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Project Update

Laboratory Notes
Creating Designer Honey With
Species Melipona Tetragonula Laeviceps

Dr. Joseph A. Resnick, Ph.D., iChief Scientist
Director of Science and Technology
Lenoir, NC USA

Supplemental Lab Notes; Journal 244.3 v.2

On May 20, 2014 Dr. Resnick acquired a Kelulut (stingless bee hive) from a
privately operated bee farm near the village of Jebi, situate Terengganu Darul Iman State,
Malaysia. The hive contained approximately 300 individuals comprised of Melipona
Tetragonula laeviceps.
Prior to acquiring the Kelulut, and before arriving in Malaysia to commence the
position as Principal Research Fellow and a Lecturer in the Institute of Marine
Biotechnology at the University Malaysia Terengganu, Dr. Resnick had produced a new
species of product at his laboratory in Lenoir, NC USA which he designed to be used as a
new material and method for feeding bees (both Melifera and Melipona) and to create a
new species of designer honey by having bees assimilate the new bee food to create
honey containing Stevia compounds, Rebaudisol A-E and X . The product was made
using the microencapsulation apparatus invented by Dr. Resnick (see: resulting in creation of a new formulation made
with a new species of edible, food-grade synthetic wax (a FDA-approved biopolymer as
set forth in MSDS CAS# 8002-74-2 ;EINECS#: Polymer; CTFA/INCI: Synthetic Wax )
capable of changing phase (from liquid to a solid) during the manufacture phase wherein
the substance was is/was used to configure microspheres-containing a new species of
synthetic nectar comprising distilled water with dissolved Stevia extract comprising a
.003% solution (food grade).

Project Update
Supplemental feeding of Melipona laeviceps with encapsulated stevia-nectar
1. Microspheres with average size of 20um;
2. Microspheres made with proprietary, synthetic wax formulation using FDAapproved, food-grade components, invented by Dr. Joseph A. Resnick;
3. Nectar solution comprising distilled water with .003% dissolved Stevia extract
from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertony);
4. Stevia extract, 98% pure
Chronological Video Archives



Drawing Samples of Honey and

Propolis for Biostudy and Profiles

After 8 days; Fenestration

Created on 12-23-14. Fenestration nearly closed in just 24 hours.


Enough food for 1 month


Checking on rebuild Comparison Video from October



Bees Building Flute 2


Bees Building Flute 1


First Day of December





Last Day of November 2014

Break in Monsoon
Day 4 Monsoon


Day#3 of Monsoon Season


Day#2 of Monsoon Season







Feeding new blend 98% pure

10-31-14 Kelulut Flute





Feeding today 10-21-14

Activity today 10-21-14

New fenestration created on 10-20-14

Trigona rebuilds fenestration in 2 days 10-18-14

Fenestration created on 10-16-14

Peek into the Kelulut on 10-14-14

Placed honey cups in Kelulut on 10-13-14

Stevia Hive Oct 12, 2014

Stevia Hive Oct 8, 2014 check up

Stevia Hive Oct 7, 2014

Stevia Hive Oct 6, 2014 check up

Stevia Hive Oct 1, 2014

Stevia Hive Sept 26, 2014

Stevia Hive Aug 21, 2014

3:40 P.M. Stevia Place in Kelulut 7/25/14

Introducing encapsulated Stevia to Melipona

(Melipona Tetragonula laeviceps) 7/18/2014

Micrograph Plates

Plates below show encapsulated Stevia in microspheres at 20um, these created by

Dr. Joseph A. Resnick. Photos are courtesy Assoc. Prof. Shamsul Razak, University

Malaysia Terengganu, and Department of Food Sciences. Special Thanks to Prof. Razak
and to Prof. Zain of Department of Food Sciences.

Encapsulated Stevia Nectar

Encapsulated Stevia Nectar

Encapsulated Stevia Nectar

Encapsulated Stevia Nectar

Encapsulated Stevia Nectar

Encapsulated Stevia Nectar

Encapsulated Stevia Nectar

Encapsulated Stevia Nectar

Rules of Thumb for Keeping Your Kelulut
Anyone who enjoys the beauty of nature and has an interest in seeing the marvel of
how bees work together will enjoy Meliponiculature. Its interesting, easy, and fun to do
and the result is a great tasting food product that can be enjoyed by friends and family
alike. My own beekeeping methods include practices that have application to
beekeeping, regardless of the species being kept. For example, keeping the hive clean,
protected from predators, e.g., moths, rodents, ants, frogs and inclement weather, are
The Beekeepers Rule of Thumb. These rules apply whether the beekeeper is farming
the Malifera (European Honeybee, etc.) or the Melipona or any of the 55 species found in

SE Asia. Keeping the area around the bee hive clean, protected from any kind of
possible contamination or cross-contamination and protected from other creatures that
may eat honey (sun bears, rodents, etc.) is always prudent. Ant can be problematic when
keeping bees. An infestation of ants can cause the Queen to evacuate the hive. If the
Queen leaves the hive, all the bees will follow the Queen and the hive will be deserted.
So, cleanliness will result in keeping the bees safe, more productive and will provide
many rears of a tasty return on a very meager investment. Also, be sure to provide
your colony with access to plenty of flowering plants or access to fruit trees (orchards,
etc.) so they can forage. Remember, the bees need pollen for food and to make honey
and other products all year long.

Keeping a wide selection of flowering plants and

shrubs close to your bee hive will help bees stay healthy and obtain the nutrients they
need and will make your apiary a place of beauty and tranquility. Also, bees need plenty
of water. I always locate my hives near to a natural (flowing) water supply. Bees, like
all living things, need water. Bees need water to live and to process the pollen they
gather. Avoid using watering pans, etc., as these can foster unwanted insects, e.g.,
mosquitoes, phorid flies, etc. Following these simple methods will assure success and
satisfaction with this new hobby!

Inside the Kelulut Lid

Encapsulated Steviol Nectar in Syn-wax Food-Grade Microcapsules at 20um


Making A Kelulut Flute to Protect Your Colony

And Help to Save the Environment Using Recycled Plastic Bottles
Dr. Joseph A. Resnick, Ph.D.
Principal Research Fellow
Institute of Marine Biotechnology
University Malaysia Terengganu

In my capacity as the Principal Research Fellow at the University of Malaysia
Terengganu, in the island-nation of Malaysia, I have the opportunity to encounter many
different kinds of environments, e.g., jungle, savannahs, islands, estuaries, lakes, ponds,
rivers, waterfalls, etc. Most of these places occur as some of natures most pristine
landscapes, seascapes, and natural habitat that are truly breathtaking. But nothing is
more saddening (to me) than to be the jungles of Borneo, for example, or on Radang
Island and to find an animal that has died because it ingested a plastic food container, a
candy wrapper, or a plastic bottle. Even more saddening is to find sea animals, e.g.,
loggerhead turtles, or sea otters that, like some land animals, have died because they
ingested a discarded plastic container or were trapped in a plastic bottle holding harness.

One way that we, as responsible environmental stewards, can work together toward
preventing occurrences such as those cited above is to consciously employ strict, but
easily accomplished, environmental protection practices and policies, e.g., recycling of
used plastic containers and container devices.
An area of deep interest and study to me is the field of Apiculture. This includes study
of the common (European) honey bee, or Melifera, and the stingless bees found in the
tropics known as Melipona. During my experiments to develop a new species of bee
food to provide Apiculturists with a food source that can be used to supplement the honey
bees diet during winter, monsoon and rainy seasons, I found a great use for
empty/discarded plastic beverage bottles. I found that by using the discarded container,

and with just a few modifications and some plastic sticky-tape, I could convert that piece
of litter into an appliance that can help to preserve and protect the bee hive entryway of
the Melipona.
The Melipona, or stingless honey bee, is commonly found in nature (in the Tropics) to
inhabit diseased tree trunks, logs, or branches. The Melipona habitat has come to be
known as, the Kelulut, or translated from the Bahasu Malay, bee hill. Below
examples of the Malaysian Kelulut and Nucs and bee hives used to brood the melifera.

Keluluts for Melipona in Malaysia

Brood boxes for Melifera in USA

Malaysian Keluluts at Bukit Kor Research Station Marang, Malaysia

A Great Way to Protect Your Colony, Recycle and Protect the

You can help to protect your colony from pests and predators like ants, frogs, geckos,
birds, lizards and rodents and help to protect the environment by recycling empty
beverage bottles and using them to construct a secure entryway for your Kelulut. This
is very easy to do and is a fun project that you can do with family and friends. My
Grand Son and I had a great time making our Kelulut Flute and this was the perfect
opportunity to explain to him about the importance and value of recycling and protecting
the environment at the same time!
To start your project, find an empty beverage container, such as an empty Coke
bottle (shown in the photo). I used an empty Coke bottle because I like to drink Coke.
You can use just about any kind of empty plastic bottle. Try to find a bottle thats

already been used and has been discarded. Ive used bottles I found along the beach, in
parking lots, etc. You can do the same. So, in addition to making a new gadget to
protect your bees youll also be making a great contribution to protect the environment
and even save wildlife. Everyone wins when you recycle!
Making Your Kelulut Flute
Youll be making a few cuts at points along the outside of the container. So, youll
need to gather some tools for this project. The tools and supplies youll need to create
your Kelulut Flute are found in almost every household.
Things Youll Need to Build Your Kelulut Flute


Exacto-knife or razor blade
Clear (or colored) adhesive tape
This is all you needthatand a little imagination!

To commence, locate your bottle and carefully remove the plastic label (see Fig. 1.).
Remove the label and set aside for discard, later. Since this is not a mission critical
exercise, rather, one designed to be a fun and educational project that makes something
you can use with discarded materials, you dont need to make measurements. Its a
learning exercise, so, its okay to guess-ti-mate.
measure, thats fine.

If you want to use a ruler or tape

To start, refer to Fig. 1. You can see most of what youre going to need to do in that
rendering. Start by removing the bottom of the bottle by making a cut around the entire
bottom of the bottle. Cut the entire way around the outside circumference of the bottle
detaching the bottom from the rest of the bottle. Set the bottom aside for later discard.
Next, cut the top from the lower part of the bottle. Ive marked this spot for you in the
photo shown as Fig. #1. Please refer to Fig. #1. again. So, find the indentation and
make your cut there. Make sure if children are involved to explain about being careful
when using sharp tools, like scissors. Make desired cuts. Set the parts aside for now.

The pieces will now look like parts in the photo below. I call the piece of with the bottle
neck, the nozzle insert (refer to Fig. 1.).

The nozzle insert will be used to make the

entrance that will allow bees to enter and exit, and functions to keep unwanted pests from
entering the Kelulut. Essentially, you are making a sleeve into which the nozzle insert
will be placed later in the assembly tasks. Practice sliding the nozzle into the base shafts
a few times. This will let you determine whether or not youre going to have to make
cuts in the bottom portion of the nozzle assembly as shown in Fig. 3.

Slide Nozzle Insert into the

remaining portion of the bottle

Fig. 2.

With your scissors make about 12 cuts around the base of the shaft you just cut, and
bed these at a 90 Degree Angle, perpendicular to the bottom of the shaft as shown in the
photo. You will use these structures later when attaching the appliance to your Kelulut.

Make 10-12 cuts creating 90-degree

angles for later placement against
the face of the Kelulut.

Make two small cuts, about 3/16th

inch long, on opposite sides of the
nozzle-base so it will slide into
bottom sleeve later in the process.

Fig. 3.
After you have made your cuts in the base, slide the nozzle assembly down inside the
shaft and secure in place. You may wish to practice sliding the nozzle into and out of
the shaft a few times. If you cant get the nozzle assembly to slide inside the bottle
shaft, with the scissors make one or two cuts about 3/16th of an in long, cutting toward the
top of the nozzle head. This will allow plenty of room so you can slide the nozzle
assembly into the shaft (or, flute). Once you determined where you want to locate the
nozzles inside the shaft simple lock it in place with clear adhesive tape as shown in Fig.
4. This will hold the mechanism together and keep the nozzle assembly in place.

Practice sliding the nozzle

assembly in and out of the hollow

Fig. 4.

Again, using the fingers slide the nozzle inside the shaft and secure in place with clear
plastic tape.
Apply clear sticky-tape to hold the
Nozzle assembly in place

Fig. 5.

Place the nozzle inside the shaft and tape the sides into place as shown in Fig. 6.

Apply clear sticky-tape to secure

the nozzle to the inside walls of
the flute.

Fig. 6.

Make final 90-degree bends to

create plastic tabs for affixing to

Fig. 7.

Simply assemble the parts youve created from the discarded beverage bottle and attach it
to the entryway to your Kelulut as shown below.

Use a staple gun or stapler to attach

the plastic flaps to the face over the
hole where bees enter the Kelulut.

Fig. 8

Put a few staples all the way

around the nozzle flute to help
keep it in place. Eventually,
youll see the bees depositing
propolis around the inside and
outside of the nozzle flute. Bees
love to seal everything!

Fig. 9.

Fig. 10

To see what the Kelulut Flute does in real life, click on this link to a
video posted on Youtube at
Youve just added a protective device to your Kelulut and youve recycled! Because
youve kept an otherwise environmental threat from negatively impacting the
environment and potentially harming land animals, sea life and the Earths natural beauty
you deserve Kudos!

Way to go!!!
Thanks for helping to protect the environment!

3. Colony Collapse Disorder: A Complex Buzz, Agricultural Research magazine
May/June 2008
4. High Levels of Miticides and Agrochemicals in North American Apiaries:
Implications for Honey Bee Health, Mullin, C., et al, published March 19, 2010,
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.000954

Presented by:
Dr. Joseph A. Resnick, Ph.D.
Principal Research Fellow
Institute of Marine Biotechnology
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu
21030 Kuala Terengganu
Terengganu Darul Iman
09-668-3103 Ext. 3881

Dr. Joseph A. Resnick, Inventor

Prepared Exclusively for RMANNCO, Inc.

Copyright, 2014, All Rights Reserved, RMANNCO, Inc., Under UCC 1-207,
Universally and Globally

Dr. Resnick functions as an Independent Contractor to RMANNCO, Inc. and serves as Chairman of
RMANNCOs Technical Advisory Committee in collaboration with Prof. Ronald Stewart and Mr. Gary