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2006 PIping Handbook

2006 PIping Handbook

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Oakum is made from a vegetable fiber and is used for packing hub and spigot joints. Cotton and
hemp also can be used. These materials are usually twisted loosely into strands or braided and
formed into a circular or rectangular cross section. A rough rule-of-thumb method for estimating
oakum requirements is to take 10 percent of the weight of the lead required for caulking. Table 1
provides a more accurate method for estimating oakum requirements.
Lead quantities can be roughly estimated by rule of-of-thumb as 12 ounces per inch of diame-
ter as a minimum. Thus,a four-inch diameter pipe would require three pounds of lead as a minimum.
An eight-inch diameter pipe would require six pounds of lead. This allows for skimming-off and for
areasonable loss due to spillage in pouring. Table 2 lists suggested lead quantities for various pipe
and fitting diameters. The amounts shown apply only to cast iron soil pipe and fittings made accord-
ing to ASTM Standard A-74.

Figure 5—CISPI 310 CI No-Hub®

coupling.

1

The use of adhesive lubricants is permissible as recommended by the manufacturer. When adhesive lubricants are used,wait 24 hours before
testing.The use of the adhesivelubricant does not take the place of proper joint restraint.

48

The standards of the Lead Industries Association contain the specification for lead quality. Lead
for caulking purposes should contain no less than 99.73 percent of lead and no more than the
following maximum allowable impurities:.08 percent copper,.002 percent zinc,.002 percent iron,
.25 per cent bismuth,.02 percent silver,and a total of not more than 0.15 percent arsenic,antimony,
and tin. The melting point for caulking lead is 621o

F,and the proper pouring temperature is

790o

–830o

F. The lead is ready for pouring when it becomes a cherry red. After cooling,there is a
shrinkageof approximately 5.8 percent from the liquid state.
Prior to the late 1950s,the caulked joint was the only method of joining hub and spigot cast iron
soil pipe. To make a caulked joint,the following steps are used:

TABLE 2

Lead Required to Caulk Cast Iron Soil Pipe Joints

Service

Extra heavy

SV

XH

Pipe Size

Lead Ring

in Inches

Depth Inches

Cu. Ins.

Wt. Lbs.

Cu. Ins.

Wt. Lbs.

2

1

2.81

1.15

2.91

1.19

3

1

3.90

1.6

4.17

1.71

4

1

4.98

2.04

5.25

2.15

5

1

6.06

2.49

6.24

2.56

6

1

7.15

2.93

7.42

3.04

8

1.25

15.06

6.17

15.49

6.35

10

1.25

18.90

7.75

19.34

7.93

12

1.25

25.53

10.47

26.02

10.67

15

1.5

43.09

17.67

43.38

17.8

INSTALLATION

TABLE 1

Quantity of Oakum Packing Required Per Joint in Standard Hub
and Spigot Cast Iron Soil Pipe

Tarred or Untarred

Dry Unoiled

Sq. Braided

(Oiled)

Twisted Oakum

Oakum Packing

Pipe Size

Twisted Oakum

Packing Pounds

Pounds (Approx.)

in Inches

Packing,Pounds

(Approx.)

Using I ring

2

.14

.09

.07

3

.16

.10

.08

4

.18

.13

.10

5

.20

.15

.12

6

.21

.16

.13

8

.44

.33

.17

10

.53

.40

.20

12

.61

.46

.24

15

.94

.71

.45

49

INSTALLATION

(1) The spigot end of a pipe or fitting is placed inside the hub of another pipe or fitting,making sure that
both are clean and dry. (2) Oakum is placed in the joint using a yarning iron and then packed to the prop-
er depth by using the packing iron. (See Table 1.) For specifying depth of lead for each size and class,see
Table 2. (3) Molten lead is then poured into the joint. The molten lead is brought up to the top of the hub.
(4) After the lead has solidified and cooled somewhat,the joint is ready to be caulked. Caulking is per-
formed with inside and outside caulking irons. Caulking the joint sets the lead and makes a leak-free joint.
Any time caulked joints are used,safety procedures should be observed and protective equip-
ment and clothing should be worn. Use customary precautions in using or handling molten lead. If
ahorizontal joint is to be made,a pouring rope must be used to retain the molten lead in the hub.
Note:The caulked joint is a very time-consuming method of joining cast iron soil pipe. The vast
majority of all hub and spigot cast iron soil pipe installed today is joined by using the compression gasket.

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