. The allergen might be a certain food, or a certain type of pollen, or a certain type of animal fur. For example, a person allergic to a certain pollen will get a runny nose, watery eyes, sneezing, etc. This reaction is caused primarily by

mast cells in the nasal passages. In reaction to the pollen the mast cells release histamine. Histamine has the effect of causing inflammation, which allows fluid to flow from blood vessels. Histamine also causes itching. To eliminate these symptoms the drug of choice is, of course, an antihistamine. The last example of an immune system mistake is the effect the immune system has on transplanted tissue. This really isn't a mistake, but it makes organ and tissue transplants nearly impossible. When the foreign tissue is placed inside your body, its cells do not contain the correct identification. Your immune system therefore attacks the tissue. The problem cannot be prevented, but can be diminished by carefully matching the tissue donor with the recipient and by using immunosuppressing drugs to try to prevent an immune system reaction. Of course, by suppressing the immune system these drugs open the patient to opportunistic infections.

DA. 10 EXTERNAL SIGNS
DA.11 FACE - EYES

The eye reacts to the condition of the liver S.No. A.11 SYMPTOM Reddish eye – one or both INDICATION / REFELECTION Liver has high level of toxins. Reddish eye is an indication that the body is discharging toxin. Indicates that liver is regulating itself

A.12

A.13

Blurry eyesight (Usually occurs in the morning) Waste disposed from eye

A.14 A.15

Teary eyes Tensioned eye and eyelid

Liver is functioning irregularly. Detoxification is in progress. Also indicates excessive amount of acid in the body. Emotional disturbance, especially anger. Mental stress due to dissatisfaction or excessive workload.

DA.12 FACE – NOSE

The nose has a close affiliation with the lungs and throat S.No. A.21 SYMPTOM Running nose INDICATION / REFELECTION a. Toxin removal process from the lungs b. Excessive level of acid in the body (usually body temperature is high) a. Lungs with excessive amount of toxin b. Regulating process for nose allergy a. Toxin removal process from the lungs

A.22 A.23

Blocked Nostrils Sneezing

A.24

Coughing

b. Regulating process for nose allergy a. Coughing with mucus discharged. Toxic removal process from the throat b. Dry cough. Lungs have an excessive toxin level. Thick mucus usually discharged a few days after taking ganoderma. c. Coughing with itchy throat. Toxic removal process from the throat and lungs, usually happens to heavy smokers and those used to be breathe in polluted air

DA.13 FACE - THROAT

S.No. A.31

SYMPTOM Dry Throat

INDICATION / REFELECTION Detoxification process all over the body. Indicates that the body needs more water to discharge toxin Same as above – toxic level is more serious

A.32

Sore Throat

The Lips are related to function of the digestive system S.No. A.41 SYMPTOM Pale Lips
DA.14 FACE – LIPS

INDICATION / REFELECTION a. Weak digestive system b. Gas inside the stomach c. Lack of blood due to an improper digestive system that leads to insufficient amount of iron. The digestive system should be enforced with ganoderma before treated with iron

A.42

Dry and cracking lips

Too many toxic substances inside the stomach

DA.15 FACE – MOUTH & TONGUE

Both have a close connection to blood circulation and heart function. S.No. SYMPTOM INDICATION / REFELECTION A.51 Swollen Tongue / gum with pain Tongue, mouth tissue, or gum with ulcer Bad breath Indication of heart problem such as excessive fat, weak valve function, blocked coronary etc Indication of excessive acid in blood Stomach regulation to discharge toxin

A.52 A.53

DA.16 FACE – EAR

Associated closely to the kidneys. S.No. A.61 A.62 SYMPTOM Blocked ear Blocked earlobe INDICATION / REFELECTION Excessive toxin in kidneys Regulating the weak function of kidneys. Usually experienced with a painful sole in the morning that will gradually decrease after taking a walk.

DA.17 SKIN

S.No.

SYMPTOM

INDICATION / REFELECTION

B.1 B.2 B.3

Sweat – Salty sweat Sweat – Foul sweat Rashes and boils Itchy skin with rashes

B.4 B.5

Blistered & watery skin Falling hair

Excessive uric acid in the body Body emitting toxin by sweating Body emitting toxic fat and non-soluble toxin Process of discharging toxin through the skin due to excessive consumption of modern medicine. Body discharging water soluble toxin. Apply ganoderma powder on the spot Indicates a weak function of the kidneys. New and healthy hair will emerge after the process

DA.18 JOINTS, HANDS & FEET

S.No. C.1

SYMPTOM Painful joints – heaty Painful joints – non heaty Pain on the shoulders Numb hand Numbness on the left hand and arm Numb foot Painful soles Painful heel Heaty soles Itch between toes

INDICATION / REFELECTION Indication of injury on the joints or gout Indication of rheumatism Indicates that the blood vessels are hardening and imbalance of metabolism function Irregular blood circulation on the upper part of the body Indication of a weak heart. If the pain moves to the arm and stays there, heart attack may happen anytime. Irregular blood circulation on the lower part of the body Indication of a weak set of kidneys. usually caused by lack of exercise or movement Indication of a weak sex function Regulating process of the kidneys due to a weak sex function Early indication of the Hong Kong foot disease

C.2 C.3

C.4 C.5 C.6 C.7 C.8

DB.10 INTERNAL SIGNS
DB.11 HEAD

Generally all reaction that occurs on the head is related to the blood circulation system, heart and brain nerves S.No. P.1 P.2 P.3 SYMPTOM Pain/dizziness on the front side of head Pain/dizziness on the rear side of head – Upper part Pain/dizziness on the rear side of head – Lower part (neck) Headache and gas emitted our of earlobe Boils on head Dizziness INDICATION / REFELECTION Indication of neurosis due to mental burden and too much thinking Indication of high blood pressure Indication of either high blood pressure or low blood pressure Indication of migraine Toxic disposal in progress. Sometimes due to migraine Indication of insufficient supply of blood or irregular circulation

P.4 P.5 P.6

DB.12 MOUTH / THROAT

S.No. Q.1 Q.2 Q.3

SYMPTOM Vomit Vomit - Red blood Vomit - Dark blood

INDICATION / REFELECTION Sign of asthma, toxic disposal from stomach Dead tissue disposed from throat and lungs Dead tissue disposed from stomach; usally due to ulcer

Q.4 Q.5

Stressed & tensed tongue Thick Saliva

Indication of heart diseases Toxic disposal process from the throat due to infection or cancer

DB.13 URINATION

S.No. R.1 R.2 R.3 R.4 R.5

SYMPTOM Frequent urination Chalky urination Oily urination Thick and brownish urination Bloody urination

INDICATION / REFELECTION Indicates that the kidney has an excessive amount of toxic waste Indicates of kidney stone Indication of lipid waste in kidney Indicates that toxin is being disposed Kidney stone or injured kidney

DB.14 STOOL

S.No. S.1

SYMPTOM Diarrhea

INDICATION / REFELECTION Cleansing toxic waste from the colon. Diarrhea that immediately occurs after consuming ganoderma indicates that there are abnormal cells ( cancer ) in the colon Cleansing of toxin from the small intestine Piles or cancer problem in the intestine Ulcer problem Indicates that the intestine is disposing toxic waste

S.2 S.3 S.4 S.5

Constipation Faeces with red blood Faeces with dark blood Dark faeces

DB.15 BODY REACTION

Generally, all bodily pain is caused by clogged vessels or arteries S.No. T.1 T.2 T.3 T.4 T.5 T.6 T.7 SYMPTOM Sharp pain Numb pain Jolting pain Tense pain Heavy / lazy / tired Heaty Light / relived INDICATION / REFELECTION Regulating process for nerves Indication of internal injury Regulating process for nerves that is related to internal organs Process of regulating blood circulation Acidic body. It indicates that the body is regulating itself and needs a good rest Indicates that the body needs a lot of water to discharge toxin Indicates that the body is fresh and regeneration is happening

DB.16 EMOTIONAL REACTION

S.No. U.1 U.2 U.3 U.4

SYMPTOM Fearful Bad tempered Nervous and sad Euphoriatic

INDICATION / REFELECTION Kidney function is weak. Weak sex desire Liver function is weak. High blood pressure Lings functioning improperly heart function is weak. Brain nerve system is poor. Blood circulation not functioning properly Digestion system is weak

U.5

Dreamy

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