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LIBERA UNIVERSITÀ DEGLI STUDI DELLA SICILIA CENTRALE KORE ENNA

thesis in

The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt
(the conservation of the Italian residential buildings)

By

Mohamed Ali Mohamed Khalil

Supervisors

Prof. Teotista Panzeca Prof. Emanuela Garofalo Prof. Daniela Villari
Thesis submitted to University Kore of Enna to obtain Second level master degree in architecture restoration A.A. 2008-2009

Supervisors

Thesis title:

The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt
(the conservation of the Italian residential buildings)

Researcher name:

Mohamed Ali Mohamed Khalil
Assistant lecturer, Department of Architectural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, Egypt.

Supervisors
name Prof. Teotista Panzeca Prof. Emanuela Garofalo Prof. Daniela Villari profession signature

The Master Director

The president of Kore University

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Examination Committee

Thesis title:

The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt
(the conservation of the Italian residential buildings)

Mohamed Ali Mohamed Khalil Researcher name:
Assistant lecturer, Department of Architectural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, Egypt.

Supervisors
name profession signature

Prof. Teotista Panzeca Prof. Emanuela Garofalo Prof. Daniela Villari

Examination Committee
Name profession signature

The Master Director

The president of Kore University

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The researcher would like to express his sincere and profound gratitude to the following persons and instituutions who, in many ways have generously contributed to the successful completion of the study: Prof. Teotista Panzeca, the director of the course. for his sincere concern, assistance and for his continues support. Prof. Emanuela Garofalo & Prof. Daniela Villari, the research supervisors. for their invaluable suggestions in the improvement of the study, this humble research would not have been completed with out their support. Prof. Infranca, Prof . M. Al-KHouri, Prof. M. Salerno, Prof. L. Zito, Dr. Messina. the scientific Committee of the course for their support and cooperation. University Kore of Enna, for offering this generous grant and for care and supporting during the course.

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To Prof. T. Panzeca my Parents My Gulfillmrnt and preseverance wife Eman My sweetheart son Eiad

With love and respect

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ABSTRACT
Thesis title:

The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt
(the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Mohamed Ali Mohamed Khalil Assistant lecturer, Department of Architectural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, Egypt.

Researcher:

Second level master degree in architecture restoration (2008-2009) University Kore of Enna, Sicily, Italy.
Supervisors: Prof. Teotista Panzeca, Prof. Manuela Garofalo, Prof. Daniela Villari

This research is an integral part of a study that conceived to further awareness of the long history of cultural relations between Italy and the Italian culture and Egypt to create new spaces of comparison and bolster shared interests so as to enhance the already-existing climate of collaboration and mutual understanding. The research problem is that most of European residential buildings that shapes the city center of most Egyptian cities suffer from the lack of protection because many of them are private and they are not considered till now as monuments by the Egyptian laws and also there is no maintenance or restoration programs to this kind of building. The research aims to highlight the importance of the nineteenth and early twentieth century residential buildings made by Italians in Alexandria. Determine the deterioration in these buildings and what is the basic maintenance procedures that can done to protect them. And to make some documentation of these building to make it easy for a future rehabilitation. The study concentrate on the residential buildings at Alexandria, Egypt designed or built Italian architects and engineers from the nineteenth and early twentieth century till now. The research consists of three parts and one appendix. The first part contains the historical study and include three chapters; the first illustrates the history of the city of Alexandria from the city's founding by Alexander the great in 331 BC till the beginning of the twenty-one century to identify the influence of Alexandrian history on it’s built environment, the second chapter studies the Italian architects at Egypt and their contributions to the Egyptian architecture and modern heritage, And the third chapter concentrates on the residential building made by Italian in Alexandria to illustrate its importance in the Alexandrian heritage. The second part of the research contains the theoretical study about damage diagnosis on stone buildings and includes two chapters; the first one illustrates the in-site investigation and laboratory studies and the comprehensive documentation important in the field of stone monument preservation. And at the end of the study there is one appendix about weathering forms on stone buildings with photos about each form. And the second chapter studies the structural types of failure and interventions in stone building in the critical parts that may suffer from structural problems.

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The third part includes the applied study on Alexandrian heritage and consists of two chapters; the first one studies the current situation, the problems and the Future of Alexandrian built environment and some examples of rehabilitation of building in Alexandria city center, and the second chapter is a case study of El Manshieh or “Mohamed Ali Square” which is one of the main commercial districts at Alexandria city center and was redesigned by Italian architect, also the square contains now five Italian buildings three of them are private residence. The study of the Italian buildings in the square illustrate the current situation of the buildings and the problems that they suffer from. The research concluded that the Alexandrian built heritage as all suffer from neglecting and are threaten with elimination and destruction due to mainly economical condition that leads to lack of maintenance and that are more presented at the private residential building because there isn’t clear vision to mange and protect those building, And if their isn’t immediate movement to protect and conserve that heritage it will disappear soon.

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Table of contents
Contents Page No. viii viii viii viii viii viii viii 1 3 3 4 7 9 12 12 14 18 18 22 29 29 39 42 43 43 44 46 48 48 48 50 51 51 52 52 52

preface. Introduction. Research problem. Aim of the research. Hypotheses. Geographic limitation and scope of study. Research organization.

1- Historical study.
1-1- History of Alexandria. 1-1-1- Hellenistic Alexandria (332 BC-30 BC). 1-1-2- Ptolemaic Dynasty (305 BC-30 BC). 1-1-3- Roman Annexation and the Byzantine Period (30 BC-641). 1-1-4- Early Islamic Period (639-1250). 1-1-5-Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt (1250-1517). 1-1-6-The Ottomans and Muhammad 'Ali Pasha (1517-1882). 1-1-7-British Occupation and Contemporary Alexandria (1882-2009). 1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt. 1-2-1- The first Italian architects and engineers in Egypt. 1-2-2- The pursuit of modern architecture for Egypt. 1-3- Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment: 1-3-1- Italian architects and private residential buildings. 1-3-2- Italian contributions in modern Alexandria.

2- Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings.
2-1- In site investigation and laboratory studies. 2-1-1- Documentation within the scope of anamnesis. 2-1-2- Documentation within the scope of diagnosis. 2-1-3- Mapping of weathering forms. 2-1-4- Therapeutical steps.
2-1-4-1- Preconsolidation. 2-1-4-2- cleaning. 2-1-4-3- sealing – plastering. 2-1-4-4- consolidation. 2-1-4-5- protection.

2-2- Structural failure and interventions in stone building. 2-2-1- Mechanism of break down in stone building.
2-2-1-1- Mode (I): Failure due to the collapse of the façade. viii

Contents 2-2-1-2- Mode (II): Failure due to the wall bending. 2-2-1-3- Mode (III): Failure due to the wall cut. 2-2-1-4- Collapse on the isolated walls.

2-2-2- Structural improvement integrations in stone building.
2-2-2-1- Reinforcement of the structure with steel. 2-2-2-2- Interventions on the wooden beams. 2-2-2-3- Interventions on the wooden roofs. 2-2-2-4- Recovery of arches and vaults.

Page No. 52 53 54 55 55 56 58 59 62 63 63 67 67 68 69 69 70 71 71 73 73 75 75 78 79 81 82 83 86 88 88 90 92 94 95

3- Applied study on Alexandrian heritage.
3-1- Future of Alexandrian built environment. 3-1-1- Mutations in Alexandria built environment. 3-1-2- Selected examples of recent architectural restoration and renovation projects in Alexandria.
3-1-2-1- Villa Bassili - Alexandria National Museum (re-use). 3-1-2-2- Rehabilitation and Restoration of the Mohamed A1i Theater. 3-1-2-3- Mohamed A1i Club (renovation and re-use). 3-1-2-4- The branches of the National Bank of Egypt. 3-1-2-5- Palazzina Aghion (renovation and re-use). 3-1-2-6- Cinema Amir - Twentieth Century Fox (transformation).

3-1-3- Principle guidelines for architectural conservation 3-2- Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”. 3-2-1- History of the square “place d’armes”. 3-2-2- Current Situation of “Ahmed Orabi & Manshieh Squares”.
3-2-2-1- Okalle Monferato. 3-2-2-2- Mixed Tribunals. 3-2-2-3- Okalle Menasce. 3-2-2-4- Waqf Yacoub Dahan. 3-2-2-5- Ismail Monument (unknown soldier).

Conclusion
References

Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings.
Group 1 - Loss of stone material. Group 2 – Discoloration / Deposits. Group 3 – Detachment. Group 4 – Fissures / deformation. Recearcher C.V.

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List of Tables
Table No. Table (A-1) Table (2-1) Table (2-2) Table (2-3) Description of the Table Italian Community population statistics. Items of documentation within the scope of anamnesis. Scales of stone deterioration. Items of documentation within the scope of diagnosis. Page No. x 44 44 45

List of Figures
Figure No. Description of the figure Page No.

1- Historical study.
1-1- History of Alexandria.
Fig (1-1) Fig (1-2) Fig (1-3) Fig (1-4) Fig (1-5) Fig (1-6) Fig (1-7) Fig (1-8) Fig (1-9) Fig (1-10) Fig (1-11) Fig (1-12) Fig (1-13) Fig (1-14) Fig (1-15) Fig (1-16) Fig (1-17) Fig (1-18) Fig (1-19) Fig (1-20) Fig (1-21) Fig (1-22) Fig (1-23) Fig (1-24) Fig (1-25) Fig (1-26) Fig (1-27) Fig (1-28) Fig (1-29) Fig (1-30) The Palestrina a roman mosaic. Map of classical Alexandria by Dr.Tassos Neroutsous. Imaginary sketch of the lighthouse of Alexandria. Imaginary sketch and prespective of library of Alexandria. plans of Serapeum reconstruction Ptolemaic and Roman phase. photos of Pompey column, (Amoud al Sawary) at Kom al-Shugafa. Site plan of Kom el Dikka. photos Roman Theatre Restoration at Kom Al-Dikka. Plans, site plan and Elevations of the mosque of 1000Columns. Map of Alexandria by J. Helffrich 1566. Map of Alexandria in the late Roman period by A. Adriani. Photos of Fort Qaitbey. Daguerreotype and photo of Ras el Tin palace. Map of the Turkish town by the French Expedition in 1798-1801. Map of contemporary Alexandria. panorama view and photos of corniche of Alexandria. Photos of the Montaza Royal palace. Photos of the Bibliotheca Alexandrina. 2 3 4 6 7 7 8 9 10 11 11 12 13 14 15 15 16 16 18 19 19 20 20 21 22 22 22 23 23 24

1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt.
Old postcards of Place des Consuls in late 19th century. Photos of the entrance of Ras el Tin palace and detail of coat of arms. Old postcards (1883) of “Stock exchange- Borsa”. Plan and photo of the Bourse of Minet el Bassal. Photo of the Zizinia theatre. Drawings of the proposal for the competition of a theatre in Alexandria. Photo of sabil-Kuttab Al-Walda. Photo of the Tossiza palace. Photos of Al-Rifaiy Mosque (the tombs of Royal family). photos of Haramlek- Montazah palace. photo of castle Mackenzie, Genoa and Montazah palace, Alexandria. Photos of Misr Bank in Mohammad Farid street in Cairo.

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Figure No. Fig (1-31) Fig (1-32) Fig (1-33) Fig (1-34) Fig (1-35) Fig (1-36) Fig (1-37) Fig (1-38) Fig (1-39) Fig (1-40) Fig (1-41) Fig (1-42) Fig (1-43) Fig (1-44) Fig (1-45) Fig (1-46) Fig (1-47) Fig (1-48) Fig (1-49) Fig (1-50) Fig (1-51) Fig (1-52) Fig (1-53) Fig (1-54) Fig (1-55) Fig (1-56) Fig (1-57)

Description of the figure Elevations and photo of Al-Mursi abu Al-Abbas Mosque. Plan of Al-Mursi abu Al-Abbas Mosque. photos of Qaid Ibrahim Mosque. Photo and plan of El sayed Mohamed Korayem Mosque.

Page No. 24 25 26 26 29 30 30 31 31 32 33 34 34 34 35 35 36 36 37 37 37 38 38 38 38 38 38

1-3- Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment:
Photo of The palace of Count Zizinia. Photos of place d' Armes before and after the bombardment of 1882. plan of the Place des Consuls in late 19th century. Photo and plans of Villa Lutzzatto Pasha. Photo and plans of Palazzina Pini Bey. Elevations, Photo and plans of “Mixed Tribunals”. Photos, Elevations and plans of “okalle Monfrato”. Photo of “Primi Building”. Photo of “Societe des immeubles d’Egypte”, at Rue Sherif. Photo, and plans of “Gallery Menasce”. Photo, Elevation and plans of “Palazzina Aghion”. Photos of “Villa mazloum Pasha”. Photo, Elevation and plans of “Villa laurens”. Photos of “Villa H. Lindeman. ” and “villa Baron J.De Menasce”. Photos of building on Venice style awarded the Municipality Prize. Photo of “ElNokaly apartment building”. Photo of “Cecil Hotel”. Photo of “M. Saleh building”. Photo of “Heikal apartment building”. Photo of “Villa Adda”. Photo of “Villa Awad and Abani”. Photo of “Fumaroli building” on Avenue Fouad I. Photo of “fumaroli building” on Rue Sherif.

2- Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings.
2-1- In site investigation and laboratory studies.
Fig (2-1) Fig (2-2) Fig (2-3) Fig (2-4) Fig (2-5) Fig (2-6) Fig (2-7) Fig (2-8) Fig (2-9) Fig (2-10) Fig (2-11) Fig (2-12) Fig (2-13) Fig (2-14) Fig (2-15) Diagram of the approach to monument preservation. Diagram of the three categories of diagnosis. drawing of Lithological mapping “monastery of Benedettini, Catania”. Classification of weathering forms. diagram of definitions of damage categories. Map of damage categories. photos of Preconsolidation presses. photo of vegetable disinfestations. photos of cleaning with nebulized and atomized water. photos of cleaning with absorbing materials. photos of cleaning with mechanic method and micro sand blasting. photos of cleaning with laser. photos of sealing process with stone mortar. photos of integrations of small elements that are broken or lost. photos of consolidation of fragile materials and separated parts. 43 45 46 47 47 47 48 48 49 49 49 50 50 50 51

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Figure No. Fig (2-16) Fig (2-17) Fig (2-18) Fig (2-19) Fig (2-20) Fig (2-21) Fig (2-22) Fig (2-23) Fig (2-24) Fig (2-25) Fig (2-26) Fig (2-27) Fig (2-28) Fig (2-29) Fig (2-30) Fig (2-31) Fig (2-32) Fig (2-33) Fig (2-34) Fig (2-35) Fig (2-36) Fig (2-37) Fig (2-38) Fig (2-39) Fig (2-40) Fig (2-41) Fig (2-42) Fig (2-43) Fig (2-44) Fig (2-45)

Description of the figure

Page No. 52 52 52 53 53 53 54 54 54 55 55 55 56 56 56 57 57 57 58 58 58 59 59 59 59 59 59 60 60 61

2-2- Structural failure and interventions in stone building.
photo and diagram of the Failure due to the collapse of the façade. photos of building at “Messina, Sicily” after the earthquake (1908). photo the cracks in the connection between the façade and the building. photo and diagram of the Failure due to the wall bending. photos of buildings at “Messina, Sicily” after the earthquake (1908). photo and diagram of the Failure due to the wall cut. photos of buildings at “Messina, Sicily” after the earthquake (1908). photos of Collapse on the isolated walls. photos of cracks on the isolated walls due to over loading. photos and sketch of using steel bar in ancient buildings. photos of the corrosion of old steel bars that damage the nearby stones. Sketches of using steel bar inserted at the corners of the building. photos of the steel bars inserted at the top corners of outer walls photos of using steel bar in case of deferent thickness in the walls. Sketches of using steel bar in case of deferent thickness in the walls. photos of damages on old wood beams that support the roofs. Sketches of using steel cases to support wooden beams. photos of the steel cases that contain the wooden beams. photos of upper cover of the steel cases that prevent it from sliding . Sketches of wooden truss supported on stone arches. Sketches of wooden beam of the truss directly supported on the walls. photos of the wooden beams supported only on the walls. photo of the intermediate connection of the beams throw steel part. photo of covering the roof with thin layer of wood. photos of the final finishing layer supported on sheets of isolation. photo of crack in the arch and separation between it’s stones. photo of supporting the arches during the restoration process. Sketches of supporting the arch, and replacement of damaged parts. photos of connecting the carrying walls of the arch or vaults with steel. Sketches of supporting the loads above the arch during restoration.

3- Applied study.
3-1- Future of Alexandrian built environment.
Fig (3-1) Fig (3-2) Fig (3-3) Fig (3-4) Fig (3-5) Fig (3-6) Fig (3-7) Fig (3-8) Fig (3-9) Fig (3-10) Fig (3-11) Fig (3-12) Photos of “High and Low conventional style” in Alexandria. Photos of badly conceived addition: Faculty of agriculture, Alexandria. Photo of “Art studio of Gilda Ambron” in Ruins. Photo of “Villa Baron de Menasce” demolished. Photo of “Villa Aldo Ambron” in Ruins. Plan and Photo of “Graeco-Roman museum” in Alexandria. Photo of buildings at city center in Alexandria. Photo of details in buildings at city center in Alexandria. Photo of buildings at city center in Alexandria. Photo of buildings at city center in Alexandria. Photo of buildings at city center in Alexandria. Photos of “Villa Bassili” before and after renovation. 63 64 64 64 64 65 66 66 66 67 67 68

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Figure No. Fig (3-13) Fig (3-14) Fig (3-15) Fig (3-16) Fig (3-17) Fig (3-18) Fig (3-19) Fig (3-20) Fig (3-21) Fig (3-22) Fig (3-23) Fig (3-24) Fig (3-25) Fig (3-26) Fig (3-27) Fig (3-28) Fig (3-29) Fig (3-30) Fig (3-31) Fig (3-32) Fig (3-33) Fig (3-34) Fig (3-35) Fig (3-36) Fig (3-37) Fig (3-38) Fig (3-39) Fig (3-40) Fig (3-41)

Description of the figure Photos of “Cordahi Complex” before and after renovation. Photos of piazza and façade of “Mohamed Ali theatre”. Photos of “Mohamed Ali club” before and after renovation. Photos of “Banco di Roma” before and after renovation. Photos of “bank of Athens” before and after renovation. Photos of “palazzina Aghion” before and after renovation.

Page No. 68 69 69 70 70 71 73 73 74 74 74 75 75 76 76 77 78 78 78 79 79 80 80 80 81 81 81 82 82

3-2- Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”.
Old postcards of Place des Consuls in late 19th century Photos of Place des Consuls in late 19th century Panoramic view of Manshieh and Liberation square. Panoramic view of Manshieh and Liberation square. Photos of “Manshieh square” showing the status of “Mohamed Ali”. Part of Alexandria’s Google earth map. Photos of ‘Okalle Monferato” at Manshieh square. Photos of disfiguring the building façade by the shop windows Photos of the structural problems at the top Cornish. Photos of the bad conditions of the internal court. Photos of the iron dome that cover the main court. Photos of the interventions by the users by adding some coverings. Photos of “Mixed Tribunals” at Manshieh square. Photos of the side facades that suffer from degradation. Photos of “Okalle Menasce” at Manshieh square. Photos of disfiguring the building Entrance and main façade Photos of the deterioration in the internal façade on the main court. Photos of damage and degradation of the wooden roof of the staircase. Old photo of “Waqf Yacoub Dahan” at Manshieh square.
Photos of current situation of “Waqf Yacoub Dahan” at Manshieh. Photos of disfiguring the building façade by the shop windows. Photos of the constructions added on the roof. Photos of the original and current state of “Ismail Monument”.

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preface.
1- Historical study. 1-1- History of Alexandria. 1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt. 1-3- Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment: 2- Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings. 2-1- In site investigation and laboratory studies. 2-2- Structural failure and interventions in stone building. 3- Applied study on Alexandrian heritage. 3-1- Future of Alexandrian built environment. 3-2- Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”. Conclusion References Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings.

The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Preface ______________________________________________________________________________________ Preface

___________________________________________________________________________

Introduction
This research is an integral part of a study that conceived to further awareness of the long history of cultural relations between Italy and the Italian culture and Egypt to create new spaces of comparison and bolster shared interests so as to enhance the already-existing climate of collaboration and mutual understanding. Egypt, along with Turkey and Tunisia, is one of the three countries of the eastern and southern shore of the Mediterranean that have recorded the strongest presence of Italian architects and engineers. Italy and other European countries had a numerous contribution to Egyptian architecture and city planning over a period of almost two centuries. It is exceptional in terms of the quantity and quality of projects and realizations: from nineteenthcentury plans for the European core of Alexandria to the eclecticism swinging between Venetian neo-gothic, Florentine neo-fifteenth century and Roman neo-sixteenth-century styles of buildings constructed for the Italian community and its representative institutions; from the modernism of the years around the turn of the century to the re-occurring eclecticism of the sumptuous residences of Cairo's young aristocracy as well as royal palaces; from the Art Deco of the 1920s to the rationalism of the second half of the 1930s; from postWorld War II urban planning studies and projects for the country's tourist development, the safe guarding of Pharaoh’s monuments and the improvement of museum structures to the substantial Italian participation in international competitions for the Alexandrian Library and the Great Egyptian Museum of Giza1. Many works that marked significant milestones in Egyptian architecture from the second half of the Nineteenth Century were planned by Italians. Their activity in the public and religious architecture sector over the course of the Twentieth Century was particularly remarkable, numbering several hundred mosques (Mario Rossi alone designed 260 mosques for various Egyptian cities) and their participation expand the private sector not only in the royal palaces but also in designing many apartments and villas for private residence. The contribution of the Italian architects and Engineers was a result of the political, economical and cultural changes, that leads to start in Egypt the “importation” of European architecture, with regard not only to official buildings but also to residential private buildings, in the city center of Cairo, Alexandria and some neighborhoods in most of the Egyptian cities with a high concentration of foreign and specially Italian inhabitants. The next table shows the Italian Community population statistics during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, from that we noticed that Alexandria had about (50%) of the Italian migration in Egypt. Also it had a significant and noticeable presence of Italian architect and contractors whom shaped the architecture of modern Alexandria.
Table (A-1)Italian Community population statistics

Year 1871 1882 1897 1907 1917 1927 1937

Egypt 13906 14251 24454 34926 40198 52462 47706

Cairo 3367 4969 8670 13296 15655 18571 16443

Alexandria 7539 11579 11743 16669 17860 24280 22881

Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria"p.95) & ( Awad, Mohamed F. "Italian Influence on Alexandria's Architecture (1834-1985)." P.77)

1

Frattini, Franco. Italian minister of foreign affairs, introduction for the project “Mediterranean Crossroads”.

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The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Preface ______________________________________________________________________________________ Preface

___________________________________________________________________________ Because of the good organization and efficiency of constructors, and also as a consequence of geographic proximity, there was a special link with Italian architecture in that period. Many Italian architects were involved in the design of these buildings, and some Italian contractors, builders and handicrafts were employed in their construction. Most of these residence buildings still exist and represent a significant part of Alexandrian architectural heritage, but they are threatened with elimination because of neglecting and lack of maintenance.

Research problem:
• At the present the most of European residential buildings that shapes the city center of most Egyptian cities suffer from the lack of protection because many of them are private and they are not considered till now as monuments by the Egyptian laws and also there is no maintenance or restoration programs to this kind of building.

Aim of the research:
• To enlightenment with importance of the nineteenth and early twentieth century residential buildings made by Italians in Alexandria. • Determine the deterioration in these buildings and what is the basic maintenance procedures that can done to protect them. • Make some documentation of these building to make it easy for a future rehabilitation.

Hypotheses:
• Making documentation of these building will keep this kind of architecture from getting lost. • With continues maintenance to these building we can prevent them from elimination and reduce the cost of restoration.

Geographic limitation and scope of study:
The study will concentrate on the residential buildings at Alexandria, Egypt designed or built Italian architects and engineers from the nineteenth and early twentieth century till now.

Research organization:
The study consists of three parts and one appendix; The first part contains the historical study and include three chapters; the first illustrates the history of the city of Alexandria, the second chapter studies the Italian architects at Egypt and the third chapter concentrates on the residential building made by Italian in Alexandria. The second part contains the theoretical study about damage diagnosis on stone buildings and includes two chapters; the first one illustrates the in-site investigation and laboratory studies, and the second chapter studies the structural types of failure and interventions in stone building. The third part includes the applied study on Alexandrian heritage and consists of two chapters; the first one studies the current situation, the problems and the Future of Alexandrian built environment, and the second chapter is a case study of El Manshieh or “Mohamed Ali Square” to study the Italian buildings in the square and to illustrate its current situation. And at the end of the study there is one appendix about Weathering forms on stone buildings with photos about each form.

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preface.

1- Historical study.
1-1- History of Alexandria. 1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt. 1-3- Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment: 2- Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings. 2-1- In site investigation and laboratory studies. 2-2- Structural failure and interventions in stone building. 3- Applied study on Alexandrian heritage. 3-1- Future of Alexandrian built environment. 3-2- Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”. Conclusion References Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings.

The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (1): Historical study ____________________________________________________________________________________________________

Part one: Historical study.
This part contains the historical study and include three chapters; the first illustrates the history of the city of Alexandria from the city's founding by Alexander the great in 331 BC till the beginning of the twenty-one century to identify the influence of Alexandrian history on it’s built environment, the second chapter studies the Italian architects at Egypt and their contributions to the Egyptian architecture and modern heritage, And the third chapter concentrates on the residential building made by Italian in Alexandria to illustrate its importance in the Alexandrian heritage.

Introduction:
Alexandria extends about 32 km (20 miles) along the coast of the Mediterranean sea in northcentral Egypt. It is home to the Bibliotheca Alexandrina (the new Library), and is an important industrial center because of its natural gas and oil pipelines from Suez, another city in Egypt. Alexandria was also an important trading post between Europe and Asia, because it profited from the easy overland connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. In ancient times, Alexandria was one of the most famous cities in the world. It was founded around a small pharaonic town c. 334 BC by Alexander III of Macedon. It remained Egypt's capital for nearly a thousand years, until the Muslim conquest of Egypt in 641 AD when a new capital was founded at Fustat (Fustat was later absorbed into Cairo). Alexandria was known because its lighthouse (Pharos) – one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World –, its library (the largest library in the ancient world) and the Catacombs of Kom el Shoqafa (one of the Seven Wonders of the Middle Ages). Ongoing maritime archaeology in the harbor of Alexandria, which began in 1994, is revealing details of Alexandria both before the arrival of Alexander, when a city named Rhakotis existed there, and during the Ptolemaic dynasty1.

1

http://www.alexandria.gov.eg/default.aspx (Official website of Alexandria governorate).

1

preface. 1- Historical study.

1-1- History of Alexandria.
1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt. 1-3- Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment: 2- Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings. 2-1- In site investigation and laboratory studies. 2-2- Structural failure and interventions in stone building. 3- Applied study on Alexandrian heritage. 3-1- Future of Alexandrian built environment. 3-2- Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”. Conclusion References Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings.

The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (1): Historical study ________________________________________________ Chapter (1): History of Alexandria ___________________________________________________________________________________________________

Introduction:
The history of Alexandria dates back to the city's founding by Alexander the great in 331 BC (the exact date is disputed). It was the seat of the Ptolemaic rulers of Egypt, and quickly became one of the greatest cities of the Hellenistic world second only to Rome in size and wealth. It fell to the Arabs in 641 AD, and a new capital of Egypt, Fustat, was founded on the Nile. After Alexandria's status as the country's capital ended, it fell into a long decline, which by the late Ottoman period, had seen it reduced to little more than a small fishing village. The city was revived by Muhammad Ali as a part of his early industrialization program. The current city is Egypt's leading port, a commercial, tourism and transportation center, It is often described as Ad Aegyptum or “near Egypt”, suggesting an alienation from Egyptian influences and its Nilotic civilization. Alexandria implies a long tradition in the diversity of its society and established interaction with other cultures. And for that matter it was the gateway to Egypt and the point of contact with other civilizations, especially those of the Mediterranean1.

Fig (1-1) The Palestrina (fund in a small town Praeneste near Rome) a roman mosaic covering an area of 20 square meters, dating back to the second century BC and attributed to the Alexandrian artist Demetrius the topographer, depicts the Nile delta, the imperial palace of Alexandria, other buildings and temples, sailing ships and flora along the upper Nile. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.8)

1

Awad, Mohamed F. “Italy in Alexandria: influences on the built environment”, Alexandria preservation trust, Alexandria, Egypt,2008, p9.

2

The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (1): Historical study ________________________________________________ Chapter (1): History of Alexandria ___________________________________________________________________________________________________

1-1- History of Alexandria:
Alexandrian urbanism spans the great political empires; its history can be divided into several often-overlapping periods. Alexandria was established as Egypt's capital in the Hellenistic period (332 BC- 30 BC), which encompassed the Ptolemaic Dynasty, giving way to the Romans (30 BC-641), including the Byzantine period. The early Islamic period saw a new capital in Egypt (639-1250); the city's fortunes changed again under the Mamluk Sultanate (1250-1517) and the Ottoman Period (1517-1882), which was ended by the French invasion under Napoleon (1798) and the initial British invasion following their victory at the Battle of Alexandria (1801). Subsequently, the city witnessed the British occupation (1882-1922) and Egyptian independence in June 1956.

Fig (1-2) Map of classical Alexandria by Dr.Tassos Neroutsous, 1888 showing the location of the Roman camp. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.16)

1-1-1- Hellenistic Alexandria (332 BC-30 BC):
After Alexander's departure for Asia Minor, infrastructural development for the city of Alexandria began in full force. The greatest of these undertakings was that of an artificial causeway built to connect the nearby island of Pharos to the mainland. This causeway, known as the Heptastadion, was designed and constructed by Dinocrates of Rhodes. The Heptastadion separated the Great Harbor from the Eunostos Harbor and was built at the enormous scale of seven stadia long (1,260 meters). The foundations of the city were laid with the construction of a city wall measuring 15.8 km. At the time of its erection, this city wall was the third largest known urban enclosure, after those of Athens and Syracuse. (Two successive city walls were built after the Hellenistic wall: the Roman wall and the 9th c. medieval wall built by Sultan Ahmed Ibn Tulun). Archaeological evidence shows that in Alexandria, the urban street grid seems to have been rotated 25 degrees off the cardinal axes, essentially exposing the city to the prevailing winds from the north. Archaeological evidence has further shown that block sizes during Alexandria's Hellenistic period were 10 meters smaller in perimeter than the classic Hellenic stade block. The city was physically divided by the intersection of two main thoroughfares: the east-west Canopic Way and the Street of the Soma (Sema). The surrounding streets of the ancient city were laid out in a Hippodamian grid. The Canopic Way connected the Canopic Gate and the Necropolis Gate of the city wall. The Street of the Soma ran between the Moon Gate and the

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Sun Gate of the city wall. Archaeologists estimate that both streets measured between 25 and 70 meters, and were lined with marble colonnades and paved with granite blocks. The original city may have initially covered an area of 840 hectares. There was no consensus among ancient historians, and population estimates for Alexandria during Hellenistic rule vary between 75,000 to 500,000. Upon Alexander's death in 323 BC, the construction of the city was still not complete.

1-1-2- Ptolemaic Dynasty (305 BC-30 BC):
Ptolemaic rule over Egypt, began with Ptolemy I in 305 BC and ended with Cleopatra VII in 30 BC, was the period of greatest infrastructural and cultural development in Alexandria. The Ptolemies' emphasis on urban development and expansion followed the Greek tradition; however, this strategy had to contend with pre-existing Ancient Egyptian codes of urban development. These codes were established during the Old Kingdom of Egypt (2575-2130 BC), where differentiated settlement patterns and orthogonal town planning methods were already in practice . Ptolemy I major construction projects included the lighthouse of Pharos, a series of fortification walls around the city's perimeter, and new temples for two Alexandrine cults adopted during his reign. The first temple was dedicated to Serapis, the tutelary god of the dynasty, and the second temple constructed in Alexandria was dedicated to Alexander himself, the guardian genius of the city. Of all of these, Ptolemy I's most famous project was the lighthouse of Alexandria at the island of Pharos. Situated on the eastern end of the island where the Qaytbay Fort stands today, the lighthouse was constructed at the entrance of the Great Harbor and is considered one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. Destroyed in a 13th century earthquake, the lighthouse is described in historical texts as rising to over 120 meters high. It was designed with three setbacks, an elevator, a staircase, and a powerful light that projected out to sea for up to 55 kilometers .

Fig (1-3)Imaginary sketch of the lighthouse of Alexandria. Source: http://www.flickr.com

For 300 years the Ptolemies controlled Egypt from Alexandria. During this time, the city's close proximity to the sea had caused much of the original city foundations, including the ancient docks and parts of the Royal Enclosure, to sink. The marble used in the first city, built under Ptolemy I, would later be reused; in one example, this marble would be ground up to make cement as Mohammed 'Ali Pasha rebuilt Alexandria from 1810-1850 under the Ottomans.

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Under Ptolemaic rule, Alexandria became a major center for the arts and sciences: astronomy, medicine, literature, philosophy, and religious studies. Many of the urban undertakings in Alexandria were not completed during Ptolemy I Soter's rule, but rather by his successors. Theaters, zoological gardens, the gymnasium (with porticos more than a stadium long) were constructed under Ptolemy II Philadelphus. The Ptolemies' monopolistic policies saw state and royal funds controlling most of the major industries, not only in Alexandria, but throughout Egypt. Salt, oil, linen textiles and papyrus paper were royal monopolies, while lesser industries such as woolen textiles, glass, wine, perfumes were marginally state controlled, but lay mostly in private hands. Another important characteristic of Alexandria was its function as a polis (city-state). However, a contradiction in power existed under Ptolemaic rule; Alexandria had its own citizenship and constitution, yet its autonomy and its city government were restricted in scope. The land use program for the city under the Ptolemaic dynasty was primarily residential. This street grid was divided into insulae (blocks), each averaging 36.5 by 182.5 meters, or 100 by 500 Ptolemaic feet. In Alexandria, a quarter accommodated six insulae intersected by two minor roads. Housing plots measured 22 by 22 meters, and each insula could hold as many as 20 houses. As a polis, Ptolemaic Alexandria had a very cosmopolitan population, drawn from Alexander's Macedonian forces, older Greek Naukratis and Memphis, and Egyptian towns such as the former Rhakotis and nearby Canopus. In lesser numbers, immigrants would later arrive from Syria, Asia Minor, Italy, Syracuse, Libya, Carthagenia, and Massillia (contemporary Marseilles) in the western Mediterranean. Alexandria's Egyptians formed the largest ethnic community in Alexandria, and lived mainly in the southern district around the precinct of the Serapeum, the original location of the village of Rhakotis. However, the cosmopolitan nature of the populace did not greatly impact the architecture and spatial planning of Hellenistic Alexandria. Early Alexandria was divided into five districts, or quarters, named after the first five letters of the Greek alphabet (A-E). The Jewish Quarter was known as 'Delta.' Dating almost from the founding of the city, Jewish scholars began translating the Old Testament from its original Hebrew into Greek. This group of scholars would later produce the standard orthodox version known as the Septuagint. Under Ptolemaic rule, the Jewish community was allowed to form an association (politeuma) to freely practice their faith and manage their affairs according to Jewish law. The south-west quarter of Rhakotis (Rhacotis) took its full name from the former fishing village that predated Alexandria's founding, and was occupied almost entirely by native Egyptians. Brucheum (the Brucheion), also known as 'Beta,' was the royal or Greek quarter, and it comprised nearly a third of the city. Beta was situated in the northeast, and its Royal Palace complex also contained its own administrative buildings and a harbor, as well as the Musaeum (Mouseion), the Temple of the Muses that was commissioned by Ptolemy I Soter. Similar to a modern university or research institute with colleges, laboratories and observatories, the Musaeum attracted many mathematicians, scientists, poets and dramatists. These included Euclid, Archimedes, Strato and Zenodotus; consequently, the Musaeum was comparable in scholarly fame to top institutions in Athens.

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Fig (1-4)Imaginary sketch and prespective of library of Alexandria, housed a museum and held about 500,000 papyrus scrolls. Source: http://www.utexas.edu/courses/introtogreece/cc301/alexlibext.jpg

Of particular importance in the planning of the Musaeum was the Library of Alexandria (constructed 288-280 BC), planned by Ptolemy I's chief advisor, Demetrius El Phalerum. Historical texts indicate that although the library was conceived of during Ptolemy I Soter's regime, it was completed under his son Ptolemy II. This library reportedly encompassed multiple buildings in the Musaeum. Books were housed in several depositories, and although a definitive number was never recorded, some scholars believe that its full collection comprised circa 500,000 scrolls. According to some sources, the "Mother Library" at the Musaeum included the collections and research institutes, while the "Daughter Library", situated at the Serapeum, (a colonnade which enclosed the original Temple of Serapis, in addition to the shrines of Isis and Harpocrates) housed the overstock of books from the Musaeum and Cleopatra VII Philopator's two hundred thousand volumes from the library of Pergamum, a wedding gift from Mark Anthony. However, the story of this wedding gift is itself disputed. The construction of the Serapeum itself is attributed to Ptolemy III, and is supported by the discovery of inscription plaques at the site. The exact fate of the Library of Alexandria is unknown, and general consensus holds that its collections were lost in a fire. Contemporary Egyptologists continue to debate the fire, and the loss of the Alexandrine texts; one ancient story holds that Julius Caesar accidentally set the fire during a 48 BC visit to Alexandria, and this is corroborated by some ancient texts. Another ambitious late Ptolemaic project is the Caesareum. A temple commissioned by Cleopatra VII Philopator in honor of Mark Anthony, was later completed by Octavian, who dedicated it to himself. Ptolemaic rule in Egypt ended with the suicide of the celebrated Cleopatra VII in 30 BC. Roman rule in Egypt began under Octavian, and would continue until Constantine I (618).

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Fig (1-5)plans of Serapeum reconstruction Ptolemaic and Roman phase by Alan Rowe& Judith Mckenzie. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.24)

Fig (1-6)photos of Pompey column, (Amoud al Sawary) at Kom al-Shugafa (30-48 B.C.). Source: http://archnet.org/library/sites/one-site.jsp?site_id=9170

1-1-3- Roman Annexation and the Byzantine Period (30 BC-641):
Power over Egypt was ceded to Octavian (Augustus Caesar) following his 30 BC defeat of the Ptolemaic forces at Actium. Roman dominium over Egypt would last for the next 670 years. Throughout this period, Alexandria remained the capital of the province of Egypt under Roman rule. The city's ports were kept busy with exports of grain, particularly to Roman territories, and Alexandria functioned as Rome's breadbasket. According to an

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account from Strabo's time, Alexandrian architectural landmarks included the Royal Palaces, the grand Theater (on modern Hospital Hill, near the Ramleh station), Poseidon's temple (located close to the Theatre), the Emporium (Exchange), the Navalia (the docks), the aforementioned Caesareum, the Gymnasium and the Palaestra, the Temple of Saturn, the Mausoleum of Alexander at Soma built by Ptolemy I, the Musaeum, and the Serapeum .

fig(1-7) Site plan of Kom el Dikka, The plan reveals a complex including an amphitheatre, roman baths, cisterns, house district ,shops and classrooms of the philosophical schools. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.28 &p.30) While residences dominated ancient Alexandrian land use patterns, 2300 sanctuaries could be counted by the end of the Roman period. The Canopic Way and the Street of the Soma served as the main thoroughfares, and civic buildings lined them both. In total, the city was served by 18 main streets, with 7 running east-west and 11 running north-south. The agora (marketplace) was at the center of the city, which extended for 16 kilometers. Outside of these areas, Alexandria was predominantly residential. Archaeological findings estimate that the average residential footprint under Roman rule was 200 square meters.

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Fig (1-8)photos of Roman Theatre Restoration at Kom Al-Dikka (2nd c., restored 1980s). Source: http://archnet.org/library/sites/one-site.jsp?site_id=776

1-1-4- Early Islamic Period (639-1250):
In 616 Alexandria fell to the Sassanid Persians until 628. By 639 Roman Byzantine rulers had ceded power to the Arab army commanded by 'Amr ibn al-As. Under al-Als, Alexandria saw a wave of rebuilding, but the city subsequently lost influence as al-Fustat became the economic and political capital of the country. Thereafter, geomorphological changes compounded the political neglect of Alexandria: several branches of the Nile silted up, the coastal fringe sank, and earthquake tremors caused significant damage to the island of Pharos. The city's four gates (the West Gate, East Gate, Rashid Gate, and the Green Gate) were closed at night to prevent Bedouin raids.

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fig(1-9)Plans, site plan and Elevations of the mosque of 1000Columns, Originally the Church of St. Theonas, and retransformed into a Franciscan convent and the church of st. Rita. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.62&p.63)

Major urban changes during this period included the fortification of the coast and the new city walls under Ibn Tulun, who also completed renovations on the lighthouse in 797. Following the establishment of Islamic law, many Roman citizens left the city, and the city's economy continued its decline. The new city wall built described a shrinking Alexandria, one that occupied just under half the city's urban footprint under the Romans. In 912, the Temple of Serapis was demolished. Although nothing remains of the temple today, two obelisks, known as "Cleopatra's needles," were retained. Formerly located at the seaward end of the Street of Soma, one was presented to the British and erected along the Thames Embarkment (1878) and the other was offered to the USA, and stands in New York's Central Park (1881).

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fig(1-10) Map of Alexandria by J. Helffrich 1566. (A)Cairo gate, (B)Pepper gate, (C)Sea door, (D)The canal, (E)The Fort, (F)A mosque used by Turks, (G)Small fort, (G)new port, (G)old port. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.67)

fig(1-11) Map of Alexandria in the late Roman period by A. Adriani. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.64)

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Generally speaking, little of Alexandria's urban fabric was changed through the end of the Fatimid dynasty (1171). Under the Ayyubids (1171-1260), Salah al-Din fortified the city walls (1181) and converted Alexandria into a military base. He ordered ruined columns to be thrown into the harbor to prevent enemy ships from approaching, and he also began to improve the city's standard of living, which had been so drastically affected during the transition from Roman rule. New "suburban" districts were created to the west and south of the city, and their development followed urban patterns in the Islamic world, with narrow streets and covered markets. Although Alexandria continued to be Egypt's principal port, and experienced a brief revival in the twelfth century, the city itself would continue to shrink until Ottoman times.

1-1-5-Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt (1250-1517):
Under the Mamluks, the lighthouse at Pharos was destroyed during an earthquake, and Sultan Qaytbey built a fort to defend the harbor in its place. Architecturally, Alexandria expanded under the Mamluk mosque building programs; 88 mosques could be counted in the late 18th century. In 1517, the Mamluks gave way to the Ottomans, who ushered in a policy of isolationism. This isolationism was founded in the idea of trade as leading to Western colonization, and this policy continued until Napoleon Bonaparte invaded in 1798. With Napoleon came French ambitions to use Alexandria to open up a trade route to the East. At the time of his arrival, the city approximated a village of 4,000. The 1798 invasion disrupted Alexandria's limited industry and commerce, which at that time sustained the small Egyptian port. Subsequent invasions of Egyptian territories came as a result of the instability of power in Napoleonic Europe and Ottoman attempts to re-establish control over Egypt.

fig(1-12)Photos of Fort Qaitbey. Source: http://archnet.org

1-1-6-The Ottomans and Muhammad 'Ali Pasha (1517-1882):
In (1805) Mohammad Ali Pasha recognized Alexandria's proximity to Constantinople and consequent economic potential. He made the city his summer capital and subsequently initiated a rebuilding and restoration program for the city, beginning with a canal (the Mahmudiyya canal, named for the Ottoman sultan, Mahmud II) to allow access to the Nile. This canal marked a renewal of Alexandria's social and cultural development: during this period, the city's population grew from 60,000 (1821-40) to 270,000 (1874). Mohammad Ali reconstructed the harbor, built a palace and a famously beautiful lighthouse on the Ras al-Tin peninsula, and, with the help of French engineers, erected a series of commercial and industrial buildings. He also supervised the construction of a new shipyard

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facility, which would become one of Egypt's greatest military and naval establishments. He established a committee for traffic control, to promote cleanliness and public health initiatives, and to improve urban conditions overall. Mohammad 'Ali Pasha's planning strategies focused on infrastructure (railways, roads) to facilitate economic development. However, this did not extend to preventing unplanned thoroughfares and other spontaneous development, which played a role in destroying some of the city's historic urban fabric. As governor, Mohammed Ali's grandson (1848-1854) built a railway from Alexandria to Suez that continued as far as Kafr al-Zayat. Alexandria grew rapidly thereafter: 1850 saw high numbers of Europeans taking up residence in the city and becoming influential citizens. The next governor, Mohammed Said Pasha (1854-1863) extended the railway line to Cairo and connected Alexandria and Cairo with modern telegraph lines. Construction on the city's tramway system was completed in 1860; today, this system is the oldest of all such networks in Africa. It was under the government of Ismail Pasha (1863-1879), also known as Ismail the Magnificent, that the Europeanization of Alexandria began. Ismail built new roads and laid out new districts, improved trade relationships, and granted many plots of land in the new Raml suburb, where numerous lavish palaces were built. Alexandria was one of the first Egyptian cities to have an underground sanitary sewerage system; during Ismail's reign, purified water from the Mahmudiyyah canal was piped throughout the city from a filtering station. As Alexandria expanded, its Arab walls were torn down.

fig(1-13) Daguerreotype and photo of Ras el Tin palace. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.81)

By 1870, Alexandria was the fourth leading Mediterranean port after Istanbul, Marseilles, and Genoa. The city's expansion in trade and infrastructure followed the assimilation of Egypt into the European world economy, and the city witnessed the Industrial Revolution of the nineteenth century. Although agricultural exports had always played a major role in its economy, during the nineteenth century Egyptian trade with Europe flourished. From 186070, over two-thirds of Egypt's export earnings came from cotton trading, while the trade of other agricultural products increased dramatically. Under Mohammad 'Ali Pasha, the Ministry of Commerce offices moved to Alexandria. By the late nineteenth century, Alexandria was successfully disengaging itself from the Ottoman commonwealth, and was moving into the orbit of Europe. It is of equal importance to note that it was not until the turn of the nineteenth century that contemporary Alexandria exceeded the size of Greek Alexandria.

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fig(1-14) Map of the Turkish town as documented by the French Expedition in 1798-1801. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.72)

1-1-7-British Occupation, Egyptian Independence, and Contemporary Alexandria (1882-2009):
In the 1880s a nationalist trend rose in Egypt, and 'Urabi Pasha, a military officer, gathered enough energy within the army ranks to resist the Turkish establishment. Large numbers of Europeans died in the ensuing violent chaos, bringing British troops, and then British occupation, to Egypt. Under the British, Alexandria experienced a new wave of urban growth: Alexandria was developed into a major British Royal Naval base, with the strategic Suez Canal (1869) to the east of the city. Between 1922 and 1956, the national independence movement saw the British Declaration (1922), the Treaty of Alliance between Egypt and Britain (1936), and the 1952 July 23 revolution. Throughout the struggles for independence, urban development in Alexandria continued at a rapid rate. In 1925, Lake al-Hadara was drained, and the suburb of Smouha founded. The city's Corniche, a twenty-kilometer-long seacoast promenade, was built in 1934, influencing Alexandria's summer tourism industry. The Corniche houses a series of informal beach huts, bathing clubs and cafes, facing high-end holiday resorts and apartments across the street. Other major building projects of the period included the Al Muntazah Palace, the small Salamlek Palace, and the impressive Palestine Hotel. Two of the royal palaces, the Ras al-Tin Palace on Pharos Island and the Al-Muntazah Palace at the eastern end of Al-Jaysh Avenue, were restored and are today open to the public. The modern plan of Alexandria follows the ancient grid, and below these streets run subterranean canals, originally dug in the premodern city to service waste. These canals, together with a vast, active network of cellars, tunnels, and catacombs form a great part of the city's infrastructure. The commercial center of the city was located at Liberation Square (Midan at-Tahrir), between the Cotton Exchange and the Bourse (Stock Exchange). The center has since moved to Saad Zaghlul Square.

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fig(1-15)Map of contemporary Alexandria. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.410)

fig(1-16)panorama view and photos of corniche of Alexandria. Source: http://archnet.org/library/sites/one-site.jsp?site_id=9173

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Alexandria's post-independence urban expansion (following the 1936 British withdrawal) was unprecedented in the city's history. The city now occupies a 70-kilometer strip along the Mediterranean coast line in the northwest Nile Delta, covering approximately 2,679 square kilometers. Its urban form is that of a T-shaped peninsula, the urban center (including the old city and its newer suburbs) occupying about 100 square kilometers. The remaining area is 40 percent croplands, 35 percent desert, and 25 percent water from Lake Maryut. Some segments of the lake shore are used for saltworks and fisheries. The presence of the lake directed the expansion of the city along a relatively linear pattern. The two main streets of ancient Alexandria, the east-west Canopic Way (now Hurriya Street or Al-Hurriya Avenue), and the Street of the Soma (now Nabi Daniel Street or An-Nabi Danyal Street), continue to be the principal streets of the city. Alexandria's main public spaces in the early twenty-first century fall along the waterfront and the squares adjacent to the harbor; the western port of the city is primarily industrial.

fig(1-17)Photos of the Montaza Royal palace. Source: http://archnet.org & (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.346)

fig(1-18)Photos of the Bibliotheca Alexandrina. Source: http://archnet.org

Residential building typologies in contemporary Alexandria fall into formal categories: researchers count the linear (El Hokma and Ahalee housing type), the square (Rabaa housing type), the rectangular (Ashia housing type), the L-shaped, the walk-up flats (El Dekhila), and the Aimaras Rabba housing types. Existing ancient architectural monuments include the Catacombs of Kom el Shoqafa, a late second-century burial site carved out of solid rock and located as deep as three levels below ground. These tombs are sited adjacent to the ancient Temple of Serapis (Serapeum). Modern building projects in the city include the Bibliotheca Alexandrina (Snohetta, 2002), designed as a tilting disc rising from the ground. Housing a library and reading spaces, the Bibliotheca was the winner of a competition run by the library

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sponsors, UNESCO, and the Egyptian government. It is sited on the site of the former Great Library. Alexandria's major civic spaces include Ahmed Orabi Square and Saad Zaghlul Square (both located in the downtown area), Mansheya Square (in Mansheya), Tahrir Square (formerly Mohammed Ali Square at the Places des Consuls) and Ahmed Zewail Square (near Wabour El Mayah). The city also hosts the Graeco-Roman Museum, with one of the finest collections of Graeco-Roman artifacts in the world. The Montaza Royal Gardens are an important urban green space; the palace garden complex is surrounded by walls on the east, west and south sides of the complex, and its north side faces the waterfront. Major mosques include Ali ibn Abi Talib Mosque (in Somouha), Bilal Mosque, El-Gamee el-Bahari (in Mandara), Hatem Mosque (also in Somouha), Hoda el-Islam Mosque (in Sidi Bishr), Abu el-Abbas el-Mursi Mosque (in Anfoushi), El-Mowasah Mosque (in Hadara). The ancient Roman amphitheatre and Pompey's Pillar still stand. Its urban infrastructure also includes the main airport (Al Nozha airport), located 7 kilometers southeast of the city center, and five major highways. Its port has the longest history of all its urban infrastructure: dating to 1900 BCE, it has seen many restorations under multiple regimes. Today the port is divided into the eastern harbor and the western harbor, which are separated by a T-shaped peninsula . The history of Alexandria showcases a broad cast of colonial powers, which each in turn added to the city's fabric. Today, Graeco-Roman ruins and modern high-rise buildings coexist within Alexandria. Elements of the ancient city, such as its main streets and millenia-old port, combine with geomorphological changes to define and direct its urban growth today. The city mirrors the issues faced by most developing cities, and stark contrasts in civic infrastructure and architecture can be seen today between all six of Alexandria's districts: Montaza, eastern Alexandria, the downtown, Amreya, Western Alexandria and Gumro .

Notes:
1. www.archnet.org the main recourses are: McKenzie, Judith, et al. "Alexandra." In Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online", http://www.oxfordartonline.com/subscriber/article/grove/art/T001722. (Accessed March 16, 2009 ). 2. Alexandria: Hellenistic Age." Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2004. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online". http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-26550/Hellenistic-Age. (Accessed May 19, 2008). 3. El-Abbadi, Mostafa. "Alexandria: Thousand-Year Capital of Egypt." Alexandria: The Site and the History. New York: NYU Press .1993. 4. El-Din, Morsi Saad,"Alexandria: The Site and the History. New York: NYU Press .1993. 5. Haag, Michael. Alexandria. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press .2004. 6. Jobbins, Jenny. 2006. "Alexandria and the Egyptian Mediterranean: a traveler's guide". Cairo: American University in Cairo Press . 7. Mueller, Katja. Settlements of the Ptolemies: city foundations and new settlement in the Hellenistic world. Dudley, MA: Peeters .2006. 8. Ramadan, Abdel Azim. C. "Alexandria: French Expedition to the Modern Age." Alexandria: The Site and the History. New York: NYU Press,1993 . 9. Reimer, Michael J. Colonial Bridgehead: Government and Society in Alexandria, 1807-1882. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press .1997. 10. Reimer, Michael J. "Property disputes in 19th century Alexandria". Arizona: Middle East Studies Association of North America .1989. 11. Harris, W. V. and Giovanni Ruffin. "Ancient Alexandria between Egypt and Greece". Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, 2004.

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preface. 1- Historical study. 1-1- History of Alexandria.

1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt.
1-3- Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment: 2- Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings. 2-1- In site investigation and laboratory studies. 2-2- Structural failure and interventions in stone building. 3- Applied study on Alexandrian heritage. 3-1- Future of Alexandrian built environment. 3-2- Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”. Conclusion References Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings.

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1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt:
The first Italian exile architects and engineers in Egypt starts from the Restoration of the Ottoman Empire, and in particular the Egypt of (Muhammad Ali), offered asylum to Italian political emigrants, including a considerable number of engineers, architects, building contractors and specialized workers.

1-2-1- The first Italian architects and engineers in Egypt:
The first exiles were engineers involved with the governments of the Napoleonic Republics and the first Kingdom of Italy, among them was the author of the plan for the Bonaparte Forum in Milan, (Giovanni Antonio Antolini), a victim in 1815 along with his friend (Pietro Giordani) of the purge carried out by the papal government at the Fine Arts Academy of Bologna (which marked for him the start of a long period of financial difficulties), who seems to have cultivated the proposition of seeking his fortune in more hospitable lands. This is confirmed by the existence of a plan for a "large spinning mill in Cairo, Egypt" (1815) as well as drawings for an embassy in Constantinople. Also part of the first migratory wave were Livorno native Lorenzo Masi, who made an important contribution to the introduction of the cadastre in Egypt, restored the canal linking the Nile and the port of Alexandria to full efficiency with the collaboration of Girolamo Segato, and left early studies on the excavation or the Suez Canal, and the Papal subject Francesco Mancini who settled in Egypt and stayed until 1865. From 1837 to 1847 he served as head engineer of the Alexandria “Commissione d`Ornato”, and in during that coordinated the development of the town plan, which was in use until the start of the Twentieth Century. Also he designed the organization of the European city heart, and the "Quartier Franc" centered around the (Place d' Armes) completed around 1855 and surrounded by buildings -some of which were also designed by him- destroyed by British cannon fire in 1882.

Fig (1-19) Old postcards of Place des Consuls in late 19th cantury also known as Place d' Armes, place Mohamed Ali, Manshieh and Liberation square. Source: (www.flicr.com )

The presence of Italian architects in Egypt less considerable in quantitative terms than that recorded by their rise to important public posts, which put them in contact with top government (the pasha and later the khedive, the king and members of the royal family). The first fact can be interpreted as an indirect consequence of Bonaparte's campaign in Egypt; many artists and intellectuals who had accompanied the Napoleonic armada settled in the country to participate in the modernization pursued by Muhammad Ali, and they were joined, during the Restoration, by other technicians and French military men called upon by the pasha. The presence of this French colony was thus a guarantee of welcome for Italians forced to leave their own homeland because they had been openly involved with Napoleonic

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___________________________________________________________________________ administrations, and the familiarity of various Italian architects with the governing elite, which in some cases went beyond normal relations with clients, constituted an efficacious channel for the transmission of ideas. The first important case of an Italian patriot being well-introduced into the pasha's court and appreciated not only for his professional skills but also for his capacity as an adviser on relations with European states and on diplomatic matters in commercial and financial transactions, was that of Pietro Avoscani 1816-91. Self taught through on-the-job practice in the field of ornamental painting and architectural decoration in his native Livorno, where he had his first contacts with the "Giovine Italia", in March of 1837 he joined his brother (Camillo), who had moved to Alexandria in 1825 after having accompanied the first warship constructed on orders from Mohammad Ali in Livorno's shipyards, and enlisted in the Egyptian military marines. Twenty-one-year-old Pietro, newly arrived in Alexandria, was hired to supervise three-hundred workmen in executing the architectural furnishings and interior decoration of the palace of Ras al-Tin Muhammad Ali's favorite residence.

Fig (1-20)Photos of the entrance of Ras el Tin palace and detail of coat of arms, designed by P. Avoscani. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.90)

Fig (1-21) Old postcards (1883) of “Stock exchange- Borsa” at place des Consuls by F. Mancini. Source: (Godoli, E. "Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt” p. 16).& www.flicr.com

This was the start of a brilliant career as a court architect in the service of the founder of modern Egypt and his successors, the most important achievements of which were, in Alexandria, the painting and sculptural work for the decoration of the palace of Gabbar (1846-48), the execution of the coat of arms above the entranceway to the palace of Ras alTin (1847), temporary decorations to welcome Muhammad Ali upon his return from a trip to Naples (1848) as well as those for the palace of Gabbar commissioned by viceroy (Said pasha) to celebrate the anniversary of his ascent to the throne (1856); and in Cairo, decorations for squares, streets and public buildings on the occasion of the wedding of Kamel pasha (1846), decorations for the palaces of Abbasiyya and Hilmiyya (1849) and for the palaces of Gazira and Chubra (1860-61), the khedive's Azbakiyya Opera Theatre (1869), which, quickly constructed of wood on the basis of a plan by architect Andrea Scala to host

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___________________________________________________________________________ the premiere of Aida in celebration of the opening of the Suez Canal. Also notable among the public structures the building of International Market of Minia al-Bassal (1871) in Alexandria, known as the Colton Exchange.

Fig (1-22)Plan and photo of the Bourse of Minet el Bassal, designed by P. Avoscani. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.92)

In 1853 princes Ismaill and Halim sent Pietro to Carrara (Italy) to choose marble for the entrance door to the palace of Ras al-Tin, and to France to acquire furniture and decorative elements; on these and other missions Avoscani made his contribution to establishing commercial relations between Egypt and the Italian art industries and construction material suppliers. Even when working for private individuals, he never failed to utilize Italian suppliers: in the theatre built in Alexandria in 1862 for Count Zizinia, the terracotta ornamental work was produced by the Andrea Boni firm of Milan.

Fig (1-23)Photo of the Zizinia theatre, designed by P. Avoscani 1863. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.97)

And in 1857 he was among the financers of the company promoted by banker Carlo Biagini for the construction of a new Italian theatre in Alexandria, to be built by Luigi Piattoli. A competition was held in 1858 to choose the plan of the theatre, with four prizes awarded to Antonio Corazzi, Mariano Falcini and two other unidentified architects.

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Fig (1-24)Drawings of the proposal for the competition of a theatre in Alexandria, by M. Falcini 1858. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.96)

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1-2-2- The pursuit of modern architecture for Egypt:
Most of the buildings planned by Italians who arrived in Egypt in the 1820s and 1830s were characterized by a re-reading of models of classicism from the latter part of the Eighteenth Century or the Napoleonic era, the exiles who arrived after (1848) began to show the first signs of a retrieval - with an eclectic attitude and free from philological preoccupations, stylistic forms and motifs drawn from the repertoire of Islamic architecture. The earliest example is probably the Sabil-kuttab al-Walda (public fountain and koranic school) built for the queen mother in Bab al-Hadid zone (1867-69) in Cairo on plans by architect Ciro Pantanelli (1833-84), who had come to Egypt in 1853 with his father. This architect also worked mainly for members of the royal family: for the khedive Said and he designed the palace of Qasr AI-Nil, and from 1873 to 1879 was in the service of Khedive Ismail's mother.

Fig (1-25)Photo of sabil-Kuttab Al-Walda, Cairo, by C.Pantanelli. Source: (E. Godoli & M. Giacomelli, "Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt ", P12.)

Fig (1-26)Photo of the Tossiza palace by F. Mancini. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria"p.85)

After the bombing of Alexandria and landing of the English expedition corps in 1882 marked both the defeat of the nationalist movement headed by colonel Ahmed Orabi, who had been pursued with the complicity of khedive Tawfiq, started the reconstruction of the core or the European city of Alexandria figures like Antonio Lasciac (1856-1946) from Gorizia, and Alfonso Maniscalco (1853-?) from Naples, who made contributions to the revalidation of Islamic architecture in their projects in Cairo. But their contribution to the reconstruction of Place des Consuls and the adjacent areas after 1882 adopted very different styles. In the block of flats constructed in Rue Cherif Pacha (1883-88), now Salah Salem and Nabi Daniel Street (1886-87).

Fig (1-27)Photos of Al-Rifaiy Mosque (the tombs of Royal family) at Cairo by Max Herz . Source: www.archnet.org

Around 1900 appeared some of the most significant Italian contributions to the Islamic

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___________________________________________________________________________ revival, which had its main stronghold in Cairo. First and foremost was the demolished villa for the Danish consul Antonio Zogheb in Qasr AI-Nil (1898-1902), built by the brothers Antonio Battigelli (1848-1898) and Francesco Battigelli (1861-?), in collaboration with the Hungarian Max Herz, who in 1890 had become head architect of the Committee for the conservation of monuments of Arab art, and in 1901 director of the Museum of Arab Art, and who presumably played a fundamental role in guiding stylistic choices. The oldest of the two brothers had demonstrated a certain familiarity with Arab art in the tomb of Khedive Ismail (1896), located in the Al-Rifaiy Mosque, and shortly after the completion of villa Zogheb Alfonso Maniscalco finished the Egyptian Library (1903-4), later adapted to host the Cairo Museum of Islamic Art, it associated western plan types and facade schemas with a very liberal manipulation of elements of Mamluke architecture, this building was an important affirmation of the neo-Islamic orientation.

Fig (1-28)photos of Haramlek- Montazah palace by Ernesto Verrucci, 1923-1928 . Source: www.archnet.org

Fig (1-29)photo of castle Mackenzie, Genoa: the original style, and Montazah palace the copy of the Italian style. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.196)

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___________________________________________________________________________ Another Italian, Ernesto Verrucci (1874-1945), who arrived in Egypt in 1897 after having participated in the Greek-Turkish war, and he made significant contributions to Islamicinspired architecture. After initially working on the Greco-Roman Museum of Alexandria, Verrucci moved to Cairo, probably in (1898), to take over as head department architect at the Ministry of Public Works. Then he left this position in 1907 to undertake freelance work. Among his first contributions to the Islamic revival were the mausoleum for doctor Elui pasha in the necropolis of Imam al Chafiy in Cairo. And in his first decade working his neo-Mameluke plan won the competition for the new Egyptian University of Cairo (191314), construction of which, assigned to an Italian firm, was impeded by the outbreak of the First World War. After the ceremony marking the laying of the first stone had been celebrated with great solemnity on March 13, 1914. And also the tombs of King Fuad and the queen mother in the Al-Rifaiy mosque in Cairo (1917-19). Many of the Italian architects residing in Egypt who made significant contributions to the Islamic revival had an in-depth knowledge of monuments of Arab art, and were also directly involved in ensuring its safeguarding. Their contribution to the Islamic revival did not end with the beginning of the great war, but carried on until the have of the Second World War. Between 1922 and 1927 architect Lasciac built the Misr Bank in (Mohammad Farid) street in Cairo, the interior of which proposed an eclectic sampling of motifs from Arab and ottoman art, also displaying a harmonization of precious materials that added a hint of the Byzantine. And again in the pediatric hospital of Abu al-Rich in Cairo's Sayyida Zaynab quarter (1930), he proposed a rarefied and extremely distilled version of Mamluke inspired motifs, adapting them to the reinforced concrete construction and because of the need to economize on materials and specialized labor.

Fig (1-30)Photos of Misr Bank in Mohammad Farid street in Cairo, by Lasciac, 1927. Source: www.archnet.org

The '30s saw the development of a tendency due especially to the efforts of Egyptian architect Mustafa Fahmy towards a modernized Islamic style, based on a simplification of the lexical elements of the tradition, sometimes with Art Deco influenced stylizations, and on the adoption of monumental plans characterized by the highlighting of the parts arranged on the main axes or symmetry. Along the same lines was the School of Arts and Crafts (not the Department or Engineering of Ayn Shams University) in the Abbassiyya quarter of Cairo, built in 1932 on plans by Adolfo Brandani, which had an forepart in the middle of the main facade, characterized by a high loggia with a giant order of columns, surmounted by an onion dome. A particularly interesting and largely still unexplored chapter of the Italian contribution to the Islamic revival, is the sector of religious architecture. For example, there has not yet
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___________________________________________________________________________ been sufficient investigation of activity in this sphere by Achille Patricolo, to whom we owe the al-Fath mosque in the palace of Abdin in Cairo (1918), erected to replace an earlier XIX-century mosque, of which he conserved the minaret and entrance doorway, reconstructing the rest and adding an Ottoman-style cupola echoing that of the mosque of Abu Dahab (1774) in the al-Azhar district. Among the architects who held positions within the Ministry of El-Awqaf, Eugenio Valzania (1880-1930), who had only recently been re-discovered, after a long period of ignorance of the role he had played in the planning of works attributed by historiography to his younger collaborators, like Mario Rossi (1897-1961) and Giuseppe Tavarelli (1883-?). The finding of drawings dated 1929 now allows us to attribute to Valzania the ideation of plans of two mosques, the al-Tabbah in Cairo (1929-33) and the Al-Mursi abu Al-Abbas in Alexandria (1929-45), long attributed solely to Rossi who, after Valzania's death continued the construction.

Fig (1-31)Elevations and photo of Al-Mursi abu Al-Abbas Mosque, by Mario Rossi and Eugenio Valzania, 1928-1938. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.242 -244)

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Fig (1-32) Plan of Al-Mursi abu Al-Abbas Mosque, by Mario Rossi and Eugenio Valzania, 1928-1938. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.242 -244)

According to a bibliographic source usually well-informed on Egypt, the mosque of heliopolis (1929-31), now known as Masgid al-Thawra Mosque of the Revolution, was also built by Tavarelli in forms inspired by Fatimid architecture on the basis of a plan by Valzania. The conception of the mosques of heliopolis and Alexandria seems to indicate him as the initiator of an approach to the planning of these religious buildings that tended to combine philological scrupulousness in reusing the Islamic styles of the local tradition with a rapport between the mosque and its urban surroundings, with green spaces or buffer zones that isolated it from the surrounding constructions. This type of urban insertion of the mosque, which sometimes became a dominant presence in its context with highly spectacular results, was perpetuated by Mario Rossi who, in the service of the Ministry of El-Awqaf, according to his own declarations, created 260 plans for mosques in many cities in Egypt, between 1929 and 1955. In this abundant production, two periods stands out: the first, comprised between 1929 and the start of the Second World War, was marked by an historicist orientation with architectural elements and ornamental motifs of Mamluke and Ottoman mosques, while in terms of floor plans, the planimetric schemas of Italian Renaissance central-plan churches were combined with the Madrasa plans of the traditional Cairo mosque; the second, coinciding with the decade after the war and inaugurated in 1946 by Rossi's conversion to Islam, was characterized by greater liberty in the organization of floor plans, which tended to free themselves from symmetry and from the simplification of traditional Islamic architectural elements and motifs to adapt new materials and construction techniques.

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Fig (1-33) photos of Qaid Ibrahim Mosque, by Mario Rossi, 1949-1950. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.336)

Fig (1-34) Photo and plan of El sayed Mohamed Korayem Mosque, by Mario Rossi, 1951. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.340)

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Notes:
1. Awad, Mohamed F. "From Historucism to Modernity (the inter-war period, Alexandria 1918-1939: The Italian conection", Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century ,by Italian institute for culture, Cairo, 2008 Pp. 142-153. Awad, Mohamed F. “Italy in Alexandria: influences on the built environment”, Alexandria preservation trust, Alexandria, Egypt,2008. Awad, Mohamed F. "Italian Influence on Alexandria's Architecture (1834-1985)." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1990, Pp. 72-85. Ciranna, Simonetta. "Italian Architecture in Egypt in the Thirties: The Work of Clemente Busiri Vici." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1990, Pp.114119. da Costa, Lucilia Verdelho. "Italian Influence on the Beginnings of Neo-Arabic Revivalism in Portugal." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1990, Pp.172-177. Dickie, James. "The Works of Mario Rossi at Alexandria." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1990, 94-101. Godoli, Ezio& Giacomelli, Milva, "Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century", Italian institute for culture, Cairo, 25th November 2008. Godoli, E. "Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt : a long-lasting political emigration", Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century ,by Italian institute for culture, Cairo, 2008 Pp. 14-72. Jones, Dalu. " Italian Architects in Egypt at the Time of the Khedive." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1990, Pp.86-93. Moussa, Magdy M. "Mario Rossi and the Egyptian School of Architecture in Alexandria." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1990, Pp.102-105. Pallini, C. & Scaramuzzi, A. "Italian project for new city of Sidi Gaber, Alexandria", Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century ,by Italian institute for culture, Cairo, 2008 Pp. 154-160. Pallini, C. & Scaccabarozzi, A. "New protagonists: projects for Egypt by Italian architects from 1952 to the present day", Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century ,by Italian institute for culture, Cairo, 2008 Pp. 198-216. Petruccioli Attilio, ed. Sponde Amate ”Environmental Design: Presence of Italy in the Architecture of the Islamic Meditterranean”, Journal of Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1990.

2. 3. 4.

5.

6. 7. 8.

9. 10. 11.

12.

13.

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preface. 1- Historical study. 1-1- History of Alexandria. 1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt.

1-3- Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment:
2- Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings. 2-1- In site investigation and laboratory studies. 2-2- Structural failure and interventions in stone building. 3- Applied study on Alexandrian heritage. 3-1- Future of Alexandrian built environment. 3-2- Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”. Conclusion References Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings.

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1-3- Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment:
1-3-1- Italian architects and private residential buildings:
Having worked for the Pashas, Italian professionals in Egypt such as Francesco Mancini, Lukovitch and Avoscani, among many others. became increasingly involved also with private and community developments. This came at a time when a new urban elite of notables expressed their readiness to sponsor their private projects and also those of their ethnic communities. The earliest fortunes were mostly those of wealthy Greek families (such as Tossiza, Zizinia and D'Anastasi), all of them were close friends and confidants of the Pashas. For the Tossiza Palace, the most prominent building on the square (later to become the Stock Exchange, or La Bourse), Mancini continued using his earlier concepts, expressing his best architecture in Neo-c1assical language. Following the same tradition were his compatriots, Luigi Storari in the Greek Church, Evangelismos 1847-1856, and Ernesto Bierotti's developments of the Greek community residential buildings in 1853. In contrast to Mancini's conservative Neo-c1assicism, already applied to the Tossiza Palace and marking the architectural language of the square, Lukovitch 's designs for the Count Zizinia Palace on the same Place des Consuls were rather challenging. While reverting to his earlier eclectic tendencies, he represented the architecture of the palace in a confused combination of Moorish arches and classical columns and detailing, thereby reproducing a Venetian version of Orientalism.

Fig (1-35)Photo by Gustave Le Gray 1862 , The palace of Count Zizinia on place des Consuls by Antonio Lukovitch, featuring early Venetian influences. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria"p.88)

during the second half of the 19th century, the modifications of the Place des Consuls, now known as Place Mohamed Ali, meant that elitist residences moved towards Rue Rossette, Moharrem Bey and further towards Ramleh. (Filipo Pini Bey) is said to have been the ear1iest promoter of the Quartier Tewfikieh (later known as Quartier Rosette or the Quartier Latin) in 1875. (Pini) subdivided its plots and developed some of its elite residences, including his own two Palazzinas in 1890, and that of Lutzzatto Pasha. Another Italian, (Cesare Scotti), the first visionary of Ramleh suburban potential, had bought land and built the first European house in 1836. Other Europeans then followed suit.

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Fig (1-36)Photos of place d' Armes before and after the bombardment of 1882 by L. Forillio. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.85)

Fig (1-37)plan of the Place des Consuls in late 19th cantury also known as Place d' Armes, place Mohamed Ali, Manshieh and Liberation square. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.84)

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Fig (1-38)Photo and plans of Villa Lutzzatto Pasha by Filipo Pini, presently Belqis School. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria"p.98)

Fig (1-39)Photo and plans of Palazzina Pini Bey by Filipo Pini, presently the Spanish Consulate. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria"p.99)

The British bombardment of the city and the events that followed (11 July 1882) completely destroyed the European centre around the Place Mohamed Ali However, the compensation and indemnities, paid by the Egyptian government, were crucial in effecting the quick recovery and rebuilding of the city centre. In the post-Bombardment era 1882-1918, the Italian role in rebuilding the city was considerable. Yet, their total monopoly of the building profession and its trades remained disputable among historians, especially when the increasing competition from other nationals, such as Greek professionals and contractors, is considered. On the Place des Consuls, the Italians were the major contributors to the rebuilding of the square and the design of its most important buildings. The imposing seat of the Mixed Tribunals in 1887 was designed in the Beaux Arts tradition by Alfonso Maniscalco Bey, and Augusto Cesarias was its structural engineer.
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Fig (1-40) Elevations, Photo and plans of “Mixed Tribunals”, by Antonio Maniscalco Bey, 1887. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.113)

The commercial entity of the square is further emphasized by the two large okalles modeled on the concepts of Milanian Galleria. These were the Grand Okalle Menasce by Antonio Lasciac in 1885 and the Okalle Monferato by Luigi Piattoli 1887. Lasciac's work for the Societe des Immeubles d' Egypte, owners of the Okalle Menasce, extended to a series of residential buildings along Rue Sherif Pasha in 1887, possibly paving the way for similar developments along the parallel axis of Rue Tewfik and Attarin Mosque. The buildings, designed by Lasciac in Neo-Baroque eclectic styles, were described as most elegant and included all the desirable conveniences of modern Iiving.

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Fig (1-41)Photos, Elevations and plans of “okalle Monfrato”, by Luigi Piattoli, 1887. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.114,116)

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___________________________________________________________________________ During the same period, Lasciac also designed a building for the Karam brothers on Rue de la Gare de Ramleh, the Primi building on the Place des Consuls and a residential block owned by the Jewish community on Rue Nabi Daniel. Yet, his most remarkable residential achievement was in the high eclectic mannerist architecture of the Palauina Aghion, 1887, at the corner of Rue Rossette and Rue Nabi Daniel. Lasciac's engineering skills, combined with aesthetic Renaissance elegance, are expressed in the design of Ramleh Railway Station 1887, and surprisingly is very historicist in the design of his Italian Renaissance Palauo in Ramleh, 1887 for the French cigarette manufacturer Laurens.

Fig (1-42) Photo of “Primi Building ”, by Antonio Lasciac, 1886-1887. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.117)

Fig (1-43) Photo of “Societe des immeubles d’Egypte”, at Rue Sherif by Antonio Lasciac. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.120)

The Italian influences retained their importance when the Municipality of Alexandria was created in 1890. Its councils included elite members of the Italian community such as Stagni, Lumbroso, Bacos, Viterbo, and Campos etc. Italians constituted at least fifty percent of its technical staff and included prominent engineers such as Guiseppe Ramacciotti. described by Bonola Bey in 1906 as "Ingenere di Prima classe”.

Fig (1-44) Photo, and plans of “Gallery Menasce ”, by Antonio Lasciac, 1883-1887. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.118,119)

In other public projects, the Italian involvement was also eminent. The Police Headquarters in Bab Sharki and its dependencies, including the Villa of Baker Pasha, and other police quarters together with the Fire Brigade Station at Kom el Dikka, were all designed around the end of the nineteenth century by the Italian architect, Aldo Marelli. His eclectic designs
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___________________________________________________________________________ were strongly influenced by the designs of medieval Italian castelli. However, he is better remembered for his other designs: the Prussian Hospital of Diaconasses in Hadra (later known as Anglo-Suisse), for the design of the Villa Karam in 1898 in Ramleh, and for the renovation of the Villa Binder Nagel in 1905, built in Neo-C1assical splendour to host the German Kaiser on his expected visit to Alexandria.

Fig (1-45) Photo, Elevation and plans of “Palazzina Aghion ”, by Antonio Lasciac, 1887. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.122)

Fig (1-46) Photos of “Villa mazloum Pasha”, by Antonio Lasciac, 1898-1899 before and after extention. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.124)

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Fig (1-47) Photo, Elevation and plans of “Villa laurens”, by Antonio Lasciac, 1886-1887. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.125)

The Industrial Building Company of Egypt, a leading land and building company in Alexandrian and Egyptian activities (1907-1912), included land speculation (such as those bought from A. campos) in areas such as Ramleh, Gharbaneyat and Gabbari. Presided over by Amin Karam, the technical administration of the company was mostly Italian. Industrial Buildings of Egypt were also actively involved in developing public and private buildings in Alexandria, such as the Egyptian Government School in Moharrem Bey 1909, and the Egyptian Postal Service building 1909-1910. The Company Construction Departments in 1911 expanded to include Italian engineers such as G. SiaccL U. Dessberg and A. Fusignani.

Fig (1-48) Photos of “Villa H. Lindeman. ” and “villa Baron J.De Menasce.”, by The Industrial Building Company of Egypt, 1907-1912. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.162,163)

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___________________________________________________________________________ Alexandria became the commitment and practices of Italian Venetian professionals, who found their clientele within their own community, and among others, specially the Jews and also increasingly among Egyptians. This was a perfect opportunity and setting for Giacomo Alessandro Loria 1879-1937 to reproduce his Little Venice in the Alexandrian context. Loria's S. Salem, M. Douak, and the EI Nokaly's apartment blocks in Ramleh Station 19261928 carry strong Venetian references, such as the Gothic detailing borrowed from its Palazzo Ducale. Reinvented and decorated with polychromatic brickwork and mosaics imported from Italy, the Italianated facade won for its architect the Municipality Honorary Prize for Best Facades.

Fig (1-49) Photos of building on Venice style by G.A. Loria (1929) awarded the Municipality Honorary Prize for Best Facades. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.204,205).

Reinventing Italy in Alexandria may also be experienced in some private developments belonging to his Italian clientele such as the Villa Viterbo in Rond Point, 1925. and those of the Pinto family, on Avenue Fouad I and Cairo Station Square 1925, and Lodolini's apartment building in Carlton. It extends to influence other non-Italian clients such as those experienced in the Villa Zalza!. and the Mansour Kelada apartment building 1926. projecting light and shade contrasts on building facades and their tilted roof epics, featuring in the Moassat Building in 1929 on the Corniche and the Heikal apartment building on the Chamber of Commerce Street 1933. In historical revivalism, the Italian villa appears in his Villa Awad in Glymonopoulo, and also features in other Italian architects' work of the period, such as Mario Avena in the Villa Giannotti, A. Granato in the Villa Aziza Fahmy 1927 on the Corniche of Glymonopoulo, G. A. Loria in the Villa Adda in Moharrem Bey, and the Villa Lombardo built by Pietro Campo in Rue Ruffer in Carlton (later renamed Syria Street in Rushdy). They also feature in the Art Deco treatments of the Villa A. Farghaly Pasha in Gianaclis by G. Aghion in 1930s.

Fig (1-50) Photo of “ElNokaly apartment building” by G.A. Loria (1929). Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.208).

Fig (1-51) Photo of “Cecil Hotel” by G.A. Loria (1928). Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.202).

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Fig (1-52) Photo of “M. Saleh building” by R. Smith. Fig (1-53) Photo of “Heikal apartment building” by Source:(Awad, Mohamed F."Italy in Alexandria" p.214). R. Smith. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.202).

Fig (1-54) Photo of “Villa Adda” by G.A. Loria. Source:(Awad, Mohamed F."Italy in Alexandria" p.225).

Fig (1-55) Photo of “Villa Awad and Abani” by R. Smith. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.225).

Fig (1-56)Photo of “Fumaroli building” on Avenue Fig (1-57) Photo of “fumaroli building” on Rue Sherif Fouad I by E. Carnevale (1929). Source:(Awad, by E. Carnevale (1929). Source:(Awad, Mohamed Mohamed F."Italy in Alexandria" p.232). F."Italy in Alexandria" p.232).

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___________________________________________________________________________ The prominent role of the Italian professionals in Alexandria during the first quarter of the 20th century is further confirmed in Fraser's impression that" Alexandria of 1880-1930 was largely built by Italian architects and engineers". Most certainly, the case of renovation of Villa Silvio Pinto in Bulkeley, 1927, by Mario Avena is clearly demonstrative of such dominance. While ten Italian firms with a total of sixteen contractors and suppliers were assigned to the job, only a single Egyptian participation is recorded. Such influence, expressed in the city's identity, with regard to the popularity of Italian revivalist architecture, identified with the practices of Italian resident professionals continuing to reflect an architecture, whereby local expression is still overpowered by the further accidental of the city's built environment.

1-3-2- Italian contributions in modern Alexandria:
The new millennium saw a renewed interest, high hopes and enthusiasm expressed in the words of Paolo Portoghesi, the chair of urban planning at the University of Rome 'La Spienza', in the introductory note to The Mediterranean City: a Dialogue among Cultures, an event organized by the Bibliotheca Alexandrina in 2005 and financed by the World Bank and sponsored by the Italian Trust Fund for Culture and Sustainable Development: This enthusiasm can only be activated by a profound reflection on the meaning and consequences of the choices that are made. The old world can still provide intellectual energy and qualitative commitment to this reflection: but it cannot be achieved without an increasingly wide spread participation of the intellectual forces of these new countries. It is the journey of the Homeric hero reinterpreted by Dante and Joyce that thanks to its openmindedness and infinity provides us with the only means available: hope. Already such enthusiasm across the Mediterranean was expressed in the international competition for the design of the Library of Alexandria (1988-89). Capitalizing on memory, the new Bibliotheca Alexandrina was destined to become the new beacon of culture and means of interaction between cultures and civilizations of the world. The Italian participation in the competition was certainly significant: 44 final submissions, 3rd highest number after France (76), and the UK (52), out of a total of 501 submissions, with the Manfredi Nicoletti team receiving second prize while the Ruggiero Lenci group received an honorable mention. The joint venture Rodio/Trevi and Arab Contractors for building the foundations of the new Bibliotheca Alexandrina brought an Italian participation to the creation of a new future for the city. There was certainly enthusiasm in the opposite direction, from Alexandria to Rome, in the competition. organized by the Ministry of Culture for the renovation of the Egyptian Academy of Arts in Rome 2003, with first prize awarded to the Alexandrian-based architectural firm Awad & Partners. In renewed efforts to develop the area around the Library of Alexandria, the Italian studio Bertocchini and Ruggiero, in collaboration with the Alexandria and Mediterranean Research Center, set up a vision for the future of the Eastern Harbour. Taken into consideration was the future of the Library, and the need to develop a hotel, underwater museum, aquarium, a Euro-Mediterranean Stock Exchange and a museum at Fort Qaitbey, while setting the standards for the preservation of the morphology of the Eastern Harbor and its architectural heritage. Along those lines, the Bibliotheca Alexandrina, in collaboration with the governorate of Alexandria launched several initiatives and competitions among which Mario Botta's

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___________________________________________________________________________ proposal was in competition with a selected group of international renowned architectural firms put forward by the international Gulf development group IMAAR in 2006. The same year, renewed interest in Egypt's banking and financial sector saw the Bank of Intesa San paolo take over the Bank of Alexandria. More recent initiatives expressing Italian commitment, enthusiasm and renewed interest in developing the future city focus on capitalizing and reviving the city's rich, yet still to a great extent undervalued, cosmopolitan heritage. These include initiatives by the Politechnico of Milan, the “Academia Adrianea di Architettura e Archeologia” and the “Dipartimento di storia dell'architettura e delia citto”, Universito di Firenze in the form of conferences, workshops and exhibitions in collaboration with the Alexandria and Mediterranean Research Center of the Bibliotheca Alexandrina during the course of 2008. Today a limited Alexandrian Italian community numbers no more than 800 residents. Its churches and Latin cemeteries “Terra Santa” are now managed by the Catholic Copts, while the Orthodox Copts have also taken over the “Cimitero Civili”. Only the Casa di Riposo is still run for its diminished Italian community. The same can be said with regard to cultural institutions such as the Societa Dante Alighieri di Roma, which is now an Egyptian NGO under the supervision of the Egyptian Ministry of Social Affairs. All this therefore marks changing times and the realities of the present. Modernity, insofar as the majority of the Alexandrian built environment is concerned, still remains an incomplete mandate, influenced by socio-economic, political and cultural conditions in society. It is only architects' dreams that can turn Portoghesi's enthusiasm and hopes into a future reality for an Alexandria striving to revive its historic role as one of the greatest cosmopolitan cities of the world.

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Notes:
1. Awad, Mohamed F. "From Historucism to Modernity (the inter-war period, Alexandria 1918-1939: The Italian conection", Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century ,by Italian institute for culture, Cairo, 2008 Pp. 142-153. Awad, Mohamed F. “Italy in Alexandria: influences on the built environment”, Alexandria preservation trust, Alexandria, Egypt,2008. Awad, Mohamed F. "Italian Influence on Alexandria's Architecture (1834-1985)." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1990, Pp. 72-85. Ciranna, Simonetta. "Italian Architecture in Egypt in the Thirties: The Work of Clemente Busiri Vici." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1990, Pp.114119. da Costa, Lucilia Verdelho. "Italian Influence on the Beginnings of Neo-Arabic Revivalism in Portugal." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1990, Pp.172-177. Dickie, James. "The Works of Mario Rossi at Alexandria." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1990, 94-101. Godoli, Ezio& Giacomelli, Milva, "Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century", Italian institute for culture, Cairo, 25th November 2008. Godoli, E. "Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt : a long-lasting political emigration", Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century ,by Italian institute for culture, Cairo, 2008 Pp. 14-72. Jones, Dalu. " Italian Architects in Egypt at the Time of the Khedive." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1990, Pp.86-93. Moussa, Magdy M. "Mario Rossi and the Egyptian School of Architecture in Alexandria." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1990, Pp.102-105. Pallini, C. & Scaramuzzi, A. "Italian project for new city of Sidi Gaber, Alexandria", Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century ,by Italian institute for culture, Cairo, 2008 Pp. 154-160. Pallini, C. & Scaccabarozzi, A. "New protagonists: projects for Egypt by Italian architects from 1952 to the present day", Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century ,by Italian institute for culture, Cairo, 2008 Pp. 198-216. Petruccioli Attilio, ed. Sponde Amate ”Environmental Design: Presence of Italy in the Architecture of the Islamic Meditterranean”, Journal of Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1990.

2. 3. 4.

5.

6. 7. 8.

9. 10. 11.

12.

13.

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preface. 1- Historical study. 1-1- History of Alexandria. 1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt. 1-3- Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment:

2- Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings.
2-1- In site investigation and laboratory studies. 2-2- Structural failure and interventions in stone building. 3- Applied study on Alexandrian heritage. 3-1- Future of Alexandrian built environment. 3-2- Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”. Conclusion References Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings.

The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (2): Theoretical study

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2-Damage diagnosis on stone buildings:
This part of the research contains the theoretical study about damage diagnosis on stone buildings and includes two chapters; the first one illustrates the in-site investigation and laboratory studies and the comprehensive documentation important in the field of stone monument preservation. And at the end of the study there is one appendix about weathering forms on stone buildings with photos about each form. And the second chapter studies the structural types of failure and interventions in stone building in the critical parts that may suffer from structural problems.

Introduction:
The history of mankind has been accompanied by the use of natural stones for buildings, monuments and art objects. In the course of time, all natural stones are affected by weathering. The interaction between stone materials and natural or anthropogenic weathering factors controls the type and extent of stone damages. Utilization of the building, insufficient maintenance or inappropriate restoration activities may have contributed to alarming stone damage. Due to the increasing awareness and respect for our built heritage, preservation of stone building has become an important public and political concern. Today, all experts agree that precise damage diagnosis is the prerequisite for understanding causes, processes and characteristics of stone damage and for sustainable monument preservation. During the last few decades, interdisciplinary research and new technologies have been introduced in damage diagnosis and monument preservation activities.

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preface. 1- Historical study. 1-1- History of Alexandria. 1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt. 1-3- Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment: 2- Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings.

2-1- In site investigation and laboratory studies.
2-2- Structural failure and interventions in stone building. 3- Applied study on Alexandrian heritage. 3-1- Future of Alexandrian built environment. 3-2- Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”. Conclusion References Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings.

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2-1- In site investigation and laboratory studies:
Stones are one of the most important materials in the old building as structure element or as claddings and ornaments. That’s because of its characteristics (strength, texture and strength), but the alarming increase of weathering damage on the stones and the danger that a major part of built cultural heritage could be partially or completely destroyed, requires immediate measures for building preservation. All stone buildings are affected by stone deterioration, especially by weathering, which means physical disintegration or chemical decomposition is initiated and controlled by the interaction between stone and other factors such as climate, biosphere or pollution. The increasing damage on stone monuments and the danger of irretrievable loss of cultural heritage has resulted in ever-increasing efforts world-wide for monument preservation. Hence, profound knowledge of the material properties and the weathering behavior of the natural stones is necessary, as well as the knowledge of weathering factors and processes which control this weathering behavior, and high level of scientific knowledge is an important basis for effective and economic preservation measures. The well-accepted approach to sustainable monument preservation comprises the steps of anamnesis, diagnosis and therapy Fig (2-1). Documentation has to be involved in each of these three steps.

APPROACH TO SUSTAINABLE PRESERVATION OF STONE MONUMENTS ANAMNESIS
Object identification Location of the object Description of the object Art history Construction history Restoration history Case history

DIAGNOSIS
Stone materials and their properties State of deterioration Rating of damage processes of deterioration Progression of stone deterioration

THERAPY
Conception, calculation, testapplication of preservation Implementation of preservation measures Quality control Monitoring and maintenance

DOCUMENTATION
Fig (2-1) Diagram of the approach to monument preservation. Source: (B. Fitzner, "Documentation and evaluation of stone damage on monuments", p.678)

2-1-1- Documentation within the scope of anamnesis:
The anamnesis is to acquire, compile and evaluate all information, data and documents for the identification and description of stone buildings and for the portrayal of their history. In particular, it considers the following objectives: Object identification: name, designation, owner, responsible authorities. • Location of the object: geographical and topographical location, geological conditions, building ground, exposure characteristics, surroundings in the course of time. • Description of the object: type, age, overall appearance, dimension, architectural style. • Art history: architectural composition, artistical elements, historical / cultural / artistical

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___________________________________________________________________________ value of the object. • Construction history: phases of construction / rebuilding, construction techniques, type and provenance of building materials, craftwork, artwork. • Restoration history: concepts and chronology of previous restoration measures, techniques and materials applied for restoration. • Case history: utilization and function of the object in the course of time, natural impacts, history of environmental conditions such as climate and pollution. Items of documentation with respect to anamnesis are presented in table (2-1).
Table (2-1) Items of documentation within the scope of anamnesis.

Items of documentation
Archive workDrawings, plans, maps, photographs or other relevant illustrations compilation and Publications, reports, journals, newspapers, expertise, files, evaluation of building logs, records, construction manuals, manufacturing available documents manuals, suppliers documents, accounts, static calculations etc. Collection and evaluation of oral information from people professionally involved with the object and from local people Collection and evaluation of environmental data from authorities or institutions Documentation of own observations, elaboration of new documents where necessary

Anamnesis

2-1-2- Documentation within the scope of diagnosis:
The diagnosis uses the information provided by the anamnesis and it represents the basis for the decision and implementation of appropriate preservation measures. The overall aim of the diagnosis is the characterization, quantification, interpretation and rating of stone damage on the building, The methodological approach of diagnosis includes laboratory analysis and in-site investigation, Diagnosis has to consider different scales of stone deterioration as described in table (2-2).
Table (2-2) Scales of stone deterioration.

Scales Non-visible deterioration

Parameters

Investigation Laboratory analysis

Involved sciences Geosciences, material sciences, chemistry, physics, microbiology, ecology Structural engineering, architecture

Nanoscale Changes of stone < mm properties Microscale Mass loss, mm to cm micromorphology Mesoscale Deterioration Visible cm to m phenomena deterioration Macroscale Structural stability, whole structures aesthetic appearance or monuments

In-site investigation

Particular objectives of diagnosis are: • stone materials and their properties: type and distribution of stone materials, stone working, surface structure, stone mounting, macroscopical characteristics, mineral composition, chemical composition, textural properties, porosity properties, hygric properties, thermal properties, mechanical properties, correlations between stone properties, stone quality. • state of stone deterioration: stone alteration, physical disintegration, chemical decomposition, deterioration profiles, type and intensity of deterioration phenomena.

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___________________________________________________________________________ • factors and processes influencing stone deterioration: natural and anthropogenic factors, coaction of factors, interaction of processes, mechanisms of deterioration, threshold levels. • progression of stone deterioration: stone properties in the course of deterioration, sequences of deterioration phenomena, rates of deterioration, models of stone deterioration, prognosis. • rating of damage: degree of damage, distribution of damage, risk prognosis, need and urgency of intervention. Diagnosis can be divided into three categories: In-site investigation Building mapping Measurements sampling Laboratory analysis Analysis of physical, chemical and mechanical material properties Weathering simulation Outdoor exposure chamber tests

Fig (2-2) Diagram of the three categories of diagnosis.

The application of these three complementary diagnostical steps and the joint evaluation of results contribute essentially to reliable damage diagnosis for stone monuments, items of documentation with respect to diagnosis are presented in table (2-3).
Table (2-3)Items of documentation within the scope of diagnosis.

Items of documentation
Description of all methods applied during the course of diagnosis including their aims, appropriation / suitability, modes of evaluation, Description success. of the Description and graphic documentation of the investigation areas diagnostical location, dimension, orientation, exposure characteristics, reasons for concept selection. Description and graphic documentation of sampling - materials, type and dimension of samples, places of sampling, reasons for selection. Stone materials and their properties - classification schemes, data sets, files, diagrams, photographs, lithological maps with quantitative evaluation State of stone deterioration - characterization of deterioration according to change of stone properties, classification of deterioration phenomena considering type and intensity, data sets, files, diagrams, photographs, maps of deterioration phenomena with quantitative evaluation Evaluation of Factors and processes of stone deterioration - qualitative or quantitative results / direct or inferable information, data sets, files, diagrams Progression of stone deterioration - modes of assessment / quantification, rating of accuracy / validity / transferability, data sets, files, diagrams Rating of damage - considerations / schemes for the rating of damage and for the appraisal of need and urgency of preservation measures, maps of damage with quantitative evaluation, data sets, files, diagrams

The building mapping method has been established as a non-destructive procedure for the precise registration, evaluation and documentation of deterioration phenomena. It can be

Diagnosis

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___________________________________________________________________________ applied to all stone types and to all kinds of stone objects, modern computer programs are used for the processing of information registered in the course of mapping. They use digital plans of stone monuments or structures. Digital plans and information files with planimetric data allow manifold options for the query, illustration, quantitative evaluation and transformation of information. In many buildings different stone types were used, due to architectural, constructional or artistical considerations, or due to availability and workability of stone material, rebuilding or stone replacement may have also resulted in additional stone types. The lithological mapping comprises the survey, identification, petrographical characterization and registration of all stone types, this is very important for the evaluation of damage in dependence upon stone types. Well-established petrographical schemes should be used for the description of stone types. The distribution of stone types is illustrated in maps and is evaluated quantitatively according to number or area of dimension stones. The objective and reproducible registration and documentation of deterioration phenomena (weathering forms or weathering features) require precise, It is recommended to also consider the intensity of deterioration phenomena. However, a standard intensity classification of deterioration phenomena is not suitable. The classification of intensities has to be adjusted to each monument or stone structure with respect to the apparent range of intensities.

Fig (2-3) drawing of Lithological mapping “monastery of Benedettini, Catania”.

2-1-3- Mapping of weathering forms:
Weathering forms represent visible results of weathering processes which are controlled by interacting weathering factors. This term is used for visible stone deterioration at mesoscale (cm to m). Damage categories are based on the intensity of the weathering forms, Six damage categories have been identified. And damage indices are calculated for conclusive

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___________________________________________________________________________ quantification and rating of damages. the weathering forms are Classified into four levels1: LEVEL I: includes four groups of weathering forms: Group 1– loss of stone material. Group 2– discoloration / deposits. Group 3– detachment. Group 4– fissures / deformation. LEVEL II: Each group is subdivided into main weathering forms LEVEL III: Several main weathering forms are further specified by means of individual weathering forms LEVEL IV: The individual weathering forms are further differentiated according to intensities (letters are used for the weathering forms and numbers for intensities).

Fig (2-4) Classification of weathering forms.

Damage categories are based on the intensity of the weathering forms, Six damage categories have been identified as shown in the next figures.

Fig (2-5) diagram of definitions of damage categories.

Fig (2-6)Map of damage categories with rating of urgency of preservation measures, ”St. Lambertus Church, MonschauKalterherberg, Germany” SW tower and part of west facade.

Damage categories and especially damage indices represent very practical tools for reliable
1

Photos of Weathering forms on stone buildings are included in Appendix (A) at the end of the Report.

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___________________________________________________________________________ judgement/certification of preservation measures, Damage categories locate those parts of a building which intervention has to focus on, Damage indices point out need and urgency of intervention.

2-1-4- Therapeutical steps:
Based on anamnesis and diagnosis, effective and economic therapeutical steps can be proposed and calculated, Important therapeutical and preventive preservation measures are the following: A) Preconsolidation. D) consolidation. B) cleaning. E) protection. C) sealing – plastering.

2-1-4-1- Preconsolidation: Complex and difficult operation required when the degradation process is strong, and obstacles the normal cleaning operations. And It consist in sticking small portions, with minimum amount of consolidator and utilizing reversible materials like Japanese paper, gauze, acrylic resins and other materials that can be removed after the cleaning.

Fig (2-7) photos of Preconsolidation presses: sticking Fig (2-8) photo of vegetable disinfestations. of Japanese paper and adding consolidator. Source: (lecture by Prof. D. Villari, Kore university of Enna, Italy).

Then must be completely vegetable disinfestations by injection with some chemicals for the superior plants, and by aerosol or brush for the mask or alga. Before starting the disinfestations, the surface must be cleaned with a wooden or plastic palette, then many cycles of product must be done till all the vegetables organism are dead, then removed with brush and water. 2-1-4-2- cleaning: The aim of the cleaning is to remove any thing that may damage the stone such as Soluble salts, Crust, vegetation and Etc. Cleaning must be controllable by the operator, selective and gradual, non corrosive, and doesn’t leave harmful materials or create breaks. And the main cleaning methods are: • Nebulized and atomized water. • Water compress with absorbing materials. • Mechanic method. • Ultrasonic. • Laser. atomized water: It cleans and remove the encrustations with effect of a washing of water mixed with air that produce an aerosol effect. It needs to have low pressure and the nozzle must not be direct to the surface but must have an angle between 30° to 45°. Nebulized water: Like atomized water, but without mixing air and water. It is used at low pressure ( max 2 par.). The nozzle are directed to the surface, and it’s effect is direct and
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___________________________________________________________________________ stronger than atomized water To clean deep crust it needs many cycles of washing, each cycle has a duration of about 10 minutes followed by one hour of drying. After each cycle a sample of the waste water must be taken and continue until the quantity of salt is at demonized water level.

Fig (2-9) photos of cleaning with nebulized and atomized water. Source: (lecture by Prof. D. Villari, Kore university of Enna, Italy).

Absorbing materials: it absorbs all the soluble salts and alternation products and removes different types of spots, and it may be made by (Paper Pulp) or (Absorbing Clay).

Fig (2-10) photos of cleaning with absorbing materials. Source: (lecture by Prof. D. Villari, Kore university of Enna, Italy).

Mechanic cleaning: it is used to remove very consistent crusts that can’t be soluble in water or chemically, using micro instruments as Scalpel , Micro drills, Micro sand blast or Ultrasonic instruments.

Fig (2-11) photos of cleaning with mechanic method and micro sand blasting. Source: (lecture by Prof. D. Villari, Kore university of Enna, Italy).

Laser cleaning: it is anew method of cleaning, and is very good to remove black spots, and it operates only on the external surface by a laser light without any contact but it very slaw and expensive.

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Fig (2-12) photos of cleaning with laser. Source: (lecture by Prof. D. Villari, Kore university of Enna, Italy).

2-1-4-3- sealing – plastering: This process consists of the removal of old sealing and wrong intervention with mechanical methods, then plastering of cracks or joints with mortar made by the same material of the original stones (smashing the stones at the right grins and may be added some acrylic to make the mortar stronger as possible.

Fig (2-13) photos of sealing process with stone mortar. Source: (lecture by Prof. D. Villari, Kore university of Enna, Italy).

Sometimes it necessary to make integrations of small elements that are broken or lost with material such as acrylic resin, quick lime or smashed stones. For the biggest elements it is fixed with titanium, Teflon or stainless steel bars.

Fig (2-14) photos of integrations of small elements that are broken or lost. Source: (lecture by Prof. D. Villari, Kore university of Enna, Italy).

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___________________________________________________________________________ 2-1-4-4- consolidation: This process aims to give back the continuity to the fragile materials and separated parts by applying an appropriate product with a strong adhesive power, that process improve the properties of the material and make it more resistance to water and humidity.

Fig (2-15) photos of consolidation of fragile materials and separated parts. Source: (lecture by Prof. D. Villari, Kore university of Enna, Italy).

2-1-4-5- protection: It is the final operation that aims to slow down the deterioration process and maintain the restoration, It is applicable with brush or spray.

Notes:
1. B. Fitzner and K. Heinrichs, ”Damage diagnosis on stone monuments – weathering forms, damage categories and damage indices”, Working group “Natural stones and weathering“,Geological Institute, Aachen University of Technology, Germany. B. Fitzner, K. Heinrichs, D. La Bouchardiere, ” Damage index for stone monuments”, 5th International Symposium on the Conservation of Monuments in the Mediterranean Basin, Sevilla, Spain, 5-8 April 2000. Barry A.Richardson, "Defects and Deterioration in Buildings", 2nd edition, SPON PRESS, London.2001. B. Fitzner, "Documentation and evaluation of stone damage on monuments", 10th international congress on deterioration and conservation of stone, Stockholm.2004. B. Fitzner, Working group "NATURAL STONES AND WEATHERING", Geological Institute, RWTH Aachen University , http://www.stone.rwth-aachen.de at 1-2009. Villari, D. “Lectures of restoration” Kore university of Enna, Italy, 2008. http://www.irb.hr/korisnici/obelic/euro-med/CA.htm at 5-2009.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

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preface. 1- Historical study. 1-1- History of Alexandria. 1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt. 1-3- Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment: 2- Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings. 2-1- In site investigation and laboratory studies.

2-2- Structural failure and interventions in stone building.
3- Applied study on Alexandrian heritage. 3-1- Future of Alexandrian built environment. 3-2- Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”. Conclusion References Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings.

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2-2- Structural failure and interventions in stone building:
2-2-1- Mechanism of break down in stone building:
The main types of failure in stone buildings are as followed: • Mode (I): Failure due to the collapse of the façade. • Mode (II): Failure due to the wall bending. • Mode (III): Failure due to the wall cut. • Collapse on the isolated walls. 2-2-1-1- Mode (I): Failure due to the collapse of the façade: This type of failure happen when separation of the façade due to the motion that involves one or more of structure panels of the building at the upper floors of the construction.

Fig (2-16) photo and diagram of the Failure due to the collapse of the façade.

Fig (2-17)photos of building at “Messina, Sicily” after the earthquake (28 December 1908).

Fig (2-18) photo the cracks in the connection between the façade and the building.

2-2-1-2- Mode (II): Failure due to the wall bending: This type of failure happen due to frontal cracks in the façade that causes separation of one part or more of the walls then collapse of the central zone of the wall at the form of (V shape) at the upper part of the façade.

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Fig (2-19) photo and diagram of the Failure due to the wall bending. Source: (lecture by Prof. T. Panzeca, at Kore university of Enna, Italy).

Fig (2-20) photos of buildings at “Messina, Sicily” after the earthquake (28 December 1908). Source: http://www.grifasi-sicilia.com/messina_terremoto_1908_porta_messina_gbr.html

2-2-1-3- Mode (III): Failure due to the wall cut: This type of failure happen due to separation of the wall and rotate it out side around the lower edge leaving the panels and the building and causes collapse in the façade.

Fig (2-21) photo and diagram of the Failure due to the wall cut. Source: (lecture by Prof. T. Panzeca, at Kore university of Enna, Italy).

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Fig (2-22) photos of buildings at “Messina, Sicily” after the earthquake (28 December 1908). Source: http://www.grifasi-sicilia.com/messina_terremoto_1908_via_porta_imperiale.html

2-2-1-4- Collapse on the isolated walls: This breakout in walls mainly occurs in presence of an excessive load and/or additional tension that is created when the foundations is subjected to motion or settlement, It appears as 45° cracks on one or both sides of the walls. The stability of the structure in this case is depending on the relation between the length and the dimension of the cross section. This phenomenon is often tied to the non homogeneity of the building system (stone and mortar).

Fig (2-23) photos of Collapse on the isolated walls. Source: (lecture by Prof. T. Panzeca, at Kore university of Enna, Italy).

Fig (2-24) photos of cracks on the isolated walls due to over loading or foundation movement. Source: (lecture by Prof. T. Panzeca, at Kore university of Enna, Italy).

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2-2-2- Structural improvement integrations in stone building:
Interventions improvements are required in stone building due to the damage level, it’s place and the structural element that require intervention and some of the basic intervention are listed below: 2-2-2-1- Reinforcement of the structure with steel: Using steel bars to reinforcement the stone structure is a traditional process as seen in some of the ancient building. But sometimes it causes a serious damage to the stone due to the corrosion of the iron bars that leads to increasing of its volume causing cracks in the stones.

Fig. (2-25) photos and sketch of using steel bar in ancient buildings. Source: (lecture by Prof. T. Panzeca, at Kore university of Enna, Italy).

Fig. (2-26) photos of the corrosion of old steel bars that damage the nearby stones. Source: (Restoration project of “Rampenseri castle, Sicily, Italy by Prof. T. Panzeca).

So it is recommended to use steel bars inserted inside a (PVC tubes) that prevent direct contact between steel and stone also make it possible to maintain the steel when necessary. The steel bars inserted at the corners of the building in the top of the outer walls and connected with steel plates and bolts as seen in Fig. (2-?).

Fig.(2-27) Sketches of using steel bar inserted at the corners of the building inside (PVC tubes) and connected with steel plates and bolts . Source: (lecture by Prof. T. Panzeca, at Kore university of Enna, Italy).

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Fig. (2-28) photos of the steel bars inserted at the top corners of outer walls and the connection with steel plates and bolts. Source: (Restoration project of “Rampenseri castle, Sicily, Italy by Prof. T. Panzeca).

In cases of deferent thickness in the walls the bars are connected throw intermediate plate and the cables are inserted in two levels

Fig. (2-29) photos of using steel bar in case of deferent thickness in the walls. Source: (Restoration project of “Rampenseri castle, Sicily, Italy by Prof. T. Panzeca).

Fig.(2-30) Sketches of using steel bar in case of deferent thickness in the walls. Source: (lecture by Prof. T. Panzeca, at Kore university of Enna, Italy).

2-2-2-2- Interventions on the wooden beams: floors on the old stone building mostly supported on wooden beams, and those beams suffer from damage due to over weight that cause buckling at the middle of the beam; or the damage at connection with walls due to humidity and wood deterioration.

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Fig. (2-31) photos of damages on old wood beams that support the roofs. Source: (photos by the researcher at “Okalle Monfrato”, Alexandria, Egypt).

When replacing the old wooden beams it is better to introduce the beams into walls throw steel cases with steel plate and bolts at top as shown in Fig.(2-32) that cases helps to make strong connection, transforming the loads from beams to the walls and make it easy to maintain or change the beams when needed.

Fig.(2-32) Sketches of using steel cases to support the connection between the wooden beams and the stone structure. Source: (lecture by Prof. T. Panzeca, at Kore university of Enna, Italy).

Fig. (2-33) photos of the steel cases that contain the wooden beams and connect it with the walls. Source: (Restoration project of “Rampenseri castle, Sicily, Italy by Prof. T. Panzeca).

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Fig. (2-34) photos of upper cover of the steel cases that prevent it from sliding. Source: (Restoration project of “Rampenseri castle, Sicily, Italy by Prof. T. Panzeca).

2-2-2-3- Interventions on the wooden roofs: Final covering in most of the old building are made of wooden trusses and those trusses transform loads to stone arches and then to the walls, in some cases the arches are damage or can’t support the load from the truss as in Fig.(2-35).

Fig.(2-35) Sketches of wooden truss supported on stone arches and the damage due to movement of the truss. Source: (lecture by Prof. T. Panzeca, at Kore university of Enna, Italy).

In that case it better to support the wooden beam of the truss directly on the walls and connect the parts of the beam together with steel bar to eliminate the horizontal forces.

Fig.(2-36) Sketches of wooden beam of the truss directly supported on the walls and connect the parts of the beam together with steel bar. Source: (lecture by Prof. T. Panzeca, at Kore university of Enna, Italy).

After finishing the wooden truss it is covered with layer of wood and fixed on it a layer of corrugated cartoon sheets covered with water resistance material to isolate the structure from rains, and on this layer fixed the final finished surface.

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Fig.(2-37) photos of the wooden beams supported only on the walls and separated from the stone arches.

Fig.(2-38) photo of the intermediate connection of the beams throw steel part.

Fig.(2-39) photo of covering the roof with thin layer of wood before the final finishing.

Fig.(2-40) photos of the final finishing layer supported on sheets of cartoon coated with water resistance material. Source: (Restoration project of “Rampenseri castle, Sicily, Italy by Prof. T. Panzeca).

2-2-2-4- Recovery of arches and vaults: Stone arches and vaults manly consists of cut stones but together to form the arch and supported on each other with it’s own weight only, so if any stone peace of the arch get damaged it may cause failure to the whole arch.

Fig.(2-41) photo of cracks in the arch and separation Fig.(2-42) photo of supporting the arches during the between it’s stones. restoration process. Source: (Restoration project of “Rampenseri castle, Sicily, Italy by Prof. T. Panzeca).

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___________________________________________________________________________ In this case, the arch must be supported with external supports –strong enough to carry out the loads- then remove the damage stone and connect the remaining part s of the arch with steel pars and then rearrange the arch again, that process transform the loads away from the damaged stone and keep the arch works as structure element.

Fig.(2-43) Sketches of supporting the arch, reinforce it and replacement of damaged parts. Source: (lecture by Prof. T. Panzeca, at Kore university of Enna, Italy).

In some cases the loads transformed from the arch or vault to the walls cause torsion on the walls and that cause failure to the arch system, so the walls must be connected together with steel bars to resist the loads.

Fig.(2-44) photos of connecting the carrying walls of the arch or vaults with steel bars. Source: (Restoration project of “Rampenseri castle, Sicily, Italy by Prof. T. Panzeca).

In other the arch are over loaded due to the weight of the filling material above it, and in this case it is difficult to restore the arch because of the existence of the loads, so the loads must be temporary transformed with steel supports until the restoration of the arch and then reload the again and these supports must be located as in Fig.(2-?).

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Fig.(2-45) Sketches of supporting the loads above the arch during restoration. Source: (lecture by Prof. T. Panzeca, at Kore university of Enna, Italy).

Notes:
1. 2. Barry A.Richardson, "Defects and Deterioration in Buildings", 2nd edition, SPON PRESS, London.2001. Panzeca, T. “Lectures of restoration” Kore university of Enna, Italy, 2008.

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preface. 1- Historical study. 1-1- History of Alexandria. 1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt. 1-3- Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment: 2- Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings. 2-1- In site investigation and laboratory studies. 2-2- Structural failure and interventions in stone building.

3- Applied study on Alexandrian heritage.
3-1- Future of Alexandrian built environment. 3-2- Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”. Conclusion References Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings.

The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (3): Applied study

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3- Applied study on Alexandrian heritage.
This part includes the applied study on Alexandrian heritage and consists of two chapters; the first one studies the current situation, the problems and the Future of Alexandrian built environment and some examples of rehabilitation of building in Alexandria city center, and the second chapter is a case study of El Manshieh or “Mohamed Ali Square” which is one of the main commercial districts at Alexandria city center and was redesigned by Italian architect, also the square contains now five Italian buildings three of them are private residence. The study of the Italian buildings in the square illustrate the current situation of the buildings and the problems that they suffer from.

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preface. 1- Historical study. 1-1- History of Alexandria. 1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt. 1-3- Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment: 2- Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings. 2-1- In site investigation and laboratory studies. 2-2- Structural failure and interventions in stone building. 3- Applied study on Alexandrian heritage.

3-1- Future of Alexandrian built environment.
3-2- Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”. Conclusion References Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings.

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3-1- Future of Alexandrian built environment:
As a consequence of the 1952 revolution, old street names were replaced by new revolutionary names: Gamal Abdel Nasser replacing Fouad I, and Salah Salem replacing Sherif Pasha. The sequestration and confiscation of foreign and elitist property following the socialist changes of society in the 1960s and the mass exodus of Europeans from Egypt resulted in property being transformed into schools, governmental offices and public utilities. These buildings and the surrounding environment suffered the consequences of neglect, misuse, ill-conceived additions and remodeling.

3-1-1- Mutations in Alexandria built environment:
In contrast to elitism in the period of Mohamed Ali family, the post 1960s era was dominated by decolonization and state socialism. The socialist laws of nationalization and sequestration deprived foreigners of their livelihood and brought about their eventual exodus, therefore ending 150 years of Alexandrian cosmopolitanism. As little trace of Alexandria's ancient splendor has survived, it is today difficult to grasp the importance and beauty of this city in ancient times. The unique nineteenth and early twentieth architecture remains, but most vestiges of the ancient city have gone.

Fig (3-1) Photos of “High and Low conventional style” in the cotemporary Alexandria’s built environment. Source: (www.flicr.com)

Most sequestrated private Egyptian and foreign elitist property in the form of building stock was transformed into government offices and public institutions (such as schools and hospitals), and consequently suffered the ill fate of degradation due to the lack of maintenance, ill conceived additions and remodeling. No exception was made for Italian commercial and industrial ventures and private property, which were nationalized and sequestrated in the process of Egyptianization (make every thing Egyptian). The only exception was the home for the elderly, the Casa di Riposo. Though it was turned into an Egyptian welfare foundation, it continued to function as an old people's home. The same

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___________________________________________________________________________ can be said for the Don Bosco and Scuola Maria Ausiliatirica, run by the Salessiane, which were allowed to function, though with an Egyptian curriculum. The Italian Hospital was donated by the Italian community to the Egyptian military in 1974, in exchange for a generous donation by the army (300.000 LE), which helped renovate and maintain the Casa di Riposo, allowing it to function to the present. A lot of other private property was transferred to private Egyptians, who were unable to maintain them in the face of increasing economic pressures, and so sacrificed them for high rise apartment buildings. especially in suburban Ramleh. This process of metamorphosis resulted in the creation of a dense "common" urban order and a modern conventional style where the high rise apartment building, devoid of any cultural expressions and the vitality associated with modernism, is devoid sometimes of external finishing, with the "architecture of bricks and concrete" dominating its urban morphology.

Fig (3-2) Photos of badly conceived addition: Faculty of agriculture, Alexandria university. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria"p.363)

Fig (3-3) Photo of “Art studio of Gilda Ambron” in Ruins. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria"p.360)

Fig (3-4) Photo of “Villa Baron de Menasce” demolished. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria"p.360)

Fig (3-5) Photo of “Villa Aldo Ambron” in Ruins. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria"p.361)

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___________________________________________________________________________ The government imposition of "fair rent" meant the freezing and devaluation of returns on property value, thereby discouraging owners from maintaining their buildings and developers from investing in new ones. This deprived old buildings of maintenance, while increased population and migration pressures aggravated the demand for housing, and turned into a permanent crisis. Even within the government's intensive industrialization policies in the successive five year plans there was hardly any significant western interest or contribution. Moreover, within a state controlled system, and a deficit economy dependant on external borrowing and remittances from Egyptians working abroad, only small capital and enterprise was allowed to circulate and function. Insofar as the Italian presence in building professions and its enterprises were concerned, only a handful of small businesses and petty contracting survived and continued to function, such as the small ventures of Sampieri in paint works and Nussoleze in glass works.

Fig (3-6) Plan and Photo of “Graeco-Roman museum” in Alexandria. Source: (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graeco-Roman_Museum )

The one and unique Egyptian/Italian architectural venture of this period was the proposal to build a Graeco-Roman museum (1964-72) in the Shallalat Municipal parks, proposed by F. Albini in collaboration with Egyptian architects Salah Zeitoun and Mustafa Shawki. The unrealized proposal was also quite offensive to the landscape of the gardens. The most serious problem facing conservation remains the degradation of the building stock due to the lack of maintenance and repair as a result of the freezing and devaluation of rents (rents have been blocked in Egypt since the 1940s). Demographic pressure has also taken its toll on the city as informal habitats spread into the center, and rooftops have been occupied by haphazard constructions. High density and crowding are also created by the subdivision of floor space and apartments. Many such spaces have been transformed for petty commercial activities and industries, contributing to the pollution and general environmental degradation of the city center. Moreover, the intensity of the traffic and the absence of adequate parking facilities remain among the major problems that need to be addressed in a comprehensive preservation policy for Alexandria's city center.

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Fig (3-7) Photo of buildings at city center in Alexandria showing bad conditions due to lack of maintenance. Source: (www.flicr.com)

Fig (3-8) Photo of details in buildings at city center in Alexandria showing the bad conditions due to lack of maintenance. Source: (photos by the researcher)

Fig (3-9) Photo of buildings at city center in Alexandria showing structural problems. Source: (www.archnet.org)

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Fig (3-10) Photo of buildings at city center in Alexandria showing deformation due to adding more floors, shop windows and commercial signs . Source: (photos by the researcher)

Fig (3-11) Photo of buildings at city center in Alexandria showing bad integrations with paints. Source: (photos by the researcher)

3-1-2- Selected examples of recent architectural restoration and renovation projects in Alexandria:
Alexandria's city center can be considered well preserved as most of the original buildings of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century have survived demolition. However, these buildings do suffer from neglect, lack of maintenance, ill-conceived additions, remodeling and deformation affecting their original styles. Despite the general atmosphere of neglect, some buildings have been successfully restored, whereas others are still waiting for their turn. Recent restorations have proved to be more harmful than beneficial when the use of inappropriate materials, wrong colors, or the bad restoration of detailed moldings have disfigured the original style of the building. This is the case of the Luzzatto residence - today the Bilquis school - and of the Pini residence which is now the Health and Sanitation Office. The most visible threat to the architectural environment is related to advertisement signage and decorations depicting commercial activities, usually found on the ground floor of buildings. 3-1-2-1- Villa Bassili - Alexandria National Museum (re-use): The property was designed in 1929-31 by V. Erlanger. The American Consulate bought the property from the successors of A. Bassili in 1960 and sold it to the Ministry of Culture in 1997 at a price of 12 million LE. The project of transforming the building into the Alexandria National Museum started in 2001, and it was inaugurated in September 2003. The Italian architect Maurizzio de Paulo was in charge of the museum's interior. The renovation project in the context of its new use as a museum was certainly a good example of preservation, since

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___________________________________________________________________________ its showcases and displaced objects did not interfere with the original setting and decor of the original building, which has remained well preserved.

Fig (3-12) Photos of “Villa Bassili” before and after renovation. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "“The conservation and rehabilitation of Alexandria’s city center”, "p.48)

3-1-2-2- Rehabilitation and Restoration of the Mohamed A1i Theater. included within the Cordahi Complex (upgrading and restoration): The Mohamed Ali Theater, owned by G. Cordahi, was designed by the architect G. Parcq in 1921 on the location of the old Zizinia Theater. The surrounding two apartment buildings were. designed by the same architect (1928). In 2003 the whole complex was restored and additional structures were attached to the backstage area of the theater to provide better performance facilities. The project highlights the importance of considering the urban context of the restored edifice, since the surrounding buildings, the piazza and the entrance gallery were all restored within the process of renovating the theater. However, incomplete predesign inception, unrealistic initial budgeting and constant replacement of consulting services and related drawing and specifications resulted in the disruption of site work and the inflation of costs from 3.5 to 25 million LE.

Fig (3-13) Photos of “Cordahi Complex” before and after renovation. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "“The conservation and rehabilitation of Alexandria’s city center”, "p.49)

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Fig (3-14) Photos of piazza and main façade of “Mohamed Ali theatre” before and after renovation. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "“The conservation and rehabilitation of Alexandria’s city center”, "p.49)

Fig (3-15) Photos of “Mohamed Ali club” before and after renovation. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "“The conservation and rehabilitation of Alexandria’s city center”, "p.50)

3-1-2-3- Mohamed A1i Club (renovation and re-use): Originally known as Club Mohamed Ali, this building was erected in about the 1890s for the Alexandria Exchange Company and was known as the Bourse Toussoun. Today it is a government property, called the Horreya Cultural Center. Varied cultural events are held there including lectures, exhibitions, music concerts and seminars, etc. The original club was renovated in 2001 under the direction of Dr. Adel Mokhtar. The renovation process seems to have been more concerned with introducing novelty than preservation. Additional features to the original exterior architecture have disfigured the original character of the building, yet the more serious problems associated with the post construction phase seem to have been related to technical specifications and control of the execution of services, such as air-conditioning, acoustics and lighting. 3-1-2-4- The branches of the National Bank of Egypt (renovation and restoration): The National Bank of Egypt took the initiative of renovating two of its branches on Salah Salem Street, the former Sherif Pasha Street. The first, originally the Banco di Roma, was designed in 1905 by the architect H. Gorra in the new-renaissance style. The internal reorganization of the bank seems to have not disrupted the designs, since most of the original interiors were preserved, whilst most of the furniture was replaced and disposed of. The exterior restoration carefully retained the original features of the building which still remains one of the most distinguished buildings of Alexandria's city center. The restoration work started in 1997 under the consultancy of Aboul Fadl, EI Hadari and EI Kholy, with an estimated budget of 8 million L.E., and the restored premises were inaugurated in 2001 at a final cost of 11 million LE.
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Fig (3-16) Photos of “Banco di Roma” before and after renovation. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "“The conservation and rehabilitation of Alexandria’s city center”, "p.51)

Fig (3-17) Photos of “bank of Athens” before and after renovation. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "“The conservation and rehabilitation of Alexandria’s city center”, "p.50)

The second branch of the National Bank of Egypt, formerly the Bank of Athens, was designed by N. Paraskevas and P. Gripari in around 1918. It was restored and renovated under the directions of Moharem and Backhoum Consultants, originally a civil engineering firm. Unfortunately the renovation process, though preserving the main features of the facade, entailed a complete destruction of the original interior spaces and detailing within the newly introduced modern renovations. While these two examples belong to the same client and were renovated nearly simultaneously, it is obvious that the two approaches to conservation were quite diverse. 3-1-2-5- Palazzina Aghion (renovation and re-use): Originally belonging to the Aghion family, the Palazzina Aghion was built in 1887, when the Aghions had to move to the Rosetta Gate district after the British bombardment of Alexandria in 1882. It was designed by the Italian architect Antoine Lasciac, following an eclectic NewRenaissance and mannerist style. The ownership of the building changed later to the Takla family. Nowadays the property is occupied by the AI-Ahram newspaper, which added a top floor to the structure. More recently, a study for the complete renovation of the premises was prepared by Awad & Partners. However, the actual execution of work not only entailed no

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___________________________________________________________________________ professional supervision, but the client also exercised management of the renovation process, making changes to specifications and drawings with the aim of reducing costs. In this particular case most of the proposed works were dismissed and the building only received some cleaning and a fresh coat of paint applied to its facades and interiors.

Fig (3-18) Photos of “palazzina Aghion” before and after renovation. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "“The conservation and rehabilitation of Alexandria’s city center”, "p.51)

3-1-2-6- Cinema Amir - Twentieth Century Fox (transformation): Cinema Amir is a beautiful example of the grand cinema traditions of Alexandria's Art Deco period. It was designed by the American architects John & Drew Aberson for Mr. G. Geordanou, the' promoter and owner of several similar establishments in Alexandria. Managed by Twentieth Century Fox, the cinema was subdivided into several smaller cinemas in 2002 by the Italian architect Violante Claudio. While the decorative original roof was protected and covered by a new false ceiling, the cinema's interiors and elegant cafeteria in the basement were sacrificed to fit the new space requirements.

3-1-3- Principle guidelines for architectural conservation:
• It is recommended that the process of listing of buildings and groups of buildings of architectural significance or merit should be encouraged and consolidated with scientific surveys and documentation. • Public awareness and concern for conservation should be promoted with the help and contribution of public organizations, the press and media, and private interest groups. • The maintenance, repair and safeguarding of the built environment will demand an urgent review of building and zoning laws and regulations concerning additions, extensions, materials, styles, building heights and colors, the use of signals, air conditioners and so on. Zoning laws and regulations should consider new development land uses and building lines. • The upgrading of building laws must involve provision for periodical maintenance and repair involving owners and tenants associations. The expropriation of buildings for public welfare or utility and compensation to property owners and their encouragement in conservation should be considered in the light of property and ownership rights. Procedures such as exemption from taxation, building permits and exchange of property procedures could also be considered.

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___________________________________________________________________________ • New land uses or re-use should be considered within the actual architectural and urban suitability. Infill should therefore conform to present zoning and the current uses of the different sections and identified activities of the building, street and area. • Renovation and restoration of buildings will have to take into consideration structural failures, inappropriate use of building materials and colors, bad workmanship, damage due to failure in services, such as leaking pipes, menace due to vandalism, a general lack of awareness, disregard and disinterest in the qualitative and aesthetic values of the built environment such as the commercial use of signals, advertisements and decorations inappropriate to the original styles of the buildings. • It is therefore recommended not only to ensure the use of professional expertise and the appropriate technologies for the process of restoration and renovation, but equally important is the mobilization and the effective management resources again involving the general public, users and interest groups together with public and governmental agencies. • It is therefore recommended to view the European city conservation and regeneration within their context. Specific legislation must therefore take into consideration the special character of the area. This should include regulations to control typology, style, building heights and so on.

Notes:
1. Awad, Mohamed & El Tabbakh, May, “The conservation and rehabilitation of Alexandria’s city center”, Patrimoines partage`s En Me`diterrane`e; Ele`ments cle`s de la re`habilitation, EUROMED Heritage II, Alexandria, 2005. Awad, Mohamed F. “Italy in Alexandria: influences on the built environment”, Alexandria preservation trust, Alexandria, Egypt,2008. Awad, Mohamed F. "Italian Influence on Alexandria's Architecture (1834-1985)." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1990, Pp. 72-85. Godoli, E. "Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt : a long-lasting political emigration", Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century ,by Italian institute for culture, Cairo, 2008 Pp. 14-72. Petruccioli Attilio, ed. Sponde Amate ”Environmental Design: Presence of Italy in the Architecture of the Islamic Meditterranean”, Journal of Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1990.

2. 3. 4.

5.

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preface. 1- Historical study. 1-1- History of Alexandria. 1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt. 1-3- Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment: 2- Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings. 2-1- In site investigation and laboratory studies. 2-2- Structural failure and interventions in stone building. 3- Applied study on Alexandrian heritage. 3-1- Future of Alexandrian built environment.

3-2- Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”.
Conclusion References Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings.

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3-2- Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”:
By the turn of the twentieth century, Alexandria had established a reputation as Egypt's commercial and financial capital and the square of El-Tahrir or El Manshieh is considered the main commercial district of the Alexandrian city center.

3-2-1- History of the square “place d’armes”:
Francesco Mancini’s early involvement in 1820 with ibrahim basha’s own private developments, including the Okalle Neuve, the first and most important commercial building on the grand place -known as place d’armes- possibly influenced his cession in transforming the character and function of the square from a military exercise and parade ground to its new commercial entity “plan of the square figures (1-36)& (1-37)”.

Fig (3-19) Old postcards of Place des Consuls in late 19th century also known as Place d' Armes, place Mohamed Ali, Manshieh and Liberation square. Source: (www.flicr.com )

Mohamed Ali Square, formerly known as the place des Consuls, and the adjacent Sherif Street, presently Salah Salem Street, were the seat of the Stock Exchange and many bank premises: the Anglo-Egyptian Bank, Lioyds Bank, the Bank of Athens and the elegant Banco di Roma designed by Henri Gorra in 1905 and inspired by the Palazzo Farnese in Rome.

Fig (3-20) Photos of Place des Consuls in late 19th century also known as Place d' Armes, place Mohamed Ali, Manshieh and Liberation square. Source: (www.flicr.com )

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For the design of the new buildings on the square, Mancini adapted a traditional typology of the okalle, whose ground spaces, grouped round an open court, were usually reserved for commercial uses. The upper floors served as residences. These new rectilinear block developments introduced within a street grid pattern and a newly adopted neo-c1assical language marked the new order and lingua franca of the young cosmopolitan city. Such a change was certainly a contrast to and a defiance of an already existing and well-established organic order that had characterized the indigenous quarters of the Ottoman city.

Fig (3-21) Panoramic view of Manshieh and Liberation square showing the court building “Mixed Tribunals”.

Fig (3-22) Panoramic view of Manshieh and Liberation square showing “Okalle Menasce”. Source: (www.archnet.org )

Because the new urban spaces around this square reflected both the power and wealth of the vicarage family, and the growing influence of the foreign consuls, the square was renamed Place des Consuls. More importantly, the new urban: space was embellished with an obelisk in its center, and with fountains and music kiosks, and was surrounded with hotels, cafe concerts, and restaurants. All this reflected a newly adopted life style similar to those of the great European cities. Yet in the mind's eye of many travelers, as apparent from their description, the character of the city remained to a great extent quite eclectic.

Fig (3-23) Photos of “Manshieh square” showing the status of “Mohamed Ali” and Parking area. Source: (www.archnet.org )

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3-2-2- Current Situation of “Ahmed Orabi & Manshieh Squares”:
The square that used to contain the city's elitist residences, have been more recently transformed into cultural centers, banks, and government and administrative offices. Despite a few individual attempts to preserve some of these buildings, a more effective approach of listing the buildings and preserving their collective character, while preventing further deterioration or destruction, remains of the highest priority.

Fig (3-24) Part of Alexandria’s Google earth map showing “Manshieh Square”(A), “Ahmed Orabi Square” (B), and the places of the Italian building in the squares; (1) Okalle Monferato, (2) Mixed Tribunals, (3) Okalle Menasce, (4) Waqf Yacoub Dahan, (5) Cotton Palace, (6) Ismail Monument (unknown soldier).

At present the square include some old buildings among them there is five Italian buildings, and those building suffer from the same problems as all the ancient city center buildings at Alexandria, The next part will explain the current conditions of those building. 3-2-2-1- Okalle Monferato: The Okalle is a type of buildings modeled on the concepts of Milanian Galleria where the ground floor contains commercial activities and the residence at the upper floors and the building contain large open court that include most of its activities. Okalle Monferato designed by Luigi Piattoli (1887) was one of the biggest grand commercial building that still exist “plans and elevations of the building figures (1-41)”, the exterior of the building is quite in good conditions but the problem is the shop windows and commercial signs that disfigure the building as shown in the next photos.

Fig (3-25) Photos of ‘Okalle Monferato” at Manshieh square designed by Luigi Piattoli (1887). Source: (Photos by the researcher & Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.362)

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Fig (3-26) Photos of disfiguring the building façade by the shop windows and commercial signs. Source: (Photos by the researcher)

Fig (3-27) Photos of the structural problems at the top Cornish and the side elevation. Source: (Photos by the researcher)

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Fig (3-28) Photos of the bad conditions of the internal court due to lack of cleaning, damaged plumping systems, electric and phone connections and lack of maintenance . Source: (Photos by the researcher)

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Fig (3-29) Photos of the iron dome that cover the main court, all the glass were removed and the iron suffer from corrosion . Source: (Photos by the researcher)

Fig (3-30) Photos of the interventions by the users by adding some coverings at the main court because of the original covering dome is not functioning. Source: (Photos by the researcher)

3-2-2-2- Mixed Tribunals The imposing seat of the Mixed Tribunals in 1887 now called “El-Hakaneia palace” was designed in the Beaux Arts tradition by Alfonso Maniscalco Bey, and Augusto Cesarias was its structural engineer “plans and elevations of the building figures (1-40)”. The building is a government property and it is still used as a court, Most of the main façade of the building are in good conditions but the side facades suffer from some degradations and need restoration and maintenance.

Fig (3-31) Photos of “Mixed Tribunals” at Manshieh square designed by Antonio Maniscalco Bey, 1887. Source: (Photos by www.archnet.org & the researcher)

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Fig (3-32) Photos of the side facades that suffer from degradation. Source: (Photos by the researcher)

3-2-2-3- Okalle Menasce: The other grand commercial Italian building at the square is Okalle Menasce designed in (1885) by Antonio Lasciac who worked for the Societe des Immeubles d' Egypte, owners of the building “plans and elevations of the building figures (1-44)”. The building also like “Okalle Monferato” is suffering from the disfigure due to the shop windows and commercial signs, The main façade had some degradations and also the internal facades on the main court suffer from problems.

Fig (3-33) Photos of “Okalle Menasce” at Manshieh square by Antonio Lasciac (1885). Source: (Photos by the researcher)

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Fig (3-34) Photos of disfiguring the building Entrance, main façade, Back one and the Internal court by the shop windows and commercial signs. Source: (Photos by the researcher)

Fig (3-35) Photos of the deterioration in the internal façade on the main court . Source: (Photos by the researcher)

Fig (3-36) Photos of damage and degradation of the wooden roof of the staircase and the sky light covering it. Source: (Photos by the researcher)

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3-2-2-4- Waqf Yacoub Dahan: This residential building was designed and built by the industrial building company of Egypt from (1907-1912) by architect H.Gorra bey, the building suffer from the deformation due to the commercial mall in the ground floor, air conditions at the side facades and also the adding of some constructions randomly on the roof, also the two domes at the top corners of the façade suffer from degradation and deformation.

Fig (3-37) Old photo of “Waqf Yacoub Dahan” by Fig (3-38) Photos of current situation of “Waqf Yacoub H.Gorra bey. Source: (Photos by Awad, Mohamed F. Dahan” at Manshieh. "Italy in Alexandria" p.165) Source: (Photos by the researcher)

Fig (3-39) Photos of disfiguring the building façade by the shop windows, air conditions and commercial signs. Source: (Photos by the researcher)

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Fig (3-40) Photos of the constructions added on the roof and the bad conditions of the upper domes at the corners. Source: (Photos by the researcher)

3-2-2-5- Ismail Monument (unknown soldier): This monument was called the monument of Ismail il Magnifico and was sculpted by Pietro Canonica (1927- 1938), the Italian contractor was De Farro Contractors. After the 1952 revolution the statue of Khedive Ismail was removed and the monument was renamed to the unknown soldier Monument.

Fig (3-41) Photos of the original and current state of “Ismail Monument” or the unknown soldier Monument sculpted by Pietro Canonica 1927. Source: (Photos by the researcher & Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.197)

Notes:
1. 2. 3. Awad, Mohamed F. “Italy in Alexandria: influences on the built environment”, Alexandria preservation trust, Alexandria, Egypt,2008. Awad, Mohamed F. "Italian Influence on Alexandria's Architecture (1834-1985)." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1990, Pp. 72-85. Awad, Mohamed & El Tabbakh, May, “The conservation and rehabilitation of Alexandria’s city center”, Patrimoines partage`s En Me`diterrane`e; Ele`ments cle`s de la re`habilitation, EUROMED Heritage II, Alexandria, 2005. Godoli, Ezio& Giacomelli, Milva, "Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century", Italian institute for culture, Cairo, 25th November 2008. Jones, Dalu. " Italian Architects in Egypt at the Time of the Khedive." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1990, Pp.86-93. Pallini, C. & Scaccabarozzi, A. "New protagonists: projects for Egypt by Italian architects from 1952 to the present day", Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century ,by Italian institute for culture, Cairo, 2008 Pp. 198-216.

4. 5. 6.

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preface. 1- Historical study. 1-1- History of Alexandria. 1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt. 1-3- Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment: 2- Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings. 2-1- In site investigation and laboratory studies. 2-2- Structural failure and interventions in stone building. 3- Applied study on Alexandrian heritage. 3-1- Future of Alexandrian built environment. 3-2- Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”.

Conclusion
References Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings.

The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Conclusion ___________________________________________________________________________________________________

Conclusion of the historical study:
Influence of The Alexandrian history on its built environment:
Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine influences were inscribed in the Alexandrian context and however prominent was the classical identity of the city and its planning, distinguishing it from other Egyptian Cities, the hybrid character of the city remained quite eclectic, where many of the classical elements scattered in its ruins were reused in the medieval and later Islamic periods. Primary sources of Alexandria history of 16th,17th and 18th century are dominated by traveler’s accounts describing the monuments, defenses of the city, the port, forts and enclosure walls. In addition, the political, economic and social history of Alexandria and its relations with the independent princely states of Venice, Naples, Genoa or Ottoman turkey. The more recent history of 19th and 20th century Alexandria is even more complex and diverse, and mostly neglected by historians. However, the modern renaissance of Egypt and Alexandria began in 1805 with Mohamed Ali’s efforts to modernize Egypt. He called in foreign experts to develop the country’s infrastructure and civil administration. Italian experts played a major role in that process and Italian was even adopted as the lingua franca in the Egyptian administration. While Alexandria grew to become Egypt’s economic capital the Italian community constituted approximately 25% of the European population around 1897. Italians were reputed as professional builders and craftsmen as well as the involvement in the public domain where they constituted an important professional core staff in the ministry of public works. With the establishment of the “Comissione d`Ornato” Alexandria’s first planning commission at 1834 and later with the creation of its municipality in 1890, the Italians gained a sort of monopoly in developing the city’s architecture and directing its urban development.

The Italian architects and engineers in Egypt
The presence of Italian architects in Egypt less considerable in quantitative terms than that recorded by their rise to important public posts, which put them in contact with top government. Most of the buildings planned by Italians who arrived in Egypt in the 1820s and 1830s were characterized by a re-reading of models of classicism from the latter part of the Eighteenth Century or the Napoleonic era, the exiles who arrived after (1848) began to show the first signs of a retrieval - with an eclectic attitude and free from philological preoccupations, stylistic forms and motifs drawn from the repertoire of Islamic architecture. After the bombing of Alexandria and landing of the English expedition corps in 1882 started the reconstruction of the core or the European city of Alexandria, Around 1900 appeared some of the most significant Italian contributions to the Islamic revival, which had its main stronghold in Cairo. Many of the Italian architects residing in Egypt who made significant contributions to the Islamic revival had an in-depth knowledge of monuments of Arab art, and were also directly involved in ensuring its safeguarding. Their contribution to the Islamic revival did not end with the beginning of the great war, but carried on until the have of the Second World War. The '30s saw the development of a tendency due especially to the efforts of Egyptian architect Mustafa Fahmy towards a modernized Islamic style, based on a simplification of the lexical elements of the tradition, sometimes with Art Deco influenced stylizations, and on the
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adoption of monumental plans characterized by the highlighting of the parts arranged on the main axes or symmetry.

Italian architects and private residential buildings:
Having worked for the Pashas, Italian professionals in became increasingly involved also with private and community developments. This came at a time when a new urban elite of notables expressed their readiness to sponsor their private projects and also those of their ethnic communities. The earliest fortunes were mostly those of wealthy Greek families all of them were close friends and confidants of the Pashas. In the post-Bombardment era 1882-1918, the Italian role in rebuilding the city was considerable. Yet, their total monopoly of the building profession and its trades remained disputable among historians, especially when the increasing competition from other nationals, such as Greek professionals and contractors, is considered. The Italian influences retained their importance when the Municipality of Alexandria was created in 1890. Its councils included elite members of the Italian community, Alexandria became the commitment and practices of Italian Venetian professionals, who found their clientele within their own community, and among others, specially the Jews and also increasingly among Egyptians. Today a limited Alexandrian Italian community numbers no more than 800 residents. Its churches and Latin cemeteries “Terra Santa” are now managed by the Catholic Copts, while the Orthodox Copts have also taken over the “Cimitero Civili”. Only the Casa di Riposo is still run for its diminished Italian community. The same can be said with regard to cultural institutions such as the Societa Dante Alighieri di Roma, which is now an Egyptian NGO under the supervision of the Egyptian Ministry of Social Affairs. All this therefore marks changing times and the realities of the present.

Conclusion of the theoretical study:
In site investigation and laboratory studies
All stone buildings are affected by stone deterioration, especially by weathering, the danger of the loss of cultural heritage has resulted in ever-increasing efforts world-wide for monument preservation. Precise diagnosis is required for characterization, interpretation, rating and prediction of the weathering damages at stone monuments and is vital for remedy of stone damages and sustainable monument preservation. Quantitative rating of damages represents an important scientific contribution to reliable damage diagnosis at stone monuments. Damage indices are introduced as new tool for scientific quantification and rating of stone damages. Application of damage indices improves stone damage diagnosis and is very suitable for evaluation and certification of preservation measures and for longterm survey and maintenance of stone monuments. Comprehensive documentation important in the field of stone monument preservation. The approach to the protection of stone monuments can be subdivided into anamnesis, diagnosis and therapy. According to established international directives, documentation is a necessary part of all three work steps. The particular objectives and items of documentation within the scope of anamnesis, diagnosis and therapy are presented. Evaluation and graphic documentation of stone deterioration is presented by means of examples referring to in-situ investigation of stone monuments in the framework of diagnosis.

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Structural failure and interventions in stone building:
There are three main types of failure in stone buildings; Mode (I): Failure due to the collapse of the façade, Mode (II): Failure due to the wall bending, Mode (III): Failure due to the wall cut. And these structural failures require some intervention to protect the building from collapsing, those interventions include the reinforcement of all the part of the building; the walls roofs foundations and cantilevers with appropriate material usually steel and this steel must be inserted in careful way to prevent the damage that caused by steel in the future.

Conclusion of the applied study:
Alexandria's preservation experiences. while demonstrating the richness and diversity of its heritage. also exemplify the fragility and the vulnerability of its conservation. Many problems related to conservation arise from the socio-economic. political and environmental conditions prevalent in the society - governmental practices, the rule of law, public awareness and poverty. Alexandria's most recent heritage remains unprotected because of the lack of legislation and effective management. hence there is an urgent need to develop mechanisms for its protection.

El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”:
The square of “Ahmed Orabi and El Manshieh” that used to contain the city's elitist residences, have been more recently transformed into cultural centers, banks, and government and administrative offices. Despite a few individual attempts to preserve some of these buildings, a more effective approach of listing the buildings and preserving their collective character, while preventing further deterioration or destruction, remains of the highest priority.

The research concluded that the Alexandrian built heritage as all suffer from neglecting and are threaten with elimination and destruction due to mainly economical condition that leads to lack of maintenance and that are more presented at the private residential building because there isn’t clear vision to mange and protect those building, And if their isn’t immediate movement to protect and conserve that heritage it will disappear soon.

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preface. 1- Historical study. 1-1- History of Alexandria. 1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt. 1-3- Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment: 2- Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings. 2-1- In site investigation and laboratory studies. 2-2- Structural failure and interventions in stone building. 3- Applied study on Alexandrian heritage. 3-1- Future of Alexandrian built environment. 3-2- Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”. Conclusion

References
Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings.

The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) List of References ____________________________________________________________________________________________________

List of References Publications:
1. Alexandria: Hellenistic Age." Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2004. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online". http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-26550/Hellenistic-Age. (Accessed May 19, 2008). 2. Awad, Mohamed F. "From Historucism to Modernity (the inter-war period, Alexandria 1918-1939: The Italian conection", Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century ,by Italian institute for culture, Cairo, 2008 Pp. 142-153. 3. Awad, Mohamed F. “Italy in Alexandria: influences on the built environment”, Alexandria preservation trust, Alexandria, Egypt,2008. 4. Awad, Mohamed F. "Italian Influence on Alexandria's Architecture (1834-1985)." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1990, Pp. 72-85. 5. Awad, Mohamed & El Tabbakh, May, “The conservation and rehabilitation of Alexandria’s city center”, Patrimoines partage`s En Me`diterrane`e; Ele`ments cle`s de la re`habilitation, EUROMED Heritage II, Alexandria, 2005. 6. B. Fitzner and K. Heinrichs, ”Damage diagnosis on stone monuments – weathering forms, damage categories and damage indices”, Working group “Natural stones and weathering“,Geological Institute, Aachen University of Technology, Germany. 7. B. Fitzner, K. Heinrichs, D. La Bouchardiere, ” Damage index for stone monuments”, 5th International Symposium on the Conservation of Monuments in the Mediterranean Basin, Sevilla, Spain, 5-8 April 2000. 8. B. Fitzner, "Documentation and evaluation of stone damage on monuments", 10th international congress on deterioration and conservation of stone, Stockholm.2004. 9. B. Fitzner, Working group "NATURAL STONES AND WEATHERING", Geological Institute, RWTH Aachen University , http://www.stone.rwth-aachen.de at 1-2009. 10. Barry A.Richardson, "Defects and Deterioration in Buildings", 2nd edition, SPON PRESS, London.2001. 11. Ciranna, Simonetta. "Italian Architecture in Egypt in the Thirties: The Work of Clemente Busiri Vici." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1990, Pp.114-119. 12. da Costa, Lucilia Verdelho. "Italian Influence on the Beginnings of Neo-Arabic Revivalism in Portugal." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1990, Pp.172-177. 13. Dickie, James. "The Works of Mario Rossi at Alexandria." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1990, 94-101. 14. El-Din, Morsi Saad,"Alexandria: The Site and the History. New York: NYU Press . 1993. 15. El-Abbadi, Mostafa. "Alexandria: Thousand-Year Capital of Egypt." Alexandria: The Site and the History. New York: NYU Press .1993. 16. Godoli, E. "Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt : a long-lasting political emigration", Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century ,by Italian institute for culture, Cairo, 2008 Pp. 14-72. 17. Godoli, Ezio& Giacomelli, Milva, "Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century", Italian institute for culture, Cairo, 25th November 2008. 18. Haag, Michael. Alexandria. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press .2004.

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19. Harris, W. V. and Giovanni Ruffin. "Ancient Alexandria between Egypt and Greece". Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, 2004. 20. Jobbins, Jenny. 2006. "Alexandria and the Egyptian Mediterranean: a traveler's guide". Cairo: American University in Cairo Press. 21. Jones, Dalu. " Italian Architects in Egypt at the Time of the Khedive." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1990, Pp.86-93. 22. McKenzie, Judith, et al. "Alexandra." In Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online", http://www.oxfordartonline.com/subscriber/article/grove/art/T001722. (Accessed March 16, 2009 ). 23. Moussa, Magdy M. "Mario Rossi and the Egyptian School of Architecture in Alexandria." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1990, Pp.102-105. 24. Mueller, Katja. Settlements of the Ptolemies: city foundations and new settlement in the Hellenistic world. Dudley, MA: Peeters .2006. 25. Pallini, C. & Scaramuzzi, A. "Italian project for new city of Sidi Gaber, Alexandria", Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century ,by Italian institute for culture, Cairo, 2008 Pp. 154-160. 26. Pallini, C. & Scaccabarozzi, A. "New protagonists: projects for Egypt by Italian architects from 1952 to the present day", Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century ,by Italian institute for culture, Cairo, 2008 Pp. 198-216. 27. Petruccioli Attilio, ed. Sponde Amate ”Environmental Design: Presence of Italy in the Architecture of the Islamic Meditterranean”, Journal of Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1990. 28. Ramadan, Abdel Azim. C. "Alexandria: French Expedition to the Modern Age." Alexandria: The Site and the History. New York: NYU Press,1993 . 29. Reimer, Michael J. Colonial Bridgehead: Government and Society in Alexandria, 1807-1882. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press .1997. 30. Reimer, Michael J. "Property disputes in 19th century Alexandria". Arizona: Middle East Studies Association of North America .1989.

Lectures
31. Panzeca, T. “Lectures of restoration” Kore university of Enna, Italy, 2008. 32. Villari, D. “Lectures of restoration” Kore university of Enna, Italy, 2008.

Web sites:
33. www.archnet.org 34. www.flicr.com 35. http://www.irb.hr/korisnici/obelic/euro-med/CA.htm at 5-2009.

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preface. 1- Historical study. 1-1- History of Alexandria. 1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt. 1-3- Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment: 2- Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings. 2-1- In site investigation and laboratory studies. 2-2- Structural failure and interventions in stone building. 3- Applied study on Alexandrian heritage. 3-1- Future of Alexandrian built environment. 3-2- Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”. Conclusion References

Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings.

The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Appendix (A) _______________________________________________________ (Weathering forms on stone buildings)

___________________________________________________________________________

Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings1
Group 1 - Loss of stone material

Sandstone Sandstone Back weathering - loss of scales (sW)

Limestone Limestone Back weathering - loss of indefinable pieces (zW)

Limestone

Tuff

Back weathering - loss of crumbs / splinters (uW)

Sandstone Greywacke Back weathering - loss of stone layers dependent on stone structure (xW)

Sandstone Sandstone Back weathering - loss of crusts (cW)

Limestone Sandstone Rounding / notching (Ro)

Limestone Sandstone Alveolar weathering (Ra)

Sandstone Marble Roughening (Rr)

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FITZNER, B.& HEINRICHS, K. ”Photo atlas of weathering forms on stone monuments”, Working group ”Natural stones and weathering”, Geological Institute, RWTH Aachen University, 2004. http://www.stone.rwth-aachen.de 88

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___________________________________________________________________________

Limestone Limestone Microkarst (Rm)

Sandstone Limestone Weathering out of stone components (Rk)

Limestone Conglomerate Clearing out of stone components (Rh)

Limestone Sandstone Weathering out dependent on stone structure (tR)

Marble Pitting (Rt)

Sandstone

Sandstone

Relief - anthropogenic impact (aR)

Limestone Break out-anthropogenic impact (aO)

Sandstone Break out constructional cause(bO)

Sandstone Break out - natural cause(nO)

Marble

Sandstone

Break out – non recognizable cause (oO)

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___________________________________________________________________________ Group 2 – Discoloration / Deposits

Marble Coloration (Dc)

Soapstone

Limestone Bleaching (Db)

Limestone Soiling by droppings (gI)

Limestone Dark-colored crust change the surface(diC)

Sandstone Basaltic lava, tuff Limestone Light-colored crust Soiling by particles from Soiling due to tracing the surface (hkC) water (wI) anthropogenic impact(aI)

Limestone Sandstone Efflorescences (Ee)

Sandstone Sandstone Subflorescences (Ef)

Limestone Tuff Dark-colored crust tracing the surface (dkC)

Limestone Sandstone Soiling by particles from the atmosphere (pI)

Limestone

Sandstone

Marble

Quartzite

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___________________________________________________________________________
Light-colored crust changing the surface (hiC) Colored crust tracing the surface (fkC)

Sandstone Limestone Colored crust changing the surface (fiC)

Sandstone Tuff Microbiological colonization (Bi)

Travertine

Sandstone

Colonization by higher plants (Bh)

Limestone Sandstone Coloration to dark colored crust tracing the surface (Dc-dkC)

Limestone

Limestone

Soiling by particles from the atmosphere to darkcolored crust tracing the surface (pI-dkC)

Sandstone Efflorescences to lightcolored crust tracing the surface (Ee-hkC)

Sandstone Colonization by higher plants (Bh)

Tuff Sandstone Efflorescences to light-colored crust tracing the surface (Ee-hkC)

Quartzite Sandstone/ Limestone Microbiological colonization to dark-colored crust tracing the surface (Bi-dkc)

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___________________________________________________________________________ Group 3 – Detachment

Limestone Granular disintegration into powder (Gp)

Sandstone

Quartzite

Granular disintegration into sand (Gs)

Granite Granular disintegration into grus (Gg)

Limestone

Limestone Crumbling (Pu)

Sandstone

Limestone Splintering (Pn)

Quartzite splintering (Pu-Pn)

Sandstone Single flakes (eF)

Limestone Multiple flakes (mF)

Limestone Splitting up (Xv)

Sandstone Single scale (eS)

Sandstone

Marble Sandstone Scale - tooling of the stone surface (qS)

Sandstone

Mudstone

Sandstone

Sandstone

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___________________________________________________________________________
Multiple scales (mS) Exfoliation (Xl)

Sandstone Splitting up (Xv)

Sandstone
Granular disintegration in sand to flakes(Gs-eF)

Sandstone Limestone Detachment of a dark-colored crust changing the surface (diK)

Limestone Detachment of a lightcolored crust changing the surface (hiK)

Limestone Detachment of a darkcolored crust tracing the surface (dkK)

Sandstone Granular disintegration into sand to single flakes(Gs-eF)

Limestone Detachment of a light colored crust changing the stone surface (hiK)

Quartz porphyry Granite Granular disintegration into grus to single flakes(Gg-eF)

Limestone Single flakes to crumbling (eF-Pu)

Sandstone Single flakes to single scale (eF-eS)

Limestone Limestone Crumbling to single scale (Pu-eS)

Sandstone Limestone Multiple flakes to multiple scales (mF-mS)

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___________________________________________________________________________ Group 4 – Fissures / deformation

Sandstone Fissures independent of stone structure (vL)

Marble Fissures independent of stone structure (vL)

Sandstone Fissures dependent on stone structure(tL)

Marble Deformation, convex(lV)

Marble Deformation, concave(rV)

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preface. 1- Historical study. 1-1- History of Alexandria. 1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt. 1-3- Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment: 2- Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings. 2-1- In site investigation and laboratory studies. 2-2- Structural failure and interventions in stone building. 3- Applied study on Alexandrian heritage. 3-1- Future of Alexandrian built environment. 3-2- Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”. Conclusion References Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings.

C.V.

The researcher Curriculum Vitae
Personal information: Mohamed Ali Mohamed Khalil Name: October 14, 1978 . Elgharbia , Egypt. date of birth: Egyptian. Nationality: Martial Status Married (1 son- two years old) Arch_m_khalil@yahoo.com E-Mail: M_khalil2002@hotmail.com +20-012-2390650 (mobile). Phone +20-050-2230094 (home). Numbers: Work Address: Department of Architectural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, 60 Al-Gomhoreya St., Mansoura City Dakahleia, Egypt, 35516. Home Address: 68-Elandalus street, University Neighborhood, El-Mansoura, Egypt. Education Period: Institution: Place: Achieved qualification: Degree: Period: Institution: Place: Achieved qualification: Period: Institution: Place: Achieved qualification: Degree: From (10-11-2008) to (10-7-2009). Certificate No.(1) Enna Kore University Enna, Sicily , Italy. Master of Architecture Restoration (study in English)(60credit hours). The Italian residential buildings in Egypt (the conservation and maintenance). Not finished yet. From (15-8-2001) to (23-1-2007) Certificate No.(2) Department of Architectural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University El-Mansoura city, Egypt. Master degree in architecture engineering. The Approaches of cultural building (analytical study of design principles). From (15-9-1995) to (1-6-2000). Certificate No.(3) Department of Architectural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University. El-Mansoura city, Egypt. Bachelor's degree in architecture engineering. General grade very good (78.2) Ranked Second- Graduation project grade Excellent.

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Work Experience Period: Type of employment Department Qualification and duties Period: Type of employment Department Qualification and duties Period: Type of employment Department Qualification and duties

since 2-2007 till now Certificate No.(4) Assistant lecturer Architecture Department, faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, Egypt Teaching (urban design and landscape), (architecture design) and (working drawing) to architecture student at the architecture department. from 12-2001 to 2-2007 Certificate No.(4) demonstrator Architecture Department, faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, Egypt Teaching (architecture design) and (working drawing) to architecture student at the architecture department. From 1-2006 to 11-2008 Teacher and trainer of computer graphics and CAD programs Designing with Computer center at Architecture Department, faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, Egypt User and teacher for computer architecture presentation using: • AutoCAD 2D & 3D (Ver. 2009) professional (user& teacher). • Adobe Photoshop (CS3) professional (user& teacher). • Maxon CINEMA 4D (R. 9) (Rendering software) professional (user). Presentation and graphics designer (Working by E-mail). EL-HUMEDY architecture office, Saudi Arabia. Professional architecture (Modelling &Rendering) with computer (10 years experience). From 7-2000 to 6-2005 Architect and graphics designer. SABEEL architecture office at El Mansoura city, Egypt. Design and draw some public and resident building at Egypt. presentation using computer.

Period: Type of employment Department Qualification and duties Period: Type of employment Department Qualification and duties

Linguistic Competencies Arabic : native language. English Excellent. Ability of reading Excellent. Ability of writing Ability of oral expression Excellent. Italian elementary Ability of reading elementary Ability of writing Ability of oral expression elementary Linguistic Certificates English Certificate No.(5) language (IELTS Exam) overall score 6.0 at (7-12-2007) first trial. type (6.5 Reading- 6.0 Speaking- 5.5 Listening- and 5.5 Writing). language type Italian Certificate No.(6) Level (A1) Common European framework – score (19/20) at (25-2-2009) (17/20 Reading- 18/20 Speaking- 20/20 Listening- and 18/20 Writing).
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LIBERA UNIVERSITÀ DEGLI STUDI DELLA SICILIA CENTRALE KORE ENNA

thesis in

The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt
(the conservation of the Italian residential buildings)

By

Mohamed Ali Mohamed Khalil

Supervisors

Prof. Teotista Panzeca Prof. Manuela Garofalo Prof. Daniela Villari
Thesis submitted to University Kore of Enna to obtain Second level master degree in architecture restoration A.A. 2008-2009