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Excel use for Power System Load Flow Analysis

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)

Volume 6 | Issue 1

Article 1

12-12-2012

**Power System Load Flow Analysis using Microsoft
**

Excel

K. S. Sastry Musti

University of West Indies, musti.sastry@sta.uwi.edu

Ricardo B. Ramkhelawan

University of West Indies, ricardo.ramkhelawan@gmail.com

**Follow this and additional works at: http://epublications.bond.edu.au/ejsie
**

Recommended Citation

Musti, K. S. Sastry and Ramkhelawan, Ricardo B. (2012) "Power System Load Flow Analysis using Microsoft Excel," Spreadsheets in

Education (eJSiE): Vol. 6: Iss. 1, Article 1.

Available at: http://epublications.bond.edu.au/ejsie/vol6/iss1/1

This Regular Article is brought to you by the Faculty of Business at ePublications@bond. It has been accepted for inclusion in Spreadsheets in

Education (eJSiE) by an authorized administrator of ePublications@bond. For more information, please contact Bond University's Repository

Coordinator.

**Power System Load Flow Analysis using Microsoft Excel
**

Abstract

This paper presents the design and development of a Microsoft Excel based Power System Load Flow Analysis

(MSEBPSLF) tool and its application for system planning and operation. This is a simple desktop tool which

provides an interactive and simplified interface for users to store different systems with different operating

conditions and then to observe the response of the system. Four different load flow algorithms have been

implemented to provide wider choice for the users. All intermediate numerical results are made available for

verification purposes. End results are verified and benchmarked with standard applications such as PSS/E,

PowerWorld, InterPSS etc. The standard IEEE 14-bus system is provided with the spreadsheet to provide a

head start for users.

Keywords

**Microsoft Excel, Power System Analysis, Load Flow Studies, Visual Basic
**

Cover Page Footnote

**We acknowledge the support of Department of Electrical Engineering, University of West Indies for carrying
**

out this work.

This regular article is available in Spreadsheets in Education (eJSiE): http://epublications.bond.edu.au/ejsie/vol6/iss1/1

Power System Analysis. Load Flow Studies. Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) 2003-2012 Spreadsheets in Education. This is a simple desktop tool which provides an interactive and simplified interface for users to store different systems with different operating conditions and then to observe the response of the system.Musti and Ramkhelawan: Power System Load Flow Analysis using Microsoft Excel _______________________________________________________________________ Power System Load Flow Analysis using Microsoft Excel Abstract This paper presents the design and development of a Microsoft Excel based Power System Load Flow Analysis (MSEBPSLF) tool and its application for system planning and operation. PowerWorld. All intermediate numerical results are made available for verification purposes. InterPSS etc. Bond University Published by ePublications@bond. End results are verified and benchmarked with standard applications such as PSS/E. Four different load flow algorithms have been implemented to provide wider choice for the users. 2012 1 . The standard IEEE 14-bus system is provided with the spreadsheet to provide a head start for users. Keywords: Microsoft Excel.

load patterns and generating conditions to understand the behaviour of the system at different operating conditions. Power System Analysis The Load flow (also known as power flow) solution of an electrical power system provides voltages at all the buses.1. which can be customized according to requirements.Spreadsheets in Education (eJSiE).edu. 6. InterPSS etc. The standard IEEE 14-bus system is provided with the spreadsheet to provide a head start for users. Practically. Keywords: Microsoft Excel. The results of load flow analysis are used in load forecasting. All intermediate numerical results are made available for verification purposes. Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) 1. These propriety software packages provide only end results but not the intermediate calculations. training the users. PowerWorld. Vol. product customization for specific requirements. This is a simple desktop tool which provides an interactive and simplified interface for users to store different systems with different operating conditions and then to observe the response of the system. procurement of such products. 1 [2012]. However. the product is not owned by the organization.au/ejsie/vol6/iss1/1 2 . computation of a load flow solution is a basic requirement and at present there are many tools and software packages available. 2012) are already available for power system studies. Hence. Introduction 1. Most commercial applications are designed for general purposes and hence a high degree of customization is required at the student level for simple studies. Iss.bond. End results are verified and benchmarked with standard applications such as PSS/E. Load Flow Studies. system planning and operation. 1 Power System Load Flow Analysis using Microsoft Excel Abstract This paper presents the design and development of a Microsoft Excel based Power System Load Flow Analysis (MSEBPSLF) tool and its application for system planning and operation. are proved to be quite expensive and yet. system engineers carryout load flows on a daily basis with varying system configurations. Power System Analysis. Art. especially to match http://epublications. maintenance over a long time etc. Well-known commercial products such as Power System Simulator for Engineering (PSS. power flows and losses in the lines at specific levels of power generation and loads. Four different load flow algorithms have been implemented to provide wider choice for the users. 2012) and PowerWorld (PowerWorld.

In such cases. The content of this paper is divided into seven sections. Section 5 presents the process of benchmarking of the developed application with the standard software and also comparative analysis of different load flow algorithms within the application. Their implementation used cell formulae and only two methods – Gauss-Seidel and N-R methods have been presented. algorithms and even spreadsheet implementation. On the other hand. data input and output are presented in section 3. The licensing system of known and popular commercial products may appear competitive initially. component modelling of system components etc. several programs have been developed to provide application-specific functions while maintaining superior features of the spreadsheet programs. Section 4 presents detailed information on how the design is implemented in a modular fashion.Musti and Ramkhelawan: Power System Load Flow Analysis using Microsoft Excel with textbook illustrations. ease of management and their own survival etc. some of the modules. A single spreadsheet based solution for different popular iterative and non-iterative (DC) load flow methods is not presented till date. As a result of years of continual improvements. 1999). sustainable and economical solution. Section 6 provides an effective strategy for using the tool in a typical university classroom. Indeed. In many existing packages. the software companies and suppliers offering such solutions may not be able to support their own older installations due to technological developments. Whenever there is replacement of existing hardware. A spreadsheet implementation for power flow studies should therefore prove to be a natural extension. maintenance and any additional add-on features. Also. Lau and Kuruganty (2008) provided a lucid treatment of theory. competition in the market. a spreadsheet implementation of four commonly used load flow methods along with a comparative analysis has been undertaken in this work. intensions of phasing out older versions. Section 2 presents basics of load flow algorithms. universities or even the practicing engineers have to be at the mercy of the product vendors for operation. overall design. 2012 3 . Details on features of the tool. Keeping in view of the above. One of the biggest advantage of spreadsheet based solutions and tools is portability between the machines without much hassle. Finally Section 7 presents concluding remarks. spreadsheet programs have achieved well-acknowledged user friendliness and functionality. spreadsheet based applications assume a greater importance as such applications provide alternative. Spreadsheet based tools can be effectively used in industries and universities to avoid the above mentioned problems. there may be compatibility issues with the new hardware and existing/ old power system analysis software. however it would be expensive over a long time. (Xu et al. the results of the power flow study are exported into spreadsheet software for the generation of reports. Published by ePublications@bond. details of VBA programming.

as many resources (Kothari. and also the effect of real power on magnitudes of complex bus voltages. The Gauss-Seidel method is one of the simplest iterative methods in the solution of non-linear equations.edu. Art. Exhaustive theoretical treatment of the algorithms is avoided in this paper. Even comparative performance of these methods is of great interest to students (Gutierrez et al. Load Flow Algorithms There are several algorithms for carrying out load flow analysis of power systems and many research papers are available as well. FDC method is derived from N-R method. This method requires an initial condition and works well for heavily loaded systems. however the time taken per iteration is less than other iterative methods. DC load flow problem is an approximation to full non-linear problem and hence is linear. it is important to provide a tool which provides an option for the users to select the method of analysis. Fast Decoupled (FDC) Method and DC Load Flow Analysis. 1 2. These four algorithms are taught to all Power Engineering students and hence are popular. 1 [2012]. In this paper. 2011). Keeping these aspects in mind. It becomes very handy when only approximated solution or real power analysis is required. when compared to other methods. Specifically the work of Lau and Kuruganty (2008) provides a lucid treatment of theory. In fact this solution can be safely used as an initial operating point when N-R method is chosen. as original AC modelling http://epublications.bond. if a quick static solution is needed. Hence. 2008). Vol.Spreadsheets in Education (eJSiE). as it requires only one iteration and offers approximate solution. 2005). G-S and N-R algorithms and even spreadsheet implementation using cell formulae. N-R method is a very popular and faster solution for load flows analysis. we deal with four important algorithms – Gauss-Seidel (G-S) Method. DC load flow algorithm is a simplification of a full AC power flow and ignores reactive power flow (Purchala et al. teachers and engineers. It essentially decouples the effect of reactive power on the angles of complex bus voltage. For instance. 2. 6. FDC method provides a better solution than others. we have incorporated these four algorithms in this implementation. This method works well for systems with light loading conditions and hence is not recommended for heavily loaded systems. then engineers choose DC load flow method. If the system is ill-conditioned.1. Iss. Outlines of the four algorithms The power system load flow problem is non-linear in nature and hence requires iterative mathematical techniques. 2008) provide this information. Newton-Raphson (N-R) Method. This method needs more iterations than other methods. The method is based on the Gauss iterative method and a flat voltage profile is considered initially (Kothari. Even utility engineers mostly use these methods and choose a particular algorithm based on the nature of the power system.au/ejsie/vol6/iss1/1 4 .

The details of GUI. 1971). 3.Musti and Ramkhelawan: Power System Load Flow Analysis using Microsoft Excel version of non-linear equations are reduced to a set of linear equations.2. Peterson and Meyer.iterative technique. VBA is used to implement the algorithms. Medium length model is considered for all transmission line sections. The largest generator is treated as the swing bus which will take care of the power mismatch in the system. User-friendly Interface The MS Excel is designed in such a way to provide information on different sheets to minimize the burden of understanding and also to provide clarity in presentation of the information. 2012. Transformers are modelled with tertiary winding and are operating with an on-line tap changer (Vismor. 2. Figure 1: CoverPage GUI Published by ePublications@bond. 2012 5 . being a non.1. Modelling of Power System Components Generators on the system are considered as constant voltage sources. The first worksheet provides a single menu wherein users can make necessary choices on what is required. Design Features and data management We tried to give higher importance to user-friendliness and IEEE data standards in the design and development of this tool. All loads are treated as constant power sinks. 3. Based on the selection. A screen shot of the first sheet is provided below. This method is extremely fast. design and developmental platforms are provided in the sections below. data input and output. user is taken automatically to a separate sheet for that specific selected task and then user can come back to the front sheet with the help of a hyperlink.

Table 1: Bus Types and Codes Bus Code Bus Type Description 0 Load Bus 1 Generator Bus 2 Regulated Generator Bus 3 http://epublications.Spreadsheets in Education (eJSiE). Figure 2 shows the user screen for setting up study parameters for the iterative methods. users can choose to create a new system manually using an interactive interface or can import from an existing file. the user is presented with another menu as shown below.au/ejsie/vol6/iss1/1 Slack/Swing Bus 6 . Figure 2: AC Load Flow Form 3. Table 1 provides the details of bus codes and types. 1 As can be seen in the figure 1. 1 [2012]. user can select a specific study either AC or DC load flow. Iss. Data input and output As stated earlier. When AC load flow is selected. For the implementation of logic. Once the data is ready. then ‘Compare AC Method’ can be chosen to so that the application does all the studies and then provides exhaustive information on all studies that includes both numerical data and graphical information with comparison.edu. The input data consists of bus data. which makes the data transfers from one standard source to another. The application is designed to be fully compliant with IEEE Common Format for Exchange of Solved Load Flow Data.2. Art. Vol. 6. data and study parameters etc. a specific set of numerical codes are provided to different types of buses as per the IEEE standards. the system data can be provided manually or from an existing file.bond. If the user wants all the studies to be done automatically.

It can be seen that power transformers are modelled with all their control elements and configurations. A complete list of different section codes and types is provided in Table 2. Published by ePublications@bond. 2012 7 . then the application presents the same in a separate sheet named ‘Bus_Data’.Musti and Ramkhelawan: Power System Load Flow Analysis using Microsoft Excel For manual entry of the bus data. users are provided with an easy interface as shown in figure 3. Figure 4: Bus Data for the IEEE 14-Bus Test Case Similarly the numerical codes are attached to different types of sections. The input bus data for IEEE 14 bus is shown in figure 4. Figure 3: Bus Record Form When the user completes the entering of the bus data. Even the single and double lines are represented by circuit numbers as per the IEEE specification. Figure 5 shows the user interface screen for collecting the branch information.

Description 0 The controlled bus is one of the t/f terminals 1 The remote controlled bus is near the tap side 2 The remote controlled bus is near the impedance side Circuit # Description 1 Single Line 2 to 9 Used for Numbering of Parallel Lines When the user completes the entering of the branch data.3.edu. Vol.Spreadsheets in Education (eJSiE).bond. The essential system requirements to use this application (Microsoft 2012) are: a 500 MHz or higher Computer and Processor with Windows XP (with Service Pack 3) operating system or higher. Art. a memory of 256 MB RAM or higher.au/ejsie/vol6/iss1/1 8 . Iss. 1 Figure 5: Branch Record Form Table 2: Section Types and Codes Section Code 0 Section Type Description Transmission Line Transformer 1 Fixed Voltage Ratio and/or Fixed Phase Angle 2 Fixed Phase Angle and Variable Voltage Ratio with Voltage Control 3 Fixed Phase Angle and Variable Voltage Ratio with MVAR Control 4 Fixed Voltage Ratio and Variable Phase Angle with MW Control Side No. 1 [2012]. Technologies and Platforms This application is developed using Microsoft Excel 2010. 6. 3. http://epublications. a hard disk space of 2 GB or more with a display resolution of 1024 x 576 or higher. then the application presents the same in a separate sheet named ‘Branch_Data’.

Musti and Ramkhelawan: Power System Load Flow Analysis using Microsoft Excel 4. functions and macros. Source code development As stated already.1. repeatedly. A VBA module consists of different functions and macros. This ensures the modularity of the source code and thus source code becomes re-usable resulting in higher productivity in developmental process. Figure 6: Typical VBA UserForm 4. 2012 9 .2. The following sections provide information on the implementation of the design process. the source code consists of eleven modules and a single class module. Modular Coding The source code is divided into several modules. Then a macro is a set of commands and functions to do a specific task and can be called. A special module is Published by ePublications@bond. The data flow through different major modules in this application is shown in the figure 7. To reduce the complexity in operating this application only five forms are designed. 4. Table 3 provides information of a few selected modules.3. whenever required to perform that specific task. 4. GUI and Form Design The built-in ‘Microsoft Visual Basic Editor’ of the MS Excel is used to develop the forms for the users to input data and make selections. Figure 6 shows a screen shot of the built-in editor along with one of the forms that was designed. Design Implementation and Programming The design of the application is implemented using VBA with interactive GUI for data manipulation and to undertake computation of the load flow problem with the four different methods.

1 [2012]. for all load buses. nrow. on relatively smaller power systems is in the order of milliseconds. clear_results. the required measurements were the time taken per iteration and that of the total time for the solution. to _rect. Art. 1 dedicated to contain all the smaller (auxillary) functions that were common to the powerflow methods as well as those used for unit testing. lngt).NR_soln_cond. the resolution of the built-in vba code timer http://epublications. The function ‘NR_soln_cond’ reads the solution conditions for the NewtonRaphson and FastDecoupled methods from their corresponding results worksheet. 6. Figure 7: Data Flow Diagram The function ‘calc_mismatch’ computes the differences in real power. For instance. flat_start. Vol. Where given. CTimer Class Module For the purpose of comparisons.edu. Since the time taken per iteration to perform a load-flow. If no conditions are provided. With reference to the chosen criteria. and reactive power. it was necessary to include within each implemented powerflow algorithm provision for timing. This routine is also used to perform convergence checks. defaults values are set. aclf_usrfrm. These functions include subroutines . for all buses except slack bus.au/ejsie/vol6/iss1/1 10 .print_Array (A. All voltage angles are set to zero. calc_mismatch. GS_soln_cond.Spreadsheets in Education (eJSiE). regardless of whether convergence was attained or not. voltage magnitudes are set to those specified else they set to 1. between specified values and values calculated using updated voltages. The defaults are the same as those stated for the GS_soln_cond. ncol). (less an acceleration factor). print_Matrix(M. Iss. the function ‘flat_start’ is used to set initial estimates prior to a powerflow study employing any one the methods.bond.

‘Line_Plots. The implementation of the method is centered Enter_CaseData on MS-Excel’s OpenText workbook function. Output along with numerical print_GS_Results. data format. through lines and transformers. generator reactive power outputs. GaussSeidel.Musti and Ramkhelawan: Power System Load Flow Analysis using Microsoft Excel was insufficient. Published by ePublications@bond. maximum power mismatches in final iteration. the application based on the choice of the user. At the end. Subroutines and their descriptions Module Name and Description Subroutines ImportCaseData This module consists of two functions to facilitate data Subroutines: input. using the complex voltages calc_lineflows from the results of the different load flow methods. results at different intermediate stages is transferred to GS_Results worksheet. rectangular coordinates. parsing each record in turn and enters them into arrays for clear_BusData use by other modules. First function allows importing from IEEE common Import_CaseData. The second function accepts bus and branch records entered using GUI and transfers into the respective worksheets of Bus_Data and Branch_Data. 2012 11 . This module performs a Gauss-Seidel Loadflow. BusData This module reads data from Bus_Data worksheet by Subroutine:get_BusData. prints the calculated complex bus voltages. individual and total transmission losses. a class module was implemented using the QueryPerformanceCounter and used to determine the time taken for computations. the application presents detailed information on comparative analysis of all four algorithms in terms of time. Further. LineFlows This module calculates the real and reactive power flows Subroutines. real and reactive line and transformer power flows. complex bus powers. The four different load flow algorithms have been implemented using the pattern of implementation design. Table 3: Modules. Instead. average time per iteration as well as the total solution time to the results to the respective output sheets meant for each study. using Subroutines:PF_gs. numerical output with the help of lucid graphs and tables in the sheets named ‘Bar_Plots’.

1 5.79 1.06 0 1.0195 -8.36 1.1.0615 -13. 6.1 1.0569 -14.1 0 0 11 1.08 0 0 13 1.98 1.01 -12.03 1.31 1.36 1. Vol.045 -4.0559 -14.Spreadsheets in Education (eJSiE). For accomplishing this task.051 -15.03 0 0 Table 5 provides the details of benchmarking of MSEBPSLF with InterPSS.94 1.36 0 0 9 1. in which a comparison of complex powers at all buses of the standard IEEE-14 bus system. using N-R method. Table 4: Complex Bus Voltage comparison for IEEE-14 Bus System using N-R method InterPSS MSEBPSLF Differences Bus No. Then the output of MSEBPSLF is found to be the same as that of InterPSS or MATPOWER. 1 [2012].au/ejsie/vol6/iss1/1 12 . http://epublications. Benchmarking and Performance Analysis 5. Benchmarking To test both the effectiveness and accuracy of the source code.08 1.0559 -14.0552 -15.0195 -8. |V| δ |V| δ Δ|V| Δδ 1 1.07 -14.bond. using N-R method.09 -13.01 -12.77 0 0 6 1.051 -15.79 0 0 12 1.94 0 0 10 1.98 0 0 3 1.0355 -16.0569 -14.73 1.06 0 0 0 2 1.0615 -13.16 0 0 14 1.0552 -15.0177 -10.31 0 0 5 1.edu.77 1. Table 4 provides the details of benchmarking of MSEBPSLF with InterPSS. the application is tested thoroughly and numerical results are compared with standard software.36 0 0 8 1.0504 -15.73 0 0 4 1.22 0 0 7 1. InterPSS and MATPOWER are used for benchmarking purpose.07 -14.0355 -16. Art. Iss.0504 -15. in which a comparison of complex voltages at all buses of the standard IEEE-14 bus system.0177 -10. same systems are simulated in MSEBPSLF and InterPSS and MATPOWER.22 1.09 -13.045 -4.16 1.

478 0. IEEE-14 bus system is considered Published by ePublications@bond.039 0 0 5 -0.09 -0.0524 -0.3086 0.061 -0.035 -0.183 0. For this.18 0.942 0.183 0.295 -0.149 -0.44 0. several tests have been conducted on the application.016 -0.112 0.1655 2.1762 0 0.035 -0.058 0 0 11 -0.0001 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 0 0.1762 0 0 9 -0.13 0.25 0.478 0. P Q P Q ΔP ΔQ 1 2.016 -0.149 -0. Performance Analysis To illustrate the effectiveness of each of the implemented algorithms.2.058 0 0 14 -0.Musti and Ramkhelawan: Power System Load Flow Analysis using Microsoft Excel Table 5: Complex Bus Power comparison for the N-R method InterPSS MSEBPSLF Differences Bus No.1655 0 0 2 0.016 0 0 13 -0.942 0. in which a comparison of reactive power at voltage controlled buses of the standard IEEE-14 bus system.076 -0.112 0.3239 -0.3086 0 0 3 -0.05 -0.166 0 0 10 -0.166 -0.016 0 0 6 -0.135 -0.0608 0 0 4 -0.061 -0. Q(pu) Bus No.44 0 3 0. using N-R method.018 -0. Difference InterPSS MSEBPSLF 2 0.18 0 5.09 -0.039 -0.0523 0 0.3239 -0.05 0 0 Table 6 provides the details of benchmarking of MSEBPSLF with InterPSS. Table 6: PV Bus Limit Adjustment comparison for the N-R method.058 -0.076 -0.058 -0.295 -0.135 -0.25 0 6 0. 2012 13 .018 0 0 12 -0.13 0 8 0.0608 -0.

as compared by all the methods. Figure 10 shows the comparison of MW flows and it can be clearly seen that all methods do provide the same results including the DC approximated method. This plot provides a measure of the degree of accuracy of MW flows as determined by the DC approximation method.Spreadsheets in Education (eJSiE). 6.1 1.04 N-R 1.au/ejsie/vol6/iss1/1 14 . 1 and all the methods have been applied and then the final results are compared. 1 [2012]. Art.edu.08 1.bond.06 G-S 1. respectively. Figures 8 & 9 show the voltage magnitudes and angles of all buses.) at Each Bus 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 -5 G-S N-R -10 NR-FDC -15 DCLF -20 Bus Number Figure 9: Bus Voltage Angles produced by each method The MW flows in each line are determined using all the different methods.02 NR-FDC 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Bus Number Figure 8: Bus Voltage Magnitudes produced by each method Final Values of Voltage Angle(deg. Iss. Vol. http://epublications. Final Values of Voltage Magnitude(pu) at Each Bus 1.

Table 7: Computational Performance Data of the load flow methods METHOD Number of Time Per Total Solution Iterations Iteration (ms) Time (ms) G-S 51 8.8909 28.5353 0. One major finding is that the built-in function for matrix inversion ‘MINVERSE’ of Microsoft Excel can handle matrices only up to size of 52x52. the application is used to study the relative accuracy of results among the iterative methods.8928 NR-FDC 15 1.4207 DC 1 0. total time taken of execution to complete the solution on the standard IEEE-14 bus system. To determine the effectiveness of the application for larger systems with higher number of buses.6368 N-R 3 2.2976 6. the three standard systems IEEE-14. time per iteration.5353 Further. Table 8 provides a comparison of the MW and MVAR losses as determined by the three methods. IEEE-30.Musti and Ramkhelawan: Power System Load Flow Analysis using Microsoft Excel From-To MW Flows 200 150 100 G-S N-R 50 NR-FDC 0 DCLF 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10111213141516171819202122 -50 -100 Branch Sequence Number Figure 10: MW flows as calculated by each method Then the application is used determine number of iterations required to complete the study.1771 421. IEEE-57 bus systems have been studied and number of iterations have been determined. Published by ePublications@bond. This information is very useful for students when they first learn about effectiveness of the different algorithms. 2012 15 . Table 7 provides detailed information on comparison of the algorithms for IEEE-14 bus system.

then the user will have to enable macros in the Excel Trust Center. Go to the Trust Center and click Trust Center Settings and finally.39 31.39 31. Vol.edu. Number of Iterations vs. If the macro security settings dialog box does not appear on opening and clicking of the command buttons does not run their attached macros. Macro Settings.au/ejsie/vol6/iss1/1 16 . Usage of the Application and Effective Classroom Strategy 6. click the MS Office Button and then click Access Options. Number of System Buses 140 120 100 80 G-S 60 N-R 40 NR-FDC 20 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Number of Buses Figure 11: Number of Iterations with System Size 6. Art. a user-defined function for inverse is written in this application development. To navigate to the Trust Center.1. 1 Table 8: Data used to show Relative Accuracy of the results of each method METHOD Total MW Loss Total MVAR Loss G-S 13. 1 [2012]. that a spreadsheet http://epublications. Now all the macros in the workbook can be executed as normal.bond. Usage of the Application On opening the implemented spreadsheet application.39 31. Figure 11 shows the number of iterations taken by different methods. To overcome this limitation. 6. the user should first enable editing if prompted and then enable macros.51 N-R 13. as number of buses increase. It should be noted however.52 NR-FDC 13. which is found to be very effective.Spreadsheets in Education (eJSiE).51 This limits this application for using larger systems for obvious reasons. Select the “Enable all macros” radio button. Iss.

As opposed to this strategy. With this approach students can understand the complete process of load flow analysis. Studies like capacitor placement. setting up of study parameters etc. connectivity and required information to conduct a load flow. Teachers can use this application differently. overall system losses. Effective Classroom Strategy Every electrical engineering student with a major in Power Systems..2. Students need to understand different algorithms.Musti and Ramkhelawan: Power System Load Flow Analysis using Microsoft Excel implementation by MS-Excel. and students need to understand the system. Students need to know how to treat each power system component and its modelling aspects and then prepare input properly. transformation of actual parameters to per unit quantities. will study the aspects of load flows in depth. it should be noted that this spreadsheet application supports common power system components only and the largest system that was tested is standard IEEE 57 bus network. System elements such HVDC links or polyphase systems or unbalanced conditions are not modelled or incorporated in this Published by ePublications@bond. intermediate calculations. selection of algorithm based on network types. It is recommended that students should prepare the input data first from the diagrams of the systems that need to be studied. Then this developed spreadsheet based application is passed on to the students to verify their own calculations with those generated by the application. if the data is provided to the students in a text file and then they are asked to use this application. The reasons being a) in real life. then students need to make only few clicks to get the final results. Several networks with different loading patterns can be created and studies can be carried out. data is presented in diagrams. The results can be shown in tables or charts since the application provides a lucid output instantly. However. generator limits etc. voltage stability or load forecast can be carried out and the system response can be demonstrated. tables etc. might take longer time for larger buses on machines with lesser processing and memory resources. as the application supports the same. This requires selection of base quantities. loading conditions. convergence criteria. section data. To provide a quick understanding of the application. 2012 17 . Comparative analysis of four algorithms can also be demonstrated to students easily. effect of control devices such as tap changing transformer etc. input data for the standard IEEE-14 bus network is provided with the spreadsheet as default. b) the information is classified into bus data. and this prevents them from understanding intermediate results and other required aspects of load flow studies. Then they should carry out the load flow study up to one iteration using manual approach. 6.

development and implementation of Microsoft Excel based Power System Load Flow tool has been presented. P. The accuracy and effectiveness of tool is verified and benchmarked with existing standard software. Vol.A. 1 work. Four popular load flow algorithms have been implemented. Art. M.F. IEEE Transactions on Computer Applications in Power. Last Accessed March 2012. Lui. (2011).F. and Kuruganty.T (2012).. pp. “Spreadsheet Implementations for Solving Power-Flow Problems. 103-108 [8] Microsoft (2012). 6. J. "Usefulness of DC Power Flow for Active Power Flow Analysis.. M. K. [3] Gutierrez. C. 3 [2] Xu. No.A. IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems. IEEE Int. R. Meyer (1971).“Modern Power System Analysis” New York.V. Conclusion A successful case of design. [7] N. Y. L.. Meeus. Koval. “Using Spreadsheet Software as a Platform for Power System Analysis”. “Transformer Model”. “Automatic Adjustment of Transformer and Phase-Shifter Taps in the Newton Power Flow”. W. Vol.. Kothari and I. Peterson and W. 1. January/February 1971. Iss. (2008).edu. and hence provides an economical and alternative solution for power system load flow analysis.com/documents/power_systems/transformers/. and Belmans. Castro. Conf on Power System Technology (POWERCON). “System requirements for Office 2010”.” Electronic Journal on Spreadsheets in Education (eJSiE). Vol. 2005. PAS-90. https://vismor. Sastry.bond. References [1] Lau. 1.3: Iss. Trondheim . Hence. “Critical comparison of robust load flow methods for ill-conditioned systems”. J. Dommelen D." (Shipley 1976) [6] Vismor. M.. this spreadsheet may not be used for any network that has advanced or modern components or components that require special treatment..au/ejsie/vol6/iss1/1 18 . No. (1999). and Lipsett. D. Norway [4] D. This tool can significantly enhance classroom teaching experience and also learning experience. Nagrath (2008). 7.S. Bedrinana. McGraw Hill. [5] Purchala. http://epublications. 1 [2012]. Mark A.Spreadsheets in Education (eJSiE).

.H. “Object-Oriented Modelling for Advance Power System Simulations.A.) Std 399-1997. A. Y. ill and unsolvable condition” IEEE Int. Mitani. Bakar. IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems.aspx . Y. A. (2010). [11] N. Inc. T. Shishido (2005).microsoft. D. Russia. pp. H. Last Accessed March 2012. Mokhlis.”IEEEPower Tech Conference Proceedings. Takazawa. and T. “Comparative studies on NonDivergent Load flow methods in well. Haddad. Conf on Power System Technology (POWERCON). 2012 19 . China Published by ePublications@bond. [10] K.com/en-us/library/ee624351. IEEE Recommended Practice for Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Analysis. Rao and N. [12] Shahriari. [9] IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Y. Zhejiang. Hongesombut. “Typical Applications of New Generation Spreadsheets To Power System Problems”. June.Musti and Ramkhelawan: Power System Load Flow Analysis using Microsoft Excel http://technet. Tada. 159-162.. 1991.

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