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Scilab Textbook Companion for

A Textbook of Production Engineering


by P. C. Sharma1
Created by
Mayank Sahu
B.E.
Mechanical Engineering
M. I. T. S Gwalior, M.P
College Teacher
None
Cross-Checked by
Bhavani Jalkrish
November 3, 2014

1 Funded

by a grant from the National Mission on Education through ICT,


http://spoken-tutorial.org/NMEICT-Intro. This Textbook Companion and Scilab
codes written in it can be downloaded from the Textbook Companion Project
section at the website http://scilab.in

Book Description
Title: A Textbook of Production Engineering
Author: P. C. Sharma
Publisher: S. Chanda & Company, New Delhi
Edition: 11
Year: 2008
ISBN: 9788121901116

Scilab numbering policy used in this document and the relation to the
above book.
Exa Example (Solved example)
Eqn Equation (Particular equation of the above book)
AP Appendix to Example(Scilab Code that is an Appednix to a particular
Example of the above book)
For example, Exa 3.51 means solved example 3.51 of this book. Sec 2.3 means
a scilab code whose theory is explained in Section 2.3 of the book.

Contents
List of Scilab Codes

2 Press Tool Design

4 Cost Estimating

21

5 Economics of tooling

34

9 Limits Tolerences and Fits

62

11 Surface finish

69

13 Analysis of metal forming processes

71

14 Theory of metal cutting

80

15 Design and manufacture of cutting tools

94

16 Gear manufacture

101

17 Thread manufacturing

102

21 Statical quality control

103

22 Kinematics of machine tools

114

23 Production planning and control

120

26 Plant layout

125

List of Scilab Codes


Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa

2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
2.11
2.12
2.13
2.14
2.15
2.16
2.17
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11

find total pressure and dimensions . . .


To find number of draws . . . . . . . . .
To calculate bending force . . . . . . .
find blanking force and work done . . .
To find elastic recovery of material . . .
To find cutting forces . . . . . . . . . .
To calculate amount of shear . . . . . .
To find economy of material . . . . . . .
Calculations for designing drawing die .
Determine developed length . . . . . . .
To calculate bending force . . . . . . . .
To calculate bending force . . . . . . . .
calculate capacity of double bending die
To calculate cutting force . . . . . . . .
Determine blank and punch diameter .
To find drawing operations and force . .
Determine developed length . . . . . . .
To calculate total cost and SP . . . . .
To find selling price . . . . . . . . . . .
To find factory cost . . . . . . . . . . .
find production cost and time taken . .
To find profit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To find lot size and time . . . . . . . . .
To find time to change cutter . . . . . .
To find tool change time . . . . . . . . .
To calculate measuring time allowance .
To find direct labour cost . . . . . . . .
To find machining time . . . . . . . . .
4

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9
10
10
10
11
11
12
12
13
15
15
16
16
17
17
18
19
21
21
22
23
23
24
24
25
25
25
26

Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa

4.12
4.13
4.14
4.15
4.16
4.17
4.18
4.19
4.20
4.21
4.22
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.9
5.10
5.11
5.13
5.15
5.16
5.17
5.18
5.19
5.20
5.21
5.22
5.23
5.24
5.25
5.26
5.27
5.28
5.29
5.30

To find time to turn relief . . . . . . . . . . . .


calculate time to face on lathe . . . . . . . . .
To find time to drill hole . . . . . . . . . . . .
To find time to complete cut . . . . . . . . . .
To find time to broach . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
find feed cutter travel and time . . . . . . . .
To find cutting time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To find milling time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To find time to grind shaft . . . . . . . . . . .
To find time to cut threads . . . . . . . . . . .
find time to produce one piece . . . . . . . . .
To find value of machine tool . . . . . . . . . .
To find annual investment . . . . . . . . . . . .
find project is economical or not . . . . . . . .
selection of economical machine . . . . . . . . .
selection of machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
selection of economical machine . . . . . . . . .
find ERR and economicality of project . . . . .
find ERR and economicality of project . . . .
To determine acceptance of machine . . . . . .
find investment cost and unamortized value . .
To make decision of machines replacement . . .
Determine economic repair life . . . . . . . . .
find time to pay for itself . . . . . . . . . . . .
selection of machine for job . . . . . . . . . . .
Calculate maximum investment on turret lathe
To find years for new machine . . . . . . . . . .
To find cost and pieces . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To find number of components . . . . . . . . .
To find number of components . . . . . . . . .
To find time and profit . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To find minimum number of components . . . .
To calculate number of pieces . . . . . . . . . .
To find cost for new fixture . . . . . . . . . . .
find time to amortize fixture . . . . . . . . . .
To find profit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To find BEP Cost and Components . . . . . .
To find break even point . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5

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27
27
28
28
29
29
30
30
31
31
32
34
35
35
36
37
38
38
39
39
40
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
47
48
48
49
49
50
51
51
52

Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa

5.31
5.32
5.33
5.34
5.35
5.36
5.37
5.38
5.39
5.40
5.41
5.42
5.43
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
9.8
9.9
9.10
11.1
11.2
13.1
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.5
13.7
13.8
13.9
13.10
13.11
13.12
14.1
14.2

To find break even quantity . . . . . . . . . . . .


To do break even analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To calculate minimum number of pieces . . . . .
To determine the point . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To find quantity of pieces . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To determine quantity of production . . . . . . .
find preference between machines and production
To find BEP and various sales . . . . . . . . . .
To determine break even point . . . . . . . . . .
To calculate economic lot size . . . . . . . . . . .
To find EOQ and total cost . . . . . . . . . . . .
Determine optimum lot size . . . . . . . . . . . .
To find most economical lot size . . . . . . . . .
To find allowance and tolerence . . . . . . . . . .
Determine dimensions of shaft and hole . . . . .
Determine dimensions of hole and shaft . . . . .
Calculate fundamental deviations and tolerences
Find tolerences limits and clearance . . . . . . .
Determine limits of shaft and hole . . . . . . . .
Determine dimensions of shaft and hole . . . . .
Determine size of bearing and journal . . . . . .
Determine size of two mating parts . . . . . . . .
Determine size of hole and shaft . . . . . . . . .
Calculate CLA value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calculate average and rms value . . . . . . . . .
To find drawing load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calculate drawing force . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
find neutral section slips and pressure . . . . . .
To determine maximum force . . . . . . . . . . .
Determine sticking radius and total load . . . . .
To find drawing load and power . . . . . . . . . .
calculate drawing load and power rating . . . . .
To calculate forging loads . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Determine extrusion load . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To find roll pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Determine neutral plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
calculate the tool life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calculate the optimum cutting speed . . . . . . .
6

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71
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78
80
80

Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa

14.3
14.4
14.5
14.6
14.7
14.8
14.9
14.10
14.11
14.12
14.13
14.14
14.15
14.16
14.17
14.18
15.1
15.2
15.3
15.4
15.5
15.8
15.9
15.10
16.1
17.1
17.2
21.1
21.2
21.4
21.5
21.6
21.7
21.8
21.9
21.10
22.1
22.2

To find different orthogonal cutting picture . .


To find tool life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
find force and coefficient of friction . . . . . .
To find terms of orthogonal cutting . . . . . . .
To solve tool life equation . . . . . . . . . . .
Determine normal and tangential force . . . . .
To find cutting and thrust force . . . . . . . . .
find terms of orthogonal rake system . . . . . .
Calculate CLA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calculate back and side rake angle . . . . . . .
Calculate inclination and rake angle . . . . . .
find different powers and resistance . . . . . . .
Calculate percentage increase in tool life . . . .
To find percentage of total energy . . . . . . .
To find power and different energies . . . . . .
Determine components of force and power . . .
calculate horsepower at cutter and motor . . .
Determine broaching power and Design broach
Estimate moment thrust force and power . . .
Design shell inserted blade reamer . . . . . . .
To design single point cutting tool . . . . . . .
find various terms for stainless steel . . . . . .
To find MRR power and torque . . . . . . . . .
find MRR power torque and time . . . . . . .
Calculate settings of gear tooth . . . . . . . . .
Calculate best wire size . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calculate size and distances over wire . . . . .
Construct R and X chart . . . . . . . . . . . .
Construct the control charts . . . . . . . . . . .
Calculate poisson probabilities . . . . . . . . .
Calculate probabilities of defective items . . .
Determine producers and consumers risk . . . .
Evaluate preliminary and revised control limits
Find control limits for c chart . . . . . . . . .
find control limits for charts . . . . . . . . . . .
Determine producers and consumers risk . . . .
Find range of cutting velocity . . . . . . . . . .
Determine speed ratios and teeth . . . . . . . .
7

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81
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90
91
92
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94
96
96
97
98
99
99
101
102
102
103
104
106
106
107
107
109
110
112
114
115

Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa

22.3
22.4
22.5
23.1
23.2
23.3
23.4
23.5
23.6
23.7
23.8
23.9
23.10
26.1

Calculate
Calculate
Calculate
Calculate
Calculate
Calculate
Calculate
Calculate
Calculate
Calculate
Calculate
Calculate
Calculate
Calculate

speed and number of teeths


common ratio . . . . . . . .
gear ratio teeth and speed .
forecast . . . . . . . . . . .
forecat by SMA method . .
forecat by WMA method .
forecast for january . . . . .
total cost . . . . . . . . . .
economical order quantity .
economic lot size . . . . . .
inventory control terms . . .
discount offered . . . . . . .
EOQ and reorder point . . .
number of machine required

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116
117
118
120
120
121
121
122
122
122
123
123
124
125

Chapter 2
Press Tool Design

Scilab code Exa 2.1 find total pressure and dimensions


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

clc
D = 50 // D i a m e t e r o f w a s h e r i n mm
t = 4 // t h i c k n e s s o f m a t e r i a l i n mm
d = 24 // d i a m e t e r o f h o l e i n mm
p = 360 // s h e a r s t r e n g t h o f m a t e r i a l i n N/mm2
F1 = %pi * D * t * p // b l a n k i n g p r e s s u r e i n N
F2 = %pi * d * t * p // p i e r c i n g p r e s s u r e i n N
F = F1 + F2 // t o t a l p r e s s u r e i n N
d1 = d + 0.4 // p i e r c i n g d i e d i a m e t e r i n mm
d2 = D - 0.4 // b l a n k punch d i a m e t e r i n mm
c = 0.8* F // p r e s s c a p a c i t y i n N
printf ( \n B l a n k i n g p r e s s u r e = %d kN\n P i e r c i n g
p r e s s u r e = %0 . 3 f KN\n T o t a l p r e s s u r e r e q u i r e d =
%0 . 1 f KN , F1 /1000 , F2 /1000 , F /1000)
13 printf ( \n p i e r c i n g punch d i a m e t e r = %0 . 2 f cm\n
b l a n k i n g punch d i a m e t r e = %0 . 2 f cm \n p r e s s
c a p a c i t y = %0 . 2 f KN\n , d1 /10 , d2 /10 , c /1000)
14 // Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

Scilab code Exa 2.2 To find number of draws


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clc
h = 10 // h e i g h t o f cup i n cm
d = 5 // d i a m e t e r o f cup i n cm
D = sqrt ( d ^2 + 4* d * h ) // b l a n k d i a m e t e r i n cm
// h e i g h t d a i m e t e r r a t i o i s 2 . T h e r e f o r e from t a b l e
2.9 t o t a l reductions are 3
r1 = 0.45* D // f i r s t r e d u c t i o n i s 45%
d1 = D - r1 // d i a m e t e r a t f i r s t draw i n cm
r2 = d1 *0.25 // s e c o n d r e d u c t i o n i s 25%
d2 = d1 - r2 // d i a m e t e r a t s e c o n d draw i n cm
r3 = d2 *0.2 // t h i r d r e d u c t i o n i s 20%
d3 = d2 - r3 // d i a m e t e r a t t h i r d draw i n cm
printf ( \n D i a m e t e r a t f i r s t draw = %0 . 2 f cm\n
D i a m e t e r a t s e c o n d draw = %0 . 2 f cm\n D i a m e t e r a t
t h i r d draw =%0 . 3 f cm , d1 , d2 , d3 )

Scilab code Exa 2.3 To calculate bending force


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8

clc
K = 1.20 // d i e o p e n i n g f a c t o r
L = 37.5 // Length o f s t r i p i n cm
T = 2.5 // t h i c k n e s s o f s t r i p i n mm
sigma_ut = 630 // t e n s i l e s t r e n g t h i n N/mm2
W = 16* T // w i d t h o f d i e o p e n i n g i n mm
F = ( K * L *10* sigma_ut * T ^2) / W // b e n d i n g f o r c e i n N
printf ( \n b e n d i n g f o r c e = %0 . 1 f KN , F /1000)

Scilab code Exa 2.4 find blanking force and work done
1 clc
2 b = 25 // w i d t h o f b l a n k i n mm

10

3 l = 30 // l e n g t h o f b l a n k i n mm
4 tau = 450 // u l t i m a t e s h e a r s t r e s s
5
6
7
8
9
10

o f m a t e r i a l i n N/
mm2
t = 1.5 // t h i c k n e s s o f m e t a l s t r i p i n mm
p = 2*( l + b ) // p e r i m e t e r o f b l a n k i n mm
f = p * t * tau // b l a n k i n g f o r c e i n N
Pt = 0.25* t // punch t r a v e l i n mm
w = f * Pt // work done i n Nmm
printf ( \n b l a n k i n g f o r c e = %0 . 2 f KN\n work done =
%0 . 2 f Nm , f /1000 , w /1000)

Scilab code Exa 2.5 To find elastic recovery of material


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10

clc
t = 1.5 // t h i c k n e s s i n mm
c = 0.05* t // c l e a r a n c e i n mm
D = 25.4 // o u t s i d e d i a m e t e r i n mm
D_o = D - 0.05 // b l a n k d i e o p e n i n g i n mm
B_s = D_o - 2* c // b l a n k i n g punch s i z e i n mm
d = 12.7 // i n t e r n a l d i a m e t e r i n mm
P_s = d + 0.05 // p i e r c i n g punch s i z e i n mm
D_s = P_s + 2* c // p i e r c i n g d i e s i z e i n mm
printf ( \n c l e a r a n c e = %0 . 3 f mm\n b l a n k d i e o p e n i n g
s i z e = %0 . 2 f mm ,c , D_o )
11 printf ( \n b l a n k i n g punch s i z e = %0 . 2 f mm\n p i e r c i n g
punch s i z e = %0 . 2 f mm\n p i e r c i n g d i e s i z e = %0 . 2
f mm ,B_s , P_s , D_s )

Scilab code Exa 2.6 To find cutting forces


1 clc
2 D = 25.4 // o u t s i d e d i a m e t e r i n mm
3 d = 12.7 // i n t e r n a l d i a m e t e r i n mm

11

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12
13

1.5 // t h i c k n e s s i n mm
= 280 // u l t i m a t e s h e a r i n g s t r e n g t h i n N/mm2
%pi *( D + d ) * t * tau // t o t a l c u t t i n g f o r c e i n N
= %pi * D * t * tau // c u t t i n g f o r c e when p u n c h e s a r e
staggered in N
k = 0.6 // p e n e t r a t i o n
i = 1 // s h e a r o f punch i n mm
F_p = ( t * k * F ) /( k * t + i ) // c u t t i n g f o r c e when b o t h
punches act t o g e t h e r in N
printf ( \n s h e a r f o r c e when b o t h punch a c t a t same
t i m e and no s h e a r i s a p p l i e d = %0 . 2 f kN , F
/1000)
printf ( \n c u t t i n g f o r c e when p u n c h e s a r e s t a g g e r e d
= %0 . 1 f kN , F_s /1000)
printf ( \n c u t t i n g f o r c e when t h e r e i s p e n e t r a t i o n
and s h e a r on punch = %0 . 1 f kN , F_p /1000)

t =
tau
F =
F_s

Scilab code Exa 2.7 To calculate amount of shear


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9
10

clc
D = 60 // h o l e d i a m e t e r i n mm
tau = 450 // u l t i m a t e s h e a r s t r e n g t h i n N/mm2
t = 2.5 // t h i c k n e s s i n mm
F = %pi * D * t * tau // maximum punch f o r c e i n N
w = F *0.4* t // work done i n Nm
f = F /2 // p u n c h i n g f o r c e i n N
k = 0.4 // p e n e t r a t i o n p e r c e n t a g e
i = k * t *( F - f ) / f // s h e a r on punch i n mm
printf ( \n Amount o f s h e a r on punch = %d mm , i )

Scilab code Exa 2.8 To find economy of material


1 clc

12

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15

16
17

// from f i g 2 . 2 7
w = 2.5 // cm
t = 3.2 // s t r i p t h i c k n e s s i n mm
h = 10 // cm
a = t + 0.015* h *10 // back s c r a p and f r o n t s c r a p i n
mm
b = t // s c r a p b r i d g e i n mm
W = h + (2* a ) /10 // w i d t h o f s t r i p i n cm
W = ceil ( W ) // cm
s = w + b /10 // l e n g t h o f one p i e c e o f s t o c k i n cm
L = 240 // l e n g t h o f s t r i p i n cm
N = (L - b ) / s // number o f p a r t s
y = L - ( N * s + b /10) // s c r a p r e m a i n i n g a t t h e end
i n mm
printf ( \n V a l u e o f back s c r a p = %0 . 1 f mm\n V a l u e o f
s c r a p b r i d g e = %0 . 1 f mm , a , b )
printf ( \n Width o f s t r i p = %0 . 2 f cm\n Length o f one
p i e c e o f s t o c k n e e d e d t o p r o d u c e one p a r t = %0 . 2
f cm , W , s )
printf ( \n Number o f p a r t s = %0 . 1 f b l a n k s \n S c r a p
r e m a i n i n g a t t h e end = %0 . 2 f mm , N , y )
// Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

Scilab code Exa 2.9 Calculations for designing drawing die


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8

clc
// from f i g u r e 2 . 7 3
t = 0.8 // t h i c k n e s s i n mm
d = 50 // s h e l l d i a m e t e r i n mm
r = 1.6 // r a d i u s o f bottom c o r n e r i n mm
h = 50 // h e i g h t i n mm
D = sqrt ( d ^2 + 4* d * h ) // s h e l l b l a n k s i z e i n mm
el = 6.4 // e x t r a l e n g t h r e q u i r e d t o add i n s h e l l
blank s i z e
9 D = D + el // mm
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32

pr = 100*(1 -( d / D ) ) // p e r c e n t a g e r e d u c t i o n
ratio = h / d
n = 2 // number o f draws
R1 = 45 // f i r s t r e d u c t i o n
D1 = D - R1 * D /100 // d i a m e t e r a t f i r s t r e d u c t i o n i n
mm
R2 = 100*(1 -( d / D1 ) ) // s e c o n d r e d u c t i o n
PR = 4* t // punch r a d i u s i n mm
PR = ceil ( PR )
DR = 6 // d i e r a d i u s i n mm
DC1 = 0.87 // d i e c l e a r a n c e f o r f i r s t draw i n mm
DC2 = 0.88 // d i e c l e a r a n c e f o r s e c o n d draw i n mm
PD2 = d - 2* t // punch d i a m e t e r f o r s e c o n d draw i n
mm
DD2 = PD2 + 2* DC2 // Die o p e n i n g d i a m e t e r f o r s e c o n d
draw i n mm
PD1 = D1 - 2* t // punch d i a m e t e r f o r f i r s t draw i n
mm
DD1 = D1 + 2* DC1 // Die o p e n i n g d i a m e t e r f o r f i r s t
draw i n mm
// Drawing p r e s s u r e
c = 0.65 // c o n s t a n t
sigma = 427 // N/mm2
F = %pi * d * t * sigma *( D /d - c ) // Drawing p r e s s u r e i n mm
Bhp = 30.8 // b l a n k i n g h o l d i n g p r e s s u r e i n kN
pc = 150 // p r e s s c a p a c i t y i n kN
printf ( \n ( i ) s i z e o f b l a n k = %0 . 2 f mm \n ( i i )
P e r c e n t a g e r e d u c t i o n = %0 . 1 f p e r c e n t \n ( i i i )
Number o f draws = %d \n ( i v ) R a d i u s on punch = %d
mm \n
Die R a d i u s = %d mm \n ( v ) Die c l e a r a n c e
f o r f i r s t draw = %0 . 2 f mm \n
die clearance
f o r s e c o n d draw = %0 . 2 f mm , D , pr ,n , PR , DR , DC1 ,
DC2 )
printf ( \n
Punch d i a m e t e r f o r s e c o n d draw = %0 . 1 f
mm \n
Die o p e n i n g d i a m e t e r f o r s e c o n d draw = %0
. 2 f mm \n
Punch d i a m e t e r f o r f i r s t draw = %0 . 3
f mm \n
Die o p e n i n g d i a m e t e r f o r f i r s t draw =
%0 . 3 f mm\n ( v i ) Drawing p r e s s u r e = %0 . 2 f mm \n (
14

v i i ) Blank h o l d i n g p r e s s u r e = %d kN \n ( v i i i )
P r e s s c a p a c i t y = %d kN , PD2 , DD2 , PD1 , DD1 , F
/1000 , Bhp , pc )
33 // Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

Scilab code Exa 2.10 Determine developed length


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11

clc
// from f i g u r e 2 . 7 4
l1 = 76 - ( 2.3 + 0.90) // l e n g t h 1 i n mm
l2 = 115 - (2.3 + 0.90) // l e n g t h 2 i n mm
t = 2.3 // mm
r = 0.90 // i n n e r r a d i u s i n mm
k = t /3 // mm
B = 0.5* %pi *( r + k ) // b e n d i n g a l l o w a n c e i n mm
d = l1 + l2 + B // d e v e l o p e d l e n g t h i n mm
printf ( \n D e v e l o p e d l e n g t h = %0 . 2 f mm , d )
// Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

Scilab code Exa 2.11 To calculate bending force


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9

clc
t = 3.2 // t h i c k n e s s o f b l a n k i n mm
l = 900 // b e n d i n g l e n g t h i n mm
sigma = 400 // u l t i m a t e t e n s i l e s t r e n g t h i n N/mm2
k = 0.67 // d i e o p e n i n g f a c t o r
r1 = 9.5 // punch r a d i u s i n mm
r2 = 9.5 // d i e e d g e r a d i u s i n mm
c = 3.2 // c l e a r a n c e i n mm
w = r1 + r2 + c // w i d t h b e t w e e n c o n t a c t p o i n t s
batween d i e and punch i n mm
10 F = ( k * l * sigma * t ^2) / w // b e n d i n g f o r c e i n N
11 F = floor ( F /10) *10 // N
15

12

printf ( \n b e n d i n g f o r c e = %0 . 2 f kN ,F /1000)

Scilab code Exa 2.12 To calculate bending force


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8

clc
k = 1.33 // d i e o p e n i n g f a c t o r
l = 1200 // bend l e n g t h i n mm
sigma = 455 // u l t i m a t e t e n s i l e s t r e n g t h i n N/mm2
t = 1.6 // b l a n k t h i c k n e s s i n mm
w = 8* t // w i d t h o f d i e o p e n i n g i n mm
F = k * l * sigma * t ^2/ w // b e n d i n g f o r c e i n N
printf ( \n b e n d i n g f o r c e = %0 . 2 f kN , F /1000)

Scilab code Exa 2.13 calculate capacity of double bending die


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15

clc
c = 1.25 // c l e a r a n c e i n mm
r1 = 3 // d i e r a d i u s i n mm
r2 = 1.5 // punch r a d i u s i n mm
sigma = 315 // u l t i m a t e t e n s i l e s t r e n g t h i n MPa
t = 1 // t h i c k n e s s i n mm
l = 50 // w i d t h a t bend i n mm
w = r1 + r2 + c // w i d t h b e t w e e n c o n t a c t p o i n t s on
d i e and punch i n mm
F = 0.67* l * sigma * t ^2/ w // b e n d i n g f o r c e i n N
F_p = 0.67* sigma * l * t // pad f o r c e i n N
sigma_c = 560 // s e t t i n g p r e s s u r e i n MPa
b1 = 2 // b e a d s on punch
b = b1 * r1 // mm
F_b = sigma_c * l * b // b o t t o m i n g f o r c e i n N
F_o = F_p + F_b // F o r c e r e q u i r e d when b o t t o m i n g i s
used in N
16

16 F_n = F + F_p // F o r c e r e q u i r e d when b o t t o m i n g

i s not

used in N
printf ( \n F o r c e r e q u i r e d when b o t t o m i n g i s u s e d =
%0 . 1 f t o n n e s , F_o /(9.81*1000) )
18 printf ( \n F o r c e r e q u i r e d when b o t t o m i n g i s n o t u s e d
= %0 . 3 f t o n n e s , F_n /(9.81*1000) )
17

Scilab code Exa 2.14 To calculate cutting force


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9

clc
w = 2 // w i d t h i n mm
t = 5 // t h i c k n e s s i n mm
theta =6 // s h e a r i n d e g r e e s
tau = 382.5 // u l t i m a t e s h e a r s t r e s s i n MPa
F = w * t * tau *1000 // c u t t i n g f o r c e i n N
l = t / sin ( theta * %pi /180) // l e n g t h t o be c u t i n mm
F_i = l * t * tau // c u t t i n g f o r c e i n N
printf ( \n c u t t i n g f o r c e w i t h p a r a l l e l c u t t i n g e d g e s
= %0 . 3 f MN\n c u t t i n g f o r c e when s h e a r i s
c o n s i d e r e d = %0 . 2 f kN ,F /10^6 , F_i /1000)

Scilab code Exa 2.15 Determine blank and punch diameter


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clc
d1 = 105 // i n s i d e d i a m e t e r i n mm
h = 90 // d e p t h i n mm
t = 1 // t h i c k n e s s i n mm
D = sqrt ( d1 ^2+4* d1 * h ) // b l a n k d i a m e t e r i n mm
tr = t *100/ D // t h i c k n e s s r a t i o
// from t a b l e s a f e d r a w i n g r a t i o i s 1 . 8 2
r = 1.82 // draw r a t i o
d2 = D / r // d i a m e t e r f o r f i r s t draw i n mm
d = 130 // L e t d i a m e t e r f o r f i r s t draw i n mm
17

11 ratio1 = D / d // D/d f o r f i r s t draw


12 ratio2 = d / d1 // D/d f o r s e c o n d draw
13 h1 =(( D ) ^2 -( d ) ^2) /(4* d ) // Depth o f f i r s t draw i n mm
14 sigma = 415 // N/mm2
15 c = 0.65 // c o n s t a n t
16 pc = %pi * d * t * sigma ( D / d - c ) // p r e s s c a p a c i t y i n kN
17 printf ( \n Blank d i a m e t e r = %d mm \n T h i c k n e s s r a t i o

= %0 . 3 f \n D i a m e t e r f o r f i r s t draw = %d mm \n
Depth o f f i r s t draw = %0 . 2 f mm \n P r e s s c a p a c i t y
= %0 . 2 f kN ,D , tr , d2 , h1 , pc /1000)
18 // Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

Scilab code Exa 2.16 To find drawing operations and force


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16

clc
d = 80 // d i a m e t e r i n mm
h = 250 // h e i g h t i n mm
D = sqrt (( d ^2+4* d * h ) ) /10 // b l a n k d i a m e t e r i n cm
D1 = 0.5* D // d i a m e t e r a f t e r f i r s t draw i n cm
// l e t r e d u c t i o n be 40% i n s e c o n d draw
D2 = D1 -0.4* D1 // d i a m e t e r a f t e r s c o n d draw i n cm
R = (1 - ( d /(10* D2 ) ) ) *100 // p e r c e n t a g e r e d u c t i o n
f o r t h i r d draw
l1 = (( D ) ^2 -( D1 ) ^2) /(4* D1 ) // h e i g h t o f cup a f t e r
f i r s t draw i n cm
l2 = (( D ) ^2 -( D2 ) ^2) /(4* D2 ) // h e i g h t o f cup a f t e r
f i r s t draw i n cm
l3 = (( D ) ^2 -( d /10) ^2) /(4* d /10) // h e i g h t o f cup
a f t e r f i r s t draw i n cm
t = 3 // mm
sigma = 250 // N/mm2
C = 0.66
F = %pi * d /10* t * sigma *(( D *10/ d ) -C ) // d r a w i n g f o r c e
i n kN
printf ( \n D i a m e t e r a f t e r f i r s t draw = %0 . 1 f \n
18

D i a m e t e r a f t e r s e c o n d draw = %0 . 2 f \n P e r c e n t a g e
r e d u c t i o n a f t e r t h i r d draw = %d p e r c e n t ,D1 , D2 , R )
17 printf ( \n H e i g h t o f cup a f t e r f i r s t draw = %0 . 2 f cm
\n H e i g h t o f cup a f t e r s e c o n d draw = %0 . 2 f cm\n
H e i g h t o f cup a f t e r t h i r d draw = %0 . 2 f cm , l1 , l2
, l3 )
18 printf ( \n Drawing f o r c e = %0 . 3 f kN ,F /1000)
19 // Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

Scilab code Exa 2.17 Determine developed length


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clc
// from f i g u r e 2 . 7 5 ( a )
r1 = 30 // r a d i u s i n mm
t = 10 // t h i c k n e s s i n mm
h1 = 300 // h e i g h t i n mm
ir1 = r1 - t // i n n e r r a d i u s o f b e n d s i n mm
L1 = h1 -( ir1 + t ) // mm
alpha1 = 90 // d e g r e e
r2 = 2* t // mm
k = 0.33* t // mm
L2 = alpha1 *2* %pi *( r2 + k ) /360 // mm
w = 200 // mm
L3 = w -2*( t + ir1 ) // mm
L4 = L2 //mm
h2 = 100 // mm
L5 = h2 -( t + ir1 ) // mm
r3 = 150 //mm
ir2 = r3 - t // i n n e r r a d i u s i n mm
alpha2 = 180 // d e g r e e
L6 = alpha2 *2* %pi *( ir2 + k ) /360 // mm
dl = L1 + L2 + L3 + L4 + L5 + L6 // T o t a l d e v e l o p e d l e n g t h i n
mm
22 printf ( \n T o t a l d e v e l o p e d l e n g t h = %0 . 2 f mm , dl )
23 // Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r
19

20

Chapter 4
Cost Estimating

Scilab code Exa 4.1 To calculate total cost and SP


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clc
d_m = 5500 // c o s t o f d i r e c t m a t e r i a l i n Rs
d_l = 3000 // m a n u f a c t u r i n g wages i n Rs
// f a c t o r y o v e r h e a d i s 100% 0 f m a n u f a c t u r i n g wages
f_o = (100* d_l ) /100 // f a c t o r y o v e r h e a d s i n Rs
FC = d_m + d_l + f_o // f a c t o r y c o s t i n Rs
nm_o = 15* FC /100 // nonm a n u f a c t u r i n g o v e r h e a d s i n
Rs
tc = FC + nm_o // t o t a l c o s t i n Rs
p = 12* tc /100 // p r o f i t i n Rs
sp = tc + p // s e l l i n g p r i c e i n Rs
printf ( \n T o t a l c o s t = Rs %d\n S e l l i n g p r i c e = Rs
%d , tc , sp )

Scilab code Exa 4.2 To find selling price


1 clc
2 // g i v e n

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OS_RM = 20000 // o p e n i n g s t o c k o f raw m a t e r i a l s i n


Rs
CS_RM = 30000 // c l o s i n g s t o c k o f raw m a t e r i a l s i n
Rs
TP_RM = 170000 // t o t a l p u r c h a s e i n y e a r i n Rs
OS_FG = 10000 // o p e n i n g s t o c k o f f i n i s h e d g o o d s i n
Rs
CS_FG = 15000 // c l o s i n g s t o c k o f f i n i s h e d g o o d s i n
Rs
sales = 489500 // s a l e s o f f i n i s h e d g o o d s i n Rs
D_W = 120000 // d i r e c t wages i n Rs
F_E1 = 120000 // f a c t o r y e x p e n s e s i n Rs
NM_E = 50000 // nonm a n u f a c t u r i n g e x p e n s e s i n Rs
DMC = OS_RM + TP_RM - CS_RM // d i r e c t m a t e r i a l c o s t
FC = DMC + D_W + F_E1 // f a c t o r y c o s t
TC = FC + NM_E // t o t a l c o s t
FG_S = OS_FG + TC - CS_FG // c o s t o f f i n i s h e d g o o d s
s o l d i n Rs
P = sales - FG_S // p r o f i t i n Rs
F_E2 = ( F_E1 ) / D_W *100 // f a c t o r y e x p e n s e s i n p e r c e n t
NM_C = ( NM_E ) / FC *100 // nonm a n u f a c t u r i n g e x p e n s e s
to f a c t o r y cost
P_C = ( P / FG_S ) *100 // p r o f i t t o c o s t o f s a l e s
dm = 20000 // d i r e c t m a t e r i a l i n Rs
dw = 30000 // d i r e c t wages i n Rs
fe = dw // f a c t o r y e x p e n s e s
fc = dm + dw + fe // f a c t o r y c o s t i n Rs
nme = NM_C * fc /100 // nonm a n u f a c t u r i n g e x p e n s e s i n
Rs
tc = fc + nme // t o t a l c o s t i n Rs
p = ( P_C * tc ) /100 // p r o f i t i n Rs
sp = tc + p // s e l l i n g p r i c e i n Rs
printf ( \n S e l l i n g p r i c e = Rs %d , sp )

Scilab code Exa 4.3 To find factory cost


22

1
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7
8
9
10
11
12

clc
d =
l =
p =
g =
w =

38 // d i a m e t e r o f b a r i n mm
25 // l e n g t h o f b a r i n mm
8.6 // d e n s i t y gm/cm3
9.81 // a c c e l e r a t i o n due t o g r a v i t y i n m/ s 2
( %pi * d ^2* l * p * g ) /(4*10^6) // w e i g h t o f m a t e r i a l
in N
mc = w *1.625 // m a t e r i a l c o s t i n Rs
lc = (2*90) /60 // l a b o u r c o s t i n Rs
fo = 0.5* lc // f a c t o r y o v e r h e a d s i n Rs
fc = mc + lc + fo // f a c t o r y c o s t i n Rs
printf ( \n f a c t o r y c o s t = Rs %0 . 2 f , fc )
// Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

Scilab code Exa 4.4 find production cost and time taken
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5
6
7
8
9
10

clc
sp = 65 // s e l l i n g p r i c e i n Rs
profit = 0.2* sp // p r o f i t i n Rs
tc = sp - profit // t o t a l c o s t i n Rs
P = ( sp - profit ) /1.4 // p r o d u c t i o n c o s t i n Rs
DM = 15 // c o s t o f d i r e c t m a t e r i a l i n Rs
W = ( P - DM ) / 1.4 // d i r e c t l a b o u r c o s t i n Rs
tt = W /2 // t i m e t a k e n i n h o u r s
printf ( \n Time t a k e n = %0 . 3 f Hours , tt )
// Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

Scilab code Exa 4.5 To find profit


1
2
3
4

clc
mp = 6000 // market p r i c e o f machine i n Rs
d = 0.2* mp // d i s c o u n t i n Rs
sp = mp - d // s e l l i n g p r i c e o f f a c t o r y i n Rs
23

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6
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9
10
11

mc = 400 // m a t e r i a l c o s t i n Rs
lc = 1600 // l a b o u r c o s t i n Rs
fo = 800 // f a c t o r y o v e r h e a d s i n Rs
F = mc + lc + fo // f a c t o r y c o s t i n Rs
se = 0.5* F // s e l l i n g e x p e n s e s i n Rs
profit = sp - ( F + se ) // Rs
printf ( \n p r o f i t = Rs %d , profit )

Scilab code Exa 4.6 To find lot size and time


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8
9
10

clc
a = 1500 // r e q u i r e m e n t s o f c o m p o n e n t s
s = 30 // c o s t o f e a c h s e t up i n Rs
k = 0.2 // c h a r g e f a c t o r
c = 5 // c o s t o f e a c h p a r t i n Rs
N = 5* sqrt ( a * s ) /( k * c ) // e c o n o m i c l o t s i z e
printf ( \n Economic l o t s i z e = %d p i e c e s , N )
S = ( N * s ) / a // t i m e f o r e a c h s e t up i n h o u r s
printf ( \n Time f o r e a c h s e t up = %0 . 2 f h o u r s , S )
// Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

Scilab code Exa 4.7 To find time to change cutter


1
2
3
4
5
6

clc
Tc = 2 // t i m e t a k e n by c u t t e r p e r c y c l e i n m i n u t e s
Tk = 10 // t i m e t a k e n t o c h a n g e c u t t e r i n m i n u t e s
T = 240 // t o o l l i f e i n m i n u t e s
t = ( Tc * Tk ) / T // t i m e t o c h a n g e t h e c u t t e r i n min .
printf ( \n U n i t t i m e t o c h a n g e t h e c u t t e r = %0 . 3 f
min , t )
7 // E r r o r i n t e x t b o o k

24

Scilab code Exa 4.8 To find tool change time


1 clc
2 Tk = 360 // t i m e t a k e n by t o o l t o c u t b e f o r e

s h a r p e n i n g i n min .
3 Tc = 20 // t i m e t a k e n t o c h a n g e t h e t o o l i n min .
4 T = 4320 // t i m e t a k e n b e f o r e i t i s d i s c a r d e d i n min

.
5 t = ( Tc * Tk ) / T //
t o o l c h a n g e t i m e p e r c y c l e i n min .
6 printf ( \n U n i t t o o l c h a n g e t i m e p e r c y c l e = %0 . 2 f

min , t )

Scilab code Exa 4.9 To calculate measuring time allowance


1
2
3
4
5
6
7

clc
Tc = 10 // t i m e t a k e n t o c h e c k h o l e i n s e c s
F = 2 // f r e q u e n c y o f c h e c k i n g d i m e n s i o n
tc = Tc * F // t i m e t a k e n t o c h e c k one p i e c e i n s e c s
N = 200 // number o f p i e c e s
Tc = tc *( N + 1) // T o t a l t i m e i n s e c
printf ( \n T o t a l t i m e t a k e n t o c h e c k d i m e n s i o n s = %d
min , Tc /60)

Scilab code Exa 4.10 To find direct labour cost


1 clc
2 forgings = 40
3 setup = 4
4 Tc = 12 // m a c h i n i n g t i m e i n min .

25

per f o r g i n g

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7
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19
20
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22
23
24
25
26
27
28

nmt = 21 // nonm a c h i n i n g i n min . p e r f o r g i n g


st = 45 // s e t up t i m e p e r s e t up
ts = 5 // t o t a l s h a r p e n i n g i n min . p e r f o r g i n g
f = 20 // f a t i g u e i n p e r c e n t
f = f /100
pn = 5 // p e r s o n a l n e e d s i n p e r c e n t
pn = pn /100
Tk = 10 // t o o l c h a n h e t i m e i n min .
T = 8 // t o o l l i f e i n h o u r s
ct = 15 // c h e c k i n g t i m e w i t h 5 c h e c k s i n 15 s e c s
R = 1.4 // p e r f o r m a n c e f a c t o r
dlc = 5 // d i r e c t l a b o u r c o s t i n Rs p e r h o u r
tt = Tc + nmt // m a c h i n i n g and nonm a c h i n i n g t i m e i n
min .
ft = f * tt // f a t i g u e t i m e i n min .
pnt = pn * tt // p e r s o n a l n e e d s i n min .
t = ( Tc * Tk ) /( T *60) // t o t a l s h a r p e n i n g t i m e i n min .
per f o r g i n g
mct = ( ts * ct ) /60 // m e a s u r i n g and c h e c k i n g t i m e i n
min . p e r f o r g i n g
su = Tc + nmt + pnt + ft + t + mct // sum o f t i m e s i n
min .
tf = su * forgings // t i m e f o r 40 f o r g i n g s i n min .
tst = st * setup // t o t a l s e t up t i m e i n min .
Te = tf + tst // t o t a l e s t i m a t e d t i m e i n min .
Ta = Te * R // t o t a l a c t u a l t i m e i n min .
lc = ( Ta * dlc ) /60 // d i r e c t l a b o u r c o s t i n Rs
printf ( \n D i r e c t l a b o u r c o s t = Rs %0 . 1 f , lc )

Scilab code Exa 4.11 To find machining time


1 clc
2 // from f i g u r e 4 . 4
3 v = 100 // c u t t i n g s p e e d i n m/ min
4 D = 50 // mm

26

5 l1 = 76 // mm
6 f = 7.5 // f e e d i n mm/ r e v .
7 // Case 1 , t i m e t o t u r n 38 mm d i a m e t e r by 76 mm
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

length of cut
N1 = (1000* v ) /( %pi * D ) // r . p .m
tm1 = l1 *10/( f * N1 ) // min .
// Case 2 , t i m e t o t u r n 25 mm by 38 mm l e n g t h
N2 = (1000* v ) /( %pi *38) // r . p .m
l2 = 38 // mm
tm2 = l2 *10/( f * N2 ) // min
tt = tm1 + tm2 // t o t a l t i m e i n min
printf ( \n T o t a l t i m e = %0 . 2 f min . , tt )

Scilab code Exa 4.12 To find time to turn relief


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3
4
5
6
7
8
9

clc
// from f i g u r e 4 . 5
v = 60 // c u t t i n g s p e e d m/ min .
f = 0.375 // f e e d i n mm/ r e v
D = 38 // mm
N = (1000*60) /( %pi * D ) // r e v / min
l = 32 // mm
Tm = l /( f * N ) // min
printf ( \n Time t o t u r n e x t e r n a l r e l i e f = %0 . 2 f min .
, Tm )

Scilab code Exa 4.13 calculate time to face on lathe


1 clc
2 // from f i g u r e 4 . 1 1
3 l = 7.5 // cm
4 Dave = (25+ 10) /2 // a v e r a g e d i a m e t e r i n cm
5 v = 27 // c u t t i n g s p e e d i n m/ min

27

6 f = 0.8 // f e e d i n mm/ r e v
7 N = (1000* v ) /( %pi * Dave *10) // r . p .m.
8 tm = l *10/( f * N ) // min .
9 printf ( \n The m a c h i n i n g t i m e t o f a c e on l a t h e = %0

. 2 f min . , tm )

Scilab code Exa 4.14 To find time to drill hole


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

clc
D = 12.7 // d i a m e t e r i n mm
d = 50 // d e p t h i n mm
v = 75 // c u t t i n g s p e e d i n m/ min .
f = 0.175 // f e e d i n mm/ r e v
l = d + 2*0.29* D // l e m g t h o f d r i l l t r a v e l i n mm
N = (1000* v ) /( %pi * D ) // r . p .m.
tm = l /( f * N ) // min
printf ( \n Time t a k e n t o d r i l l h o l e = %0 . 3 f min . ,
tm )

Scilab code Exa 4.15 To find time to complete cut


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5
6
7
8
9
10

clc
k = 1/4 // r e t u r n t i m e t o c u t t i n g r a t i o
l = 900 + 2*75 // l e n g t h o f s t r o k e i n mm
v = 6 // c u t t i n g s t r o k e i n m/ min
f = 2 // f e e d mm/ s t r o k e
w = 600 // b r e a d t h i n mm
N = ( v *1000) /( l *1.25) // r . p .m
N = round ( N )
time = w /( f * N ) // min
printf ( \n Time r e q u i r e d f o r s h a p e r t o c o m p l e t e one
c u t = %d min , time )
28

Scilab code Exa 4.16 To find time to broach


1
2
3
4
5
6

clc
l = 70 // l e n g t h o f s t r o k e i n cm
cs = 11 // c u t t i n g s p e e d i n m/ min
rs = 24 // r e t u r n s p e e d i n m/ min
tm = ( l /(100* cs ) ) + ( l /(100* rs ) ) // min
printf ( \n Time t a k e n t o b r o a c h a f o u r s p l i n e b r a s s
= %0 . 4 f min , tm )
7 // Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

Scilab code Exa 4.17 find feed cutter travel and time
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5
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7
8
9
10
11
12
13

clc
v = 50 // c u t t i n g s p e e d i n m/ min
D = 150 // d i a m e t e r o f f a c e c u t t e r i n mm
N = (1000* v ) /( %pi * D ) // r . p .m.
f = 0.25 // f e e d mm/ t o o t h
n = 10 // number o f t o o t h
tf = N * f * n // t a b l e f e e d i n mm/ min
l = 200 // l e n g t h o f work p i e c e i n mm
d = 25 // d e p t h o f s l o t i n mm
tot = sqrt ( D * d - d ^2) // t o t a l o v e r t r a v e l i n mm
tct = l + tot // t o t a l c u t t e r t r a v e l i n mm
time = tct / tf // min .
printf ( \n T a b l e f e e d = %d mm/ min . \n T o t a l c u t t e r
t r a v e l = %0 . 1 f mm\n Time r e q u i r e d t o machine t h e
s l o t = %0 . 3 f min . , tf , tct , time )

29

Scilab code Exa 4.18 To find cutting time


1
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7
8
9
10
11
12

clc
D =
w =
l =
f =
n =
N =
tot

63.5 // d i a m e t e r o f p l a i n m i l l i n g c u t t e r i n mm
30 // w i d t h o f b l o c k i n mm
180 // l e n g t h o f b l o c k i n mm
0.125 // f e e d i n mm/ t o o t h
6 // no . o f t e e t h
1500 // s p i n d l e s p e e d i n r . p .m
= ( D - sqrt ( D ^2 - w ^2) ) /2 // t o t a l o v e r t r a v e l
i n mm
tct = l + tot // t o t a l c u t t e r t r a v e l i n mm
Tm = tct /( f * n * N ) // c u t t i n g t i m e i n min
printf ( C u t t i n g t i m e = %0 . 3 f min . , Tm )
// Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

Scilab code Exa 4.19 To find milling time


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3
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5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

clc
// from f i g u r e 4 . 1 7
d = 19 // d e p t h o f c u t i n mm
D1 = 5 // d i a m e t e r o f round b a r i n cm
v = 50 // c u t t i n g s p e e d i n m/ min
n = 8 // number o f t e e t h
f = 0.2 // f e e d i n mm/ t o o t h
l = 2* sqrt ( d * D1 *10 - d ^2) // l e n g t h o f c h o r d i n mm
D2 = 10 // d a i m e t e r o f c u t t e r i n cm
overrun = sqrt ( D2 *10* d + D1 *10* d - d ^2) - sqrt ( D1 *10* d - d
^2) // mm
tt = l + overrun // t a b l e t r a v e l i n mm
N = (1000* v ) /( %pi * D2 *10) // r . p .m
tm = tt /( f * n * N ) // t i m e i n min .
printf ( \n The m i l l i n g t i m e = %0 . 2 f min . , tm )

30

Scilab code Exa 4.20 To find time to grind shaft


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3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

clc
w = 50 // w i d t h o f g r i n d i n g wheep i n mm
f = w /2 // f e e d i n mm
t = 0.25 // t o a t a l s t o c k i n mm
d = 0.025 // d e p t h o f c u t i n mm
n = t / d // number o f c u t s
v = 15 // c u t t i n g s p e e d i n m/ min
D = 38 // d i a m e t e r i n mm
N = (1000* v ) /( %pi * D ) // r . p .m.
l = 200 // l e n g t h o f p a r t i n mm
Tm = ( l *10) /( f * N ) // min .
printf ( Time r e q u i r e d t o g r i n d t h e s h a f t = %0 . 2 f min
. , Tm )

Scilab code Exa 4.21 To find time to cut threads


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2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

clc
v = 6 // c u t t i n g s p e e d i n m/ min
n = 5 // number o f c u t s
D = 44 // d i a m e t e r i n mm
N = (1000* v ) /( %pi * D ) // r . p .m
f = 0.5 // f e e d i n cm
l = 8.9 // l e n g t h o f c u t i n cm
Tm = ( l * n ) /( f * N ) // t i m e i n min
printf ( \n Time t o c u t t h e t h r e a d s = %0 . 2 f min , Tm
)
10 // Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

31

Scilab code Exa 4.22 find time to produce one piece


1 clc
2 vt = 40 // c u t t i n g s p e e d f o r t u r n i n g i n m/ min
3 vs = 8 // c u t t i n g s p e e d f o r c u t t i n g and k n u r l i n g i n
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29
30
31
32
33
34

m/ min
ft = 0.4 // f e e d f o r t u r n i n g i n mm/ r e v .
ff = 0.2 // f e e d f o r f o r m i n g i n mm/ r e v
d1 = 25 // d i a m e t e r i n mm
l1 = 50 // mm
N1 = 1000* vt /( %pi * d1 ) // s p i n d l e s p e e d i n r e v . / min .
time1 = l1 /( ft * N1 ) // min .
tt = 2* time1 // t o t a l t i m e i n min .
d2 = 15 // mm
N2 = 1000* vt /( %pi * d2 ) // r e v / min .
l2 = 30 // mm
time2 = l2 /( ft * N2 ) // min .
eft = 0.15 // end f o r m i n g t i m e i n min .
d3 = 10 // mm
N3 = 1000* vs /( %pi * d3 ) // r e v . / min .
l3 = 15 // mm
f = 1.5 // f e e d i n min .
time3 = l3 /( f * N3 ) // min .
N4 = 1000* vs /( %pi * d1 ) // r e v . / min .
l4 = 10 // mm
time4 = l4 /( ft * N4 ) // min .
time5 = 0.15 // t i m e f o r c h a m f e r i n g i n min .
Dave = d1 /2 // mm
N5 = 1000* vt /( %pi * Dave ) // r . p .m.
time6 = Dave /( N5 * ff ) // min ,
tmt = tt + time2 + time3 + time4 + time5 + time6 + eft // t o t a l
m a c h i n i n g t i m e i n min .
t = 0.05 // min .
ht = time5 +6* time6 +4* t +3* t // h a n d l i n g t i m e i n min .
tot = ht + tmt // t o t a l h a n d l i n g t i m e i n min .
ct = 15* tot /100 // c o n t i n g e n c y i n min .
tct = tot + ct // t o t a l c y c l e t i m e i n min .
st = 60 // s e t up t i m e f o r t u r r e t l a t h e
32

35 p = 100 // t o t a l p i e c e s
36 stp = st / p // s e t up t i m e p e r p i e c e i n min .
37 tpt = tct + stp // T o t a l p r o d u c t i o n t i m r p e r p i e c e

in

min .
printf ( \n T o t a l p r o d u c t i o n t i m r p e r p i e c e = %0 . 2 f
min , tpt )
39 // Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r
38

33

Chapter 5
Economics of tooling

Scilab code Exa 5.1 To find value of machine tool


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

13
14

clc
Co = 250000 // o r i g i n a l v a l u e o f machine t o o l i n Rs
Cs = 25000 // s a l v a g e v a l u e i n Rs
n = 20 // u s e f u l l i f e i n y e a r s
d = ( Co - Cs ) / n // d e p r e c i a t i o n p e r y e a r i n Rs
v1 = Co - 10* d // v a l u e o f machine t o o l a t t h e end
o f 10 y e a r s i n Rs
s = Co - Cs // sum a t t h e end o f u s e f u l l i f e i n Rs
i = 8/100 // a n n u a l i n t e r s t r a t e
D = ( s * i ) /((1 + i ) ^n -1) // a n n u a l d e p o s i t
a = D *((1+ i ) ^10 -1) / i // amount a t t h e end o f 10
y e a r s i n Rs
v2 = Co - a // v a l u e a t t h e end o f 10 y e a r s
printf ( \n V a l u e o f machine a t t h e end o f 10 y e a r s
t h r o u g h s t r a i g h t l i n e d e p r e c i a t i o n method = Rs %d
, v1 )
printf ( \n V a l u e o f machine a t t h e end o f 10 y e a r s
t h r o u g h s i n k i n g f u n d method = Rs %d , v2 )
// Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

34

Scilab code Exa 5.2 To find annual investment


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

clc
p = 200000 // p r e s e n t worth i n Rs
i = 10 // a n n u a l i n t e r e s t r a t e
i = 10/100
n = 20 // number o f y e a r s
a1 = ( p * i ) /((1+ i ) ^n -1) // a n n u a l i n v e s t m e n t u s i n g
s i n k i n g f u n d f a c t o r i n Rs
a2 = ( p * i *( i +1) ^ n ) /(( i +1) ^n -1) // a n n u a l i n v e s t m e n t
u s i n g c a p i t a l r e c o v e r y f a c t o r i n Rs
printf ( \ nAnnual i n v e s t m e n t u s i n g s i n k i n g f u n d
f a c t o r = Rs %d / p e r y e a r , a1 )
printf ( \ nAnnual i n v e s t m e n t u s i n g c a p i t a l r e c o v e r y
f a c t o r = Rs %d / p e r y e a r , a2 )
// Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

Scilab code Exa 5.3 find project is economical or not


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clc
// c a s h i n f l o w s
a = 21240 // a n n u a l r e v e n u e i n Rs
i = 10 // a n n u a l i n t e r e s t r a t e
i = 10/100
n = 5 // p e r o d i n y e a r s
f1 = 8000 // s a l v a g e v a l u e i n Rs
p1 = ( a *(( i +1) ^n -1) ) /( i *( i +1) ^5) // a n n u a l r e v e n u e
i n Rs
p2 = f1 /( i +1) ^5 // p r e s e n t worth i n Rs
t1 = p1 + p2 // t o t a l c a s h i n f l o w s i n Rs
// c a s h o u t f l o w s
I = 40000 // i n v e s t m e n t i n Rs
35

13 f2 = 12000 // a n n u a l payment i n Rs
14 p3 = ( f2 *((1+ i ) ^5 -1) ) /( i *(1+ i ) ^5) // a n n u a l payments
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i n Rs
t2 = I + p3 // t o t a l c a s h o u t f l o w s i n Rs
printf ( \ n T o t a l c a s h i n f l o w s = Rs %0 . 2 f \ n T o t a l c a s h
o u t f l o w s = Rs %0 . 2 f , t1 , t2 )
disp ( S i n c e c a s h o u t f l o w s a r e more t h a n c a s h i n
f l o w s t h e r e f o r e p r o j e c t i s not economical )
// Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

Scilab code Exa 5.4 selection of economical machine


1 clc
2 // Machine A
3 f1 = 2000 // a n n u a l b e n e f i t from b e t t e r

production

q u a l i t y i n Rs
i = 10 // i n t e r e s t r a t e
i = 10/100
f2 = 12000 // s a l v a g e v a l u e i n Rs
f3 = 8000 // o p e r a t i n g and m a i n t e n a n c e c o s t i n Rs
I1 = 100000 // i n i t i a l c o s t i n Rs
n = 5 // y e a r s
p1 = ( f1 *((1+ i ) ^n -1) ) /( i *( i +1) ^ n )
p2 = f2 /(1+ i ) ^ n
c1 = p1 + p2 // c a s h i n f l o w s i n Rs
p3 = ( f3 *((1+ i ) ^n -1) ) /( i *( i +1) ^ n )
c2 = I1 + p3 // c a s h o u t f l o w s i n Rs
Pa = c1 - c2 // n e t P .W. i n Rs
// Machine B
I2 = 60000 // i n i t i a l c o s t i n Rs
f4 = 16000 // o p e r a t i n g and m a i n t e n a n c e c o s t i n Rs
f5 = 14000 // r e c o n d i t i o n i n g a t t h e end o f t h i r d
y e a r i n Rs
20 p4 = (16000*((1+ i ) ^5 -1) ) /( i *(1+ i ) ^5)
21 p5 = f5 /(1+ i ) ^5
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22 Pb = - I2 - p4 - p5 // n e t P .W. i n Rs
23 printf ( \n Net P .W. o f Machine A= Rs %0 . 2 f \n Net P .W.

o f Machine B = Rs%0 . 2 f , Pa , Pb )
24 disp ( I t i s c l e a r t h a t Net P .W o f Machine A i s
n a g a t i v e a s compared t o t h a t o f Machine B ,
t h e r e f o r e Machine A i s e c o n o m c a l . )
25 // Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

less

Scilab code Exa 5.5 selection of machine


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clc
// machine A
c1 = 20000 // manual c o s t i n Rs
c2 = 40000 // o p e r a t i n g c o s t i n Rs
n1 = 2 // machine l i f e i n y e a r s
i = 10 // i n t e r e s t r a t e
i = 10/100
crf1 = ((1+ i ) ^ n1 -1) /( i *( i +1) ^ n1 ) // c a p i t a l r e c o v e r y
factor
pw1 = c1 + c2 * crf1 // p r e s e n t worth i n Rs
// machine B
c3 = 50000 // manual c o s t i n Rs
c4 = 30000 // o p e r a t i n g c o s t i n Rs
n2 = 4 // machine l i f e i n y e a r s
i = 10/100 // i n t e r e s t r a t e
crf2 = ((1+ i ) ^ n2 -1) /( i *( i +1) ^ n2 ) // c a p i t a l r e c o v e r y
factor
pw2 = c3 + c4 * crf2 // p r e s e n t worth i n Rs f o r 4 y e a r s
pw3 = ( pw2 * crf1 ) / crf2 // p r e s e n t worth i n Rs f o r 2
years
printf ( \n P .W. o f e x p e n s e s f o r A = Rs %d\n P .W. o f
e x p e n s e s f o r B = Rs %0 . 2 f ,pw1 , pw3 )
disp ( As t h e e x p e n s e s o f machine B a r e l e s s , s o
t h i s i s economical )
// Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r
37

Scilab code Exa 5.6 selection of economical machine


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clc
// Machine A
i = 8 // // i n t e r e s t r a t e
i = i /100 // i n t e r e s t r a t e
n1 = 10 // e c o n o m i c l i f e i n y e a r s
CRF1 = i *(1+0.08) ^ n1 /((1+ i ) ^ n1 -1) // c a p i t a l
recovery factor
p1 = 46000 // f i r s t c o s t i n Rs
s1 = 8000 // s a l v a g e v a l u e i n Rs
o1 = 10000 // o p e r a t i n g c h a r g e s i n Rs
AC1 = ( p1 - s1 ) * CRF1 + s1 * i + o1 // a n n u a l c o s t
// Machine B
n2 = 15 // e c o n o m i c l i f e i n y e a r s
CRF2 = i *(1+0.08) ^ n2 /((1+ i ) ^ n2 -1) // c a p i t a l
recovery factor
p2 = 60000 // f i r s t c o s t i n Rs
s2 = 10000 // s a l v a g e v a l u e i n Rs
o2 = 9200 // o p e r a t i n g c h a r g e s i n Rs
AC2 = ( p2 - s2 ) * CRF2 + s2 * i + o2 // a n n u a l c o s t
printf ( \n Annual c o s t o f machine A = Rs %0 . 2
Annual c o s t o f Machine B = Rs %0 . 2 f ,AC1 ,
disp ( Machine B w i l l be e c o n o m i c a l )
// E r r o r i n t e x t b o o k

Scilab code Exa 5.7 find ERR and economicality of project


1 clc
2 a = 100000 // Ej ( p / f , e% , j ) i n Rs
3 n = 5 // l i f e i n y e a r s

38

i n Rs

i n Rs
f \n
AC2 )

e = 20 // M. A . R . R .
e = e /100 // M. A . R . R .
i = e
A = 32000 // s a v i n g s i n Rs
s = 20000 // s a l v a g e v a l u e i n Rs
b = (( A *((( i +1) ^ n ) -1) / i ) + s ) / a // ( F/p , I , 5 )
i2 = ( b ) ^(1/ n ) -1 // i n t e r n a l r a t e o f r e t u r n
printf ( \n ERR = %0 . 4 f \n I n t e r n a l r a t e o f r e t u r n =
%0 . 2 f p e r c e n t , b , i2 *100)
12 disp ( S i n c e I n t e r n a l r a t e o f r e t u r n i s > M. A . R . R ,
t h e r e f o r e p r o j e c t i s f e a s i b l e )
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11

Scilab code Exa 5.9 find ERR and economicality of project


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clc
e = 20 // M, A . R . R .
i = e // i n t e r e s t r s t e
i = i /100
n = 5 // l i f e i n y e a r s
s = 32000 // a n n u a l n e t s a v i n g s i n Rs
p = 100000 // p r e s e n t worth i n Rs
S = 20000 // s a l v a g e v a l u e i n Rs
a = (p - S ) *( i /((1+ i ) ^n -1) ) // ( ps ) (A/F , e% , n )
E = (s - a ) / p // E . R . R . R
printf ( \n ERRR = %0 . 2 f p e r c e n t , E *100)
disp ( S i n c e E . R . R . R i s > M. A . R . R . t h e r e f o r e p r o j e c t
i s f e a s i b l e . )

Scilab code Exa 5.10 To determine acceptance of machine


1 clc
2 // machine A
3 r_e1 = 9600 // c a s h f l o w i n Rs

39

p1 = 46000 // i n t i a l c o s t i n Rs
s = 0 // s a l v a g e v a l u e
e = 8 // M. A . R . R
e = e /100
i = 8 // i n v e s t m e n t r a t e
i = i /100
n = 6 // l i f e i n y e a r s
x = i /((1+ i ) ^n -1)
ERRR1 = ( r_e1 - ( p1 - s ) * x ) / p1
// machine B
r_e2 = 7200 // c a s h f l o w i n Rs
p2 = 32000 // i n t i a l c o s t i n Rs
ERRR2 = ( r_e2 - ( p2 - s ) * x ) / p2
printf ( \n ERRR1 = %0 . 2 f p e r c e n t \n ERRR2 = %0 . 2 f
p e r c e n t , ERRR1 *100 , ERRR2 *100)
18 disp ( Only machine B i s a c c e p t e b l e )

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Scilab code Exa 5.11 find investment cost and unamortized value
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8

clc
pmv = 15000 // p r e s e n t market v a l u e i n Rs
ss = 6000 // sum n e e d e d t o make i t s e r v i c e a b l e i n Rs
ic = ss + pmv // i n v e s t m e n t c o s t i n Rs
pbv = 30000 // p r e s e n t book v a l u e i n Rs
sv = 15000 // s a l v a g e v a l u e i n Rs
ui = pbv - sv // u n a m o r t i z e d i n v e s t m e n t i n Rs
printf ( \n I n v e s t m e n t c o s t = Rs %d\n U n a m o r t i z e d
i n v e s t m e n t = Rs %d , ic , ui )

Scilab code Exa 5.13 To make decision of machines replacement


1 clc
2 // E x i s t i n g machine

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pmp = 100000 // p r e s e n t market p r i c e i n Rs


io = 50000 // i m m e d i a t e o v e r h a u l i n g i n Rs
asl = 5 // a d d i t i o n a l s e r v i c e l i f e i n y e a r s
aoc = 50000 // a n n u a l o p e r a t i n g c o s t i n Rs
svo = 10000 // s a l v a g e v a l u e a f t e r o v e r h a u l i n g i n Rs
pc = io + pmp // p r e s e n t c o s t i n Rs
i = 10 // i n t e r e s t r a t e
i = 10/100
crf1 = ( i *(1+ i ) ^ asl ) /((1+ i ) ^ asl - 1) // c a p i t a l
recovery factor
AC1 = ( pc - svo ) * crf1 + svo * i + aoc // a v e r a g e c o s t
i n Rs
// p r o p o s e d machine
n = 10 // e x p e c t e d e c o n o m i c l i f e i n y e a r s
ic = 300000 // i n i t i a l c o s t i n Rs
sv = 100000 // s a l v a g e v a l u e i n Rs
o = 30000 // a n n u a l o p e r a t i n g c o s t i n Rs
crf2 = ( i *(1+ i ) ^10) /((1+ i ) ^10 - 1)
AC2 = ( ic - sv ) * crf2 + sv * i + o // a v e r a g e c o s t i n
Rs
printf ( E x i s t i n g machine = Rs %0 . 3 f \n P r o p o s e d
machine = Rs %0 . 2 f , AC1 , AC2 )
disp ( S i n c e t h e e q u i v a l e n t a n n u a l c o s t o f p r o p o s e d
machine i s l e s s t h a n t h a t o f t h e e x i s t i n g machine
, t h e r e f o r e , the replacement i s j u s t i f i e d . )
// Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

Scilab code Exa 5.15 Determine economic repair life


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clc
c = 20000 // f i r s t c o s t o f machine i n Rs
s = 1000 // s c r a p v a l u e i n machine i n Rs
b = 180 // a n n u a l i n c r e a s e i n c o s t o f r e p a i r s i n Rs
n = sqrt (2*( c - s ) / b ) // y e a r s
printf ( \n Number o f y e a r s o f e c o n o m i c r e p a i r l i f e =
41

%0 . 2 f y e a r s , n )

Scilab code Exa 5.16 find time to pay for itself


1 clc
2 Cn = 72000 // c o s t
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o f new machine i n s t a l l e d and


t o o l e d i n Rs
Co = 28000 // c o s t o f new machime i n s t a l l e d and
t o o l e d i n Rs
p = 16 // h o u r l y p i e c e s
Nn = 2200* p // e s t i m a t e d a n n u a l p r o d u c t i o n on new
machine
Ko = 17200 // p r e s e n t book v a l u e o f o l d machine i n
Rs
So = 6400 // s c r a p v a l u e o f o l d machine i n Rs
Sn = 8000 // p r o b a b l e s c r a p v a l u e o f o l d machine i n
a t t h e end o f i t s u s e f u l l i f e Rs
oco = 2.5 // o p r e a t o r c o s t p e r h o u r
mco = 48 // machine c o s t
ro = 10 // p r o d u c t i o n r a t e p e r h o u r
ocn = 2 // o p r e a t o r c o s t p e r h o u r
mcn = 62 // machine c o s t
rn = 16 // p r o d u c t i o n r a t e p e r h o u r
Po = ( oco + mco ) / ro // l a b o u r and machine c o s t p e r
u n i t on o l d machine i n Rs
Pn = ( ocn + mcn ) / rn // l a b o u r and machine c o s t p e r
u n i t on new machine i n Rs
i = 6 // i n t e r e s t on i n v e s t m e n t
i = i /100
t = 6 // a n n u a l t a x e s
t = t /100
d = 10 // a n n u a l a l l o w a n c e f o r d e p r e c i a t i o n
d = d /100
m = 3 // a n n u a l a l l o w a n c e f o r m a i n t e n a n c e
m = m /100
42

25 n = (( Cn - Sn ) +( Ko - So ) ) /(( Nn *( Po - Pn ) ) - Cn *( i + t + d + m ) )
26 printf ( \n The number o f y e a r s i n which t h e new

machine w i l l pay f o r

i t s e l f = %0 . 3 f y e a r s , n )

Scilab code Exa 5.17 selection of machine for job


1 clc
2 C = 80000 // c o s t
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o f new machine i n s t a l l e d and


t o o l e d i n Rs
nel = 2 // number o f e n g i n e l a t h e s
c = 32000* nel // f i r s t c o s t o f e n g i n e l a t h e
N = 4000 // a n n u a l p r o d u c t i o n o f t u r r e t l a t h e
n = 3800 // a n n u a l p r o d u c t i o n i n e n g i n e l a t h e
nhp1 = 4 // hp motor
L = 2256* nhp1 // a n n u a l l a b o u r c o s t o f t u r r e t l a t h e
w = 5 // wage i n p e r h o u r
time = 2300 // h o u r s
l = time * nel * w // l a b o u r c o s t o f e n g i n e l a t h e
nhp2 = 2.5 // hp motor
pr = 0.35 // power r a t e i n kwh
p = ( nel * nhp2 *746* time * pr ) /1000 // power c o s t
P = ( nhp1 *746* time * pr ) /1000 // power c o s t
F = 480 // s a v i n g
I = 6/100 // i n t e r e s t r a t e
T = 4/100 // t a x r a t e
D = 10/100 // a l l o w a n c e f o r d e p r e c i a t i o n i n e n g i n e
lathe
M = 6/100 // a l l o w a n c e f o r m a i n t e n a n c e i n e n g i n e
lathe
B = 55/100 // l a b o u r b u r d e n i n e n g i n e l a t h e
i = 6/100 // i n t e r e s t r a t e
t = 4/100 // t a x r a t e
d = 10/100 // a l l o w a n c e f o r d e p r e c i a t i o n i n t u r r e t
lathe
m = 6/100 // a l l o w a n c e f o r m a i n t e n a n c e i n t u r r e t
43

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lathe
X = ( L + B * L + P + C *( I + T + D + M ) - F ) / N
x = ( l + l * B + p + c *( i + t + d + m ) ) / n
printf ( \n U n i t p r o d u c t i o n c o s t on t u r r e t l a t h e = Rs
%0 . 2 f p e r p i e c e \n U n i t p r o d u c t i o n c o s t on e n g i n e
l a t h e = Rs %0 . 2 f p e r p i e c e , X , x )
disp ( T u r r e t l a t h e w i l l be more e c o n o m i c a l t h a n two
engine l a t h e )
// Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

Scilab code Exa 5.18 Calculate maximum investment on turret lathe


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clc
X = 9.16 // p r o d u c t i o n c o s t on t u r r e t l a t h e
N = 4000 // a n n u a l r e q u i r e m e n t
c = X * N // c o s t f o r 4 0 0 0 p i e c e s on t u r r e t l a t h e
n = 3800 // p r o d u c t i o n o f e n g i n e l a t h e
l = 23000 // l a b o u r c o s t
p = 3002 // power c o s t
i = 6 // i n t e r e s t r a t e
i = i /100
t = 4 // t a x r a t e
t = t /100
d = 10 // a l l o w a n c e f o r d e p r e c i a t i o n i n t u r r e t l a t h e
d = d /100
m = 6 // a l l o w a n c e f o r m a i n t e n a n c e i n t u r r e t l a t h e
m = m /100
b = 55/100 // l a b o u r b u r d e n
a = i+t+d+m
tc = 64000 // f i r s t c o s t o f e n g i n e l a t h e
c1 =( N *( l *(1+ b ) + p ) ) / n +( tc * a ) // c o s t f o r e n g i n e
lathe
20 s = c1 - c // s a v i n g s
21 amt = s / a // amount i n v e s t e d i n t u r r e t l a t h e o v e r
the cost of engine l a t h e
44

printf ( \n Amount i n v e s t e d i n t u r r e t l a t h e o v e r t h e
c o s t o f e n g i n e l a t h e = Rs %d , amt )
23 // Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

22

Scilab code Exa 5.19 To find years for new machine


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clc
Cn = 60000 // c o s t o f new machine
Sn = 5000 // s c r a p v a l u e o f new machine
So = 1000 // s c r a p v a l u e o f o l d machine
Nn = 200000 // a n n u a l p r o d u c t i o n
I = 10 // i n t e r e s t r a t e
I = I /100
M = 7 // a l l o w a n c e f o r m a i n t e n a n e
M = M /100
T = 6 // a n n u a l t a x e s
T = T /100
D = 1/10 // a l l o w a n c e f o r d e p r e c i a t i o n
lco = 300 // l a b o u r c h a r g e s f o r o l d machine
m = 12 // months
rco = 15000 // r u n n i n g c h a r g e s f o r o l d machine
pro = 50000 // p r o d u c t i o n r a t e f o r o l d machine
lcn = 500 // l a b o u r c h a r g e s f o r new machine
rcn = 10000 // r u n n i n g c h a r g e s f o r o l d machine
prn = 200000 // p r o d u c t i o n r a t e f
Po = ( lco * m + rco ) / pro // l a b o u r and machine c o s t on
o l d machine
21 Pn = ( lcn * m + rcn ) / prn // l a b o u r and machine c o s t on
new machine
22 n =(( Cn - Sn ) - So ) /(( Nn *( Po - Pn ) ) - Cn *( I + T + D + M ) ) // y e a r s
23 printf ( \n Y e a r s i n which new machine w i l l pay f o r
i t s e l f = %0 . 2 f y e a r s , n )

45

Scilab code Exa 5.20 To find cost and pieces


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clc
a = 1.50 // s a v i n g i n l a b o u r
b =55/100 // b u r d e n a p p l i e d on l a b o u r
T = 4/100 // a l l o w a n c e f o r t a x e s
M = 5/100 // a l l o w a n c e f o r m a i n t e n a n c e
I = 8/100 // i n t e r e s t r a t e
D = 50/100 // a l l o w a n c e f o r d e p r e c i a t i o n
H = 2 // y e a r s t o a m o r t i z e t h e i n v e s t m e n t
S = 50 // y e a r l y c o s t f o r s e t up
C = 3000 // f i r s t c o s t
N1 = ( C *( I + T + M + D ) + S ) /( a *(1+ b ) ) // a n n u a l p r o d u c t i o n
when 1 run i s made
r = 5 // number o f r u n s
N2 = ( C *( I + T + M + D ) + S * r ) /( a *(1+ b ) ) // a n n u a l
p r o d u c t i o n when 1 run i s made
D1 = 100/100 // a l l o w a n c e f o r d e p r e c i a t i o n
N3 = ( C *( I + T + M + D1 ) + S ) /( a *(1+ b ) ) // p r o d u c t i o n when D
= 100
n1 = 1530 // p i e c e s
C1 = ( n1 *( a *(1+ b ) ) -S ) /( I + T + M + D1 ) // e c o n o m i c a l
investment
n2 = 950 // p i e c e s
a1 = 2 // l a b o u r c o s t
r1 = 6 // number o f r u n s
S1 = r1 * S // y e a r l y c o s t
V = n2 * a1 *(1+ b ) -C *( I + T + M + D ) - S1 // p r o f i t
printf ( \n Number o f p i e c e s when one run i s made and
c o s t i s Rs 3 0 0 0 = %d p i e c e s , N1 )
printf ( \n Annual p r o d u c t i o n when 5 r u n s a r e made
p e r y e a r = %d p i e c e s , N2 )
printf ( \ nAnnual p r o d u c t i o n when f i x t u r e pay f o r
i t s e l f = %d p i e c e s , N3 )
printf ( \ n E c o n o m i c a l i n v e s t m e n t when 1 5 3 0 p i e c e s f o r
s i n g l e run w i t h s a v i n g s Rs 1 . 5 0 p e r p i e c e = Rs
%d , C1 )
printf ( \ nAnnual p r o f i t when 950 p i e c e s made p e r
46

y e a r i n 6 r u n s and s a v i n g i n l a b o u r c o s t Rs 2 p e r
p i e c e = Rs %d p e r y e a r , V )
28 //
Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

Scilab code Exa 5.21 To find number of components


1
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5
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7
8
9
10
11
12

clc
a = 0.125 // s a v i n g i n l a b o u r c o s t p e r u n i t
b = 0.4 // o v e r h e a d a p p l i e d on d i r e c t l a b o u r s a v e d
D = 1/2 // a l l o w a n c e f o r d e p r e c i a t i o n
C = 2400 // f i r s t c o s t
I = 6/100 // i n t e r e s t r a t e
T = 4/100 // a l l o w a n c e f o r t a x e s
M = 10/100 // a l l o w a n c e f o r m a i n t e n a n c e
S = 80 // c o s t o f s e t up
N = ( C *( I + T + D + M ) + S ) /( a *(1+ b ) ) // p i e c e s p e r y e a r
t = N *2 // t o t a l number o f p i e c e s
printf ( \n T o t a l number o f p i e c e s p r o d u c e d = %d , t
)
13 // Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

Scilab code Exa 5.22 To find number of components


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

clc
a =
b =
D =
C =
I =
T =
M =
n =
S =

0.125 // s a v i n g i n l a b o u r c o s t p e r u n i t
0.4 // o v e r h e a d a p p l i e d on d i r e c t l a b o u r s a v e d
1/2 // a l l o w a n c e f o r d e p r e c i a t i o n
2400 // f i r s t c o s t
6/100 // i n t e r s t r a t e
4/100 // a l l o w a n c e f o r t a x e s
10/100 // a l l o w a n c e f o r m a i n t e n a n c e
6 // number o f b a c h e s
80 // c o s t o f s e t up
47

11 s1 = S * n // t o t a l s e t up c o s t
12 N = ( C *( I + T + D + M ) + s1 ) /( a *(1+ b ) ) // p i e c e s
13 t = N *2 // t o t a l number o f p i e c e s
14 printf ( \n T o t a l number o f p i e c e s p r o d u c e d = %d , t

)
15 // Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

Scilab code Exa 5.23 To find time and profit


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13
14
15

clc
C1 = 2000 // f i r s t c o s t
s m a l l t o o l i n Rs
N = 5000 // p a r t s p e r y e a r
n = 5 // number o f b a t c h e s
S = 50* n // c o s t o f s e t up
a = 0.15 // s a v i n g i n l a b o u r c o s t p e r u n i t
b = 50/100 // b u r d e n a p p l i e d on d i r e c t l a b o u r s a v e d
I = 10/100 // i n t e r e s t r a t e
T = 5/100 // a l l o w a n c e f o r t a x
M = 10/100 // a l l o w a n c e f o r m a i n t e n a n c e
H = C1 /(( N * a *(1+ b ) ) -( C1 *( I + T + M ) ) -S ) // y e a r s
C2 = 1600 // c o s t o f f i x t u r e
D = 1/ H // a l l o w a n c e f o r d e p r e c i a t i o n
V = N * a *(1+ b ) - C2 *( I + T + D + M ) -S // p r o f i t
printf ( \n Number o f y e a r s t a k e n by f i x t u r e o f Rs
2 0 0 0 = %0 . 2 f y e a r s \n p r o f i t made when f i x t u r e o f
Rs 1 6 0 0 = Rs %d , H ,V )

Scilab code Exa 5.24 To find minimum number of components


1 clc
2 c1 = 3 //

machine c o s t p e r component u s i n g e x i s t i n g
e u i p m e n t i n Rs
3 c2 = 1 // machine c o s t u s i n g f i x t u r e i n Rs
48

4 s = c1 - c2 // s a v i n g i n machine c o s t p e r p i e c e
5 f = 1000 // c o s t o f f i x t u r e i n Rs
6 N = f /2 // c o m p o n e n ts
7 printf ( \n Minimum number o f c o m p o n e n t s t o be

p r o d u c e d i f c o s t o f f i x t u r e t o be r e c o v e r e d = %d
,N )

Scilab code Exa 5.25 To calculate number of pieces


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2
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5
6
7
8
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10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

clc
C = 1000 // c o s t o f f i x t u r e
Co = 700 // c o s t o f o l d f i x t u r e
Cs = 250 // s c r a p v a l u e
a = 10 // s a v i n g p e r p i e c e i n p a i s a
a = a /100
b = 30 // o v e r h e a d a p p l i e d on d i r e c t l a b o u r s a v e d
b = b /100
I = 8 // i n t e r e s t r a t e
I = I /100
M = 3 // a l l o w a n c e f o r m a i n t e n a n c e
M = M /100
T = 12 // a l l o w a n c e f o r t a x
T = T /100
H = 3/2 // a m o r t i z a t i o n
D = 1/ H // a l l o w a n c e f o r d e p r e c i a t i o n
N = ( C *( I + T + D + M ) +( Co - Cs ) * I ) /( a *(1+ b ) ) // p i e c e s p e r
year
18 printf ( \n Number o f p i e c e s which must be p r o d u c e d
t o b r e a k e v e n s o t h a t f i x t u r e may pay f o r i t s e l f
= %d p i e c e s p e r y e a r , N )
19 // Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

Scilab code Exa 5.26 To find cost for new fixture


49

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16
17
18
19

clc
N = 9000 // number o f p i e c e s
Co = 700 // c o s t o f o l d f i x t u r e
Cs = 250 // s c r a p v a l u e
a = 10 // s a v i n g p e r p i e c e i n p a i s a
a = a /100
b = 30 // o v e r h e a d a p p l i e d on d i r e c t l a b o u r s a v e d
b = b /100
I = 8 // i n t e r e s t r a t e
I = I /100
M = 3 // a l l o w a n c e f o r m a i n t e n a n c e
M = M /100
T = 12 // a l l o w a n c e f o r t a x
T = T /100
H = 3/2 // a m o r t i z a t i o n
D = 1/ H // a l l o w a n c e f o r d e p r e c i a t i o n
C = ( N * a *(1+ b ) -( Co - Cs ) * I ) /( I + T + D + M ) // c o s t i n Rs
printf ( \n C o s t f o r new f i x t u r e = Rs %d , C )
// Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

Scilab code Exa 5.27 find time to amortize fixture


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8
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11
12
13

clc
n =
c =
a =
a =
b =
b =
I =
I =
M =
M =
T =
T =

6500 // y e a r l y p r o d u c t i o n
1350 // c o s t o f f i x t u r e
10 // s a v i n g p e r p i e c e i n p a i s a
a /100
30 // o v e r h e a d a p p l i e d on d i r e c t l a b o u r s a v e d
b /100
8 // i n t e r e s t r a t e
I /100
3 // a l l o w a n c e f o r m a i n t e n a n c e
M /100
12 // a l l o w a n c e f o r t a x
T /100
50

14 co = 700 // c o s t o f o l d f i x t u r e
15 cs = 250 // s c r a p v a l u e
16 H = ( c ) /(( n * a *(1+ b ) ) -I *( co - cs ) -c *( I + T + M ) ) //
17

amotization in years
printf ( \n Time t a k e n t o a m o r t i z e t h e f i x t u r e = %0 . 1
f y e a r s , H)

Scilab code Exa 5.28 To find profit


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18
19
20

clc
n = 9000 // p r o d u c t i o n o f p i e c e s p e r y e a r
c = 1000 // f i x t u r e c o s t s
Co = 700 // c o s t o f o l d f i x t u r e
Cs = 250 // s c r a p v a l u e
a = 10 // s a v i n g p e r p i e c e i n p a i s a
a = a /100
b = 30 // o v e r h e a d a p p l i e d on d i r e c t l a b o u r s a v e d
b = b /100
I = 8 // i n t e r e s t r a t e
I = I /100
M = 3 // a l l o w a n c e f o r m a i n t e n a n c e
M = M /100
T = 12 // a l l o w a n c e f o r t a x
T = T /100
h = 1.5 // a m o r t i z a t i o n
D = 1/ h // a l l o w a n c e f o r d e p r e c i a t i o n
V = ( n * a *(1+ b ) ) -( c *( I + T + D + M ) ) -(( Co - Cs ) * I ) // p r o f i t
printf ( \n p r o f i t = Rs %d , V )
// Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

Scilab code Exa 5.29 To find BEP Cost and Components


1 clc

51

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

fc1 = 100000 // f i x e d c o s t i n Rs
vc1 = 100 // v a r i a b l e c o s t i n Rs p e r u n i t
sp = 200 // s e l l i n g p r i c e i n Rs p e r u n i t
q1 = fc1 /( sp - vc1 ) // q u a n t i t y o f p r o d u c t i o n a t b r e a k
even p o i n t
fc2 = 125000 // f i x e d c o s t i n Rs
vc2 = 90 // v a r i a b l e c o s t i n Rs p e r u n i t
q2 = fc2 /( sp - vc2 ) // q u a n t i t y o f p r o d u c t i o n a t b r e a k
even p o i n t
p = 20000 // p r o f i t i n Rs
q3 = ( fc1 + p ) /( sp - vc1 ) // q u a n t i t y o f p r o d u c t i o n a t
p r o f i t o f Rs 2 0 0 0 0
printf ( \n Break e v e n p o i n t = %d p i e c e s \n I f f i x e d
c o s t i s 1 2 5 0 0 0 and v a r i a b l e c o s t i s Rs 90 p e r
u n i t t h e n b r e a k e v e n p o i n t = %d p i e c e s \n Number
o f c o m p o n e nt s t o g e t p r o f i t o f Rs 2 0 0 0 0 = %d
p i e c e s , q1 , q2 , q3 )

Scilab code Exa 5.30 To find break even point


1
2
3
4

clc
fc1 = 12000 // f i x e d c o s t f o r machine A i n Rs
fc2 = 48000 // f i x e d c o s t f o r machine B i n Rs
n1 = 6 // u n i t p r o d u c t i o n c o s t i n Rs p e r p i e c e f o r
machine A
5 n2 = 1.2 // u n i t p r o d u c t i o n c o s t i n Rs p e r p i e c e f o r
machine B
6 q = ( fc2 - fc1 ) /( n1 - n2 ) // b r e a k e v e n p o i n t
7 printf ( \n Break e v e n p o i n t = %d p i e c e s , q )

Scilab code Exa 5.31 To find break even quantity


1 clc

52

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20
21
22
23
24
25
26

// c a p s t a n l a t h e
tc1 = 300 // t o t a l c o s t i n Rs
mc1 = 2.5 // m a t e r i a l c o s t p e r p i e c e i n Rs
olc1 = 5 // o p e r a t i o n l a b o u r c o s t p e r h o u r i n Rs
ct1 = 5 // c y c l e t i m e p e r p i e c e i n min .
slc1 = 20 // s e t t i n g up l a b o u r c o s t i n Rs p e r h o u r
st1 = 1 // s e t t i n g up t i m e i n h o u r
mo1 = 300/100 // machine o v e r h e a d s o f o p e r a t i o n
labour cost
o1 = mo1 * olc1 // o v e r h e a d s o f c a p s t a n l a t h e i n Rs
per hour
fc1 = tc1 + slc1 * st1 + o1 * st1 // f i x e d c o s t o f
c a p s t a n l a t h e i n Rs
vc1 = mc1 + ( olc1 * ct1 ) /60 + ( o1 * ct1 ) /60 // v a r i a b l e
c o s t i n Rs
// A u t o m a t i c ( s i n g l e s p i n d l e )
tc2 = 300 // t o t a l c o s t i n Rs
cc2 = 1500 // c o s t o f cams i n Rs
mc2 = 2.5 // m a t e r i a l c o s t p e r p i e c e i n Rs
olc2 = 2 // o p e r a t i o n l a b o u r c o s t p e r h o u r i n Rs
ct2 = 1 // c y c l e t i m e p e r p i e c e i n min .
slc2 = 20 // s e t t i n g up l a b o u r c o s t i n Rs p e r h o u r
st2 = 8 // s e t t i n g up t i m e i n h o u r
mo2 = 1000/100 // machine o v e r h e a d s o f o p e r a t i o n
labour cost
o2 = mo2 * olc2 // o v e r h e a d s o f s i n g l e s p i n d l e i n Rs
per hour
fc2 = tc2 + cc2 + slc2 * st2 + o2 * st2 // f i x e d c o s t o f
s i n g l e s p i n d l e i n Rs
vc2 = mc2 + ( olc2 * ct2 ) /60 + ( slc2 ) /60 // v a r i a b l e
c o s t i n Rs
q = ( fc2 - fc1 ) /( vc1 - vc2 ) // b r e a k e v e n q u a n t i t y
printf ( \n Break e v e n q u a n t i t y f o r a component which
can be p r o d u c e d on e i t h e r t h e c a p s t a n l a t h e o r
s i n g l e s p i n d l e a u t o m a t i c = %d p i e c e s , q )

53

Scilab code Exa 5.32 To do break even analysis


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13
14

clc
// E n g i n e l a t h e
t = 12 // t i m e / p i e c e i n min .
l = 7 // o v e r h e a d c o s t / h r
o = 4 // d i r e c t l a b o u r c o s t / h r
s = 2 // s e t up t i m e i n h o u r
sr = 8 // s e t up r a t e p e r
// t u r r e t l a t h e
T = 5 // t i m e / p i e c e i n min .
L = 5 // o v e r h e a d c o s t / h r
O = 8 // d i r e c t l a b o u r c o s t / h r
S = 8 // s e t up t i m e i n h o u r
SR = 8 // s e t up r a t e p e r
q = 60*( S * SR - s * sr ) /( t *( l + o ) -T *( L + O ) ) // b r e a k e v e n
point
15 q = round ( q )
16 printf ( \n Break e v e n p o i n t = %d p i e c e s , q )

Scilab code Exa 5.33 To calculate minimum number of pieces


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2
3
4
5
6
7
8

clc
fc1 = 80000 // f i x e d c o s t f o r t u r r e t l a t h e i n Rs
fc2 = 32000 // f i x e d c o s t f o r e n g i n e l a t h e i n Rs
n1 = 16 // p r o d u c t i o n o f p i e c e s p e r y e a r i n t u r r e t
lathe
n2 = 10 // p r o d u c t i o n o f p i e c e s p e r y e a r i n e n g i n e
lathe
vc1 = 2 // o p e r a t o r s c o s t i n t u r r e t l a t h e
vc2 = 2.5 // o p e r a t o r s c o s t i n e n g i n e l a t h e
Q = poly (0 , Q )
54

9 Q = roots (( fc1 +1/ n1 * vc1 * Q ) -( fc2 +2.5* Q /10) )


10 printf ( \n Break e v e n p o i n t = %d p i e c e s , Q )

Scilab code Exa 5.34 To determine the point


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2
3
4
5
6
7

clc
st1 = 15 // s e t up t i m e f o r e n g i n e l a t h e i n min .
ut1 = 15 // u n i t t i m e f o r e n g i n e l a t h e i n min .
st2 = 90 // s e t up t i m e f o r a u t o m a t i c l a t h e i n min .
ut2 = 1.5 // u n i t t i m e f o r e n g i n e l a t h e i n min .
q = ( st2 - st1 ) /( ut1 - ut2 ) // q u a n t i t y o f p r o d u c t i o n
printf ( \n The p o i n t a t which t h e a u t o m a t i c l a t h e
w i l l be j u s t i f i e d = %0 . 2 f , q )
8 // Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

Scilab code Exa 5.35 To find quantity of pieces


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5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

clc
// A u t o m a t i c l a t h e
p = 30 // number o f p i e c e s p r o d u c e d p e r h o u r
l = 4 // l a b o u r r a t e p e r h o u r i n Rs
d = 4.50 // h o u r l y d e p r e c i a t i o n r a t e p e r machine i n
hour
s = 4 // s e t up t i m e i n h o u r
// t u r r e t l a t h e
P = 10 // number o f p i e c e s p r o d u c e d p e r h o u r
L = 4 // l a b o u r r a t e p e r h o u r i n Rs
D = 1.50 // h o u r l y d e p r e c i a t i o n r a t e p e r machine i n
hour
S = 2 // s e t up t i m e i n h o u r
q = ( P * p *( S * L + S *D - s *l - s * d ) ) /( P *( l + d ) -p *( L + D ) ) //
q u a n t i t y o f p i e c e s at break even p o i n t
55

13

printf ( \n Q u a n t i t y o f p i e c e s a t Break e v e n p o i n t =
%d p i e c e s , q )

Scilab code Exa 5.36 To determine quantity of production


1 clc
2 Pa = 8.4 // u n i t
3
4
5
6
7

t o o l p r o c e s s c o s t f o r method A i n
Rs
Pb = 14.8 // u n i t t o o l p r o c e s s c o s t f o r method B i n
Rs
Ta = 6480 // t o t a l t o o l c o s t f o r method A i n Rs
Tb = 1616 // t o t a l t o o l
c o s t f o r method B i n Rs
q = ( Ta - Tb ) /( Pb - Pa ) // b r e a k e v e n p o i n t
printf ( \n Q u a n t i t y o f p r o d u c t i o n a t b r e a k e v e n
p o i n t = %d p i e c e s , q )

Scilab code Exa 5.37 find preference between machines and production
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15

clc
// machine A
ic1 = 50000 // i n i t i a l c o s t
hoc1 = 10 // h o u r l y o p e r a t i n g c h a r g e s
pp1 = 5 // p i e c e s p r o d u c e d p e r h o u r
i = 15 // i n t e r e s t r a t e
i = i /100
oh = 2000 // o p e r a t i n g h o u r s
fc1 = ic1 * i // f i x e d c o s t
vc1 = oh * hoc1 // v a r i a b l e c o s t
tc1 = fc1 + vc1 // t o t a l c h a r g e s
ao1 = oh * pp1 // a n n u a l o u t p u t
c1 = tc1 / ao1 // c o s t p e r u n i t
// machine B
ic2 = 80000 // i n i t i a l c o s t
56

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25
26
27
28
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31
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34
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40

hoc2 = 8 // h o u r l y o p e r a t i n g c h a r g e s
pp2 = 8 // p i e c e s p r o d u c e d p e r h o u r
fc2 = ic2 * i // f i x e d c o s t
vc2 = oh * hoc2 // v a r i a b l e c o s t
tc2 = fc2 + vc2 // t o t a l c h a r g e s
ao2 = oh * pp2 // a n n u a l o u t p u t
c2 = tc2 / ao2 // c o s t p e r u n i t
printf ( \n ( i ) C o s t p e r u n i t f o r machine A = Rs %0 . 2
f \n C o s t p e r u n i t machine B = Rs %0 . 2 f ,c1 , c2 )
disp ( machine B w i l l be p r e f e r r e d )
// machine A
ao3 = 4000 // a n n u a l o u t p u t
oc3 = ao3 * hoc1 / pp1 // o p e r a t i n g c h a r g e s
tc3 = oc3 + fc1 // t o t a l a n n u a l c h a r g e
c3 = tc3 / ao3 // c o s t / p i e c e
// machine B
ao4 = 4000 // a n n u a l o u t p u t
oc4 = ao4 * hoc2 / pp2 // o p e r a t i n g c h a r g e s
tc4 = oc4 + fc2 // t o t a l a n n u a l c h a r g e
c4 = tc4 / ao4 // c o s t / p i e c e
printf ( \n ( i i ) C o s t p e r u n i t f o r machine A = Rs %0
. 2 f \n C o s t p e r u n i t machine B = Rs %0 . 2 f ,c3 , c4 )
disp ( machine A w i l l be p r e f e r r e d )
A = hoc1 / pp1 // o p e r a t i n g c o s t p e r p i e c e on machine
A
B = hoc2 / pp2 // o p e r a t i n g c o s t p e r p i e c e on machine
B
Q = fc2 - fc1 // a n n u a l p r o d u c t i o n
printf ( \n ( i i i ) Annual p r o d u c t i o n t o make c o s t p e r
p i e c e e q u a l f o r two m a c h i n e s = %d p i e c e s , Q )

Scilab code Exa 5.38 To find BEP and various sales


1 clc
2 as = 80000 // a n n u a l

s a l e s i n Rs
57

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

vc = 64000 // v a r i a b l e e x p e n s e s i n Rs
c = 16000 // c o n t r i b u t i o n i n Rs
fc = 24000 // f i x e d e x p e n s e s i n Rs
l = 8000 // l o s s e s i n Rs
p = 9000 // p r o f i t i n Rs
s1 = fc + vc // s a l e s a t B . E . P i n Rs
s2 = ( fc + vc + p ) /0.945 // s a l e s a t n e t i n c o m e o f
Rs9000 and c o r p o r a t e t a x r a t e b e i n g 5 . 5%
q = 10000 // q u a n t i t y o f u n i t s
sp = ( fc + vc ) / q // s e l l i n g p r i c e p e r u n i t i n Rs
printf ( \n S a l e s a t b r e a k e v e n p o i n t = %d u n i t s ,
s1 )
printf ( \n S a l e s a t n e t i n c o m e o f Rs9000 and
c o r p o r a t e t a x r a t e b e i n g 5 . 5 = Rs %0 . 2 f \n S a l e s
p e r u n i t i f B . E . P b r o u g h t down t o 1 0 0 0 0 u n i t s =
Rs %0 . 2 f p e r u n i t , s2 , sp )

Scilab code Exa 5.39 To determine break even point


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

clc
fc = 55000 // f i x e d c o s t i n Rs
vc = 45 // v a r i a b l e c o s t p e r p i e c e i n Rs
sp = 100 // s e l l i n g p r i c e p e r p i e c e i n Rs
p = ( vc / sp ) *100 // p e r c e n t a g e o f v a r i a b l e c o s t t o
pm = 100 - p // p r o f i t m a r g i n
bep = ((55000/55) *100) /100 // Break e v e n p o i n t
printf ( \n Break e v e n p o i n t = %d p i e c e s , bep )

Scilab code Exa 5.40 To calculate economic lot size


1 clc
2 f1 = 335 // f i x e d
3 k = 0.25 // s t o c k

c o s t i n Rs f o r c a p s t a n l a t h e
carrying f a c t o r in p a i s e per p i e c e
58

4 k = k /100
5 N1 = sqrt ( f1 / k ) // p i e c e s f o r c a p s t a n l a t h e
6 a1 = 4.16 // v a r i a b l e c o s t p e r p i e c e f o r c a p s t a n

lathe
tc1 = a1 + f1 / N1 + k * N1 // t o t a l c o s t f o r c a p s t a n l a t h e
f2 = 2120 // f i x e d c o s t i n Rs f o r t u r r e t l a t h e
N2 = sqrt ( f2 / k ) // p i e c e s f o r t u r r e t l a t h e
a2 = 2.863 // v a r i a b l e c o s t p e r p i e c e f o r t u r r e t
lathe
11 tc2 = a2 + f2 / N2 + k * N2 // t o t a l c o s t f o r t u r r e t l a t h e
12 printf ( \n T o t a l c o s t p e r p i e c e f o r c a p s t a n l a t h e =
Rs %0 . 2 f \n T o t a l c o s t p e r p i e c e f o r t u r r e t l a t h e
= Rs %0 . 2 f , tc1 , tc2 )
13 // Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r
7
8
9
10

Scilab code Exa 5.41 To find EOQ and total cost


1
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12
13
14
15
16
17

clc
R =500 // c o s t o f o r d e r i n g i n Rs p e r o r d e r
A =12000 // a n n u a l c o n s u m p t i o n u n i t s
C =3.00 // u n i t c o s t o f i t e m
K =3 // u n i t s t o r a g e c o s t
I1 =0.2 // i n t e r e s t r a t e
function y = f ( N )
function G = f2 ( N )
G = C * A + I1 * C * N /2+ K * N /2+ A * R / N // t o t a l c o s t p e r y e a r
endfunction
y = derivative ( f2 , N )
endfunction
funcprot (0)
N = fsolve (2000 , f )
O = A / N // number o f o r d e r s
N1 = 2400 // u n i t s
tc = C * A + I1 * C * N1 /2 + K * N1 /2 + A * R / N1 // t o t a l c o s t
i n Rs
59

18 I2 = (2* R * A ) /( C * N1 ^2)
19 printf ( \n Economic o r d e r q u a n t i t y = %d u n i t s \n T o t l

c o s t = Rs %d p e r y e a r \n I = %0 . 4 f ,N1 , tc , I2 )
20 disp ( I t i s c l e a r t h a t i n v e n t o r y c o s t w i l l g e t
i n c r e a s e d very g r e a t l y )

Scilab code Exa 5.42 Determine optimum lot size


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

17
18

clc
A = 40000 // number o f u n i t s p e r y e a r
I = 25 // c a r r y i n g c o s t i n p e r c e n t
I = I /100
C1 = 8 // c o s t f o r 0 < N < 1 0 0 0 p e r u n i t i n Rs
C2 = 7.5 // c o s t f o r 1 0 0 0 < N < 1 0 0 0 0 p e r u n i t i n Rs
C3 = 7.25 // c o s t f o r N >= 1 0 0 0 0 p e r u n i t i n Rs
R = 250 // o r d e r i n g c o s t p e r o r d e r i n Rs
N = 10000 // u n i t s
N1 = sqrt (2* R * A /( I * C3 ) ) // o p t i m a l q u a n t i t y f o r
lowest curve
G1 = C3 * A +( A * R ) / N + I * C3 * N /2 // t o t a l c o s t i n Rs
N2 = sqrt (2* R * A /( I * C2 ) ) // o p t i m a l q u a n t i t y f o r
higher curve
G2 = C2 * A +( A * R ) / N2 + I * C2 * N2 /2 // t o t a l c o s t i n Rs
N3 = sqrt (2* R * A /( I * C1 ) ) // o p t i m a l q u a n t i t y f o r
highest curve
G3 = C1 * A +( A * R ) +1 // t o t a l c o s t i n Rs
printf ( \n T o t a l c o s t f o r l o w e s t c o s t c u r v e = Rs %0
. 2 f \n T o t a l c o s t f o r n e x t h i g h e r c u r v e = Rs %0 . 2 f
\n T o t a l c o s t f o r h i g h e s t c u r v e = Rs %0 . 2 f , G1
, G2 , G3 )
disp ( Comparing a l l t o t a l c o s t l o w e s t i s Rs
3 0 0 , 0 6 2 . 5 0 f o r an o r d e r q u a n t i t y o f 1 0 , 0 0 0 . )
disp ( N = 1 0 , 0 0 0 and No . o f o r d e r s = 4 )

60

Scilab code Exa 5.43 To find most economical lot size


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
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11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

clc
c = 50000 // c o m p o n e n ts
R =500 // c o s t o f o r d e r i n g i n Rs p e r o r d e r
A =12000 // a n n u a l c o n s u m p t i o n u n i t s
C =3.00 // u n i t c o s t o f i t e m
K =1.50 // u n i t s t o r a g e c o s t
I =0.2 // i n t e r e s t r a t e
function y = f ( N )
function G = f2 ( N )
G =0.02* N +1500000/ N
endfunction
y = derivative ( f2 , N )
endfunction
funcprot (0)
N = fsolve (2000 , f )
l = c / N // number o f l o t s
l = ceil ( l )
ls = c / l // l o t s i z e
printf ( \n The l o t s i z e = %d c o m p o n e n t s , ls )

61

Chapter 9
Limits Tolerences and Fits

Scilab code Exa 9.1 To find allowance and tolerence


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3
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5
6
7
8
9

clc
h1 = 37.52 // h i g h l i m i t o f h o l e i n mm
h2 = 37.50 // low l i m i t o f h o l e i n mm
s1 = 37.47 // h i g h l i m i t o f s h a f t i n mm
s2 = 37.45 // low l i m i t o f s h a f t i n mm
ht = h1 - h2 // h o l e t o l e r e n c e i n mm
st = s1 - s2 // s h a f t t o l e r e n c e i n mm
a = h2 - s1 // a l l o w a n c e i n mm
printf ( \n H o l e t o l e r e n c e = %0 . 2 f mm\n S h a f t
t o l e r e n c e = %0 . 2 f mm\n A l l o w a n c e = %0 . 2 f mm , ht
, st ,a )

Scilab code Exa 9.2 Determine dimensions of shaft and hole


1
2
3
4

clc
t = 0.075 // t o l e r e n c e i n mm
h2 = 75 // low l i m i t o f h o l e i n mm
a = 0.10 // a l l o w a n c e i n mm
62

5 h1 = h2 + t
// h i g h l i m i t o f h o l e i n mm
6 s1 = h2 - a // h i g h l i m i t o f s h a f t i n mm
7 s2 = s1 - t // low l i m i t o f s h a f t i n mm
8 printf ( \n High l i m i t o f h o l e = %0 . 3 f mm\n High

l i m i t o f s h a f t = %0 . 2 f mm\n Low l i m i t o f s h a f t =
%0 . 3 f mm , h1 , s1 , s2 )

Scilab code Exa 9.3 Determine dimensions of hole and shaft


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

clc
t = 0.225 // t o l e r e n c e i n mm
h2 = 75 // low l i m i t o f h o l e i n mm
a = 0.0375 // i n t e r f e r e n c e i n mm
h1 = h2 + t // h i g h l i m i t o f h o l e i n mm
s2 = h1 + a // low l i m i t o f s h a f t i n mm
s1 = s2 + t // h i g h l i m i t o f s h a f t i n mm
printf ( \n High l i m i t o f h o l e = %0 . 3 f mm\n Low l i m i t
o f s h a f t = %0 . 4 f mm\n High l i m i t o f s h a f t = %0 . 4
f mm , h1 , s2 , s1 )

Scilab code Exa 9.4 Calculate fundamental deviations and tolerences


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3
4
5
6
7
8
9

clc
s1 = 50 // d i a m e t e r o f s t e p 1 i n mm
s2 = 80 // d i a m e t e r o f s t e p 2 i n mm
d = ( s1 * s2 ) ^(1/2) // mm
i = (0.45*( d ) ^(1/3) +0.001* d ) /10^3 // mm
t1 = 25* i // t o l e r e n c e f o r h o l e i n mm
t2 = 16* i // t o l e r e n c e f o r s h a f t i n mm
a1 = 0 // f u n d a m e n t a l d e v i a t i o n f o r h o l e i n mm
a2 = 5.5*( d ) ^0.41 // f u n d a m e n t a l d e v i a t i o n f o r s h a f t
in microns
10 a2 = a2 /10^4 // mm
63

h1 = 60 // low l i m i t o f h o l e i n mm
h2 = h1 + t1 // h i g h l i m i t o f t o l e r e n c e i n mm
s1 = h1 - t2 // h i g h l i m i t o f s h a f t i n mm
s2 = s1 - t2 // low l i m i t o f s h a f t i n mm
printf ( \n T o l e r e n c e f o r h o l e = %0 . 3 f mm\n T o l e r e n c e
f o r s h a f t = %0 . 3 f mm , t1 , t2 )
16 printf ( \n Fundamental d e v i a t i o n f o r h o l e = %0 . 2 f mm
\n Fundamental d e v i a t i o n f o r s h a f t = %0 . 3 f mm ,
a1 , a2 )
17 printf ( \n Low l i m i t o f h o l e = %d mm\n High l i m i t o f
h o l e = %0 . 3 f mm\n High l i m i t o f s h a f t = %0 . 2 f mm
\n Low l i m i t o f h o l e = %0 . 2 f mm , h1 , h2 , s1 ,
s2 )
18 // Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r
11
12
13
14
15

Scilab code Exa 9.5 Find tolerences limits and clearance


1
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3
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5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

clc
b = 30 // b a s i c s i z e i n mm
s1 = 0.005 // maximum l i m i t o f s h a f t i n mm
s2 = 0.018 // minimum l i m i t o f s h a f t i n mm
h1 = 0.020 // maximum l i m i t o f h o l e i n mm
h2 = 0.0 // minimum l i m i t o f h o l e i n mm
t1 = s2 - s1 // s h a f t t o l e r e n c e i n mm
t2 = h1 - h2 // h o l e t o l e r e n c e i n mm
Sh = b - s1 // h i g h l i m i t o f s h a f t i n mm
Sl = b - s2 // low l i m i t o f s h a f t i n mm
Hh = b + h1 // h i g h l i m i t o f h o l e i n mm
Hl = b + h2 // low l i m i t o f h o l e i n mm
c1 = Hh - Sl // maximum c l e a r a n c e i n mm
c2 = Hl - Sh // minimum c l e a r a n c e i n mm
printf ( \n B a s i c s i z e = %d mm\n S h a f t t o l e r e n c e = %0
. 3 f mm\n H o l e t o l e r e n c e = %0 . 3 f mm ,b , t1 , t2 )
16 printf ( \n High l i m i t o f s h a f t = %0 . 3 f mm\n Low
l i m i t o f s h a f t = %0 . 3 f mm\n High l i m i t o f h o l e =
64

%0 . 3 f mm \n Low l i m i t o f h o l e = %0 . 3 f mm ,Sh , Sl ,
Hh , Hl )
17 printf ( \n Maximum c l e a r a n c e = %0 . 3 f mm\n Minimum
c l e a r a n c e = %0 . 3 f mm ,c1 , c2 )

Scilab code Exa 9.6 Determine limits of shaft and hole


1
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3
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6
7
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12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

clc
minc = 0.01 // minimum c l e a r a n c e i n mm
bs = 25 // b a s i c s i z e i n mm
maxc = 0.02 // maximum c l e a r a n c e i n mm
x = poly (0 , x )
y =1.5* x
x = roots ( y +0.01+ x -0.02)
y = horner (y , x )
// h o l e b a s i s s y s t e m
low_h1 = bs // low l i m i t o f h o l e i n mm
high_h1 = bs + y // h i g h l i m i t o f h o l e i n mm
u_s = low_h1 - minc // u p p e r l i m i t o f s h a f t i n mm
low_s1 = u_s - x // l o w e r l i m i t o f s h a f t i n mm
// s h a f t b a s i s s y s t e m
high_s = bs // h i g h l i m i t o f s h a f t i n mm
low_s2 = bs - x // low l i m i t o f s h a f t i n mm
low_h2 = bs + minc // low l i m i t o f h o l e i n mm
high_h2 = low_h2 + y // h i g h l i m i t o f h o l e i n mm
printf ( H o l e b a s i s s y s t e m \n Lower l i m i t o f h o l e =
%d mm\n H i g h e r l i m i t o f h o l e = %0 . 3 f mm\n H i g h e r
l i m i t o f s h a f t = %0 . 3 f mm \n Lower l i m i t o f s h a f t
= %0 . 3 f mm , low_h1 , high_h1 , u_s , low_s1 )
20 printf ( \n S h a f t b a s i s s y s t e m \n h i g h l i m i t o f s h a f t
= %0 . 3 f mm\n l o w e r l i m i t o f s h a f t = %0 . 3 f mm\n
l o w e r l i m i t o f h o l e = %0 . 3 f mm\n u p p e r l i m i t o f
h o l e = %0 . 3 f mm , high_s , low_s2 , low_h2 , high_h2 )

65

Scilab code Exa 9.7 Determine dimensions of shaft and hole


1
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3
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5
6
7
8
9
10
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12
13
14
15
16
17
18

19

clc
bs = 100 // b a s i c s i z e i n mm
s1 = 120 // d i a m e t e r o f s t e p 1 i n mm
s2 = 80 // d i a m e t e r o f s t e p 2 i n mm
d = ( s1 * s2 ) ^(1/2) // mm
d = ceil ( d )
i = (0.45*( d ) ^(1/3) +0.001* d ) /10^3 // mm
t1 = 16* i // t o l e r e n c e f o r h o l e i n mm
t2 = 25* i // t o l e r e n c e f o r s h a f t i n mm
G = (2.5*( d ) ^0.34) /10^3 // f u n d a m e n t a l d e v i a t i o n f o r
h o l e i n mm
e = (11*( d ) ^0.11) /10^3 // f u n d a m e n t a l d e v i a t i o n f o r
s h a f t in microns
// H o l e
LLh = bs + G // l o w e r l i m i t o f h o l e i n mm
HLh = LLh + t1 // h i g h e r l i m i t o f h o l e i n mm
// s h a f t
ULs = bs - e // u p p e r l i m i t o f s h a f t i n mm
LLs = ULs - t2 // l o w e r l i m i t o f s h a f t i n mm
printf ( \n l o w e r l i m i t o f h o l e = %0 . 3 f mm\n h i g h e r
l i m i t o f h o l e = %0 . 3 f mm\n u p p e r l i m i t o f s h a f t =
%0 . 3 f mm\n l o w e r l i m i t o f s h a f t = %0 . 3 f mm ,
LLh , HLh , ULs , LLs )
// E r r o r i n t e x t b o o k

Scilab code Exa 9.8 Determine size of bearing and journal


1 clc
2 tb = 0.005 // t o l e r e n c e on b e a r i n g i n mm
3 tj = 0.004 // t o l e r e n c e on j o u r n a l i n mm

66

a = 0.002 // a l l o w a n c e i n mm
// h o l e b a s i s s y s t e m
b = 100 // b a s i c s i z e i n mm
Bl = b // l o w e r l i m i t o f b e a r i n g i n mm
Bh = Bl + tb // h i g h e r l i m i t o f b e a r i n g i n mm
Jh = Bl - a // h i g h e r l i m i t o f j o u r n a l i n mm
Jl1 = Jh - tj // l o w e r l i m i t o f j o u r n a l i n
// s h a f t b a s i s s y s t e m
Ju = b // u p p e r l i m i t o f j o u r n a l i n mm
Jl2 = Ju - tj // l o w e r l i m i t o f j o u r n a l i n mm
Bl = Ju + a // l o w e r l i m i t o f b e a r i n g i n mm
Bu = Bl + tb // u p p e r l i m i t o f b e a r i n g i n mm
printf ( \n H o l e b a s i s s y s t e m \n Lower l i m i t o f
j o u r n a l = %d mm\n H i g h e r l i m i t o f b e a r i n g = %0 . 3 f
mm\n H i g h e r l i m i t o f j o u r n a l = %0 . 3 f mm \n Lower
l i m i t o f j o u r n a l = %0 . 3 f mm , Bl , Bh , Jh , Jl1 )
17 printf ( \n s h a f t b a s i s s y s t e m \n u p p e r l i m i t o f
j o u r n a l = %0 . 3 f mm\n l o w e r l i m i t o f j o u r n a l = %0
. 3 f mm\n l o w e r l i m i t o f b e a r i n g = %0 . 3 f mm\n
u p p e r l i m i t o f b e a r i n g = %0 . 3 f mm , Ju , Jl2 , Bl , Bu
)

4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

Scilab code Exa 9.9 Determine size of two mating parts


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5
6
7
8
9
10
11

clc
// Holeb a s i s s y s t e m
b = 100 // b a s i c s i z e i n mm
i1 = 0.12 // maximum i n t e r f e r e n c e i n mm
i2 = 0.05 // minimum i n t e r f e r n c e i n mm
t = ( i1 - i2 ) /2 // t o l e r e n c e i n mm
Sh = b + i1 // u p p e r l i m i t o f s h a f t i n mm
Hl = b // l o w e r l i m i t o f h o l e i n mm
Hh = b + t // h i g h e r l i m i t o f h o l e i n mm
Sl1 = Sh - t // l o w e r l i m i t o f s h a f t i n mm
// s h a f t b a s i s s y s t e m
67

Su = b // u p p e r l i m i t o f s h a f t i n mm
Sl2 = b - t // l o w e r l i m i t o f s h a f t i n mm
Hl1 = b - i1 // l o w e r l i m i t o f h o l e i n mm
Hu = Hl1 + t // h i g h e r l i m i t o f h o l e i n mm
printf ( \n H o l e b a s i s s y s t e m \n u p p e r l i m i t o f s h a f t
= %0 . 3 f mm\n l o w e r l i m i t o f h o l e = %0 . 3 f mm\n
h i g h e r l i m i t o f h o l e = %0 . 3 f mm\n l o w e r l i m i t o f
s h a f t = %0 . 3 f mm , Sh , Hl , Hh , Sl1 )
17 printf ( \n S h a f t b a s i s s y s t e m \n u p p e r l i m i t o f
s h a f t = %0 . 3 f mm\n l o w e r l i m i t o f s h a f t = %0 . 3 f
mm\n l o w e r l i m i t o f h o l e = %0 . 3 f mm\n u p p e r l i m i t
o f h o l e = %0 . 3 f mm , Su , Sl2 , Hl1 , Hu )

12
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15
16

Scilab code Exa 9.10 Determine size of hole and shaft


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14

clc
aa = 0.04 // a v e r a g e a l l o w a n c e i n mm
a = 0.012 // a l l o w a n c e i n mm
Max = aa + a // maximum a l l o w a n c e i n mm
Min = aa - a // minimum a l l o w a n c e i n mm
t = ( Max - Min ) /3 // t o l e r e n c e i n mm
ts = t // t o l e r e n c e i n s h a t i n mm
th = 2* t // t o l e r e n c e i n h o l e i n mm
b = 100 // b a s i c s i z e i n mm
Hl = b // l o w e r l i m i t o f h o l e i n mm
Hu = b + th // u p p e r l i m i t o f h o l e i n mm
Su = b -0.028 // u p p e r l i m i t o f s h a f t i n mm
Sl = Su - ts // l o w e r l i m i t o f s h a f t i n mm
printf ( \n l o w e r l i m i t o f h o l e = %d mm\n u p p e r l i m i t
o f h o l e = %0 . 3 f mm\n u p p e r l i m i t o f s h a f t = %0 . 3
f mm\n l o w e r l i m i t o f s h a f t = %0 . 3 f mm ,Hl , Hu , Su
, Sl )

68

Chapter 11
Surface finish

Scilab code Exa 11.1 Calculate CLA value


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clc
v = 15000 // v e r t i c a l m a g n i f i c a t i o n
h = 100 // h o r i z o n t a l m a g n i f i c a t i o n
l = 0.8 // s a m p l i n g l e n g t h i n mm
a1 = 160 // a r e a a b o v e datum l i n e i n mm2
a2 = 90 // a r e a a b o v e datum l i n e i n mm2
a3 = 180 // a r e a a b o v e datum l i n e i n mm2
a4 = 50 // a r e a a b o v e datum l i n e i n mm2
a5 = 95 // a r e a b e l o w datum l i n e i n mm2
a6 = 65 // a r e a b e l o w datum l i n e i n mm2
a7 = 170 // a r e a b e l o w datum l i n e i n mm2
a8 = 150 // a r e a b e l o w datum l i n e i n mm2
a = ( a1 + a2 + a3 + a4 + a5 + a6 + a7 + a8 ) /( v * h )
CLA = a / l
printf ( \n C . L . A v a l u e = %0 . 2 f 10 6 m , CLA *1000)

Scilab code Exa 11.2 Calculate average and rms value

69

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clc
// from f i g u r e 1 1 . 2 3
y1 = 0.15 // mu m
y2 = 0.25 // mu m
y3 = 0.35 // mu m
y4 = 0.25 // mu m
y5 = 0.30 // mu m
y6 = 0.15 // mu m
y7 = 0.10 // mu m
y8 = 0.30 // mu m
y9 = 0.35 // mu m
y10 = 0.10 // mu m
y1sqr = y1 ^2 // mu m
y2sqr = y2 ^2 // mu m
y3sqr = y3 ^2 // mu m
y4sqr = y4 ^2 // mu m
y5sqr = y5 ^2 // mu m
y6sqr = y6 ^2 // mu m
y7sqr = y7 ^2 // mu m
y8sqr = y8 ^2 // mu m
y9sqr = y9 ^2 // mu m
y10sqr = y10 ^2 // mu m
n = 10
yn = ( y1 + y2 + y3 + y4 + y5 + y6 + y7 + y8 + y9 + y10 ) / n //
a r i t h m e t i c a v e r a g e i n mu m
25 rms = sqrt (( y1sqr + y2sqr + y3sqr + y4sqr + y5sqr + y6sqr +
y7sqr + y8sqr + y9sqr + y10sqr ) / n ) // r .m. s v a l u e i n
mu m
26 printf ( \n The a r i t h m e t i c a v e r a g e = %0 . 2 f 10 6 m \n
The r .m. s . v a l u e = %0 . 3 f 10 6 m ,yn , rms )

70

Chapter 13
Analysis of metal forming
processes

Scilab code Exa 13.1 To find drawing load


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clc
sigma_0 = 240 // N/mm2
d1 = 5 // i n i t i a l w i r e d i a m e t e r i n mm
d0 = 5.5 // f i n a l w i r e d i a m e t e r i n mm
x = d1 / d0 // mm
alpha = 8 // a n g l e o f c o n t a c t
alpha = alpha * %pi /180
mu = 0.1 // c o e f f i c i e n t o f f r i c t i o n
B = mu * cotg ( alpha )
sigma_d = ( sigma_0 *(1+ B ) *(1 -( x ) ^(2* B ) ) ) / B // N/mm2
l = 3 // d i e l a n d i n mm
mu = 0.1 // c o e f f i c i e n t o f f r i c t i o n
r1 = d1 /2 // mm
sigma_t = sigma_0 - ( sigma_0 - sigma_d ) / exp ((2* mu * l )
/ r1 ) // N/mm2
15 dl = sigma_t * %pi *( r1 ) ^2 // d r a w i n g l o a d i n N
16 printf ( \n T o t a l d r a w i n g l o a d = %0 . 1 f N , dl )
17 // Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

71

Scilab code Exa 13.2 Calculate drawing force


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clc
alpha = 15 // a n g l e o f c o n t a c t
alpha = alpha * %pi /180
bita = 0 // d e g r e e
mu = 0.1 // c o e f f i c i e n t o f f r i c t i o n
mu1 = mu
mu2 = mu
h1 = 1.75 // mm
h0 = 2.5 // mm
B = ( mu1 + mu2 ) /( tan ( alpha ) - tan ( bita ) )
y1 = (1+ B ) *(1 -( h1 / h0 ) ^ B ) / B // s i g m a d / s i g m a 0 f o r
p l u g m a n d r e l s i n N/mm2
z = 1/(( h0 / h1 ) -1)
y2 = log10 ( z ) // s i g m a d / s i g m a 0 f o r movable m a n d r e l s
i n N/mm2
printf ( \n The p i p e d r a w i n g f o r c e f o r c e on p l u g
m a n d r e l s = %0 . 3 f \n The p i p e d r a w i n g f o r c w on
m a n d r e l s = %0 . 3 f ,y1 , y2 )
disp ( Use o f movable m a n d r e l s u b s t a n t i a l l y r e d u c e s
drawing f o r c e )

Scilab code Exa 13.3 find neutral section slips and pressure
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7

clc
h0 = 25
h1 = 20
delta_h
sigma =
D = 500
r = D /2

// t h i c k n e s s o f p l a t e i n mm
// mm
= h0 - h1 // mm
100 // maximum p r e s s u r e i n N/mm2
// r o l l e d d i a m e t e r i n mm
// r o l l e d r a d i u s i n mm
72

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alpha = acos (1 -( delta_h / D ) ) // a n g l e o f c o n t a c t i n


radians
mu = tan ( alpha ) // c o e f f i c i e n t o f f r i c t i o n
Ho = 2* sqrt ( r / h1 ) * atan ( sqrt ( r / h1 ) * mu )
Hn = ( Ho - ( log ( h0 / h1 ) ) / mu ) /2
theta = sqrt ( h1 / r ) * tan ( sqrt ( h1 / r ) *( Hn /2) ) // r a d i a n
hn = h1 + r * theta ^2 // n e u t r a l s e c t i o n i n mm
x = hn / h0
bs = (1 - x ) *100 // backward s l i p
y = hn / h1
fs = (y -1) *100 // f o r w a r d s l i p
sigma0 = 2* sigma / sqrt (3)
pn = sigma0 * hn * exp ( mu * Hn ) / h1 //N/mm2
printf ( \n N e u t r a l s e c t i o n = %0 . 1 f mm , hn )
printf ( \n Backward s l i p = %0 . 1 f p e r c e n t \n Forward
s l i p = %0 . 1 f p e r c e n t , bs , fs )
printf ( \n Maximum p r e s s u r e = %0 . 1 f N/mm2 , pn )
// Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

Scilab code Exa 13.4 To determine maximum force


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10

clc
Do = 250 // d i a m e t e r i n mm
ho = 250 // h i e g h t i n mm
delta_h = 100 // mm
h = 150 // mm
sigma0 = 55 // N/mm2
d = Do * sqrt ( ho /( ho - delta_h ) ) // d i a m e t e r i n mm
mu = 0.42 // c o e f f i c i e n t o f f r i c t i o n
R = 162.5 // mm
pa = sigma0 /2*( h /( mu * R ) ) ^2*( %e ^(2* mu * R / h ) -2* mu * R /h
-1) // N/mm2
11 p = pa * %pi *( R ) ^2 // f o r c e i n kN
12 printf ( \n F o r c e = %d kN ,p /1000)

73

Scilab code Exa 13.5 Determine sticking radius and total load
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clc
d = 150 // d i a m e t e r i n mm
h = 10 // t h i c k n e s s i n mm
R = d /2 // r a d i u s i n mm
mu = 0.2 // c o e f f i c i e n t o f f r i c t i o n
sigma_0 = 200 // N/mm2
Rs = R - ( h /(2* mu ) ) * log (1/( sqrt (3) * mu ) ) // s t i c k i n g
r a d i u s i n mm
Ps = sigma_0 * exp (2* mu *( R - Rs ) / h ) // p r e s s u r e a t
s t i c k i n g r a d i u s i n N/mm2
function y = f ( r )
y =2* %pi * r * sigma_0 * exp (2* mu / h *( R - r ) )
endfunction
L_sld = intg (48.5 ,75 , f )
L_sld = L_sld /1000 // l o a d on s l i d i n g p o r t i o n i n kN
Pc = Ps + (2* sigma_0 * Rs ) /( h * sqrt (3) ) // p r e s s u r e a t
c e n t r e i n N/mm2
L_sp = ( Pc + Ps ) * %pi *( Rs ) ^2/(2*1000) // l o a d on
s t i c k i n g p o r t i o n i n kN
F_l = L_sld + L_sp // t o t a l f o r g i n g l o a d i n kN
printf ( \n S t i c k i n g r a d i u s = %0 . 1 f mm \n T o t a l
f o r g i n g l o a d = %0 . 3 f MN , Rs , F_l /1000)
// Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

Scilab code Exa 13.7 To find drawing load and power


1 clc
2 RA = 0.30
3 d = 12 // d i a m e t e r i n mm
4 alpha = 6
// a n g l e o f c o n t a c t i n d e g r e e

74

alpha = 6* %pi /180 // a n g l e o f c o n t a c t i n r a d i a n


mu = 0.10 // c o e f f i c i e n t o f f r i c t i o n
sigma_0 = 240 // N/mm2
B = mu * cotg ( alpha )
x = 1 - RA
sigma_d = ( sigma_0 *(1+ B ) *(1 -( x ) ^ B ) ) / B // N/mm2
r1 = sqrt ( x ) *( d /2) // mm
l = sigma_d * %pi *( r1 ) ^2 // l o a d i n kN
ita = 98 // e f f i c i e n c y
ita = ita /100
s = 2.3 // d r a w i n g s p e e d i n m/ s
P = ( l * s ) / ita // kW
printf ( \n Drawing l o a d = %0 . 2 f kN\n Power o f motor
= %0 . 2 f kW , l /1000 ,P /1000 )
18 // Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

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Scilab code Exa 13.8 calculate drawing load and power rating
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clc
mu1 = 0.15 // c o e f f i c i e n t o f f r i c t i o n
mu2 = 0.18 // c o e f f i c i e n t o f f r i c t o n
alpha = 14 // a n g l e o f c o n t a c t i n d e g r e e
alpha = alpha * %pi /180
bita = 10 // semi c o n e a n g l e i n d e g r e e
bita = bita * %pi /180
sigma_0 = 1.40 // kN/mm2
h0 = 1.5 //mm
h1 = 1 // mm
B = ( mu1 + mu2 ) /( tan ( alpha ) + tan ( bita ) )
sigmad = ( sigma_0 *(1+ B ) *(1 -( h1 / h0 ) ^ B ) ) / B // d r a w i n g
s t r e s s i n kN/mm2
d1 = 11 // o u t s i d e d i a m e t e r i n mm
t = 1 // t h i c k n e s s i n mm
d2 = d1 -2* t // mm
a = ( %pi *(( d1 ) ^2 -( d2 ) ^2) ) /4 // a r e a i n mm2
75

l = sigmad * a // l o a d i n kN
s = 0.65 // d r a w i n g s p e e d i n m/ s
w = l * s // work i n kJ / s
p = w // power i n kW
printf ( \n Drawing l o a d = %0 . 3 f kN\n Power r a t i n g o f
motor = %0 . 2 f kW , l , p )
22 // Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

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21

Scilab code Exa 13.9 To calculate forging loads


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clc
sigma_0 = 50 // p r e s s u r e a t s t a r t i n MPa
B = 0.9 // w i d t h i n m
h1 = 0.2 // t h i c k n e s s i n m
b = 0.3 // t o o l b i t e i n m
// At commencement o f f o r g i n g
FL = sigma_0 * B * b *(1+( b /(4* h1 ) ) ) // f o r g i n g l o a d i n
MN
// At c o m p l e t i o n o f f o r g i n g
h2 = 0.1 // t h i c k n e s s i n m
sigma_0c = 150 // p r e s s u r e a t c o m p l e t i o n i n MPa
FL2 = sigma_0c * B * b *(1+( b /(4* h2 ) ) ) // f o r g i n g l o a d i n
MN
printf ( \n F o r g i n g l o a d a t s t a r t o f f o r g i n g = %0 . 4 f
MN\n F o r g i n g l o a d a t c o m p l e t i o n o f f o r g i n g = %0 . 3
f MN , FL , FL2 )

Scilab code Exa 13.10 Determine extrusion load


1 clc
2 sigma_0 = 250 // N/mm2
3 d1 = 5 // i n i t i a l w i r e d i a m e t e r i n mm
4 d0 = 15 // f i n a l w i r e d i a m e t e r i n mm

76

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16

r0 = d0 /2
r1 = d1 /2
x = ( r0 / r1 ) ^2 // mm
alpha = 45 // a n g l e o f c o n t a c t
alpha = alpha * %pi /180
mu = 0.1 // c o e f f i c i e n t o f f r i c t i o n
B = mu * cotg ( alpha )
sigma_x0 = ( sigma_0 *(1+ B ) *(1 -( x ) ^ B ) ) / B // N/mm2
sigma_x0 = - sigma_x0
l = 37.5 // l e n g t h 0 f b i l l e t i n mm
tau1 = sigma_0 /2 // Mpa
Pe = sigma_x0 + (4* tau1 * l ) / d0 // e x t r u s i o n p r e s s u r e
i n Mpa
17 el = Pe * %pi *( r0 ) ^2 // e x t r u s i o n l o a d i n MN
18 printf ( \n E x t r u s i o n l o a d = %d MN , el /10000)

Scilab code Exa 13.11 To find roll pressures


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clc
h0 = 4.05 // t h i c k n e s s o f p l a t e i n mm
h1 = 3.55 // mm
D = 500 // r o l l e d d i a m e t e r i n mm
r = D /2 // r o l l e d r a d i u s i n mm
mu = 0.04 // c o e f f i c i e n t o f f r i c t i o n
sigma = 210 // N/mm2
delta_h = h0 - h1 // mm
p = 2* sigma / sqrt (3) // N/mm2
alpha = acos (1 -( delta_h / D ) ) // a n g l e o f c o n t a c t
Ho = 2* sqrt ( r / h1 ) * atan ( sqrt ( r / h1 ) * alpha )
Hn1 = ( Ho - ( log ( h0 / h1 ) ) / mu ) /2
theta = sqrt ( h1 / r ) * tan ( sqrt ( h1 / r ) *( Hn1 /2) ) //
radians
14 hn = h1 + 2* r *(1 - cos ( theta ) ) // mm
15 pn1 = p * hn * exp ( mu * Hn1 ) / h1 // r o l l p r e s s u r e i n N/mm2
16 // b ) r o l l p r e s s u r e when c o e f f i c i e n t o f f r i c t i o n i s
77

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0.4
mu2 = 0.4 // c o e f f i c i e n t o f f r i c t i o n
Hn2 = ( Ho - ( log ( h0 / h1 ) ) / mu2 ) /2
theta = sqrt ( h1 / r ) * tan ( sqrt ( h1 / r ) *( Hn2 /2) ) //
radians
hn2 = h1 + r * theta ^2 // mm
pn2 = ( p * hn2 * exp ( mu2 * Hn2 ) ) / h1 // r o l l p r e s s u r e i n N/
mm2
// c ) i f t e n s i o n i s a p p l i e d o f 35 N/mm2
sigma_f = 35 // f r o n t t e n s i o n i n N/mm2
pn3 = (p - sigma_f ) * hn * exp ( mu * Hn1 ) / h1 // r o l l r e s s u r e
i n N/mm2
printf ( \n ( a ) R o l l p r e s s u r e a t e n t e r and e x i t = %0
. 1 f N/mm2\ n
Roll p r e s s u r e at n e u t r a l plane =
%0 . 2 f N/mm2 ,p , pn1 )
printf ( \n ( b ) R o l l p r e s s u r e a t n e u t r a l p o i n t when
co e f f i c i e n t o f f r i c t i o n i s 0 . 4 0 = %0 . 2 f N/mm2
, pn2 )
printf ( \n ( c ) R o l l p r e s s u r e when 35 N/mm2 t e n s i o n
i s a p p l i e d a t n e u t r a l p o i n t = %0 . 2 f N/mm2 , pn3
)
// Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

Scilab code Exa 13.12 Determine neutral plane


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clc
h1 = 6.35 // t h i c k n e s s i n mm
mu = 0.2 // c o e f f i c i e n t o f f r i c t i o n
r = 50 // r o l l e d r a d i u s i n cm
r = r *10 // mm
R = 30 // r e d u c t i o n i n p e r c e n t
h0 = h1 *100/(100 - R ) // mm
delta_h = h0 - h1 // mm
alpha = acos (1 -( delta_h /(2* r ) ) ) // a n g l e o f c o n t a c t
Ho = 2* sqrt ( r / h1 ) * atan ( sqrt ( r / h1 ) * alpha )
78

11 Hn = ( Ho - ( log ( h0 / h1 ) ) / mu ) /2
12 theta = sqrt ( h1 / r ) * tan ( sqrt ( h1 / r ) *( Hn /2) ) // n e u t r a l

plane in radians
13 theta = theta *180/ %pi // n e u t r a l p l a n e i n d e g r e e s
14 printf ( \n N e u t r a l p l a n e = %0 . 2 f d e g r e e , theta )
15 // Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

79

Chapter 14
Theory of metal cutting

Scilab code Exa 14.1 calculate the tool life


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8

clc
v1 = 18 // c u t t i n g s p e e d i n m/ min
t1 = 3 // t o o l l i f e i n h o u r s
n = 0.125 // e x p o n e n t
c = v1 *( t1 *60) ^ n // c o n s t a n t
v2 = 24 // c u t t i n g s p e e d i n m/ min
t = ( c / v2 ) ^(1/0.125) // t o o l l i f e i n min .
printf ( T o o l l i f e = %d min . , t )

Scilab code Exa 14.2 Calculate the optimum cutting speed


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clc
c_t = 8 // t o o l c h a n g e t i m e i n min .
r_t = 5 // t o o l r e g r i n d t i m e i n min .
mr_c = 5 // machine r u n n i n g c o s t p e r h o u r
d = 30 // t o t a l d e p r e c i a t i o n p e r r e g r i n d i n p a i s a
n = 0.25 // e x p o n e n t
c = 150 // c o n s t a n t
80

c_c = mr_c * c_t /60 // t o t a l c h a n g e c o s t i n Rs


r_c = mr_c * r_t /60 // r e g r i n d c o s t i n Rs
ct = c_c + r_c + d /100 // t o o l i n g c o s t i n Rs
cm = mr_c /60 // m a c h i n i n g c o s t i n Rs
v = c *(( cm * n ) /( ct *(1 - n ) ) ) ^ n // c u t t i n g s p e e d i n m/
min .
13 printf ( \n C u t t i n g s p e e d = %0 . 1 f m/ min . , v )
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12

Scilab code Exa 14.3 To find different orthogonal cutting picture


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clc
mu1 = 0.15 // c o e f f i c i e n t o f f r i c t i o n
mu2 = 0.18 // c o e f f i c i e n t o f f r i c t o n
alpha = 14 // a n g l e o f c o n t a c t i n d e g r e e
alpha = alpha * %pi /180
bita = 10 // semi c o n e a n g l e i n d e g r e e
bita = bita * %pi /180
sigma_0 = 1.40 // kN/mm2
h0 = 1.5 //mm
h1 = 1 // mm
B = ( mu1 + mu2 ) /( tan ( alpha ) + tan ( bita ) )
sigmad = ( sigma_0 *(1+ B ) *(1 -( h1 / h0 ) ^ B ) ) / B // d r a w i n g
s t r e s s i n kN/mm2
d1 = 11 // o u t s i d e d i a m e t e r i n mm
t = 1 // t h i c k n e s s i n mm
d2 = d1 - t // mm
a = ( %pi *(( d1 ) ^2 -( d2 ) ^2) ) /4 // a r e a i n mm2
l = sigmad * a // l o a d i n kN
s = 0.65 // d r a w i n g s p e e d i n m/ s
w = l * s // work i n kJ / s
p = w // power i n kW
printf ( \n Drawing l o a d = %0 . 3 f kN\n Power r a t i n g o f
motor = %0 . 2 f kW , l , p )
clc
t = 0.127 // u n c u t c h i p t h i c k n e s s i n mm
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b = 6.35 // w i d t h o f c u t i n mm
v = 2 // c u t t i n g s p e e d i n m/ s
alpha = 10 // r a k e a n g l e i n d e g r e e s
fc = 567 // c u t t i n g f o r c e i n N
ft = 227 // t h r u s t f o r c e i n N
tc = 0.228 // c h i p t h i c k n e s s i n mm
r = t / tc // c h i p t h i c k n e s s r a t i o
alpha = alpha * %pi /180 // r a k e a n g l e i n r a d i a n s
phi = atan ( r * cos ( alpha ) /(1 -( r * sin ( alpha ) ) ) ) // s h e a r
angle
phi1 = phi *180/ %pi // s h e a r a n g l e
printf ( \n S h e a r a n g l e = %0 . 2 f d e g r e e , phi1 )
mu =(( fc * sin ( alpha ) + ft * cos ( alpha ) ) /( fc * cos ( alpha ) - ft
* sin ( alpha ) ) ) // c o e f f i c i e n t o f f r i c t i o n
bita = atan ( mu ) // f r i c t i o n a n g l e
bita = bita *180/( %pi )
printf ( \n F r i c t i o n a n g l e = %0 . 2 f d e g r e e , bita )
fs = fc * cos ( phi ) - ft * sin ( phi ) // s h e a r f o r c e i n N
taus = ( fs * sin ( phi ) ) /( b * t ) // s h e a r s t r e s s
printf ( \n S h e a r s t r e s s = %0 . 1 f N/mm2 , taus )
cp = fc * v /1000 // c u t t i n g power i n kw
printf ( \n C u t t i n g power = %0 . 3 f kw , cp )
vc = v * r // c h i p v e l o c i t y i n m/ s
printf ( \n Chip v e l o c i t y = %0 . 3 f m/ s , vc )
ss = cotg ( phi ) + tan ( phi - alpha ) // s h e a r s t r a i n
printf ( \n s h e a r s t r a i n = %0 . 3 f , ss )
spl = t / sin ( phi ) // s h e a r p l a n e l e n g t h
vs = v * cos ( alpha ) / cos ( phi - alpha ) // s h e a r v e l o c i t y
S = vs *10/ spl // s h e a r s t r a i n r a t e
S = S *10^3 // s h e a r s t r a i n r a t e
printf ( \n S h e a r s t r a i n r a t e = %. 3 f s 1 , S )
// Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

Scilab code Exa 14.4 To find tool life

82

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clc
v = 30 // c u t t i n g s p e e d i n m/ min
feed = 0.3 // f e e d r a t e i n mm/ r e v .
d = 2.5 // d e p t h o f c u t i n mm
t = 60 // t o o l l i f e i n min .
c = v * t ^0.13* feed ^0.77* d ^0.37 // c o n s t a n t
printf ( \n c o n s t a n t = %0 . 2 f , c )
v2 = v *1.2 // c u t t i n g s p e e d i n m/ min
t2 = ( c /( v2 * feed ^0.77* d ^0.37) ) // t o o l l i f e when
c u t t i n g s p e e d i n c r e a s e d by 20% i n min .
t2 = t2 ^(1/0.13)
f2 = feed *1.2 // f e e d r a t e i n mm/ r e v .
t3 = ( c /( v * d ^0.37* f2 ^0.77) ) // t o o l l i f e when f e e d
r a t e i n c r e a s e d by 20% i n min .
t3 = t3 ^(1/0.13)
d2 = d *1.2 // d e p t h o f c u t i n mm
t4 = ( c /( v * feed ^0.77* d2 ^0.37) ) // t o o l l i f e when
d e p t h o f c u t i n c r e a s e d by 20% i n min .
t4 = t4 ^(1/0.13)
t5 = ( c /( v2 * d2 ^0.37* f2 ^0.77) ) // t o o l l f e i n min .
t5 = t5 ^(1/0.13)
printf ( \n T o o l l i f e when c u t t i n g s p e e d i n c r e a s e d by
20 = %0 . 2 f min . , t2 )
printf ( \n T o o l l i f e when f e e d r a t e i n c r e a s e d by 20
= %0 . 2 f min . , t3 )
printf ( \n T o o l l i f e when d e p t h o f c u t i n c r e a s e d by
20 = %0 . 2 f min . , t4 )
printf ( \n T o o l l i f e when a l l t a k e n t o g e t h e r a f t e r
i n c r e a s i n g by 20 = %0 . 2 f min . , t5 )
// Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

Scilab code Exa 14.5 find force and coefficient of friction


1 clc
2 t = 0.25 // u n c u t c h i p

t h i c k n e s s i n mm
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b = 2.5 // w i d t h o f c u t i n mm
v = 2.5 // c u t t i n g s p e e d i n m/ s
alpha = 10 // r a k e a n g l e i n d e g r e e s
fc = 1130 // c u t t i n g f o r c e i n N
ft = 295 // t h r u s t f o r c e i n N
tc = 0.45 // c h i p t h i c k n e s s i n mm
r = t / tc // c h i p t h i c k n e s s r a t i o
alpha = alpha * %pi /180 // r a k e a n g l e i n r a d i a n s
phi = atan (( r * cos ( alpha ) ) /(1 - r * sin ( alpha ) ) ) // s h e a r
angle
phi2 = phi *180/ %pi // s h e a r a n g l e
fs = fc * cos ( phi ) - ft * sin ( phi ) // s h e a r f o r c e i n N
printf ( \n F o r c e o f s h e a r a t s h e a r p l a n e = %0 . 2 f N
, fs )
mu = atan (( fc * sin ( alpha ) + ft * cos ( alpha ) ) /( fc * cos (
alpha ) - ft * sin ( alpha ) ) ) // f r i c t i o n a n g l e l e
printf ( \n F r i c t i o n a n g l e = %0 . 3 f d e g r e e , mu )
// Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

Scilab code Exa 14.6 To find terms of orthogonal cutting


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12

clc
t = 0.2 // u n c u t c h i p t h i c k n e s s i n mm
alpha = 15 // r a k e a n g l e i n d e g r e e s
tc = 0.62 // c h i p t h i c k n e s s i n mm
r = t / tc // c h i p t h i c k n e s s r a t i o
crc = 1/ r // c h i p r e d u c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t
printf ( \n C u t t i n g r a t i o = %0 . 3 f \n Chip r e d u c t i o n co
e f f i c i e n t = %0 . 1 f , r , crc )
alpha = alpha * %pi /180 // r a k e a n g l e i n r a d i a n s
phi = atan ( r * cos ( alpha ) /(1 - r * sin ( alpha ) ) ) // s h e a r
angle
phi = phi *180/ %pi // s h e a r a n g l e
printf ( \n S h e a r a n g l e = %0 . 2 f d e g r e e , phi )
ss = cotg ( phi * %pi /180) + tan (( phi * %pi ) /180 -( alpha *
84

%pi ) /180) // s h e a r s t r a i n
13 printf ( \n s h e a r s t r a i n = %0 . 3 f , ss )
14 // Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

Scilab code Exa 14.7 To solve tool life equation


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clc
v1 = 25 // c u t t i n g s p e e d i n m/ min
t1 = 90 // t o o l l i f e i n min .
v2 = 35 // c u t t i n g s p e e d i n m/ min
t2 = 20 // t o o l l i f e i n min
n = log ( v2 / v1 ) / log ( t1 / t2 ) // e x p o n e n t
C = v1 *( t1 ) ^ n // c o n s t a n t
t = 60 // t o o l l i f e i n min .
v = C /( t ) ^ n // c u t t i n g s p e e d i n m/ min .
printf ( \n n = %0 . 3 f \n C = %0 . 1 f \n C u t t i n g s p e e d =
%0 . 2 f m/ min . , n , C , v )
11 // Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

Scilab code Exa 14.8 Determine normal and tangential force


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clc
t = 0.5 // u n c u t c h i p t h i c k n e s s i n mm
b = 3 // w i d t h o f c u t i n mm
alpha = 15 // r a k e a n g l e i n d e g r e e s
alpha = alpha * %pi /180 // r a k e a n g l e i n r a d i a n s
r = 0.383 // c h i p t h i c k n e s s r a t i o
mu = 0.7 // a v e r a g e c o e f f i c i e n t o f f r i c t i o n on t o o l
face
8 bita = atan ( mu ) // f r i c t i o n a n g l e
9 tau = 280 // y i e l d s t r e s s i n N/mm2
10 phi = atan (( r * cos ( alpha ) ) /(1 - r * sin ( alpha ) ) ) // s h e a r
angle
85

11 fc = ( tau * b * t ) /( sec ( bita - alpha ) * cos ( phi + bita - alpha ) *

sin ( phi ) ) // c u t t i n g f o r c e i n N
12 ft = ( fc *( mu - tan ( alpha ) ) ) /(1+ mu * tan ( alpha ) ) //

thrust force in N
13 F = fc * sin ( alpha ) + ft * cos ( alpha ) // t a n g e n t i a l
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force

on t o o l f a c e i n N
F = ceil ( F )
N = fc * cos ( alpha ) - ft * sin ( alpha ) // n o r m a l f o r c e on
tool face in N
printf ( T a n g e n t i a l f o r c e on t o o l f a c e = %d N\n
n o r m a l f o r c e on t o o l f a c e = %0 . 1 f N , F , N )
// Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

Scilab code Exa 14.9 To find cutting and thrust force


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clc
t = 0.25 // u n c u t c h i p t h i c k n e s s i n mm
b = 0.5 // w i d t h o f c u t i n cm
v = 8.2 // c u t t i n g s p e e d i n m/ min .
alpha = 20 // r a k e a n g l e i n d e g r e e s
alpha2 = alpha * %pi /180 // r a k e a n g l e i n r a d i a n s
r = 0.351 // c u t t i n g r a t i o
phi = atan ( r * cos ( alpha2 ) /(1 - r * sin ( alpha2 ) ) ) // s h e a r
angle
in radians
phi2 = phi *180/ %pi // s h e a r a n g l e i n d e g r e e s
alpha2 = alpha * %pi /180 // r a k e a n g l e i n r a d i a n s
bita = 35+ alpha - phi2 // d e g r e e s
s = cotg ( phi ) + tan ( phi - alpha2 ) // s h e a r s t r a i n
e = s / sqrt (3) // n a t u r a l s t r a i n
sigma = 784*( e ) ^0.15 // t e n s i l e p r o p e r t y i n N/mm2
tau = sigma / sqrt (3) // y i e l d s h e a r s t r e s s i n N/mm2
As = ( b *10* t ) / sin ( phi ) // s h e a r p l a n e a r e a i n mm2
Fs = tau * As // s h e a r g o r c e i n N
R = Fs / cos ( phi +( bita * %pi /180) - alpha2 )
Fc = R * cos (( bita * %pi /180) - alpha2 ) // c u t t i n g f o r c e
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in N
20 Ft = R * sin (( bita * %pi /180) - alpha2 ) // t h r u s t f o r c e i n
N
21 printf ( \n C u t t i n g f o r c e = %0 . 1 f N\n T h r u s t f o r c e =
%0 . 1 f N , Fc , Ft )
22 // Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

Scilab code Exa 14.10 find terms of orthogonal rake system


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clc
f = 0.2 // f e e d i n mm/ r e v .
t = 0.2 // u n c u t c h i p t h i c k n e s s i n mm
alpha = 10 // r a k e a n g l e i n d e g r e e s
fc = 1600 // c u t t i n g f o r c e i n N
ft = 850 // t h r u s t f o r c e i n N
tc = 0.39 // c h i p t h i c k n e s s i n mm
r = t / tc // c h i p t h i c k n e s s r a t i o
d = 2 // d e p t h o f c u t i n mm
b = 2 // mm
alpha2 = alpha * %pi /180 // r a k e a n g l e i n r a d i a n s
phi = atan ( r * cos ( alpha2 ) /(1 - r * sin ( alpha2 ) ) ) // s h e a r
angle in radians
phi2 = phi *180/ %pi // s h e a r a n g l e i n d e g r e e
fs = fc * cos ( phi ) - ft * sin ( phi ) // s h e a r f o r c e i n N
fn = fc * sin ( phi ) + ft * cos ( phi ) // n o r m a l f o r c e i n N
f = fc * sin ( alpha2 ) + ft * cos ( alpha2 ) // f r i c t i o n f o r c e
in N
mu =(( fc * tan ( alpha2 ) + ft ) /( fc - ft * tan ( alpha2 ) ) ) //
kinetic c o e f f i c i e n t of f r i c t i o n
s = fc /( b * t ) // s p e c i f i c c u t t i n g e n e r g y i n N/mm2
printf ( \n S h e a r f o r c e = %d N\n Normal f o r c e = %0 . 1 f
N\n F r i c t i o n f o r c e = %0 . 1 f N\n K i n e t i c
c o e f f i c i e n t o f f r i c t i o n = %0 . 3 f , fs , fn ,f ,
mu )
printf ( \n S p e c i f i c c u t t i n g e n e r g y = %d N/mm2 , s )
87

21

// Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

Scilab code Exa 14.11 Calculate CLA


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clc
cs = 20 // s i d e c u t t i n g e d g e a n g l e i n d e g r e e
ce = 30 // end c u t t i n g e d g e a n g l e i n d e g r e e
f = 0.1 // f e e d i n mm/ r e v .
r = 3 // n o s e r a d i u s i n mm
cs2 = cs * %pi /180 // s i d e c u t t i n g e d g e a n g l e i n
radians
ce2 = ce * %pi /180 // end c u t t i n g e d g e a n g l e i n
radians
h = (1 - cos ( ce2 ) ) * r + f * sin ( ce2 ) * cos ( ce2 ) - sqrt ((2* f
* r *( sin ( ce2 ) ) ^3) -(( f ^2) *( sin ( ce2 ) ) ^4) )
Ra = h /4 // C e n t r e l i n e a v e r a g e r o u g h n e s s i n mm
printf ( \n C e n t r e l i n e a v e r a g e r o u g h n e s s = %0 . 2 f
10 6m , Ra *10^3)
// Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

Scilab code Exa 14.12 Calculate back and side rake angle
1 clc
2 i = 0 // i n c l i n a t i o n a n g l e i n d e g r e e
3 alpha = 10 // o r t h o g o n a l r a k e a n g l e i n d e g r e e
4 lemda = 75 // p r i n c i p a l c u t t i n g e d g e a n g l e i n d e g r e e
5 alpha = alpha * %pi /180 // o r t h o g o n a l r a k e a n g l e i n

radian
lemda = lemda * %pi /180 // p r i n c i p a l c u t t i n g e d g e
angle in radian
7 alpha_b = atan ( cos ( lemda ) * tan ( alpha ) + sin ( lemda ) * tan (
i ) ) // back r a k e a n g l e i n r a d i a n s

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alpha_b = alpha_b *180/ %pi // back r a k e a n g l e i n


degree
9 alpha_s = atan ( sin ( lemda ) * tan ( alpha ) - cos ( lemda ) * tan (
i ) ) // s i d e r a k e a n g l e i n r a d i a n s
10 alpha_s = alpha_s *180/ %pi // s i d e r a k e a n g l e i n
degree
11 printf ( \n Back r a k e a n g l e = %0 . 2 f d e g r e e \n S i d e
r a k e a n g l e = %0 . 2 f d e g r e e , alpha_b , alpha_s )
8

Scilab code Exa 14.13 Calculate inclination and rake angle


1 clc
2 alphab = 8 // back r a k e i n d e g r e e
3 alphas = 4 // s i d e r a k e i n d e g r e e
4 cs = 15 // s i d e c u t t i n g e d g e a n g l e i n d e g r e e
5 lemda = 90 - cs // a p p r o a c h a n g l e i n d e g r e e
6 alphab = alphab * %pi /180 // back r a k e i n r a d i a n
7 alphas = alphas * %pi /180 // s i d e r a k e i n r a d i a n
8 cs = cs * %pi /180 // s i d e c u t t i n g e d g e a n g l e i n r a d i a n
9 lemda = lemda * %pi /180 // a p p r o a c h a n g l e i n r a d i a n
10 alpha = atan ( tan ( alphas ) * sin ( lemda ) + tan ( alphab ) * cos (

lemda ) ) // o r t h o g o n a l r a k e a n g l e i n r a d i a n
alpha = alpha *180/ %pi // o r t h o g o n a l r a k e a n g l e i n
degree
12 i = atan ( sin ( lemda ) * tan ( alphab ) - cos ( lemda ) * tan (
alphas ) ) // i n c l n a t i o n a n g l e i n r a d i a n
13 i = i *180/ %pi // i n c l n a t i o n a n g l e i n d e g r e e
14 printf ( \n O t h o g o n a l r a k e a n g l e = %0 . 2 f d e g r e e \n
I n c l i n a t i o n a n g l e = %0 . 1 f d e g r e e , alpha , i )
11

Scilab code Exa 14.14 find different powers and resistance


1 clc

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cs = 15 // s i d e c u t t i n g e d g e a n g l e i n d e g r e e
v = 0.2 // c u t t i n g s p e e d i n m/ s
f = 0.5 // f e e d r a t e i n mm/ r e v .
d = 3.2 // d e p t h o f c u t i n mm
fc = 1593*( f ) ^0.85*( d ) ^0.98 // c u t t i n g f o r c e i n N
pc = fc * v /1000 // c u t t i n g power i n kw
ita_mt = 0.85 // e f f i c i e n c y o f l a t h e
pm = pc / ita_mt // motor power i n kw
a = f * d // a r e a o f u n c u t c h i o i n mm2
r = fc / a // s p e c i f i c c u t t i n g r e s i s t a n c e i n N/mm2
p = pc /( a * v ) // u n i t power i n W/ (mm 3 ) s
printf ( \n C u t t i n g power = %0 . 3 f kw\n Motor power =
%0 . 2 f kw\n S p e c i f i c c u t t i n g r e s i s t a n c e = %0 . 2 f N/
mm2\ n U n i t power = %0 . 3 f W/ (mm 3 ) s , pc , pm ,r , p
)
14 // Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

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Scilab code Exa 14.15 Calculate percentage increase in tool life


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clc
C = 400
n =0.5
a =2 // ( T1/T2 ) n
b =2^(1/ n ) // T2
i = (b -1) *100 // p e r c e n t a g e i n c r e a s e
printf ( \n P e r c e n t a g e i n c r e a s e = %d p e r c e n t , i )

Scilab code Exa 14.16 To find percentage of total energy


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clc
t = 0.127 // u n c u t c h i p t h i c k n e s s i n mm
b = 6.35 // w i d t h o f c u t i n mm
v = 1.20 // c u t t i n g s p e e d i n m/ min .
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alpha = 10 // r a k e a n g l e i n d e g r e e s
fc = 556.25 // c u t t i n g f o r c e i n N
ft = 222.50 // t h r u s t f o r c e i n N
tc = 0.229 // c h i p t h i c k n e s s i n mm
r = t / tc // c h i p t h i c k n e s s r a t i o
R = sqrt (( fc ^2) +( ft ^2) )
bita = ( acos ( fc / R ) ) + alpha * %pi /180 //
f = R * sin ( bita ) //
fe = f * r // f r i c t i o n e n e r g y
p = ( f * r *100) / fc // p e r c e n t a g e o f f r i c t o n e n r g y and
t o t a l energy
15 printf ( \n The p e r c e n t a g e o f t o t a l e n e r g y t h a t g o e s
i n t o overcoming f r i c t i o n at t o o l chip i n t e r f a c e =
%0 . 2 f p e r c e n t , p )
16 // Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r
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14

Scilab code Exa 14.17 To find power and different energies


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14

clc
D = 300 // d i a m e t e r i n mm
r = 45 // r e v / min .
d = 2 // d e p t h o f c u t i n mm
f = 0.3 // f e e d i n mm/ r e v
fc = 1850 // c u t t i n g f o r c e i n N
ff = 450 // f e e d f o r c e i n N
V = 2.5*10^6 // m e t a l removed i n mm
v = ( %pi * D * r ) /(60*1000) // c u t t i n g v e l o c i t y i n m/ s
pc = fc * v /1000 // c u t t i n g power i n kW
fv = f * r /60*1000 // f e e d v e l o c i t y i n m/ s
fp = fv * ff // f e e d power i n W
mrr = d * f * v *60*1000 // mm3/ min .
ce = pc *1000*60/ mrr // s p e c i f i c c u t t i n g e n e r g y i n W
s /mm2
15 E = ce * V /(3600*1000) // e n e r g y consumed
16 printf ( \n Power c o n s u m p t i o n = %0 . 2 f W\n S p e c i f i c
91

c u t t i n g e n e r g y = %0 . 2 f W s /mm3\ n Energy consumed


= %0 . 3 f kWh ,pc , ce , E )
17 // Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

Scilab code Exa 14.18 Determine components of force and power


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22

clc
D = 100 // d i a m e t e r i n mm
cs = 30 // s i d e c u t t i n g e d g e a n g l e i n d e g r e e
lemda = 90 - cs // a p p r o a c h a n g l e i n d e g r e e
d = 2.5 // d e p t h o f c u t i n mm
f = 0.125 // f e e d i n mm/ r e v .
N = 300 // t u r n i n g s p e e d o f j o b i n r e v . / min .
mu = 0.6 // c o e f f i c i e n t o f f r i c t i o n
tau = 400 // u l t i m a t e s h e a r s t r e s s i n Mpa
bita = atand ( mu ) // f r i c t i o n a n g l e i n r a d i a n
alphas = 10 // s i d e r a k e a n g l e
alphab = 6 // back r a k e a n g l e
alpha = atand ( tand ( alphas ) * sind ( lemda ) + tand ( alphab ) *
cosd ( lemda ) ) // o r t h o g o n a l r a k e a n g l e i n d e g r e e
phi = 45 - ( bita - alpha ) // s h e a r a n g l e
Fc = tau * d * f /( secd ( bita - alpha ) * cosd ( phi + bita - alpha ) *
sind ( phi ) ) // c u t t i n g f o r c e i n N
Ft = Fc * tand ( bita - alpha ) // t h r u s t component i n N
Ff = Ft * sind ( lemda ) // f e e d f o r c e a l o n g a x i s o f j o b
in N
Rf = Ft * cosd ( lemda ) // r a d i a l f o r c e n o r m a l t o a x i s
of job in N
v = %pi * D * N /(1000*60) // v e l o c i t y i n m/ s
p = Fc * v // power i n w a t t s
printf ( \n C u t t i n g f o r c e = %d N\n T h r u s t f o r c e = %0
. 3 f N\n Feed f o r c e = %0 . 1 f N\n R a d i a l f o r c e = %0
. 3 f N\n C u t t i n g power = %d w a t t s , Fc , Ft , Ff , Rf , p
)
// Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r
92

93

Chapter 15
Design and manufacture of
cutting tools

Scilab code Exa 15.1 calculate horsepower at cutter and motor


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13

clc
w = 10 // w i d t h o f c u t i n cm
h = 0.32 // d e p t h o f c u t i n cm
n = 8 // number o f t e e t h i n c u t t e r
ft = 0.033 // f e e d r a t e p e r t o o t h
N = 200 // c u t t e r s p e e d i n rpm
ita = 60/100 // e f f i c i e n c y
f = n * ft * N // f e e d r a t e i n cm/ min .
mrr = w * h * f // m e t a l r e m o v a l r a t e i n cm3/ min .
k = 8.2 // m a c h i n i b i l i t y f a c t o r from t a b l e 1 5 . 3
hpc = mrr / k // h o r s e p o w e r a t c u t t e r
hpm = hpc / ita // h o r s e p o w e r a t motor
printf ( \n H o r s e p o w e r a t c u t t e r = %0 . 2 f \n H o r s e p o w e r
a t motor = %0 . 2 f , hpc , hpm )
14 // Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

94

Scilab code Exa 15.2 Determine broaching power and Design broach
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31

clc
l = 35 // l e n g t h o f b o r e i n mm
v = 0.15 // c u t t i n g s p e e d i n m/ s
t1 = 0.01 // u p p e r l i m i t i n mm
t2 = 0.05 // u p p e r l i m i t i n mm
D = 32.25 // f i n i s h e d b r o a c h i n mm
D1 = 32.25+ t2 // mm
d = 32.75 // f i n i s h d i a m e t e r i n mm
d1 = 32.75 + t1 // f i n i s h d i a m e t e r o f h o l e i n mm
s = 0.05 // mm
B = 1.30 // b l u n t b r o a c h f a c t o r
c = 45 // s p e c i f i c c u t t i n g f o r c e i n N/mm2
n = 3 // number o f t e e t h c u t t i n g a t a t i m e
F = n * %pi * d1 * s * c * B // f o r c e n e e d e d f o r b r o a c h i n g i n
N
bp = F * v /1000 // B r o a c h i n g power i n kw
// b r o a c h d e s i g n
p = 1.75* sqrt ( l ) // p i t c h i n mm
theta = 10 // f a c e a n g l e i n d e g r e e
alha1 = 1.5 // r e l i e f a n g l e f o r r o u g h i n g i n d e g r e e
alha2 = 1.0 // r e l i e f a n g l e f o r f i n i s h i n g i n d e g r e e
w = 0.3* p // w i d t h o f l a n d i n mm
h = 0.4* p // d e p t h o f c u t t i n g t e e t h i n mm
r = 0.3* p // t o o t h f i l l e t r a d i u s i n mm
T = ( d1 - D1 ) /2 // mm
n = T / s // number o f c u t t i n g t e e t h
n = round ( n )
l = ( n +7) * p // l e n g t h o f t o o t h e d p o r t i o n o f b r o a c h i n
mm
printf ( \n ( i ) B r o a c h i n g power = %0 . 4 f kW , bp )
disp ( ( i i ) Broach D e s i g n )
printf ( ( a ) P i t c h d i a m e t e r = %0 . 2 fmm\n ( b ) w i d t h o f
l a n d = %0 . 2 f mm \n
depth o f c u t t i n g t e e t h =
%0 . 2 f mm\n
Tooth f i l l e t r a d i u s= %0 . 2 f mm , p ,w
,h , r )
printf ( \n ( c ) Length o f t o o t h e d p o r t i o n o f b r o a c h =
95

%d mm , l )
32 // Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

Scilab code Exa 15.3 Estimate moment thrust force and power
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19

clc
Hb = 200 // b r i n e l l h a r d n e s s
d = 12.7 // d i a m e t e r i n mm
f = 0.254 // f e e d i n mm/ r e v .
N = 100 // rpm
M = ( Hb *( d ) ^2* f ) /8 // moment i n k g f mm
k = 1.1 // m a t e r i a l f a c t o r
p = (1.25*( d ) ^2* k * N *(0.056+1.5* f ) ) /(10) ^5 // power
i n kW
T1a = (1.7* M ) / d // t h r u s t f o r c e k g f
T1b = (3.5* M ) / d // k g f
T1 = ( T1a + T1b ) /2 // a v e r a g e
w = 0.14* d // t h i c k n e s s i n mm
T2a = (0.1* %pi *( w ) ^2* Hb ) /4 // t h r u s t f o r c e k g f
T2b = (0.2* %pi *( w ) ^2* Hb ) /4 // t h r u s t f o r c e k g f
T2 = ( T2a + T2b ) /2 // a v e r a g e
avg = T1 + T2 // k g f
thrust = 1.16* k * d *(100* f ) ^0.85 // k g f
printf ( \n Moment = %0 . 1 f k g f mm\n Power = %0 . 3 f hp \
n A v e r a g e f o r c e = %d k g f \n T h r u s t f o r c e = %0 . 1 f
k g f ,M , p , avg , thrust )
// E r r o r i n t e x t b o o k

Scilab code Exa 15.4 Design shell inserted blade reamer


1 clc
2 d = 55 // d i a m e t e r i n mm
3 ul = 0.035 // u p p e r l i m i t

i n mm
96

4 ll = 0.000 // l o w e r l i m i t i n mm
5 Dmax = d + ul // maximum d i a m e t e r o f h o l e i n mm
6 Dmin = d + ll // minimum d i a m e t e r o f h o l e i n mm
7 IT = 0.035 // h o l e t o l e r e n c e i n mm
8 dmax = Dmax -0.15* IT // maximum d i a m e t e r o f r e a m e r i n
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14

mm
dmin = dmax -0.35* IT // minimum d i a m e t e r o f r e a m e r i n
mm
l = (( d /4) +( d /3) ) /2 // l e n g t h o f g u i d i n g s e c t i o n i n
mm
Z = 1.5* sqrt ( d ) +2 // number o f t e e t h
Z = ceil ( Z )
printf ( \n 1 D i a m e t e r o f r e a m e r \n Maximum d i a m e t e r
o f r e a m e r = %0 . 3 f mm \n Minimum d i a m e t e r o f
r e a m e r = %0 . 3 f mm \n 2 Back t a p e r = 0 . 0 5 mm \n 3
V a l u e s o f v a r i o u s a n g l e s \n Rake a n g l e = 5 d e g r e e
\n Plan a p p r o a c h a n g l e = 45 d e g r e e \n C i r c u l a r
l a n d = 0 . 2 5 t o 0 . 5 0 mm \n S e c o n d a r y c l e a r a n c e
a n g l e = 10 d e g r e e \n 4 Length o f r e a m e r \n Length
o f f l u t e d p o r t i o n = 8 2 . 5 mm \n Length o f r e a m i n g
a l l o w a n c e = 0 . 1 8 mm \n Length o f c u t t i n g s e c t i o n
= 2 . 2 5 mm \n Length o f g u i d i n g s e c t i o n = %d mm \
n 5 Number o f t e e t h = %d , dmax , dmin ,l , Z )
// Answer v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

Scilab code Exa 15.5 To design single point cutting tool


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8

clc
Pm = 10 // power o f motor i n kw
v = 40 // c u t t i n g s p e e d i n m/ min .
ita = 70 // e f f i c i e n c y
ita = ita /100
Pc = Pm * ita
Fc = ( Pc *1000*60) / v // c u t t i n g f o r c e
sigmab = 250 // s t r e s s i n Mpa
97

9 B = sqrt (( Fc *1.25*6) /( sigmab *1.6) ) // w i d t h o f s h a n k

i n mm
10 h = 1.6* B // h i e g h t o f s h a n k i n mm
11 l = 1.25* h // s h a n k o v e r a n g i n mm
12 printf ( \n The w i d t h o f s h a n k = %0 . 1 f mm\n H e i g h t o f

s h a n k = %0 . 2 f mm\n Shank o v e r h a n g = %0 . 1 f mm ,
B ,h , l )
13 // Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

Scilab code Exa 15.8 find various terms for stainless steel
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clc
l = 150 // l e n g t h i n mm
D = 12.70 // d i a m e t e r i n mm
dia = 12.19 // d i a m e t e r on c e n t r e l a t h e i n mm
N = 400 // s p i n d l e s p e e d i n r e v . / min
s = 203.20 // a x i a l s p e e d i n mm/ min.####
v = ( %pi * D * N ) /(1000*60) // c u t t i n g v e l o c i t y i n m/ s
d = (D - dia ) /2 // d e p t h o f c u t i n mm
f = s / N // f e e d i n mm/ r e v .
Dave = ( D + dia ) /2 // a v e r a g e d i a m e t e r i n mm
V = %pi * Dave * N
a = d * f // a r e a o f c u t i n mm2
mrr = a * V // m e t a l r e m o v a l r a t e i n mm3/ min .
T = l /( f * N ) // machine t i m i n g i n min .
c = 56 // c o n s t a n t from t a b l e
p = d * f * v *60* c // power i n w a t t s
omega = (2* %pi * N ) /60 // rpm
t = p / omega // t o r q u e i n Nm
Fc = (2* t *1000) / Dave // c u t t i n g f o r c e i n N
printf ( \n C u t t i n g s p e e d = %0 . 2 f m/ s \n MRR = %d mm
3/ min . \ n Time t o c u t = %0 . 2 f min . \ n Power = %0 . 1
f w a t t s \ n C u t t i n g f o r c e = %d N , v , mrr , T ,p ,
Fc )
21 // Answers a r e g i v e n wrong i n book
98

Scilab code Exa 15.9 To find MRR power and torque


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f = 0.2 // f e e d i n mm/ r e v .
N = 800 // s p i n d l e s p e e d i n r e v . / min .
d = 10 // d o a m e t e r o f h o l e i n mm
mrr = %pi *( d ^2) * f * N /4 // m e t a l r e m o v a l r a t e i n mm3/
min .
mrr = mrr /60 // mm3/ s
p = 0.5* mrr // c u t t i n g power from t a b l e 1 4 . 2 i n
watts
omega = 2* %pi * N /60 // rpm
T = p / omega // t o r q u e i n N .m
printf ( \n MRR = %0 . 2 f mm3/ s \n C u t t i n g power = %0 . 3
f w a t t s \n Torque = %0 . 2 f N .m , mrr ,p , T )

Scilab code Exa 15.10 find MRR power torque and time
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clc
l = 300 // l e n g t h i n mm
w = 100 // w i d t h i n mm
f = 0.25 // f e e d i n mm/ t o o t h
d = 3.2 // d e p t h o f c u t i n mm
D = 50 // c u t t e r d i a m e t e r i n mm
n = 20 // number o f c u t t e r t e e t h
N = 100 // c u t t e r s p e e d i n r e v . / min .
tf = f * n * N // t a b l e f e e d i n mm/ min .
mrr = w * d * tf // m e t a l r e m o v a l r a t e i n mm3/ min .
mrr = mrr /60 // mm3/ s
p = 6* mrr // c u t t i n g power from t a b l e 1 4 . 2 i n w a t t s
omega = 2* %pi * N /60 // rpm
99

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18

T = p / omega // t o r q u e i n N .m
att = sqrt (( D * d ) -( d ^2) ) // added t a b l e t r a v e l i n mm
t = ( l + att ) / tf // c u t t i n g t i m e i n min .
t = t *60 // s
printf ( \n MRR = %0 . 2 f mm3/ s \n C u t t i n g power = %d
w a t t s \n Torque = %0 . 2 f N .m\n C u t t i n g t i m e = %0 . 1
f s , mrr ,p ,T , t )

100

Chapter 16
Gear manufacture

Scilab code Exa 16.1 Calculate settings of gear tooth


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5

clc
n = 34 // number o f t e e t h s
m = 5 // module i n mm
w = m * n * sin ( %pi /( n *2) ) // t o o t h t h i c k n e s s i n mm
h = m *(1+( n *(1 - cos ( %pi /( n *2) ) ) /2) ) // c h o r d a l
addendum i n mm
6 printf ( \n Tooth t h i c k n e s s = %0 . 3 f mm\n C h o r d a l
addendum = %0 . 3 f mm ,w ,h )
7 // Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

101

Chapter 17
Thread manufacturing

Scilab code Exa 17.1 Calculate best wire size


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5

clc
d = 80 // o u t s i d e d i a m e t e r i n mm
p = 6 // p i t c h d i a m e t e r i n mm
d = 0.5774* p // b e s t w i r e s i z e i n mm
printf ( \n B e s t w i r e s i z e = %0 . 3 f mm , d )

Scilab code Exa 17.2 Calculate size and distances over wire
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clc
D = 20 // d i a m e t e r i n mm
p = 2.5 // p i t c h d i a m e t e r i n mm
d = 0.5774* p // mm
W = D +3* d -1.5156* p // b e s t w i r e s i z e i n mm
printf ( \n B e s t w i r e s i z e = %0 . 3 f mm\n D i s t a n c e o v e r
w i r e s = %0 . 3 f mm ,d , W )
7 // Answer v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

102

Chapter 21
Statical quality control

Scilab code Exa 21.1 Construct R and X chart


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clc
clf ()
n = 10 // number o f s a m p l e s
A2 = 0.577
D3 = 0
D4 = 2.115
// number o f d e f e c t i v e s
x1 = 11.274
x2 = 11.246
x3 = 11.204
x4 = 11.294
x5 = 11.252
x6 = 11.238
x7 = 11.230
x8 = 11.276
x9 = 11.208
x10 = 11.266
r1 = 0.15
r2 = 0.20
r3 = 0.33
r4 = 0.46
103

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38

r5 = 0.10
r6 = 0.15
r7 = 0.20
r8 = 0.23
r9 = 0.50
r10 = 0.30
x = x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 + x6 + x7 + x8 + x9 + x10
r = r1 + r2 + r3 + r4 + r5 + r6 + r7 + r8 + r9 + r10
Xavg = x / n
Ravg = r / n
// f o r X c h a r t
ucl1 = Xavg + A2 * Ravg
lcl1 = Xavg - A2 * Ravg
// f o r R c h a r t
ucl2 = D4 * Ravg
lcl2 = D3 * Ravg
printf ( \n c o n t r o l l i m i t s \n For X c h a r t s \n UCL =
%0 . 2 f cm \n LCL = %0 . 2 f cm\n For R c h a r t s \n UCl
= %0 . 3 f \n LCL = %0 . 3 f , ucl1 , lcl1 , ucl2 , lcl2 )
39 // X c h a r t
40 x =[1 ,2 ,3 ,4 ,5 ,6 ,7 ,8 ,9 ,10];
41 y
=[11.274 ,11.246 ,11.204 ,11.294 ,11.252 ,11.238 ,11.230 ,11.276 ,11.208 ,1
42 plot (x , y )
43 xtitle ( X c h a r t , Sample No . ,X )
44 // R c h a r t
45 xset ( window ,1)
46 z =

[0.15 ,0.20 ,0.33 ,0.46 ,0.10 ,0.15 ,0.20 ,0.23 ,0.50 ,0.30]
47
48

plot (x , z )
xtitle ( R c h a r t , Sample no . , R )

Scilab code Exa 21.2 Construct the control charts


104

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clc
clf ()
n = 100 // t o t a l number o f sub g r o u p s
s = 10 // number o f s a m p l e s
// number o f d e f e c t i v e s
d1 = 3
d2 = 2
d3 = 3
d4 = 5
d5 = 3
d6 = 3
d7 = 2
d8 = 4
d9 = 3
d10 = 2
d = d1 + d2 + d3 + d4 + d5 + d6 + d7 + d8 + d9 + d10 // t o t a l number
of defectives
p1 = d /( n * s ) // a v e r a g e f r a c t i o n o f d e f e c t i v e s
sigmap1 = sqrt ( p1 *(1 - p1 ) / n )
ucl1 = p1 + 3* sigmap1
lcl1 = p1 - 3* sigmap1
// c o n t r o l c h a r t f o r f r a c t i o n d e f e c t i v e s
x = linspace (0 ,10 ,10)
y = linspace (0 ,0.081 ,10)
plot (x , y )
xtitle ( C o n t r o l c h a r t f o r f r a c t i o n d e f e c t i v e s ,
S a m p l e s , F r a c t i o n d e f e c t i v e s )
// p e r c e n t d e f e c t i v e ( mean )
p1 = p1 *100
sigmap2 = sqrt ( p1 *(100 - p1 ) / n )
ucl2 = p1 + 3* sigmap2
lcl2 = p1 - 3* sigmap2
printf ( \n C o n t r o l l i m i t s \n F r a c t i o n d e f e c t i v e s \n
UCL = %0 . 3 f \n LCL = %0 . 4 f \n P e r c e n t d e f e c t i v e s \n
UCL = %0 . 1 f \n LCL = %0 . 1 f , ucl1 , lcl1 , ucl2 , lcl2
)
// c o n t r o l c h a r t f o r p e r c e n t d e f e c t
xset ( window ,1)
105

34 z = linspace (0 ,8.1 ,10)


35 plot (x , z )
36 xtitle ( C o n t r o l c h a r t f o r
37

//

p e r c e n t d e f e c t s , Sample
no . , p e r c e n t d e f e c t s )
Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

Scilab code Exa 21.4 Calculate poisson probabilities


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10

clc
n =
s =
d =
z =
pp0

1000 // number o f u n i t s
4 // random s a m p l e
50 // d e f e c t i v e s
d*s/n
= exp ( -0.2) *1 // p o i s s o n p r o b a b i l i t i e s f o r 0
defectives
pp1 = exp ( -0.2) *( z ) // p o i s s o n p r o b a b i l i t i e s f o r 1
defectives
pp2 = exp ( -0.2) *( z ^2/ factorial (2) ) // p o i s s o n
probabilities for 2 defectives
pp3 = exp ( -0.2) *( z ^3/ factorial (3) ) // p o i s s o n
probabilities for 3 defectives
printf ( \n P r o a b i l i t i e s f o r 0 , 1 , 2 and 3 d e f e c t i v e s
a r e : %0 . 3 f ,%0 . 4 f , %0 . 4 f , %0 . 5 f , pp0 , pp1 , pp2 ,
pp3 )

Scilab code Exa 21.5 Calculate probabilities of defective items


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clc
d =
l =
p =
q =
n =

50 // d e f e c t i v e s
1000 // l o t o f p i e c e s
d / l // p r o a b i l i t y o f an e v e n t h a p p e n i n g
1 - p // p r o a b i l i t y o f an e v e n t n o t h a p p e n i n g
4 // s a m p l e s i z e
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p0 = q ^ n // p r o b a b i l i t i e s f o r 0 d e f e c t i v e s
p1 = 4*( q ) ^3* p // p r o b a b i l i t i e s f o r 1 d e f e c t i v e s
p2 = 6*( q ) ^2* p ^2 // p r o b a b i l i t i e s f o r 2 d e f e c t i v e s
p3 = 4* q *( p ) ^3 // p r o b a b i l i t i e s f o r 3 d e f e c t i v e s
printf ( \n P r o a b i l i t i e s f o r 0 , 1 , 2 and 3 d e f e c t i v e s
a r e : %0 . 4 f %0 . 4 f %0 . 4 f %0 . 6 f , p0 , p1 , p2 , p3 )

Scilab code Exa 21.6 Determine producers and consumers risk


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clc
// p r o d u c e r s r i s k
n = 71 // s a m p l e s i z e
AQL = 0.005
LTPD = 0.05
l_s = 500 // l o t s i z e
z1 = n * AQL // mean number o f d e f e c t s
pp1 = exp ( - z1 ) + z1 * exp ( - z1 ) // p o i s s o n p r o a b i l i t y f o r
1 or l e s s d e f e c t i v e
alpha = (1 - pp1 ) *100 // p r o d u c e r s r i s k
alpha = ceil ( alpha )
// consumer s r i s k
z2 = n * LTPD // mean number o f d e f e c t s
pp2 = exp ( - z2 ) + z2 * exp ( - z2 ) // p o i s s o n p r o a b i l i t y f o r
1 or l e s s d e f e c t i v e
bita = pp2 *100 // consumer s r i s k
printf ( \n P r o d u c e r s r i s k = %d p e r c e n t \n Consumers
r i s k = %0 . 2 f p e r c e n t , alpha , bita )

Scilab code Exa 21.7 Evaluate preliminary and revised control limits
1 clc
2 td1 = 20 // t o t a l number o f d a y s
3 n1 = 200 // s a m p l e s i z e

107

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// number o f d e f e c t i v e s
d1 = 10
d2 = 15
d3 = 10
d4 = 12
d5 = 11
d6 = 9
d7 = 22
d8 = 4
d9 = 12
d10 = 24
d11 = 21
d12 = 15
d13 = 8
d14 = 14
d15 = 4
d16 = 10
d17 = 11
d18 = 11
d19 = 26
d20 = 13
d = d1 + d2 + d3 + d4 + d5 + d6 + d7 + d8 + d9 + d10 + d11 + d12 + d13 + d14 +
d15 + d16 + d17 + d18 + d19 + d20 // t o t a l number o f
defectives
p1 = d /( n1 * td1 ) // a v e r a g e f r a c t i o n o f d e f e c t i v e s
sigmap1 = sqrt ( p1 *(1 - p1 ) / n1 )
ucl1 = p1 + 3* sigmap1
lcl1 = p1 - 3* sigmap1
// r e v i s e d c o n t r o l l i m i t s
td2 = 18 // t o t a l number o f d a y s
D = d - ( d10 + d19 ) // number o f d e f e c t s
p2 = D /( n1 * td2 )
sigmap2 = sqrt ( p2 *(1 - p2 ) / n1 )
ucl2 = p2 + 3* sigmap2
lcl2 = p2 - 3* sigmap2
printf ( \n P r e l i m i n a r y c o n t r o l l i m i t s \n UCL = %0 . 3 f
\n LCL = %0 . 3 f \n R e v i s e d c o n t r o l l i m i t s \n UCL
= %0 . 3 f \n LCL = %0 . 3 f , ucl1 , lcl1 , ucl2 , lcl2 )
108

Scilab code Exa 21.8 Find control limits for c chart


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clc
n1 = 15 // t o t a l number o f sub g r o u p s
// number o f d e f e c t i v e s
d1 = 77
d2 = 64
d3 = 75
d4 = 93
d5 = 45
d6 = 61
d7 = 49
d8 = 65
d9 = 45
d10 = 77
d11 = 59
d12 = 54
d13 = 84
d14 = 40
d15 = 92
d = d1 + d2 + d3 + d4 + d5 + d6 + d7 + d8 + d9 + d10 + d11 + d12 + d13 + d14 +
d15 // t o t a l number o f d e f e c t i v e s
c1 = d / n1
ucl1 = c1 + 3* sqrt ( c1 )
lcl1 = c1 - 3* sqrt ( c1 )
// r e v i s e d c o n t r o l l i m i t s
n2 = 12 // t o t a l number o f sub g r o u p s
D = d - ( d4 + d14 + d15 ) // number o f d e f e c t s
c2 = D / n2
ucl2 = c2 + 3* sqrt ( c2 )
lcl2 = c2 - 3* sqrt ( c2 )
printf ( \n P r e l i m i n a r y c o n t r o l l i m i t s \n UCL = %0 . 2 f
\n LCL = %0 . 2 f \n R e v i s e d c o n t r o l l i m i t s \n UCL
= %0 . 3 f \n LCL = %0 . 3 f , ucl1 , lcl1 , ucl2 , lcl2 )
109

Scilab code Exa 21.9 find control limits for charts


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clc
n = 20 // number o f s a m p l e s
A = 1.342
A1 = 1.596
A2 = 0.577
d2 = 2.326
d3 = 0.864
D1 = 0
D2 = 4.918
D3 = 0
D4 = 2.115
// number o f d e f e c t i v e s
x1 = 3290
x2 = 3180
x3 = 3350
x4 = 3470
x5 = 3080
x6 = 3240
x7 = 3260
x8 = 3310
x9 = 3640
x10 = 4110
x11 = 3220
x12 = 3590
x13 = 4270
x14 = 4040
x15 = 3580
x16 = 3500
x17 = 3570
x18 = 3560
x19 = 2740
x20 = 3200
110

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r1 = 560
r2 = 410
r3 = 200
r4 = 300
r5 = 90
r6 = 650
r7 = 890
r8 = 410
r9 = 1120
r10 = 520
r11 = 580
r12 = 670
r13 = 480
r14 = 250
r15 = 170
r16 = 670
r17 = 440
r18 = 660
r19 = 560
r20 = 590
x = x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 + x6 + x7 + x8 + x9 + x10 + x11 + x12 + x13 + x14 +
x15 + x16 + x17 + x18 + x19 + x20
r = r1 + r2 + r3 + r4 + r5 + r6 + r7 + r8 + r9 + r10 + r11 + r12 + r13 + r14 +
r15 + r16 + r17 + r18 + r19 + r20
Xavg = x / n
Ravg = r / n
// f o r X c h a r t
ucl1 = Xavg + A2 * Ravg
lcl1 = Xavg - A2 * Ravg
// f o r R c h a r t
ucl2 = D4 * Ravg
lcl2 = D3 * Ravg
// R e v i s e d c o n t r o l l i m i t s
n1 = 15
n2 = 19
X = ( x - ( x5 + x10 + x13 + x14 + x19 ) ) / n1
R = ( r - ( r9 ) ) / n2
// f o r X c h a r t
111

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ucl3 = X + A2 * R
lcl3 = X - A2 * R
// f o r R c h a r t
ucl4 = D4 * R
lcl4 = D3 * R
printf ( \n P r e l i m i n a r y c o n t r o l l i m i t s \n For X
c h a r t s \n UCL = %0 . 2 f \n LCL = %0 . 2 f \n For R
c h a r t s \n UCl = %0 . 3 f \n LCL = %0 . 3 f \n R e v i s e d
c o n t r o l l i m i t s \n For X c h a r t \n UCL = %0 . 3 f \n
LCL = %0 . 3 f \n For R c h a r t s \n UCl = %0 . 3 f \n LCL
= %0 . 3 f , ucl1 , lcl1 , ucl2 , lcl2 , ucl3 , ucl3 , ucl4 ,
lcl4 )
75 //
Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

Scilab code Exa 21.10 Determine producers and consumers risk


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clc
clf ()
n = 50 // s a m p l e s i z e
rn = 2 // r e j e c t i o n number
AQL = 0.02
LTPD = 0.08
// P r o d u c e r s r i s k
z1 = n * AQL // mean number o f d e f e c t i v e s
pp1 = exp ( - z1 ) + z1 * exp ( - z1 ) // p o i s s o n p r o a b i l i t y f o r
1 or l e s s d e f e c t i v e
alpha = (1 - pp1 ) *100 // p r o d u c e r s r i s k
// consumer s r i s k
z2 = n * LTPD // mean number o f d e f e c t i v e s
bita = ( exp ( - z2 ) + z2 * exp ( - z2 ) ) *100 // consumer s r i s k
d1 = 1 // i n c o m i n g d e f e c t i v e i n p e r c e n t
z3 = n * d1 /100 // a v e r a g e number o f d e f e c t i v e
ppa1 = exp ( - z3 ) + z3 * exp ( - z3 ) // p r o a b i l i t y o f
acceptance
ppa1 = ppa1 *100
112

18 ppr1 = 100 - ppa1 // p r o a b i l i t y o f r e j e c t i o n


19 AOQ1 = ppr1 *0 + ppa1 * d1 /100
20 d2 = 2 // i n c o m i n g d e f e c t i v e i n p e r c e n t
21 z4 = n * d2 /100 // a v e r a g e number o f d e f e c t i v e
22 ppa2 = exp ( - z4 ) + z4 * exp ( - z4 ) // p r o a b i l i t y o f
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acceptance
ppa2 = ppa2 *100
ppr2 = 100 - ppa2 // p r o a b i l i t y o f r e j e c t i o n
AOQ2 = ppr2 *0 + ppa2 * d2 /100
d3 = 4 // i n c o m i n g d e f e c t i v e i n p e r c e n t
z5 = n * d3 /100 // a v e r a g e number o f d e f e c t i v e
ppa3 = exp ( - z5 ) + z5 * exp ( - z5 ) // p r o a b i l i t y o f
acceptance
ppa3 = ppa3 *100
ppr3 = 100 - ppa3 // p r o a b i l i t y o f r e j e c t i o n
AOQ3 = ppr3 *0 + ppa3 * d3 /100
d4 = 6 // i n c o m i n g d e f e c t i v e i n p e r c e n t
z6 = n * d4 /100 // a v e r a g e number o f d e f e c t i v e
ppa4 = exp ( - z6 ) + z6 * exp ( - z6 ) // p r o a b i l i t y o f
acceptance
ppa4 = ppa4 *100
ppr4 = 100 - ppa4 // p r o a b i l i t y o f r e j e c t i o n
AOQ4 = ppr4 *0 + ppa4 * d4 /100
d5 = 8 // i n c o m i n g d e f e c t i v e i n p e r c e n t
z7 = n * d5 /100 // a v e r a g e number o f d e f e c t i v e
ppa5 = exp ( - z7 ) + z7 * exp ( - z7 ) // p r o a b i l i t y o f
acceptance
ppa5 = ppa5 *100
ppr5 = 100 - ppa5 // p r o a b i l i t y o f r e j e c t i o n
AOQ5 = ppr5 *0 + ppa5 * d5 /100
printf ( \n P r o d u c e r s r i s k = %0 . 2 f p e r c e n t \n
Consumers r i s k = %0 . 3 f p e r c e n t , alpha , bita )
x = [1 ,2 ,4 ,6 ,8]
y = [0.91 ,1.4716 ,1.624 ,1.194 ,0.733]
plot (x , y )
xtitle ( AOQ c u r v e , P e r c e n t d e c t i v e s , AOQ o f l o t
)

113

Chapter 22
Kinematics of machine tools

Scilab code Exa 22.1 Find range of cutting velocity


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clc
d1 = 10 // min . d i a o f c u t t e r i n mm
d2 = 60 // max . d i a o f c u t t e r i n mm
v = 30 e3 // o p e r a t i n g s p e e d i n m/ min
n1 = v / ( %pi * d2 ) // n min i n rpm
n2 = v / ( %pi * d1 ) // n max i n rpm
phi = ( n2 / n1 ) ^(1/5)
spindle_speeds = zeros ()
for i =0:5
spindle_speeds ( i +1) = phi ^ i * n1
end
cutter_dia = v ./ ( %pi * spindle_speeds )
clf ()
y = [0; v ]
plot ([0; cutter_dia (1) ] , y , [0; cutter_dia (2) ] , y ,
[0; cutter_dia (3) ] , y , [0; cutter_dia (4) ] , y , [0;
cutter_dia (5) ] , y , [0; cutter_dia (6) ] , y )
16 xtitle ( , c u t t e r d i a m e t e r mm , c u t t i n g v e l o c i t y , m/
min )
17 // from g r a p h
18 vmax1 = 36 // m/ min
114

19 vmin1 = 24.5 // m/ min


20 r1 = vmax1 - vmin1 // Range o f
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c u t t i n g s p e e d f o r 12
mm d i a m e t e r i n m/ min
vmax2 = 36.5 // m/ min .
vmin2 = 26 // m/ min .
r2 = vmax2 - vmin2 // Range o f c u t t i n g s p e e d f o r 36
mm d i a m e t e r i n m/ min
printf ( \n Range o f c u t t i n g s p e e d f o r 12 mm d i a m e t e r
= %0 . 1 f m/ min . \ n Range o f c u t t i n g s p e e d f o r 36
mm d i a m e t e r = %0 . 1 f m/ min . , r1 , r2 )

Scilab code Exa 22.2 Determine speed ratios and teeth


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clc
m = 2.5 // module i n mm
phi = 1.2 // common r a t i o
n = 150 // s p e e d i n r e v / min .
n1 = 70 // s p e e d i n r e v / min .
n2 = ( phi ) ^1* n1 // s p e e d i n
n3 = ( phi ) ^2* n1 // s p e e d i n
n4 = ( phi ) ^3* n1 // s p e e d i n
T1 = poly (0 , T1 )
t1 = n1 / n * T1
T1 = roots ( t1 + T1 -80)
t1 = horner ( t1 , T1 )
T2 = poly (0 , T2 )
t2 = n2 / n * T2
T2 = roots ( t2 + T2 -80)
t2 = horner ( t2 , T2 )
T3 = poly (0 , T3 )
t3 = n3 / n * T3
T3 = roots ( t3 + T3 -80)
t3 = horner ( t3 , T3 )
T4 = poly (0 , T4 )
t4 = n4 / n * T4
115

of driving
of driven
r e v / min . o f
r e v / min . o f
r e v / min . o f

shaft
shaft
driven shaft
driven shaft
driven shaft

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T4 = roots ( t4 + T4 -80)
t4 = horner ( t4 , T4 )
t1 = floor ( t1 ) // number o f t e e t h on d r i v i n g s h a f t
T1 = ceil ( T1 ) // number o f t e e t h on d r i v e n s h a f t
t2 = ceil ( t2 ) // number o f t e e t h on d r i v i n g s h a f t
T2 = floor ( T2 ) // number o f t e e t h on d r i v e n s h a f t
t3 = floor ( t3 ) // number o f t e e t h on d r i v i n g s h a f t
T3 = ceil ( T3 ) // number o f t e e t h on d r i v e n s h a f t
t4 = ceil ( t4 ) // number o f t e e t h on d r i v i n g s h a f t
T4 = floor ( T4 ) // number o f t e e t h on d r i v e n s h a f t
// r u n n i n g s p e e d s
n1 = n * t1 / T1
n2 = n * t2 / T2
n3 = n * t3 / T3
n4 = n * t4 / T4
printf ( \n Number o f t e e t h on d r i v e r and d r i v e n a r e
: \n t 1 = %d , T1 = %d\n t 2 = %d , T2 = %d \n t 3 =
%d , T3 = %d \n t 4 = %d , T4 = %d ,t1 , T1 , t2 , T2 , t3
, T3 , t4 , T4 )
39 printf ( \n The a c t u a l r u n n i n g s p e e d o f d r i v e n s h a f t
w i l l be : \n n1 = %0 . 2 f r e v / min \n n2 = %0 . 2 f r e v /
min \n n3 = %0 . 2 f r e v / min \n n4 = %0 . 2 f r e v / min ,
n1 , n2 , n3 , n4 )
40 // Answer o f n3 i s g i v e n wrong i n book
41 // Answer v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

Scilab code Exa 22.3 Calculate speed and number of teeths


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clc
z = 6 // number o f s t e p s
n1 = 180 // r e v / min
n2 = 100 // r e v / min
Rn = n1 / n2
phi = ( Rn ) ^(1/( z -1) ) // common r a t i o
n3 = phi * n2 // r e v / min
116

n4 = ( phi ) ^2* n2 // r e v / min


n5 = ( phi ) ^3* n2 // r e v / min
n6 = ( phi ) ^4* n2 // r e v / min
n7 = 225 // s p e e d o f i n p u t s h a f t i n r e v / min
Ta = poly (0 , Ta )
tb = n7 / n5 * Ta
Ta = roots ( tb + Ta -52)
tb = horner ( tb , Ta )
tb = ceil ( tb )
Tc = poly (0 , Tc )
td = n7 / n6 * Tc
Tc = roots ( td + Tc -52)
td = horner ( td , Tc )
Tc = ceil ( Tc )
Te = poly (0 , Te )
tf = n7 / n1 * Te
Te = roots ( tf + Te -52)
tf = horner ( tf , Te )
tf = ceil ( tf )
Th = poly (0 , Th )
tj = n2 / n5 * Th
Th = roots ( tj + Th -46)
Th = ceil ( Th )
tj = horner ( tj , Th )
tj = floor ( tj )
Ti = poly (0 , Ti )
tg = n5 / n5 * Ti
Ti = roots ( tg + Ti -46)
tg = horner ( tg , Ti )
printf ( \n Ta = %d Tb = %d \n Tc = %d Td = %d \n Te
= %d t f = %d \n Th = %d Tj = %d \n Ti = %d Tg =
%d , Ta , tb , Tc , td , Te , tf , tj , Th , Ti , tg )
38 // Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

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Scilab code Exa 22.4 Calculate common ratio


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1 clc
2 v = 21 // c u t t i n g s p e e d i n r e v / min .
3 z = 6
4 dmin = 5 // d a i m e t e r i n mm
5 dmax = 20 // d a i m e t e r i n mm
6 nmax = 1000* v /( %pi * dmin ) // s p i n d l e s p e e d i n r e v / min
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nmin = 1000* v /( %pi * dmax ) // s p i n d l e s p e e d i n r e v / min
.
phi = ( nmax / nmin ) ^(1/( z -1) ) // common r a t i o
n1 = nmin // r e v / min .
n2 = phi * n1 // r e v / min .
n3 = ( phi ) ^2* n1 // r e v / min .
n4 = ( phi ) ^3* n1 // r e v / min .
n5 = ( phi ) ^4* n1 // r e v / min .
n6 = ( phi ) ^5* n1 // r e v / min .
printf ( \n Common r a t i o = %0 . 2 f \n S p i n d l e s p e e d s
a r e : %0 . 2 f , %0 . 1 f , %0 . 2 f , %0 . 2 f ,%0 . 2 f and %0
. 1 f r e v / min . ,phi , n1 , n2 , n3 , n4 , n5 , n6 )
// Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

Scilab code Exa 22.5 Calculate gear ratio teeth and speed
1 // from f i g . 2 2 . 1 8A
2 clc
3 // Three g e a r r a t i o s b e t w e e n i n p u t and i n t e r m e d i a t e
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shaft
nmax = 1400 // maximum s p e e d i n r e v / min .
i1 = 1/1
i2 = 1/1.26
i3 = 1/(1.26) ^2
// The two r a t i o s b e t w e e n i n t e r m e d i a t e and o u t p u t
shaft
i4 = 1/1
i5 = 1/(1.26) ^3
118

11 // number o f t e e t h f o r i n p u t and i n t e r m e d i a t e s h a f t
12 t1 = 27/27
13 t2 = 24/30
14 t3 = 21/33
15 //
number o f t e e t h f o r o u t p u t and i n t e r m e d i a t e
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

26

shaft
t4 = 34/34
t5 = 20/48
// o u t p u t s p e e d s i n r e v . / min
n1 = t3 * t5 * nmax
n2 = t2 * t5 * nmax
n3 = t1 * t5 * nmax
n4 = t3 * t4 * nmax
n5 = t2 * t4 * nmax
n6 = t1 * t4 * nmax
printf ( \n Three g e a r r a t i o s b e t w e e n i n p u t and
i n t e r m e d i a t e s h a f t i 1 = %d i 2 = %0 . 2 f i 3 = %0 . 3 f
\n The two r a t i o s b e t w e e n i n t e r m e d i a t e and
o u t p u t s h a f t i 4 = %d i 5 = %0 . 3 f \n number o f
t e e t h f o r e a c h p a i r b e t w e e n i n p u t and
i n t e r m e d i a t e s h a f t t1 = 27/27 , t2 = 24/30 , t3 =
2 1 / 3 3 \n number o f t e e t h f o r e a c h p a i r b e t w e e n
o u t p u t and i n t e r m e d i a t e s h a f t = t 4 = 3 4 / 3 4 , t 5 =
2 0 / 4 8 \n Output s p e e d s \n n1 = %d r e v / min , n2 =
%d r e v / min , n3 = %d r e v / min \n n4 = %d r e v / min ,
n5 = %d r e v / min , n6 = %d r e v / min , i1 , i2 , i3
, i4 , i5 , n1 , n2 , n3 , n4 , n5 , n6 )
// Answer v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

119

Chapter 23
Production planning and
control

Scilab code Exa 23.1 Calculate forecast


1
2
3
4
5
6

clc
d1 = 90 // demand f o r f i r s t q u a r t e r
d2 = 100 // demand f o r s e c o n d q u a r t e r
d3 = 80 // demand f o r t h i r d q u a r t e r
sa = ( d1 + d2 + d3 ) /3 // s i m p l e a v e r a g e
printf ( \n F o r e c a s t = %d , sa )

Scilab code Exa 23.2 Calculate forecat by SMA method


1
2
3
4
5
6
7

clc
d1 =
d2 =
d3 =
d4 =
d5 =
d6 =

300
350
400
500
600
700

//
//
//
//
//
//

demand
demand
demand
demand
demand
demand

for
for
for
for
for
for

july
august
september
october
november
december
120

8
9
10

// a s s u m i n g n = 3 , where n i s number o f t i m e p e r i o d
forecast = ( d6 + d5 + d4 ) /3 // f o r e c a s t
printf ( \n F o r e c a s t = %d , forecast )

Scilab code Exa 23.3 Calculate forecat by WMA method


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

clc
d1 = 500 // demand f o r o c t o b e r
d2 = 600 // demand f o r november
d3 = 700 // demand f o r d e c e m b e r
w1 = 0.25 // r e l a t i v e w e i g h t w i t h d e c e m b e r
w2 = 0.25 // r e l a t i v e w e i g h t w i t h november
w3 = 0.5 // r e l a t i v e w e i g h t w i t h o c t o b e r
f = w1 * d1 + w2 * d2 + w3 * d3 // f o r e c a s t
printf ( \n F o r e c a s t by w e i g h t e d moving a v e r a g e = %d
, f)

Scilab code Exa 23.4 Calculate forecast for january


1
2
3
4
5
6

clc
alpha = 0.7 // s m o o t h i n g c o e f f i c i e n t
d1 = 250 // demand f o r november
d2 = 300 // demand f o r d e c e m b e r
f1 = 200 // f o r e c a s t f o r november
f2 = alpha * d1 + (1 - alpha ) * f1 // f o r e c a s t f o r
december
7 f3 = alpha * d2 + (1 - alpha ) * f2 // f o r e c a s t f o r j a n u a r y
8 f3 = ceil ( f3 )
9 printf ( \n F o r e c a s t f o r j a n u a r y = %d u n i t s , f3 )

121

Scilab code Exa 23.5 Calculate total cost


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

clc
s =
c =
a =
i =

600 // s e t up c o s t p e r l o t i n Rs
6 // u n i t c o s t o f i t e m i n Rs
100000 // a n n u a l demand f o r i t e m
25 // a n n u a l c a r r y i n g c h a r g e s o f a v e r a g e
inventory
i = 25/100
k = c * i // c a r r y i n g c o s t f a c t o r i n u n i t / y e a r
n = sqrt (2* s * a / k ) // most e c o n o m i c l o t s i z e
tc = a * c + s * a / n + k * n /2 // t o t a l c o s t i n Rs
printf ( \n T o t a l c o s t = Rs %0 . 2 f , tc )
//
Answers v a r y due t o round o f f e r r o r

Scilab code Exa 23.6 Calculate economical order quantity


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

clc
a =
c =
r =
i =

8000 // a n n u a l r e q u i r e m e n t o f p a r t s
60 // u n i t c o s t o f p a r t i n Rs
150 // o r d e r i n g c o s t p e r l o t i n Rs
30 // a n n u a l c a r r y i n g c h a r g e s o f a v e r a g e
inventory
i = 30/100
k = i * c // c a r r y i n g c o s t p e r u n i t p e r y e a r
n = sqrt (2* r * a / k ) // most e c o n o m i c a l o r d e r q u a n t i t y
printf ( \n Most e c o n o m i c a l o r d e r i n g q u a n t i t y = %d
u n i t s , n)

Scilab code Exa 23.7 Calculate economic lot size


1 clc
2 a = 12000 // a n n u a l r e q u i r e m e n t

122

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

c = 5 // u n i t c o s t o f p a r t
s = 60 // s e t up c o s t p e r l o t
p = 18750 // p r o d u c t i o n r a t e p e r y e a r
i = 20 // i n v e n t o r y c a r r y i n g c o s t
i = 20/100
k = i * c // c a r r y i n g c o s t p e r u n i t p e r y e a r
n = sqrt (2* s /(1/ a -1/ p ) * k ) // Most e c o n o m i c l o t s i z e
printf ( \n Most e c o n o m i c l o t s i z e = %d p a r t s , n )

Scilab code Exa 23.8 Calculate inventory control terms


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

clc
a = 15625 // a n n u a l r e q u i r e m e n t o f p a r t s
c = 12 // u n i t c o s t o f p a r t i n Rs
r = 60 // o r d e r i n g c o s t p e r l o t i n Rs
k = 1.2 // i n v e n t o r y c a r r y i n g c o s t p e r u n i t
n = sqrt (2* r * a / k ) // e c o n o m i c a l o r d e r q u a n t i t y
oc = r * a / n // o r d e r i n g c o s t i n Rs
cc = k * n /2 // c a r r y i n g c o s t i n Rs
tc = oc + cc // t o t a l i n v e n t o r y c o s t i n Rs
printf ( \n E c o n o m i c a l o r d e r q u a n t i t y = %d u n i t s \n
o r d e r c o s t = Rs %d\n c a r r y i n g c o s t = Rs %d\n
T o t a l i n v e n t o r y c o s t = Rs %d , n , oc , cc , tc )

Scilab code Exa 23.9 Calculate discount offered


1
2
3
4
5
6
7

clc
// c a s e a
a = 50 // a n n u a l r e q u i r e m e n t
c = 500 // u n i t c o s t o f p a r t
r = 100 // o r d e r i n g c o s t p e r
i = 20 // i n v e n t o r y c a r r y i n g
i = i /100
123

of parts in tonnes
i n Rs
o r d e r i n Rs
cost

d = 2 // d i s c o u n t o f p u r c h a s e c o s t i n p e r c e n t
k = i * c // i n v e n t o r y c a r r y i n g c o s t p e r u n i t
n1 = sqrt (2* r * a / k ) // e c o n o m i c a l o r d e r q u a n t i t y
oc1 = r * a / n1 // o r d e r i n g c o s t i n Rs
cc1 = k * n1 /2 // c a r r y i n g c o s t i n Rs
tc1 = oc1 + cc1 // t o t a l i n v e n t o r y c o s t i n Rs
// c a s e b
n2 = 25 // o r d e r p e r l o t
oc2 = r * a / n2 // o r d e r i n g c o s t i n Rs
cc2 = k * n2 /2 // c a r r y i n g c o s t i n Rs
tc2 = oc2 + cc2 // t o t a l i n v e n t o r y c o s t i n Rs
i = tc2 - tc1 // i n c r e a s e i n c o s t i n Rs
d_o = d * c * a /100 // d i s c o u n t o f f e r e d
printf ( \n I n c r e a s e i n i n v e n t o r y c o s t = Rs %d\n
D i s c o u n t o f f e r e d = Rs%d ,i , d_o )
22 disp ( o f f e r i s worth a c c e p t i n g )

8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

Scilab code Exa 23.10 Calculate EOQ and reorder point


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

clc
a = 1000000 // a n n u a l r e q u i r e m e n t o f p a r t s
r = 32 // o r d e r i n g c o s t p e r l o t i n Rs
k = 4 // i n v e n t o r y c a r r y i n g c o s t p e r u n i t
d1 = 250 // number o f w o r k i n g d a y s
d2 = 2 // d a y s f o r s a f e t y s t o c k
d3 = 4 // l e a d t i m e i n d a y s
eoq = sqrt (2* r * a / k ) // e c o n o m i c a l o r d e r q u a n t i t y
oc = r * a / eoq // o r d e r i n g c o s t i n Rs
cc = k * eoq /2 // c a r r y i n g c o s t i n Rs
tc = oc + cc // t o t a l i n v e n t o r y c o s t i n Rs
ss = a * d2 / d1 // s a f e t y s t o c k
ro_p = ss + eoq * d3 // r e o r d e r p o i n t
printf ( \n Economic o r d e r q u n a n t i t y = %d c o m po n e n t s \
n Reo r d e r p o i n t = %d c o m p o n e n t s , eoq , ro_p )

124

Chapter 26
Plant layout

Scilab code Exa 26.1 Calculate number of machine required


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

clc
N = 100000 // a n n u a l o u t p u t o f p a r t s
s = 2 // e x p e c t e d s c r a p
t = 105 // e s t i m a t e d t i m e p e r p a r t i n s
ita = 80 // p r o d u c t i o n e f f i c i e n c y o f machine
a = 2300 // number o f w o r k i n g h o u r s
output = (3600* ita ) /( t *100) // p a r t s r e q u i r e d p e r
hour
pr = N *(100+ s ) /( a *100) // o u t p u t from one machine
per hour
mr = pr / output // m a c h i n e s r e q u i r e d
printf ( \n Number o f m a c h i n e s r e q u i r e d = %0 . 2 f , mr
)
disp ( I f machine i s t o be u s e d e x c l u s i v e l y f o r p a r t
c o n s i d e r e d two m a c h i n e s r e q u i r e d )

125