In two dimensions, the state of stress at a point is conveniently illustrated by drawing four perpendicular lines that we can view as representing four adjacent planes of atoms taken from an arbitrary position within the material. The planes on this stress square shown in Fig. 1 can be identified by the orientations of their normals; the upper horizontal plane is a +y plane, since its normal points in the +y direction. The vertical plane on the right is a +x plane. Similarly, the left vertical and lower horizontal planes are y and x, respectively.

Figure 1: State of stress in two dimensions; the stress square. The sign convention in common use regards tensile stresses as positive and compressive stresses as negative. Besides, the stress square must be in equilibrium; therefore this arrow must be balanced by another force acting on the x (lefty) face and pointed in the x (lefty) direction. Of course, these are not two separate stresses, but simply indicate the stress state is one of uniaxial tension. It goes same with y direction for compression.

Figure 2: The sign convention for normal stresses. Consider now a simple spherical vessel of radius r and wall thickness b, such as a round balloon. An internal pressure p induces equal biaxial tangential tensile stresses in the walls, which can be denoted using spherical r coordinates as and . The internal pressure generates a force towards the spherical wall, which is balanced by the wall stress.

Figure 3: Wall stresses in a spherical pressure vessel. At the surfaces of the vessel wall, a radial stress must be present to balance the pressure there. 1

Figure 4: Free-body diagram for axial stress in a closed-end vessel. The stresses in the axial direction of a cylindrical pressure vessel with closed ends are found using this same approach as seen above and yielding the same thing (equilibrium state& equation).

Figure 5: Hoop stresses in a cylindrical pressure vessel. Note the hoop stresses are twice the axial stresses. This result different stresses in different directions occurs more often than not in engineering structures, and shows one of the 3 compelling advantages for engineered materials that can be made stronger in one direction than another (the property of anisotropy). If a pressure vessel constructed of conventional isotropic material is made thick enough to keep the hoop stresses below yield, it will be twice as strong as it needs to be in the axial direction. What is pressure vessel? Structures such as tank capable of holding internal pressure have been very important in the history of science and technology. In order to make a better flow of gas and fluid, an aqueduct or tank must be constructed so they can run all the way from the reservoir to the destination. However, temperature& pressure differential is dangerous and many fatal accidents have occurred in the history of their development and operation. These temperature& pressure difference have created stresses toward the shell. A pressure vessel is a closed container designed to hold gases or liquids material under internal or external pressure. Pressure vessels are designed to operate safely at a specific pressure and temperature technically referred to as the "Design Pressure" and "Design Temperature". Design code to design pressure vessel such as ASME sec VIII and BS standard. Pressure vessels may theoretically be almost any shape, but shapes made of se ctions of spheres, cylinders, and cones are usually employed. A common design is a cylinder with hemispherical end caps called heads.


Type of pressure vessel 1. Horizontal vessel on saddle support. a. Shell is primary component that contains pressure. Curved shape. b. Vessel always closed by head. c. Components typically welded together. d. Saddle supports used for horizontal vessel. - Spreads load over shell. - One support fixed, other slides. 2. Vertical vessel on leg support. a. Most head are curved shape for strength, thinness and economy. b. Semi-elliptical shape is most common head shape. c. Small vertical vessel typically supported by legs - Typically maximum 2:1 ratio of leg length to diameter. - Number, size and attachment details depend on loads. 3. Tall vertical tower. a. Nozzles used for: - Piping systems - Instrument connections - Manways - Attaching other equipment b. End typically flanged, maybe welded. c. Sometimes extend into vessel. 4. Vertical reactor. a. Skirt support typically used for tall vertical vessels: - Cylindrical shell. - Typically supported from grade b. General support design - Design for weight, wind, and earthquake. - Pressure not a factor. - Temperature also a consideration for material selection and thermal expansion.

5. Spherical pressurized storage vessel. a. Spherical storage vessels typically supported on legs. b. Cross-bracing typically used to absorb wind and earthquake loads.

6. Vertical vessel on lug support. a. Vessel size limits for lug supports: - 1-10 ft diameter. - 2:1 to 5:1 height/diameter ratio b. Vessel located above grade. c. Lugs bolted to horizontal structure. 3

Pressure vessel in oil& gas industry Applications in oil and gas production that use pressure vessel. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Pipe receiver and launcher Gas lift/ injection launcher and receiver Water injection launcher and receiver Production separator Degasser Electrostatic coalescer Hydrocyclone Scrubber Glycol contactor Flare knock-out drum Wet/dry air receiver and launcher Deaerator Closed/ opened drain vessel

Main components of pressure vessel


A. Generic Criteria in designing a pressure vessel (PV).
The following are the full steps to design a pressure vessel from the beginning, specification towards the end, shipment and operation.

1. General requirements for PV specification
I. P&ID drawing From the drawing, we can determine the type of, function and sizing of the PV which satisfy the process requirement. Moreover, the datasheet of every PV follows the P&ID. Datasheet All required information and figures for calculation Scope of Supply The supplier shall be responsible for the mechanical design, supply of material, manufacture, assembly, inspection, testing, painting, protection and delivery of the pressure vessel. Regulatory Approvals During or after the fabrication, the pressure vessel will be inspected and tested for 3rd party U stamp (for Div 1, allowed to be used for operation) such as ABS and DNV. These organisations have the license to do inspection and award the U stamp after completion. Design Life Design life shall be as per client specification. Location &Environmental Conditions The operating environmental conditions shall be specified to determine the protection of the pressure vessel from the wind (in case there is typhoon) and disasters (earth quake). The data will be used to design the best support for the vessel.



V. VI.

2. Design basis& manufacturing requirements
All these are the requirement of design basis in order to fabricate the process PV. They have to obey the ASME code standard thus it can be approved by the organization for operation. I. Thickness / pressure Based on datasheet, the supplier will calculate the allowable pressure and required wall thickness. Therefore, the dimension of the component can be determine and start the fabrication. The difference in pressure and thickness are based on operation temperature, stress and young modulus of material itself. The design temperature and pressure shall be the max value allowed. Below is the formula for required thickness and allowable pressure: Cylindrical shell (Longitudinal seam) Required wall thickness Allowable pressure Required wall thickness Allowable pressure Ellipsoidal head Required wall thickness Allowable pressure 

Sphere or cylindrical shell (circ. Seam) 


Torisperical head Add data Required wall thickness Allowable pressure Conical head Add data Required wall thickness Allowable pressure Flat ends Add data Required wall thickness Allowable pressure II. Manways Vessels that require access or inspection openings shall be equipped as follows: a. All vessels less than 450 mm and over 300 mm I.D. shall have at least two handholes or two plugged, threaded inspection openings of not less than NPS 11 2 (DN 40). b. All vessels 450 mm to 900 mm, inclusive, I.D. shall have a manhole or at least two handholes or two plugged, threaded inspection openings of not less than NPS 2 (DN 50). c. All vessels over 900 mm I.D. shall have a manhole, except that those whose shape or use makes one impracticable shall have at least two handholes 100 mm x 150 mm or two equal openings of equivalent area. An elliptical or obround manhole shall be not less 300mmx400 mm. A circular manhole shall be not less than 400 mm I.D. A handhole opening shall be not less 50mmx75mm, but should be as large as is consistent with the size of the vessel and the location of the opening. Lifting devices The size, weight and shape of the PV to be made must consider the available lifting device (carrier, lorry or crane). If the PV is very big, however there is no lifting device can lift it, thus the PV can not be transported to the operation site. Some PV are made on site because of the size are very big. Attachments/ Gauge Some attachments such as metering gauge (pressure or temperature), piping, and instruments have to be attached to PV. The designer will determine the location of the gauge which satisfies with the client. Reinforcement (reinforced pad) When the shell is holed for any attachment (nozzle or piping), there is increased stress toward the surface nearby the hole. To avoid from the force breaking the shell, the reinforcement welded to support the surface. Meanwhile the attachment will be welded on the reinforcement pad. Insulation The importance of insulation in PV is to maintain the heat inside the vessel. The heat is very important for PV boiler application, hence it has a layer of insulator inner shell to 6 d= end type = angle   








avoid the heat absorb out to the surrounding. Meanwhile, if the heat is not significant, the supplier will just build casing as protection in term of economic wise. Corrosion allowance For corrosive operation, the client will set corrosion allowance that supplier should meet by choosing the suitable material and corrosion protection (chemical inhibitor). Deflection For horizontal PV, the weight & pressure might cause deflection to the PV itself; hence the supplier will make sure the calculation of the saddle include the overall weight; PV and fluid. Meanwhile, the vertical PV might deflect due to wind load, inertia generate by the movement of the ship (ex FPSO) or earth quake. Therefore the supplier will include all these external force (wind, G force and seismic load) in the thickness calculation instead of the inner pressure thus the deflection only in the range below maximum allowable value. Support This support can counter extreme environmental conditions such as typhoon and earth quake which create vibration to the PV. Plate Plate in oil& gas PV commonly made of carbon steel and stainless steel. It will be rolled into cylindrical shape as PV shell and formed to make the head. The thickness of the plate is the main point in designing the pressure vessel. Pipe The external force and moments exerted by the attachment such as piping should be included in the calculation. The joint is another main thing in PV design beside of dimension and material. Forging Forging is a process which the material (commonly steel) is deformed by giving external force on it. The forging steel is harder and stronger than the machined cut steel (mild steel) due to difference in grain structure. Flanges Flange is an interface between nozzle and pipe. It made of forged steel or mild steel (ASTM A105N). There are 6 types of flange, however only two types commonly use in oil and gas PV application: y Slip-on (use in oil& gas) y Welding neck (preferred in oil& gas) y Socket welding y Threaded y Lap-joint y Blind Bolting Bolt and nut joint the flange. The material for bolt is ASTM A193-B7 PTFE Coated; and the material for nut is ASTM A194-2H PTFE Coated. Gaskets Gasket is used between flange to enhance the bolted joint and avoid leakage. There are two types of gasket material used based on flow pressure: a. Below 150 pound CNAF b. Below 300 pound SS316, Graphite Filled, SS316 Inner Ring & CS Outer Ring

3. Components for fabrication of PV






4. Material selection
The selection of construction materials for Code pressure vessels has to be made from Code approved material specifications. It usually specifies the most economical materials of low 7

first cost and/ or low future maintenance cost that will be satisfactory under operating conditions and will meet other requirements. There are many factors must be considered in selecting the most suitable materials including: a. b. c. d. e. f. Corrosion resistance in the service corrosive environment Strength requirements for design temperature and pressure Cost Ready market availability Fabricability Quality of future maintenance.

Generally, process equipment is designed for a certain minimum service life under specific operating conditions. Typical design lives are given below for several types of petrochemical equipment: a. 20 years: fractionating tower, reactors, high pressure heat exchanger shells and other major equipment which is hard to replace. b. 10-15 years: carbon steel drums, removable reactor parts and alloy or carbon steel tower internal c. 5-10 years: carbon-steel piping, heat exchanger tube bundles and various process column internals. Basically the vessels are specialized to adapt with two different services. Therefore, we can save money in material selection which uses the material specific to the working operation. The typical service for pressure vessels are: I. Noncorrosive service In addition to corrosion resistance, the fundamental material selection criteria are design temperature and design pressure. So basically, the materials are selected based on operating temperature. There are 3 level of temperature: a. Low temperature low alloy and fine-grain carbon steels which tested for notch toughness and are found to perform satisfactory. b. Intermediate temperature low carbon steels are sufficient which they behave essentially in elastic manner; that is the structure returns to its original dimensions when applied forces are removed and maximum stress is below than the yield point. c. Elevated temperature mechanical changes in mechanical properties occur in steels. They begin to exhibit a drop in ultimate and yield strength and cease to be elastic, becoming partly plastic.



Corrosive services For high corrosive operation, commonly we use stainless steel for petro-chemical plant. Since the price of stainless steel is very high, which triple of the carbon steel, there are three method of attaching the alloy to the carbon steel plate: a. Integrally applied cladding integrally clad or roll clad is fabricated in a steel mill by hot rolling of assemblies of carbon or low alloy steel plates (backing) and corrosion resistant sheet (linear) which have been welded at the edges. b. Strip or sheet lining (explosion cladding) The stainless steel which can not use conventional welding such as titanium steel are attached to the plate using explosion method. c. Weld overlay cladding. The stainless steel which can be weld using conventional welding is weld on the plate line by line until the surfaces are totally covered up. Bolting materials a. Bolt for pressure connections Bolting materials for pressure connections must conform to the specifications listed in the Code. Bolts are designed not only for strength but also for tightness at the joints. In order to prevent leakage of a bolted



joint, the total force exerted by the bolts must exceed the sum of the force due to the operating fluid pressure and the force necessary to keep the joint tight. b. Bolt for structural connections bolting for structural non pressure parts is designed for strength only, since the tightness of the joint is not important.

5. Fabrication
I. Shell The shell commonly made of carbon steel and stainless steel. The steel plate rolling process will make it become cylindrical shaped. Because there is limitation in forming and rolling machine width, thus the design should be based on the available width, meaning the PV shall be divided into several parts. Heads There are several types of head: a. Semi ellipsoidal b. Torispherical c. Hemispherical d. Flat e. Conical The head is formed into shapes by two types of forming: a. Hot formed heads are formed at temperature suitable to the material. This method basically to reduce residual stresses, to temper or soften the material itself. Typically carbon steel heads are hot formed at 899oC and stainless steels are hot formed at 1038oC. b. Cold formed heat treatment is usually required after cold forming to remove brittleness including stress relief. Nozzle The nozzle existence will affect PV load calculation. The loads are strictly forces and moments imposed on the nozzle by the attached piping. Before applying these load numbers, check the piping layout connected to the nozzle to make assumption about the loading combination. Then, refer to supplier/fabricator range of dimension which suit with load.














b. Type of weld i. roov w d A ty e of we that cons sts of an opening between two part s rfaces which provides space to contain we d metal. Groove welds are used on all joints e cept lap joints. Groove weld can be subdivided according to the edge conditions.

9 0'




A #



%$ #" &




'0 % 1

$ 2 $2

%$ #" 8 &



" #$



% ($ 3

e s


e y se s e s cesses e e e e

c e s

c s s e e e

y seve y e ec c



( "'0 7



"' $6 2

( 7

$ % ($ 3 ( ' 2 2 %$ 0 2 8 1 7 7 1 0 ' $ %$ #" "'$0 3#%$ # 8 & 1

9 " % %'6 0 ) 0 2 ( 1 1 & 1

cess e

ses e

ess e

c e

c s





0( # %' 4 0 3 5

0) 4 ' 2 1

3 '2 1 1

(0) %$%$( ' $ %$#" & & !

a. Weldin ethod We s j e s e e
8 1 "'$0 '6 1 2 @ 


¨¢ ¦







Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)


Submerged arc welding (SAW)


Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)


Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW)


Gas Welding


Resistance Welding

£ ¥¨






¨¢§ ¢¨ 

¥¤¥¤ ¨ ¦ 

¤  ¥¤ ¨ ¤ ¨ ¥¤ £    ¦

¢ ¥¨  §©¤   ¥ R



¨¢ §


¥¤ £¢ ¦ ¢ 7 




Weldin We ys e ec e



Type of groo e weld ii. Fillet Weld A fillet weld is a weld with an approximately triangular cross section, joining two surfaces at right angles.


Plug weld A plug is a circular weld made either by arc or gas welding through one member of a lap or tee joint.



Some form of welded joint in combination with different weld types c. Welding process. i. Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) This form of welding is widely used. The heat for welding is produced by the resistance of the arc air gap to the flow of electric current. Also called stick electrode welding, SMAW is almost always done manually. As the electrode heats, the core wire which conducts the current to the arc melts and provides filler metal for the welded joint. The coating of the electrode breaks down to form a gaseous shield for the arc and weld puddle as well as small amount of slag, which protects the weld as it cools. Shielding is very important for the quality of weld, since it prevents the loss of alloying elements during the transfer of molten metal through the arc. Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) This process, almost always fully automatic, is used in the fabrication of main vessel seams. It gives excellent welds at low cost. However, it can be used for horizontal positions only. A continuous consumable wire coil is used as electrode. Weld puddle and arc are protected by liquid slag, formed form granular mineral flux deposited ahead of the arc. Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) A consumable continuous wire is used as an electrode which melts and supplies the filler metal for the welded joint. A protective shield of inert gases (helium, argon, CO2, or a mixture of gases) is used. The process produces excellent welds at less cost than the GTAW process (see below) with higher weld deposition rate. Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) This process is used when the highest-quality welding with difficult to weld metals is required. An arc is formed by a nonconsumable tungsten electrode, which carries the electric current; the filler metal, if required, is added 13




separately form a rod or a continuous wire. Inert gas flows around the arc and the weld puddle to protect the hot metal. v. Gas Welding Heat of fusion is generated by burning a flame of gas with oxygen. Different gases are used, as described below: a. The oxyhydrogen process (OHW) uses hydrogen for combustion. b. The oxyacetylene process (OAW) uses acetylene gas: - Flame cutting - Flame machining Resistance Welding The heat of fusion is generated by the resistance at the interface to the flow of electric current. No shielding is required. Pressure must be applied for good metal joining. Resistance spot welding (RSW) or resistance seam welding (RSEW) are used to fix corrosion-resistant linings to the wall of a vessel shell.





Heat Treatment Heat treatment intended to be done on individual parts of a vessel after they have been shaped for assembly. Post hotwork/ coldwork heat treatment (heating about 2/3 of material melting temperature) followed by natural cooling to remove the residual stress. Clad Construction Integrally clad materials are used for fabricating equipment of reactive metals economically, robustly and durably. Bonding these materials onto lower cost, stronger backers extends the economical service of these materials into higher pressures and temperatures and more challenging service environments than are feasible with solid alloy construction. Tolerances. The entire components have their percentage of permissible dimensional difference which provided in the code.

6. Inspection, examination and testing.
The inspection must be run during the fabrication. This because to ensure the vessel is in the best quality and satisfy with the required operating requirement.

Inspection and Test Plan (ITP) It is basically the test planning before the fabrication of the pressure vessel. Refer Table 1 for an example of ITP


Material Identification and Certification i. Material Make sure the materials that supplied by the suppliers are as stated in the datasheet. Dimensional The inspectors have to ensure that the dimension of all fabricated plate, shell, nozzle and head are same as stated in the datasheet. Sizing This matter also same with above. Running of size is the biggest problem during fabrication. It will lead to other problems. I.e. leakage and deform. 14



ƒ i.

Inspection and Examination NDT Visual& opti al testing Must be performed in suitable conditions, however, fine crac s may remain invisible. Magneti parti le examination (MT) It is the best method for the detection of fine surface crac s. This method is the most sensitive and it reveals many crac s that are not detected by other methods with a lower defect sensitivity. AC yoke WMFT is preferred over DC or prod methods. DC methods are not as sensitive and prod methods may leave arc strikes that, if not ground out, can serve as crack initiators. Ultrasoni examination (UT) With straight and angle-beam probes is the main method for the detection of subsurface and deeper surface defects of sufficient size. UT shear waves, longitudinal waves, and crack-tip diffraction ultrasonic inspections are used. UT may also be used for the examination of a vessel under pressure without discharging of the liquid gas from the vessel. Radiographi testing (RT) It is used incases of volume defects revealed by ultrasonic as an additional method for the characterization the defects. Incases of weld repair, it is always recommended to use RT. Dye-penetrant examination (PT) It is used only occasionally, is less sensitive than MT, it is however, easier to perform. In case, some complicated areas that MT, UT and RT are not accessible, the PT is used. ii.






RT setup

Hydrostatic test During a hydrostatic test, a pressure vessel is placed inside a closed system, usually a test jacket filled with water, and a specified internal water pressure is applied to the container inside this closed system. The applied internal pressure causes an expansion of the container being tested, and the total and permanent expansion that the container undergoes is measured. This volumetric expansion measurement, in conjunction with an internal and external visual inspection of the container, are used to determine if a pressure vessel is safe for continued use, or has suffered from a degradation in its structural integrity and must be condemned.

7. Marking
The manufacturer s markings on a pressure vessel include information regarding the date of manufacture, the manufacturers name or registered mark, the serial number of the unit and the specification or exemption to which the container complies. For pressure vessels that have been re-qualified one or more times, additional markings indicate the date(s) of any previous hydrostatic retests and identification markings of the retest facility.


8. Preservation and protection for shipment.
This preservation and protection basically to protect the pressure vessel from accidental deformation, leakage and rust initiator during transportation to the site. The vessel might be very big and heavy thus very dangerous to residential if something happen. The action below taken to overcome this matter: y Rust Prevention. y Protection and safety during delivery. y Transport Saddles.


Table 1 (from inspection, examination and testing)