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Grammar

Grammar

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Phrasal Verbs List This is a list of about 200 common phrasal verbs, with meanings and examples.

Phrasal verbs are usually two-word phrases consisting of verb + adverb or verb + preposition. Think of them as you would any other English vocabulary. Study them as you come across them, rather than trying to memorize many at once. Use the list below as a reference guide when you find an expression that you don't recognize. The examples will help you understand the meanings. If you think of each phrasal verb as a separate verb with a specific meaning, you will be able to remember it more easily. Like many other verbs, phrasal verbs often have more than one meaning. As well as learning their meanings, you need to learn how to use phrasal verbs properly. Some phrasal verbs require a direct object (someone/something), while others do not. Some phrasal verbs can be separated by the object, while others cannot. Review the grammar lesson on phrasal verbs from time to time so that you don't forget the rules! Most phrasal verbs consist of two words, but a few consist of three words, which always stay together. Verb ask someone out Meaning invite on a date Example Brian asked Judy out to dinner and a movie. I asked around but nobody has seen my wallet. Your purchases add up to $205.32. You'll have to back up your car so that I can get out. My wife backed me up over my decision to quit my job. The racing car blew up after it crashed into the fence. We have to blow 50 balloons up for the party. Our car broke down at the side of the highway in the snowstorm. The woman broke down when the police told her that her son had died. Our teacher broke the final project down into three separate parts. Somebody broke in last night and stole our stereo. The firemen had to break into the room to rescue the children. I need to break these shoes in before we run next week. The TV station broke in to report the news of the president's death. My boyfriend and I broke up before I moved to America. The kids just broke up as soon as the clown started talking. The prisoners broke out of jail when the guards weren't looking. I broke out in a rash after our camping trip. This sad music is bringing me down. My grandparents brought me up after my parents died. My mother walks out of the room when my father brings up sports.

ask around

ask many people the same question

add up to something back something up

equal reverse

back someone up

support

blow up

explode

blow something up

add air

break down

stop functioning (vehicle, machine)

break down

get upset

break something down

divide into smaller parts

break in

force entry to a building

break into something

enter forcibly

break something in

wear something a few times so that it doesn't look/feel new interrupt

break in

break up

end a relationship

break up

start laughing (informal)

break out

escape

break out in something

develop a skin condition

bring someone down bring someone up

make unhappy raise a child

bring something up

start talking about a subject

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bring something up

vomit

He drank so much that he brought his dinner up in the toilet. We called around but we weren't able to find the car part we needed. I called the company back but the offices were closed for the weekend. Jason called the wedding off because he wasn't in love with his fiancé. The professor called on me for question 1. We called on you last night but you weren't home. Give me your phone number and I will call you up when we are in town. You are still mad. You need to calm down before you drive the car. I don't care for his behaviour.

call around

phone many different places/people

call someone back

return a phone call

call something off

cancel

call on someone

ask for an answer or opinion

call on someone

visit someone

call someone up

phone

calm down

relax after being angry

not care for someone/something catch up

not like (formal)

get to the same point as someone else

You'll have to run faster than that if you want to catch up with Marty. We will get the hotel keys when we check in. You have to check out of the hotel before 11:00 AM. The company checks out all new employees. Check out the crazy hair on that guy!

check in

arrive and register at a hotel or airport leave a hotel

check out

check someone/something out check out someone/something cheer up

look at carefully, investigate

look at (informal)

become happier

She cheered up when she heard the good news. I brought you some flowers to cheer you up. If everyone chips in we can get the kitchen painted by noon. Please clean up your bedroom before you go outside. I came across these old photos when I was tidying the closet. The top and bottom come apart if you pull hard enough. My nephew came down with chicken pox this weekend. The woman came forward with her husband's finger prints. The art of origami comes from Asia. I am counting on you to make dinner while I am out. Please cross out your old address and write your new one. My doctor wants me to cut back on sweets and fatty foods. We had to cut the old tree in our yard down after the storm.

cheer someone up

make happier

chip in

help

clean something up

tidy, clean

come across something

find unexpectedly

come apart

separate

come down with something come forward

become sick

volunteer for a task or to give evidence originate in rely on

come from somewhere count on someone/something cross something out

draw a line through

cut back on something

consume less

cut something down

make something fall to the ground

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cut in

interrupt

Your father cut in while I was dancing with your uncle. The bus driver got angry when that car cut in. The air conditioner cuts in when the temperature gets to 22°C. The doctors cut off his leg because it was severely injured. The phone company cut off our phone because we didn't pay the bill. My grandparents cut my father off when he remarried. I cut this ad out of the newspaper.

cut in

pull in too closely in front of another vehicle start operating (of an engine or electrical device) remove with something sharp

cut in

cut something off

cut something off

stop providing

cut someone off

take out of a will

cut something out

remove part of something (usually with scissors and paper) beat up, ransack (Br.E., informal)

do someone/something over do something over

He's lucky to be alive. His shop was done over by a street gang. My teacher wants me to do my essay over because she doesn't like my topic. It's time to do away with all of these old tax records. Do your coat up before you go outside. It's snowing! It's a fancy restaurant so we have to dress up. Andrea dropped back to third place when she fell off her bike. I might drop in/by/over for tea some time this week. I have to drop my sister off at work before I come over. I dropped out of Science because it was too difficult. I don't feel like cooking tonight. Let's eat out. We ended up renting a movie instead of going to the theatre. My new dress fell apart in the washing machine. The picture that you hung up last night fell down this morning. The money must have fallen out of my pocket. His hair started to fall out when he was only 35. I need to figure out how to fit the piano and the bookshelf in this room. Please fill in the form with your name, address, and phone number. The form must be filled out in capital letters. I always fill the water jug up when it is empty. We don't know where he lives. How can

do again (N.Amer.)

do away with something

discard

do something up

fasten, close

dress up

wear nice clothing

drop back

move back in a position/group

drop in/by/over

come without an appointment

drop someone/something off drop out

take someone/something somewhere and leave them/it there quit a class, school etc

eat out

eat at a restaurant

end up

eventually reach/do/decide

fall apart

break into pieces

fall down

fall to the ground

fall out

separate from an interior

fall out

(of hair, teeth) become loose and unattached understand, find the answer

figure something out

fill something in

to write information in blanks (Br.E.)

fill something out

to write information in blanks (N.Amer.) fill to the top

fill something up

find out

discover

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we find out find something out discover

We tried to keep the time of the party a secret, but Samantha found it out. I tried to get my point across/over to the judge but she wouldn't listen. I was surprised how well my new girlfriend and my sister got along/on. My grandfather can get around fine in his new wheelchair. We worked so hard this year that we had to get away for a week. Jason always gets away with cheating in his maths tests. We got back from our vacation last week. Liz finally got her Science notes back from my room-mate. My sister got back at me for stealing her shoes. She stole my favourite hat. I finally got back into my novel and finished it. We're going to freeze out here if you don't let us get on the bus. I just got over the flu and now my sister has it. The company will have to close if it can't get over the new regulations. I don't know when I am going to get round to writing the thank you cards. Let's get together for a BBQ this weekend. I got up early today to study for my exam. You should get up and give the elderly man your seat. His wife gave him away to the police.

get something across/over get along/on

communicate, make understandable

like each other

get around

have mobility

get away

go on a vacation

get away with something

do without being noticed or punished

get back

return

get something back

receive something you had before

get back at someone

retaliate, take revenge

get back into something

become interested in something again

get on something

step onto a vehicle

get over something

recover from an illness, loss, difficulty overcome a problem

get over something

get round to something

finally find time to do (N.Amer.: get around to something) meet (usually for social reasons)

get together

get up

get out of bed

get up

stand

give someone away

reveal hidden information about someone take the bride to the altar ruin a secret

give someone away give something away

My father gave me away at my wedding. My little sister gave the surprise party away by accident. The library was giving away old books on Friday. I have to give these skates back to Franz before his hockey game. My boyfriend didn't want to go to the ballet, but he finally gave in. They were giving out free perfume samples at the department store. I am giving up smoking as of January 1st. My maths homework was too difficult so I gave up.

give something away

give something to someone for free

give something back

return a borrowed item

give in

reluctantly stop fighting or arguing

give something out

give to many people (usually at no cost) quit a habit

give something up

give up

stop trying

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go after someone

follow someone

My brother tried to go after the thief in his car. I went after my dream and now I am a published writer. We are going against the best soccer team in the city tonight. Please go ahead and eat before the food gets cold. I have to go back home and get my lunch. We're going out for dinner tonight. Jesse has been going out with Luke since they met last winter. Please go over your answers before you submit your test. I haven't seen Tina for a long time. I think I'll go over for an hour or two. When I was young, we went without winter boots. My best friend and I grew apart after she changed schools. My roses grew back this summer. When Jack grows up he wants to be a fireman. Elizabeth needs a new pair of shoes because she has grown out of her old ones. This bike is too big for him now, but he should grow into it by next year. I handed my old comic books down to my little cousin. I have to hand in my essay by Friday. We will hand out the invitations at the door. The police asked the man to hand over his wallet and his weapons. Hang in there. I'm sure you'll find a job very soon. Hang on while I grab my coat and shoes! Instead of going to the party we are just going to hang out at my place. He didn't say goodbye before he hung up. I had to hold my dog back because there was a cat in the park. Jamie held back his tears at his grandfather's funeral. Please hold on while I transfer you to the Sales Department. Hold onto your hat because it's very windy outside. A man in a black mask held the bank up

go after something

try to achieve something

go against someone

compete, oppose

go ahead

start, proceed

go back

return to a place

go out go out with someone

leave home to go on a social event date

go over something

review

go over

visit someone nearby

go without something

suffer lack or deprivation

grow apart

stop being friends over time

grow back grow up

regrow become an adult

grow out of something

get too big for

grow into something

grow big enough to fit

hand something down

give something used to someone else

hand something in hand something out

submit to distribute to a group of people

hand something over

give (usually unwillingly)

hang in

stay positive (N.Amer., informal)

hang on hang out

wait a short time (informal) spend time relaxing (informal)

hang up

end a phone call

hold someone/something back hold something back

prevent from doing/going

hide an emotion

hold on

wait a short time

hold onto someone/something hold

hold firmly using your hands or arms

rob

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someone/somethingup keep on doing something continue doing

this morning. Keep on stirring until the liquid comes to a boil. We kept our relationship from our parents for two years. Try to keep the wet dog out of the living room. If you keep those results up you will get into a great college. I need you to be on time. Don't let me down this time. Can you let the cat in before you go to school? I have to look after my sick grandmother. Ever since we stole that chocolate bar your dad has looked down on me. I'm looking for a red dress for the wedding. I'm looking forward to the Christmas break. We are going to look into the price of snowboards today. Look out! That car's going to hit you! Don't forget to look out for snakes on the hiking trail. Can you look over my essay for spelling mistakes? We can look her phone number up on the Internet. My little sister has always looked up to me. Josie made up a story about about why we were late. We were angry last night, but we made up at breakfast. My sisters made me up for my graduation party. I mixed up the twins' names again! His uncle passed away last night after a long illness. It was so hot in the church that an elderly lady passed out. The professor passed the textbooks out before class. I passed up the job because I am afraid of change. Thanks for buying my ticket. I'll pay you back on Friday. That bully will pay for being mean to my little brother. I picked out three sweaters for you to try

keep something from someone keep someone/something out keep something up

not tell

stop from entering

continue at the same rate

let someone down

fail to support or help, disappoint

let someone in

allow to enter

look after someone/something look down on someone

take care of

think less of, consider inferior

look for someone/something look forward to something look into something

try to find

be excited about the future

investigate

look out look out for someone/something look something over

be careful, vigilant, and take notice be especially vigilant for

check, examine

look something up

search and find information in a reference book or database have a lot of respect for

look up to someone

make something up

invent, lie about something

make up

forgive each other

make someone up

apply cosmetics to

mix something up pass away

confuse two or more things die

pass out

faint

pass something out

give the same thing to many people

pass something up

decline (usually something good)

pay someone back

return owed money

pay for something

be punished for doing something bad

pick something out

choose

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on. point someone/something out put something down indicate with your finger I'll point my boyfriend out when he runs by. You can put the groceries down on the kitchen counter. The students put the substitute teacher down because his pants were too short. We are putting off our trip until January because of the hurricane. The neighbours put the fire out before the firemen arrived. I have to put the crib together before the baby arrives. I don't think I can put up with three small children in the car. Don't forget to put on your new earrings for the party. I ran into an old school-friend at the mall. I accidentally ran over your bicycle in the driveway. Let's run over/through these lines one more time before the show. The child ran away from home and has been missing for three days. We ran out of shampoo so I had to wash my hair with soap. My letter got sent back to me because I used the wrong stamp. Our boss set a meeting up with the president of the company. The police set up the car thief by using a hidden camera. I want to shop around a little before I decide on these boots. He always shows off on his skateboard

put what you are holding on a surface or floor insult, make someone feel stupid

put someone down

put something off

postpone

put something out

extinguish

put something together

assemble

put up with someone/something put something on

tolerate

put clothing/accessories on your body meet unexpectedly

run into someone/something run over someone/something run over/through something run away

drive a vehicle over a person or thing

rehearse, review

leave unexpectedly, escape

run out

have none left

send something back

return (usually by mail)

set something up

arrange, organize

set someone up

trick, trap

shop around

compare prices

show off

act extra special for people watching (usually boastfully) stay somewhere for the night (informal) organize, resolve a problem

sleep over

You should sleep over tonight if the weather is too bad to drive home. We need to sort the bills out before the first of the month. You will lose weight if you stick to the diet. The light's too bright. Could you switch it off. We heard the news as soon as we switched on the car radio. I take after my mother. We are both impatient. He took the car brakes apart and found the problem. I have to take our new TV back because it doesn't work.

sort something out

stick to something

continue doing something, limit yourself to one particular thing stop the energy flow, turn off

switch something off

switch something on

start the energy flow, turn on

take after someone

resemble a family member

take something apart

purposely break into pieces

take something back

return an item

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take off take something off

start to fly remove something (usually clothing)

My plane takes off in five minutes. Take off your socks and shoes and come in the lake! Can you take the garbage out to the street for me? My grandparents took us out for dinner and a movie. I tore up my ex-boyfriend's letters and gave them back to him. When I think back on my youth, I wish I had studied harder. I'll have to think this job offer over before I make my final decision. We threw our old furniture away when we won the lottery. Please turn the TV down while the guests are here. I turned the job down because I don't want to move. Your mother wants you to turn the TV off and come for dinner. It's too dark in here. Let's turn some lights on. Can you turn the music up? This is my favourite song. Our cat turned up after we put posters up all over the neighbourhood. I'm going to try these jeans on, but I don't think they will fit. I am going to try this new brand of detergent out. The kids used all of the toothpaste up so we need to buy some more. We have to wake up early for work on Monday. You can warm your feet up in front of the fireplace. I always warm up by doing sit-ups before I go for a run. Most of my make-up wore off before I got to the party. I work out at the gym three times a week. Our plan worked out fine. We have to work out the total cost before we buy the house.

take something out

remove from a place or thing

take someone out

pay for someone to go somewhere with you rip into pieces

tear something up

think back

remember (often + to, sometimes + on) consider

think something over

throw something away

dispose of

turn something down

decrease the volume or strength (heat, light etc) refuse

turn something down

turn something off

stop the energy flow, switch off

turn something on

start the energy, switch on

turn something up

increase the volume or strength (heat, light etc) appear suddenly

turn up

try something on

sample clothing

try something out

test

use something up

finish the supply

wake up

stop sleeping

warm someone/something up warm up

increase the temperature

prepare body for exercise

wear off

fade away

work out

exercise

work out work something out

be successful make a calculation

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TENSE Tense Changes When Using Reported Speech .Normally, the tense in reported speech is one tense back in time from the tense in direct speech: She said, "I am tired." She said that she was tired.

The changes are shown below: Simple present "I always drink coffee", she said Present continuous "I am reading a book", he explained. Simple past "Bill arrived on Saturday", he said. Present perfect "I have been to Spain", he told me. Past perfect "I had just turned out the light," he explained. Present perfect continuous They complained, "We have been waiting for hours". Past continuous "We were living in Paris", they told me. Simple past She said that she always drank coffee. Past continuous He explained that he was reading a book Past perfect He said that Bill had arrived on Saturday Past perfect He told me that he had been to Spain Past perfect He explained that he had just turned out the light. Past perfect continuous They complained that they had been waiting for hours. Past perfect continuous They told me that they had been living in Paris.

Future "I will be in Geneva on Monday", he said Future continuous She said, "I'll be using the car next Friday".

Present conditional He said that he would be in Geneva on Monday. Conditional continuous She said that she would be using the car next Friday.

NOTE: 1. You do not need to change the tense if the reporting verb is in the present, or if the original statement was about something that is still true, e.g. y y He says he has missed the train but he'll catch the next one. We explained that it is very difficult to find our house.

2. These modal verbs do not change in reported speech: might, could, would, should, ought to, e.g. y y We explained that it could be difficult to find our house. She said that she might bring a friend to the party.

2. Time/place references change when using reported speech Example y "I will see you here tomorrow", she said. She said that she would see me there the next day.

The most common of these changes are shown below: Today "I saw him today", she said. Yesterday "I saw him yesterday", she said. The day before yesterday "I met her the day before yesterday", he said. that day She said that she had seen him that day. the day before She said that she had seen him the day before. two days before He said that he had met her two days before.

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Tomorrow "I'll see you tomorrow", he said The day after tomorrow "We'll come the day after tomorrow", they said. Next week/month/year "I have an appointment next week", she said. Last week/month/year "I was on holiday last week", he told us. ago "I saw her a week ago," he said. this (for time) "I'm getting a new car this week", she said.

the next/following day He said that he would see me the next day. in two days time/ two days later They said that they would come in two days time/ two days later. the following week/month/year She said that she had an appointment the following week. the previous/week/month/year He told us that he had been on holiday the previous week. before He said he had seen her a week before. that She said she was getting a new car that week.

this/that (adjectives) "Do you like this shirt?" he asked here He said, "I live here".

the He asked if I liked the shirt. there He told me he lived there.

Other changes: In general, personal pronouns change to the third person singular or plural, except when the speaker reports his own words: y y I/me/my/mine, you/your/yours we/us/our/ours, you/your/yours him/his/her/hers they/their/theirs:

y y

He said: "I like your new car." He told her that he liked her new car. I said: "I'm going to my friend's house." I said that I was going to my friend's house.

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3. Question Forms and Reported Speech Question Forms and Reported Speech 1. Normal word order is used in reported questions, that is, the subject comes before the verb, and it is not necessary to use 'do' or 'did': y "Where does Peter live?" She asked him where Peter lived.

2. Yes / no questions: This type of question is reported by using 'ask' + 'if / whether + clause: y y y y y y y "Do you speak English?" He asked me if I spoke English. "Are you British or American?" He asked me whether I was British or American. "Is it raining?" She asked if it was raining. "Have you got a computer?" He wanted to know whether I had a computer. "Can you type?" She asked if I could type. "Did you come by train?" He enquired whether I had come by train. "Have you been to Bristol before?" She asked if I had been to Bristol before.

3. Question words: This type of question is reported by using 'ask' (or another verb like 'ask') + question word + clause. The clause contains the question, in normal word order and with the necessary tense change. y y y y y y "What is your name?" he asked me. He asked me what my name was. "How old is your mother?", he asked. He asked how old her mother was. The policman said to the boy, "Where do you live?" The policeman asked the boy where he lived. "What time does the train arrive?" she asked. She asked what time the train arrived. "When can we have dinner?" she asked. She asked when they could have dinner. Peter said to John, "Why are you so late?" Peter asked the John why he was so late.

4. Reported Speech: orders, requests & suggestions ORDERS, REQUESTS, SUGGESTIONS 1. When we want to report an order or request, we can use a verb like 'tell' with a to-clause. Example y He told me to go away.

The pattern is verb + indirect object + to-clause. (The indirect object is the person spoken to.) Other verbs used to report orders and requests in this way are: command, order, warn, ask, advise, invite, beg, teach, forbid. Examples y y y y a. The doctor said to me, "Stop smoking!". The doctor told me to stop smoking. "Get out of the car!" said the policeman. The policeman ordered him to get out of the car. "Could you please be quiet," she said. She asked me to be quiet. The man with the gun said to us, "Don't move!" The man with the gun warned us not to move.

(See also section on Verbs followed by infinitive and Verbs followed by gerund) 2. Requests for objects are reported using the pattern ask + for + object: Examples y y y y y "Can I have an apple?", she asked. She asked for an apple "Can I have the newspaper, please?" He asked for the newspaper. "May I have a glass of water?" he said. He asked for a glass of water. "Sugar, please." She asked for the sugar. "Could I have three kilos of onions?" He asked for three kilos of onions.

3. Suggestions are usually reported with a that-clause. 'That' and 'should' are optional in these clauses: y She said: "Why don't you get a mechanic to look at the car?" She suggested that I should get a mechanic to look at the car. OR She suggested I get a mechanic to look at the car.

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Other reporting verbs used in this way are: insist, recommend, demand, request, propose. Examples y y y y "It would be a good idea to see the dentist", said my mother. My mother suggested I see the dentist. The dentist said, "I think you should use a different toothbrush". The dentist recommended that I should use a different toothbrush. My manager said, "I think we should examine the budget carefully at this meeting." My manager proposed that we examine the budget carefully at the meeting. "Why don't you sleep overnight at my house?" she said. She suggested that I sleep overnight at her house.

Notes Suggest can also be followed by a gerund: I suggested postponing the visit to the dentist. See also Summary of Reporting Verbs. 5. REPORTED SPEECH: hopes,intentions & promises HOPES, INTENTIONS & PROMISES When we report an intention, hope or promise, we use an appropriate reporting verb followed by a that-clause or a to-infinitive: "I'll pay you the money tomorrow." He promised to pay me the money the next day. He promised that he would pay me the money the next day. Other verbs used in this pattern include: hope, propose, threaten, guarantee, swear. Examples y y y y y y y y y "I'll be back by lunchtime." He promised to be back by lunchtime. He promised that he would be back by lunchtime. "We should arrive in London before nightfall." They hoped to arrive in London before nightfall. They hoped they would arrive in London before nightfall. "Give me the keys to the safe or I'll shoot you!" He threatened to shoot me if I didn't give him the keys to the safe. He threatened that he would shoot me if I didn't give him the keys to the safe.

Note: see also Summary of Reporting Verbs. 6. Reported Speech: Summary of reporting verbs Summary of reporting verbs Note that some reporting verbs may appear in more than one of the following groups. 1. Verbs followed by 'if' or 'whether' + clause: ask know remember say see

2. Verbs followed by a that-clause: add admit agree announce answer argue boast claim comment complain doubt estimate explain fear feel insist mention observe persuade propose reply report reveal say state suggest suppose tell think understand

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confirm consider deny

remark remember repeat

warn

3. Verbs followed by either a that-clause or a to-infinitive: decide expect guarantee hope promise swear threaten

4. Verbs followed by a that-clause containing should (but note that it may be omitted, leaving a subject + zero-infinitive): advise beg demand insist prefer propose recommend request suggest

5. Verbs followed by a clause starting with a question word: decide describe discover discuss explain forget guess imagine know learn realise remember reveal say see suggest teach tell think understand wonder

6. Verbs followed by object + to-infinitive advise ask beg command forbid instruct invite teach tell warn

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1. Verb Tenses: Simple Present

SIMPLE PRESENT
(See also Verbs -'Regular verbs in the simple present') Simple present, third person singular Note: 1. he, she, it: in the third person singular the verb always ends in -s: he wants, she needs, he gives, she thinks. Negative and question forms use DOES (=the third person of the auxiliary'DO') + the infinitive of the verb. He wants. Does he want? He does not want. Verbs ending in -y : the third person changes the -y to -ies: fly flies, cry cries Exception: if there is a vowel before the -y: play plays, pray prays 4. Add -es to verbs ending in:-ss, -x, -sh, -ch: he passes, she catches, he fixes, it pushes

2.

3.

See also Verbs -'Regular verbs in the simple present', and 'Be, do & have'

Examples: 1. Third person singular with s or -es y y y y y He goes to school every morning. She understands English. It mixes the sand and the water. He tries very hard. She enjoys playing the piano.

2. Simple present, form Example: to think, present simple Affirmative I think You think he, she, it thinks we think you think The simple present is used: 1. to express habits, general truths, repeated actions or unchanging situations, emotions and wishes: I smoke (habit); I work in London (unchanging situation); London is a large city (general truth) to give instructions or directions: You walk for two hundred metres, then you turn left. to express fixed arrangements, present or future: Your exam starts at 09.00 to express future time, after some conjunctions: after, when, before, as soon as, until: He'll give it to you when you come next Saturday. Interrogative Do I think ? Do you think? Does he, she, it think? Do we think? Do you think? Negative I do not think. You don't think. He, she, it doesn't think. We don't think. You don't think.

2.

3.

4.

BE CAREFUL! The simple present is not used to express actions happening now. See Present Continuous. Examples: 1. For habits He drinks tea at breakfast. She only eats fish. They watch television regularly.

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2.

For repeated actions or events We catch the bus every morning. It rains every afternoon in the hot season. They drive to Monaco every summer. For general truths Water freezes at zero degrees. The Earth revolves around the Sun. Her mother is Peruvian. For instructions or directions Open the packet and pour the contents into hot water. You take the No.6 bus to Watney and then the No.10 to Bedford. For fixed arrangements His mother arrives tomorrow. Our holiday starts on the 26th March With future constructions She'll see you before she leaves. We'll give it to her when she arrives.

3.

4.

5.

6.

2. Present Continuous or Present Progressive Present Continuous or Present Progressive Verb Form 1. Present continuous, form The present continuous of any verb is composed of two parts - the present tense of the verb to be + the present participle of the main verb. (The form of the present participle is: base+ing, e.g. talking, playing, moving, smiling) Affirmative Subject she + to be is + base+ing talking

Negative Subject she + to be + not is not (isn't) + base+ing talking

Interrogative to be is + subject she + base+ing talking?

Example: to go, present continuous Affirmative I am going You are going He, she, it is going We are going You are going They are going Negative I am not going You aren't going. He, she, it isn't going We aren't going You aren't going They aren't going Interrogative Am I going? Are you going? Is he, she, it going? Are we going? Are you going? Are they going?

Note: alternative negative contractions: I'm not going, you're not going, he's not going etc.

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2. Present Continuous, function As with all tenses in English, the speaker's attitude is as important as the time of the action or event. When someone uses the present continuous, they are thinking about something that is unfinished or incomplete. The present continuous is used: y y y to describe an action that is going on at this moment e.g. You are using the Internet. You are studying English grammar. to describe an action that is going on during this period of time or a trend, e.g. Are you still working for the same company? More and more people are becoming vegetarian. to describe an action or event in the future, which has already been planned or prepared (See also 'Ways of expressing the future) e.g. We're going on holiday tomorrow. I'm meeting my boyfriend tonight. Are they visiting you next winter? to describe a temporary event or situation, e.g. He usually plays the drums, but he's playing bass guitar tonight. The weather forecast was good, but it's raining at the moment. with 'always, forever, constantly', to describe and emphasise a continuing series of repeated actions, e.g. Harry and Sally are always arguing! You're forever complaining about your mother-in-law!

y

y

BE CAREFUL! Some verbs are not used in the continuous form - see below. 3. Verbs that are not normally used in the continuous form The verbs in the list below are normally used in the simple form, because they refer to states, rather than actions or processes: List of common verbs normally used in simple form: Senses / Perception feel*, hear, see*, smell, taste Opinion assume, believe, consider, doubt, feel (= think), find (= consider), suppose, think* Mental states forget, imagine, know, mean, notice, recognise, remember, understand Emotions / desires envy, fear, dislike, hate, hope, like, love, mind, prefer, regret, want, wish Measurement contain, cost, hold, measure, weigh Others look (=resemble), seem, be (in most cases), have (when it means to possess)* Notes: y y y y y y y y 'Perception' verbs (see, hear, feel, taste, smell) are often used with 'can': e.g. I can see... * These verbs may be used in the continuous form but with a different meaning, compare: This coat feels nice and warm. (= your perception of the coat's qualities) John's feeling much better now (= his health is improving) She has three dogs and a cat. (=possession) She's having supper. (= She's eating) I can see Anthony in the garden (= perception) I'm seeing Anthony later (= We are planning to meet)

Examples y y y y y I wish I was in Greece now. She wants to see him now. I don't understand why he is shouting. I feel we are making a mistake. This glass holds half a litre.

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3. Present Perfect Verb Tense PRESENT PERFECT 1. Present Perfect - Form The present perfect of any verb is composed of two elements : the appropriate form of the auxiliary verb to have (present tense), plus the past participle of the main verb. The past participle of a regular verb is base+ed, e.g. played, arrived, looked. For irregular verbs, see the Table of irregular verbs in the section called 'Verbs'. Affirmative Subject She Negative Subject She Interrogative to have Has Interrogative negative to have + not Hasn't subject she past participle visited...? subject she past participle visited..? to have + not hasn't past participle visited to have has past participle visited

Example: to walk, present perfect Affirmative I have walked You have walked He, she, it has walked We have walked You have walked They have walked 2. Present perfect, function The Present Perfect is used to indicate a link between the present and the past. The time of the action is before now but not specified, and we are often more interested in the result than in the action itself. Negative I haven't walked You haven't walked He, she, it hasn't walked We haven't walked You haven't walked They haven't walked Interrogative Have I walked? Have you walked? Has he,she,it walked Have we walked? Have you walked? Have they walked?

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BE CAREFUL! There may be a verb tense in your language with a similar form, but the meaning is probably NOT the same.The Present Perfect is used to describe: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. An action or situation that started in the past and continues in the present. Example: I have lived in Bristol since 1984 (= and I still do.) An action performed during a period that has not yet finished. Example: She has been to the cinema twice this week (= and the week isn't over yet.) A repeated action in an unspecified period between the past and now. Example: We have visited Portugal several times. An action that was completed in the very recent past, (expressed by 'just'). Example: I have just finished my work. An action when the time is not important. Example: He has read 'War and Peace'. (the result of his reading is important)

Note: When we want to give or ask details about when, where, who, we use the simple past. Example: He read 'War and Peace' last week. Examples: 1. Actions started in the past and continuing in the present. y y y y They haven't lived here for years. She has worked in the bank for five years. We have had the same car for ten years. Have you played the piano since you were a child?

2. When the time period referred to has not finished. y y y I have worked hard this week. It has rained a lot this year. We haven't seen her today.

3. Actions repeated in an unspecified period between the past and now. y y y y They have seen that film six times. It has happened several times already. She has visited them frequently. We have eaten at that restaurant many times.

4. Actions completed in the very recent past (+just). y y y y Have you just finished work? I have just eaten. We have just seen her. Has he just left?

5. When the precise time of the action is not important or not known. y y y Someone has eaten my soup! Have you seen 'Gone with the Wind'? She's studied Japanese, Russian and English.

4. Present perfect + ever,never,already,yet PRESENT PERFECT + ever, never, already, yet The adverbs ever and never express the idea of an unidentified time before now e.g. Have you ever visited Berlin? 'Ever' is used y in questions. e.g. Have you ever been to England? Has she ever met the Prime Minister? in negative questions e.g. Haven't they ever been to Europe? Haven't you ever eaten Chinese food? and in negative statements using the pattern nothing.......ever, nobody.......ever e.g. Nobody has ever said that to me before. Nothing like this has ever happened to us. 'Ever' is also used with 'The first time.... e.g. It's the first time (that) I've ever eaten snails. This is the first time I've ever been to England.

y

y

y

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'Never' means at no time before now, and is the same as not ..... ever: y I have never visited Berlin

BE CAREFUL! You must not use never and not together: y y I haven't never been to Italy. I have never been to Italy.

Position 'Ever' and 'never' are always placed before the main verb (past participle). Already and yet Already refers to an action that has happened at an unspecified time before now. It suggests that there is no need for repetition, e.g. a. I've already drunk three coffees this morning. (and you're offering me another one!) b. Don't write to John, I've already done it. It is also used in questions: y y Have you already written to John? Has she finished her homework already?

Position already can be placed before the main verb (past participle) or at the end of the sentence: y y Yet is used in negative statements and questions, to mean (not) in the period of time between before now and now, (not) up to and including the present. e.g. y y y y Have you met Judy yet? I haven't visited the Tate Gallery yet. Has he arrived yet? They haven't eaten yet. I have already been to Tokyo. I have been to Tokyo already.

Position Yet is usually placed at the end of the sentence.

5. Present Perfect of Simple Past?

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How to choose between the Present Perfect and Simple Past Tenses y y Always use the Present Perfect when the time is not important, or not specified. Always use the Simple Past when details about the time or place are specified or asked for.

Compare: Present Perfect I have lived in Lyon. They have eaten Thai food. Have you seen 'Othello'?. We have been to Ireland. Simple Past I lived in Lyon in 1989. They ate Thai food last night. Where did you see 'Othello'? When did you go to Ireland?

There is also a difference of attitude that is often more important than the time factor. y y "What did you do at school today?" is a question about activities, and considers the school day as finished. "What have you done at school today?" is a question about results - "show me", and regards the time of speaking as a continuation of the school day

6. Present Perfect + for and since PRESENT PERFECT + for, since Using the present perfect, we can define a period of time before now by considering its duration, with for + a period of time, or by considering its starting point, with since + a point in time. For + a period of time y y for six years, for a week, for a month, for hours, for two hours. I have worked here for five years.

Since + a point in time y y y since this morning, since last week, since yesterday, since I was a child, since Wednesday, since 2 o'clock. I have worked here since 1990.

present perfect with for y y y y She has lived here for twenty years. We have taught at this school for a long time. Alice has been married for three months. They have been at the hotel for a week.

present perfect with since y y y y She has lived here since 1980. We have taught at this school since 1965 Alice has been married since March 2nd. They have been at the hotel since last Tuesday.

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Note: y y For and since can both be used with the past perfect. Since can only be used with perfect tenses, for can also be used with the simple past.

Title: Reading Comprehension Animals Workbook Sample Number Of Printable Pages: 35 Description: Contains 29 reading passages on various wild life. Engages beginning readers with fun and educational activities, while exploring new and wondrous creatures. Reading passages include: Alligators, Bats, Bears, Beavers, Camels, Cheetahs, Cows, Dolphins, Ducks, Elephants, Foxes, Frogs, Giraffes, Hedgehogs, Hippopotamus, Horses, Kangaroos, Lions, Mice, Monkeys, Penguins, Platypus, Raccoons, Sheep, Skunks, Tigers, Turtles, Wolves, Zebras.

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English Grammar
Direct and Indirect Speech Direct Speech | Indirect Speech Tense Change | Time Change | Pronoun Change Reporting Verbs | Use of 'That'

We often have to give information about what people say or think. In order to do this you can use direct or quoted speech, or indirect or reported speech.
Direct Speech / Quoted Speech

Saying exactly what someone has said is called direct speech (sometimes called quoted speech) Here what a person says appears within quotation marks ("...") and should be word for word. For example: She said, "Today's lesson is on presentations." or "Today's lesson is on presentations," she said.

Indirect Speech / Reported Speech

Indirect speech (sometimes called reported speech), doesn't use quotation marks to enclose what the person said and it doesn't have to be word for word. When reporting speech the tense usually changes. This is because when we use reported speech, we are usually talking about a time in the past (because obviously the person who spoke originally spoke in the past). The verbs therefore usually have to be in the past too. For example:
Direct speech "I'm going to the cinema", he said. Indirect speech He said he was going to the cinema.

Tense change

As a rule when you report something someone has said you go back a tense: (the tense on the left changes to the tense on the right):
Direct speech Indirect speech Past simple She said it was cold. Past continuous She said she was teaching English online.

Present simple She said, "It's cold."
Present continuous She said, "I'm teaching English online."

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Present perfect simple She said, "I've been on the web since 1999." Present perfect continuous She said, "I've been teaching English for seven years." Past simple She said, "I taught online yesterday." Past continuous She said, "I was teaching earlier." Past perfect She said, "The lesson had already started when he arrived." Past perfect continuous She said, "I'd already been teaching for five minutes."

Past perfect simple She said she had been on the web since 1999. Past perfect continuous She said she had been teaching English for seven years. Past perfect She said she had taught online yesterday. Past perfect continuous She said she had been teaching earlier. Past perfect NO CHANGE - She said the lesson had already started when he arrived. Past perfect continuous NO CHANGE - She said she'd already been teaching for five minutes.

Modal verb forms also sometimes change:
Direct speech will She said, "I'll teach English online tomorrow." Indirect speech would She said she would teach English online tomorrow. could She said she could teach English online. had to She said she had to have a computer to teach English online. should She asked what we should learn today. might She asked if she might open a new browser.

can She said, "I can teach English online."
must She said, "I must have a computer to teach English online." shall She said, "What shall we learn today?" may She said, "May I open a new browser?"

!Note - There is no change to; could, would, should, might and ought to.
Direct speech "I might go to the cinema", he said. Indirect speech He said he might go to the cinema.

You can use the present tense in reported speech if you want to say that something is still true i.e. my name has always been and will always be Lynne so:Direct speech Indirect speech

She said her name was Lynne.
"My name is Lynne", she said.

or She said her name is Lynne.

You can also use the present tense if you are talking about a future event.

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Direct speech (exact quote) "Next week's lesson is on reported speech ", she said.

Indirect speech (not exact)

She said next week's lesson is on reported speech.

Time change

If the reported sentence contains an expression of time, you must change it to fit in with the time of reporting. For example we need to change words like here and yesterday if they have different meanings at the time and place of reporting.
Today "Today's lesson is on presentations." + 24 hours - Indirect speech She said yesterday's lesson was on presentations.

Expressions of time if reported on a different day this (evening) today these (days) now (a week) ago last weekend here next (week) tomorrow that (evening) yesterday ... those (days) then (a week) before the weekend before last / the previous weekend there the following (week) the next/following day

In addition if you report something that someone said in a different place to where you heard it you must change the place (here) to the place (there). For example:At work "How long have you worked here?" At home She asked me how long I'd worked there.

Pronoun change

In reported speech, the pronoun often changes. For example:
Me "I teach English online." You She said she teaches English online.

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Reporting Verbs

Said, told and asked are the most common verbs used in indirect speech. We use asked to report questions:For example: I asked Lynne what time the lesson started. We use told with an object. For example: Lynne told me she felt tired. !Note - Here me is the object. We usually use said without an object. For example: Lynne said she was going to teach online. If said is used with an object we must include to ; For example: Lynne said to me that she'd never been to China. !Note - We usually use told. For example: Lynne told me that she'd never been to China. There are many other verbs we can use apart from said, told and asked. These include:accused, admitted, advised, alleged, agreed, apologised, begged, boasted, complained, denied, explained, implied, invited, offered, ordered, promised, replied, suggested and thought.

Using them properly can make what you say much more interesting and informative. For example: He asked me to come to the party:He invited me to the party. He begged me to come to the party. He ordered me to come to the party. He advised me to come to the party. He suggested I should come to the party.

Use of 'That' in reported speech

In reported speech, the word that is often used. For example: He told me that he lived in Greenwich. However, that is optional. For example: He told me he lived in Greenwich. !Note - That is never used in questions, instead we often use if.
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For example: He asked me if I would come to the party.

We often have to give information about what people say or think. In order to do this you can use direct or quoted speech, or indirect or reported speech.
Direct Speech / Quoted Speech

Saying exactly what someone has said is called direct speech (sometimes called quoted speech) Here what a person says appears within quotation marks ("...") and should be word for word. For example: She said, "Today's lesson is on presentations." or "Today's lesson is on presentations," she said.

Indirect Speech / Reported Speech

Indirect speech (sometimes called reported speech), doesn't use quotation marks to enclose what the person said and it doesn't have to be word for word. When reporting speech the tense usually changes. This is because when we use reported speech, we are usually talking about a time in the past (because obviously the person who spoke originally spoke in the past). The verbs therefore usually have to be in the past too. For example:
Direct speech "I'm going to the cinema", he said. Indirect speech He said he was going to the cinema.

Tense change

As a rule when you report something someone has said you go back a tense: (the tense on the left changes to the tense on the right):
Direct speech Indirect speech Past simple She said it was cold. Past continuous She said she was teaching English online. Past perfect simple She said she had been on the web since 1999. Past perfect continuous She said she had been teaching English for seven years. Past perfect She said she had taught online yesterday.

Present simple She said, "It's cold."
Present continuous She said, "I'm teaching English online." Present perfect simple She said, "I've been on the web since 1999." Present perfect continuous She said, "I've been teaching English for seven years." Past simple She said, "I taught online yesterday."

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Past continuous She said, "I was teaching earlier." Past perfect She said, "The lesson had already started when he arrived." Past perfect continuous She said, "I'd already been teaching for five minutes."

Past perfect continuous She said she had been teaching earlier. Past perfect NO CHANGE - She said the lesson had already started when he arrived. Past perfect continuous NO CHANGE - She said she'd already been teaching for five minutes.

Modal verb forms also sometimes change:
Direct speech will She said, "I'll teach English online tomorrow." Indirect speech would She said she would teach English online tomorrow. could She said she could teach English online. had to She said she had to have a computer to teach English online. should She asked what we should learn today. might She asked if she might open a new browser.

can She said, "I can teach English online."
must She said, "I must have a computer to teach English online." shall She said, "What shall we learn today?" may She said, "May I open a new browser?"

!Note - There is no change to; could, would, should, might and ought to.
Direct speech "I might go to the cinema", he said. Indirect speech He said he might go to the cinema.

You can use the present tense in reported speech if you want to say that something is still true i.e. my name has always been and will always be Lynne so:Direct speech Indirect speech

She said her name was Lynne.
"My name is Lynne", she said.

or She said her name is Lynne.

You can also use the present tense if you are talking about a future event.
Direct speech (exact quote) "Next week's lesson is on reported speech ", she said. Indirect speech (not exact)

She said next week's lesson is on reported speech.

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