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# Pushover Analysis

For

## Association of Structural Engineers Philippines

By

Naveed Anwar
Asian Center for Engineering Computations and Software
Asian Institute of Technology
In Association with

## Computers and Structures Inc., Berkeley, California, USA

Pushover Analysis
Using ETABS (and SAP2000)

## June 22-23, CEBU, Philippines

By

Naveed Anwar
Asian Center for Engineering Computations and Software
Asian Institute of Technology
In Association with

Acknowledgements

## Some of the material presented in these

notes is based on following sources:
Class notes by Prof. Worsak Kanok-Nukulchai
Seminar notes from Computers and Structures
Incorporated, USA
Notes from various workshops conducted by
Naveed Anwar
SAP2000 User and Technical Manuals
ETABS User and Technical Manuals
ATC40, Applied Technology Council, USA
FEMA-273, Federal Emergency Management
Agency, USA

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Objectives
Introduce the basic Modeling and Analysis
Concepts
To provide an understanding of Static
Nonlinear Pushover Analysis for Seismic
Performance
To demonstrate the application of Pushover
Analysis for buildings using ETABS and
SAP2000 and to provide a comparison

The Questions

## Why use Pushover Analysis

What is Pushover Analysis
How to carryout Pushover Analysis
What to do before Pushover Analysis
What to do after Pushover Analysis

Summary

## The Purpose of Analysis

The Significance of Modeling
Analysis Types
Linearity and Non-Linearity
Static and Dynamic Analysis

STRUCTURE

RESPONSES

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

EXCITATION
Vibrations
Settlements
Thermal Changes

Displacements
Strains
Stress
Stress Resultants

pv

Structural
Model

Analysis of Structures
xx yy zz

pvx 0
x
y
z
Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

pv

## Real Structure is governed by

Partial Differential Equations of
various order
Direct solution is only possible for:
Simple geometry
Simple Boundary

## The Need for Modeling

A - Real Structure cannot be Analyzed:
It can only be Load Tested to determine
response
B - We can only analyze a Model of the
Structure
C - We therefore need tools to Model the
Structure and to Analyze the Model

## Finite Element Analysis (FEA)

A discretized solution to a continuum
problem using FEM

## Finite Element Method (FEM)

A numerical procedure for solving
(partial) differential equations
associated with field problems, with
an accuracy acceptable to
engineers

pv
3D-CONTINUM
MODEL

CONTINUOUS MODEL
OF STRUCTURE

## (Governed by partial (Governed by either

differential equations) partial or total differential
equations)

DISCRETE MODEL
OF STRUCTURE

(Governed by algebraic
equations)

Equilibrium

Actual Structure

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

xx yy zz

pvx 0
x y z
Partial
Differential
Equations

FEM

Assumptions

Classical

Structural Model

Kr R

Stress-Strain Law
Compatibility

Algebraic
Equations
_

dV p u dV p u ds
t
v

t
s

K = Stiffness
r = Response

Deformations (D)

Fv

F=KD

STRUCTURE

RESPONSES

EXCITATION

pv

Static
Dynamic

Elastic
Inelastic

Linear
Nonlinear

## The Equilibrium Equations

1. Linear-Static

Elastic

Ku F

2. Linear-Dynamic

Elastic

## 3. Nonlinear - Static Elastic OR Inelastic

Ku FNL F

4. Nonlinear-Dynamic
Inelastic

Elastic OR

Excitation

Structure

Response

## Basic Analysis Type

Static

Elastic

Linear

Linear-Elastic-Static Analysis

Static

Elastic

Nonlinear

Nonlinear-Elastic-Static Analysis

Static

Inelastic

Linear

Linear-Inelastic-Static Analysis

Static

Inelastic

Nonlinear

Nonlinear-Inelastic-Static Analysis

Dynamic

Elastic

Linear

Linear-Elastic-Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic

Elastic

Nonlinear

Nonlinear-Elastic-Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic

Inelastic

Linear

Linear-Inelastic-Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic

Inelastic

Nonlinear

Nonlinear-Inelastic-Dynamic Analysis

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Non-linear Analysis

P-Delta Analysis
Buckling Analysis
Static Pushover Analysis
Fast Non-Linear Analysis (FNA)
Large Displacement Analysis

Dynamic Analysis
Free Vibration and Modal Analysis
Response Spectrum Analysis

Analysis Type

## The type of Analysis to be carried out depends

on the Structural System
The Type Structure (Material and
Geometry)
The Type Response

Static Vs Dynamic
Static Excitation

## When the Excitation (Load) does not vary rapidly with

Time
When the Load can be assumed to be applied
Slowly

Dynamic Excitation
When the Excitation varies rapidly with Time
When the Inertial Force becomes significant

## Most Real Excitation are Dynamic but are

consideredQuasi Static
Most Dynamic Excitation can be converted to

Elastic Vs Inelastic
Elastic Material
and returns to initial state of deformation, stress,
strain etc. after removal of load/ excitation

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Inelastic Material
deformation, stress, strain etc. after removal of load/
excitation

## Most materials exhibit both, elastic and inelastic

Linear Vs Nonlinear
Linearity
The response is directly proportional to excitation
(Deflection doubles if load is doubled)

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Non-Linearity
The response is not directly proportional to
excitation
(deflection may become 4 times if load is doubled)

## Non-linear response may be produced by:

Geometric Effects (Geometric non-linearity)
Material Effects (Material non-linearity)
Both

Linear-Elastic

Action

Action

Deformation

Action

Action

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Deformation

Linear-Inelastic

Nonlinear-Elastic
Deformation

Nonlinear-Inelastic
Deformation

## Linear and Nonlinear

Linear, Static and Dynamic

Ku F
Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

FNL

(t ) Cu (t ) Ku(t ) F (t )
Mu
Ku = F
Ku - FNL = F

Ku FNL F
u

## DOF (Degree of Freedom)

Stiffness
Static Analysis Process
Dynamic Analysis Procedures

## The Seven Degrees of Freedom

The General Beam
Element may have
7 degrees of
freedom
The seventh
degree is Warping
Warping is out-of
plane distortion of
the beam crosssection

ry
uy
y

u x rx
x
z
uz
rz
wz

## Each section on a beam

member can have seven
Degrees Of Freedom
(DOF) with respect to its
local axis.

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

DOF
Picture
uz The
AxialComplete
deformation Axial
strain
Axial stress
ux Shear deformation Shear strain Shear stress
uy Shear deformation Shear strain Shear stress
rz Torsion Shear strain Shear stress
r y Curvature Axial strain Axial stress
rx Curvature Axial strain Axial stress
wz Warping Axial strain Axial stress

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

What is Stiffness ?
In structural terms, stiffness
may be defined as
Resistance to Deformation
So for each type of
deformation, there is a
corresponding stiffness
Stiffness can be considered
or evaluated at various levels
Stiffness is also the
constant in the ActionDeformation Relationship

uF
Ku F
F
K
u

## The Structure Stiffness

Material Stiffness

Cross-section Geometry

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Section Stiffness

Member Geometry
Member Stiffness

Structure Geometry
Structure Stiffness

## The Matrices in FEM

Global Nodal Deformations
T-Matrix
Global-Local Cords.

## Element Nodal Deformations

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

N-Matrix
Shape Functions

## Deformation in Element Space

B-Matrix
Strain-Deforrmation

D-Matrix
Stress-Strain

## Generate Stiffness Matrix for each Element

Form Global Stiffness Matrix
Modify for boundary conditions
Solve for unknown Displacements
Compute element actions/ stresses from end
displacements

## Methods of Dynamic Analysis

For Both Linear and Non-Linear Systems

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Step-by-Step Integration
Use of Mode Superposition with Eigen or LoadDependent Ritz Vector for Fast Nonlinear Analysis
(FNA)

## For Linear Systems Only

Transformation of frequency domain and FFT
Method
Response Spectrum Method CQC - SRSS

## Step by Step Solution Method

Form Effective Stiffness Matrix
Solve Set of Dynamic Equilibrium Equations
for Displacement at Each Time Step
For Non-Linear Problems Calculate Member
Forces for Each Time Step and Iterate for
Equilibrium Brute Force Method

## Mode Superposition Method

Generate Orthogonal Dependent Vectors and
Frequencies
Form Uncoupled Modal Equations and Solve
Using Exact Method for Each Time Increment
Recover Nodal Displacement as a Function
of Time
Calculate Member Forces as a Function of
Time

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Approximately Three Times Faster than the
Calculation of Exact Eigen Vectors
Results in Improved Accuracy using a
Smaller Number of LDR Vector
Computer Storage Requirements are
Reduced
Can be Used for Non-Linear analysis to
Capture Local Static Response

## Fast Non-Linear Analysis

Evaluate LDR Vectors with Non-Linear Elements
Removed and Dummy Elements Added for Stability
Solve All Modal Equations with Non-Linear Forces
on the Right Hand Side
Use Exact Integration within Each Time Step
Force and Energy Equilibrium are Satisfied at Each
Time Step by Iteration
The FNA Method is Designed for Static and Dynamic
Analysis of Non-Linear Structures with a Limited
Number of Pre-Defined Non-Linear Elements

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Pushover Analysis

No Energy Dissipation
Inertia Forces Not Considered
Defined One Failure Mode
Higher Mode Effects Neglected

## The Modal Analysis

The modal analysis determines the inherent natural
frequencies of vibration
Each natural frequency is related to a time period
and a mode shape
Time Period is the time it takes to complete one
cycle of vibration
The Mode Shape is normalized deformation pattern
The number of Modes is typically equal to the
number of Degrees of Freedom
The Time Period and Mode Shapes are inherent
properties of the structure and do not depend on the

## Free Vibration Analysis

Definition
Natural vibration of a structure released from initial condition and
subjected to no external load or damping

## Main governing equation -Eigenvalue Problem

M u c u K ut Pt
t
t

Solution gives
Natural Frequencies
Associated mode shapes
An insight into the dynamic behavior and response of the structure

## The Modal Analysis

The Modal Analysis should be run before
applying loads any other analysis to check
the model and to understand the response of
the structure
Modal analysis is precursor to most types of
analysis including Response Spectrum, Time
History, Push-over analysis etc.
Modal analysis is a useful tool even if full
Dynamic Analysis is not performed
Modal analysis easy to run and is a fun to
watch the animations

## The Time Period and Mode Shapes, together

with animation immediately exhibit the
strengths and weaknesses of the structure
Modal analysis can be used to check the
accuracy of the structural model
The Time Period should be within reasonable
range, (Ex: 0.1 x number of stories seconds)
The disconnected members are identified
Local modes are identified that may need
suppression

## The symmetry of the structure can be

determined
For doubly symmetrical buildings, generally the
first two modes are translational and third mode
is rotational
If first mode is rotational, the structural is unsymmetrical

## The resonance with the applied loads or

excitation can be avoided
The natural frequency of the structure should not
be close to excitation frequency

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Unsymmetrical Mass
and Stiffness

Stiffness

Mode-1

Mode-2

Mode-3

## Modes and Pushover

Generally the deformation pattern
corresponding to the First Mode is used as
the basis for analysis
This is acceptable for structures with time
period less than or equal to 1 second
For more flexible structures, higher mode
contribution may become significant

Base Isolation

Isolators

Building Impact

Building Impact
Analysis

Dampers
Friction device

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Concentrated damper
Nonlinear element

Gap Element

Bridge Deck
ABUTMENT

Hinges

PLASTIC HINGES

2 Rotational DOF

Dampers

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Mechanical Damper
F= f(u,v,umax)

F= ku

F= CvN
Mathematical Model

## Linear Viscous Damping

Does not Exist in Normal Structures and
Foundations
5 or 10 Percent modal Damping Values are
Often Used to Justify Energy Dissipation Due
to Non-Linear Effects
If Energy Dissipation Devices are Used Then
1 Percent Modal Damping should be Used for
the Elastic Part of the Structure

Uplift

Uplifting
Allowed

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Structural Modeling

Structure Types
Cable Structures
Cable Nets
Cable Stayed

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Bar Structures
2D/3D Trusses
2D/3D Frames, Grids

Surface Structures
Plate, Shell
In-Plane, Plane Stress

Solid Structures

## (b) Solid Model

(c) 3D Plate-Frame

(d) 3D Fram e

(f) Grid-Plate

(e) 2D Fram e
Fig. 1 Various Ways to Model a Real Struture

## Truss and Beam Elements (1D,2D,3D)

Plane Stress, Plane Strain, Axisymmetric, Plate and Shell Elements (2D,3D)

Brick Elements

## Defining Individual Nodes and Elements

Using Graphical Modeling Tools
Using Numerical Generation
Using Mathematical Generation
Using Copy and Replication
Using Subdivision and Meshing
Using Geometric Extrusions
Using Parametric Structures

## Use basic Geometric Entities to create FE

Models
Simple Graphic Objects

Point Object
Line Object
Area Object
Brick Object

Represents Node
Represents 1D Elements
Represents 2D Elements
Represents 3D Elements

## Graphic Objects can be used to represent

SAP2000, ETABS and SAFE use the concept
of Graphic Objects

## Modeling Objects and Finite Elements

Structural Members are representation of
actual structural components
Finite Elements are discretized
representation of Structural Members
The concept of Graphic Objects can be used
to represent both, the Structural Members as
well as Finite Elements
In ETABS, the Graphic Objects representing
the Structural Members are automatically
divided into Finite Elements for analysis and
then back to structural members for result
interpretation

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Building Analysis

Member Actions

Cross-section Actions

Material Stress/Strain

## The Response and Design

Material Response

Section Response

Member Response

Building Response

## Three Design Approaches

Working Stress Design
Stress is primary concern and objective

## Ultimate Strength Design

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

## Performance Based Design

Deformation is primary concern

## Allowable material, control on

Material failure criteria, section capacity
Ductility considerations, deformation
considerations

Serviceability
Design

Strength Design

Performance
Design

## Satisfying one design level does not ensure

that other design levels will be satisfied
Serviceability design only ensures that
deflections and vibrations etc. for service loads
are within limits but says nothing about strength
Strength design ensures that a certain factor of
safety against overload is available within a
member or a cross-section but says nothing
Performance design ensures that structure as a
whole reaches a specified demand level.
Performance design can include, both service and
strength design levels

A Serviceability
B Cracking Limit
C Strength Limit
D Failure Limit

C
B

## The entire response of structure or a

member can be determined, in an
integrated manner from the ActionDeformation Curve

Deformation

Cross-section Reponses
Stresses
Tension
Compression
Shear > Tension-Compression

Strains
Normal strain
Shear Strain

Deformations

Rotation
Shortening
Shearing
Twisting

## Determining Cross-section Response

Material Stress-Strain Curves
Cross-section Dimensions

Performance

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Given P value

Given Moments

P-M Curve

M-M Curve

Moment-Curvature Curves

## Moment for Given Curvature

Curvature for Given Moment
Yield Moment
Stiffness
Ductility

Capacity Ratio

Mx for Given My
My for Given Mx
Capacity Ratio

Strength

Capacity
Interaction Surface

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Capacity
Interaction Surface
P

My

Mx

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Cross-section Stresses

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Original Cross-sections

section

## Reinforced concrete section

Composite section

## Compact Hot-rolled steel shape

Reinforced concrete,
composite section

## Strength and Performance

In Strength Design, every member and every
cross-section must satisfy strength equation
Even if all members and sections are
designed for strength, the structure may not
perform well in case of overload
In Performance Based Design, only a few
members on the critical load path need to
perform well for the structure to perform well
Therefore for strengthening of structures, we
may only need to strengthen members or
section in the critical load path

## In Performance Based Design, only a few

members on the critical load path need to
perform well for the structure to perform well

## Therefore for strengthening of structures, we

may only need to strengthen members or
section in the critical load path

## What Effects Serviceability?

Anything that reduces cracking
The presence of appropriate amount of
reinforcement at appropriate locations

## Anything that increases stiffness

Reasonable sizes and proportions of member
cross-sections

## Anything that reduces Creep/ Shrinkage

Presence of compressive reinforcement

## Anything that improves Durability

High strength concrete
Proper cver and protection of rebars

## What Effects Strength?

The basic Material Strength

## Concrete crushing strength

Reinforcement yield strength

## The Cross-section Dimensions

The amount of Rebars
The framing conditions

## What Effects Performance?

Performance is generally of concern for
lateral loads such as earthquake and wind
The main factor that effects performance is
the Ductility of the members on the critical
In frame structures, the design of the joints
between columns and beams is critical
The performance of shear walls if great

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Ductility can be
defined as the ratio
of deformation and a
given stage to the
maximum
deformation
capacity
Normally ductility is
measured from the
deformation at design
strength to the
maximum
deformation at failure

## Ductility Definition and Usage

Yield/ Design
Strength

Dy

Du

Deformation
Ductility = Dy / Du

## What Effects Ductility!

The most important factor effecting ductility
of reinforced concrete cross-section is the
confinement of concrete

## Amount of confinement steel

Shape of confinement steel

## Other factors include:

Stress-strain curve of rebars
Amount of rebars in tension
Amount of rebars in compression
The shape of cross-section

## Relationship between action and

corresponding deformation
These relationships can be obtained at
several levels

## The Structural Level:

The Member Level:
Moment - Rotation
The Cross-section Level: Moment - Curvature
The Material Level :
Stress-Strain

## The Action-Deformation curves show the

entire response of the structure, member,
cross-section or material

## How to Get Action-Deformation Curves

By actual measurements
Apply load, measure stress and strain

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

By computations
Use material models, cross-section dimensions to
get Moment-Curvature Curves

## By combination of measurement and

computations
Calibrate computation models with actual
measurements
Some parameters obtained by measurement and
some by computations

## Probably the most important action-deformation

curve for beams, columns, shear walls and
consequently for building structures
Significant information can be obtained from
Moment Curvature Curve to compute:

Yield Point
Failure Point
Ductility
Stiffness
Crack Width
Rotation
Deflection
Strain

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

What is Curvature
In geometry, it is rate
of change of rotation
In structural behavior,
Curvature is related to
Moment
For a cross-section
undergoing flexural
deformation, it can
computed as the ratio
of the strain to the
depth of neutral axis

e
C

2 -Failure Point

1 -Yield Point

y
3 - Ductility
u

EI
M
EI

b

M
dx
EI
a

## Outputs from M-Phi Curve

6 - Deflection of the section at given Moment

M
D x dx
EI
a
Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

## c = distance from the NA to

the point where strain is
required

## Outputs from M-Phi Curve

8 - Crack Width at given crack spacing

## Specified Crack Spacing = X

W s X
Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

W yX

NA

Rebar Centroid

W
X

W
X
y

## Outputs from M-Phi Curve - Summary

Plot M-Phi Curve

EI

Determine curvature
at known moment

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Determine Flexural
Stiffness (EI)
b

M
D
EI
a
b

x dx

Determine Deflection

M
dx
EI
Determine Slope

Determine Strain

W s X

s
Determine Crack
Spacing/Width

## Outputs from M-Phi Curve - Example

For M=600 Phi = 0.00006
From M-Phi Diagram

P=160 K

L/2
24 in

EI

36 in
15 ft

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

EI=600x12/0.00006
EI=1.2E8 k-in^2

## Slope at Mid Span

M=600 k-ft
b

M
dx
EI

a
=600x7.5x144/1.2E8

## Outputs from M-Phi Curve - Example

Deflection at Mid Span

M
D x dx
EI
a
Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

=600x7.5x144x15x12/(6x1.2E8)
=0.162 in

## Specified Crack Spacing = X

Strain in Steel

c
M = 600 k-ft, y=16

=0.00006x16
=0.00096

NA

Rebar Centroid

## Outputs from M-Phi Curve - Example

Crack Width
Assuming crack spacing of 18 in

W s X

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

NA

=0.00096 x 18
=0.01728 in

Crack Spacing
Assuming crack width of 0.02 in

W
s

=0.02/0.00096
=20.8 in

Rebar Centroid

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Effect of Compression Steel
Effect of Confinement Model
Effect of Confinement Shape

12#8 bars

a)

b)

8#8
8#8bars
bars

2#8 bars

8#8 bars

c)

4#8 bars

8#8 bars

d)

8#8 bars

8#8 bars

## Confinement Model and Ductility

Effect of Concrete Confinement Model on Ductility of Cross-Section
350

300

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Moment (kip-ft)

250

200

Whitney Rectangle
Mander Circular Confined

150

## Mander Pipe Filled

100

50

0
0

0.001

0.002

0.003

0.004

0.005

0.006

a)

8#8 bars
Whitney Rectangle
(both)

b)

c)

8#8 bars
8#8 bars
Whitney Rectangle (outside)
Whitney Rectangle (outside)
Mander Circular Confined (inside) Mander Pipe Filled (inside)

## Confinement Steel and Ductility

Effect of Confinement Steel Spacing on Ductility
160

140

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Moment (kip-ft)

120

100

Spacing = 3in
80

Spacing = 6 in
60

Spacing = 12 in

40

20
0
-0.0005

0.0000

0.0005

0.0010

0.0015

0.0020

0.0025

-20

a)

8#6 bars
Manders Rectangular
Confined

## Confinement Shape and Ductility

a)

8#6 bars
Manders Rectangular
Confined

b)

a)

8#6 bars
Manders Circular
Confined

8#6 bars
Whitney Rectangle

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Introducing

Pushover Analysis

## The Pushover Analysis

An alternate method of analysis for carrying
out the Performance Based Design
Pushover analysis is carried out after the
Linear Analysis has been done and
Serviceability and Strength design has been
completed
Pushover analysis is most suitable for
determining the performance, specially for
lateral loads such as Earthquake or even
wind

## Buildings do not respond as linearly elastic

systems during strong ground shaking
Improve Understanding of Building Behavior
More accurate prediction of global displacement
More realistic prediction of earthquake demand
on individual components and elements
More reliable identification of bad actors

## Reduce Impact and Cost of Seismic Retrofit

Less conservative acceptance criteria
Less extensive construction

## Performance Based Design - Basics

Design is based not on Ultimate Strength but
rather on Expected Performance

## Basic Ultimate Strength does not tell us what will

be performance of the structure at Ultimate
Capacity

## Performance Based Design Levels

Fully Operational
Operational
Life Safe
Near Collapse
Collapse

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Pushover Spectrum

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Demand Vs Capacity

Non-linearity in Pushover
Material nonlinearity at discrete, user-defined hinges
in frame/line elements.
1. Material nonlinearity in the link elements.

## Gap (compression only), hook (tension only), uniaxial

plasticity base isolators (biaxial plasticity and biaxial
friction/pendulum)..

## 2. Geometric nonlinearity in all elements.

Only P-delta effects
P-delta effects plus large displacements

## 3. Staged (sequential) construction.

Members can be added or removed in a sequence of stages
during each analysis case.

Important Considerations

## Nonlinear analysis takes time and patience

Each nonlinear problem is different
Start simple and build up gradually.
Run linear static loads and modal analysis
first
areas where you expect the most nonlinearity.
Perform initial analyses without geometric
non-linearity. Add P-delta effects, and large
deformations, much later.

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Important Considerations
Mathematically, static nonlinear analysis
does not always guarantee a unique solution.
cause large changes in nonlinear response.
It is Important to consider many different
effect of varying the properties of the
structure
Nonlinear analysis takes time and patience.
Dont Rush it or Push to Hard

## Procedure for Pushover Analysis

Create a model just like for any other
analysis.
Define the static load cases, if any, needed
for use in the static nonlinear analysis
Define any other static and dynamic analysis
cases that may be needed for steel or
concrete design of frame elements.

## Procedure for Pushover Analysis

Define hinge properties, if any (Define >
Frame Nonlinear Hinge Properties).
Assign hinge properties, if any, to frame/line
elements (Assign > Frame/Line > Frame
Nonlinear Hinges).
Define nonlinear link properties, if any

## Procedure for Pushover Analysis

Assign link properties, if any, to frame/line
elements (Assign > Frame/Line > Link
Properties).
Run the basic linear and dynamic analyses
(Analyze > Run).
Perform concrete design/steel design so that
reinforcing steel/ section is determined for
concrete/steel hinge if properties are based
on default values to be computed by the
program.

## Procedure for Pushover Analysis

For staged construction, define groups that
represent the various completed stages of
construction.
Define the static nonlinear load cases (Define
> Static Nonlinear/Pushover Cases).
Run the static nonlinear analysis (Analyze >
Run Static Nonlinear Analysis).

## Procedure for Pushover Analysis

Review the static nonlinear results (Display >
Show Static Pushover Curve), (Display >
Show Deformed Shape), (Display > Show
Member Forces/Stress Diagram), and (File >
Print Tables > Analysis Output).
Perform any design checks that utilize static
nonlinear cases.
Revise the model as necessary and repeat.

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Summary
We have to think in terms of
Displacements and not in terms of loads,
stresses or strains
The main idea is to compare expected
displacements or required displacements
with the ability of the structure to reach
those displacements without failing
OR
indicating that it will not reach those
displacements

## Performance Based Design

and

Pushover Analysis
Technical Background
By:

## Iqbal Suharwardy, PhD, S.E

Director Development
Computers and Structures Inc., Berkeley, USA

Purpose

## How will a structure perform when subjected to a

given level of earthquake?
Definition of Structural Performance
Definition of Earthquake Level
Determination of performance level

## Performance Check for Structures

Process
Guidelines for Seismic Rehabilitation of
Buildings:

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

ATC-40
ATC-33 (FEMA 273 and 274)

## Types of Performance Checks

Linear Static Analysis
Linear Dynamic Analysis
Non Linear Static Analysis
(Pushover Analysis)
Non Linear Dynamic Analysis

Force Measure

## Expected Performance Point for

given Earthquake

Performance Limits
(IO, LS, CP)

Deformation Measure

## Construct Pushover Curve

Select Earthquake Level to check
Select Performance Level to check
Select acceptance criteria for each
Performance Level
Verify Acceptance
ATC-40 Method
ATC-33 Method

## Constructing Pushover Curve

Define Structural Model
Elements
Strength-Deformation properties

Gravity

## Select Control Displacements or Drifts

Perform Pushover Analysis

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Types
Truss Yielding and Buckling
3D Beam Major direction Flexural and Shear
Hinging
3D Column P-M-M Interaction and shear Hinging
Panel Zone Shear Yielding
In-Fill Panel Shear Failure
Shear Wall P-M-Shear Interaction!
Spring for foundation modeling

## Pushover Modeling (Properties)

Force - Deformation Relationship

Force

B
D
A

Deformation

## Three Dimensional Beam Element

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Shear Hinge

Flexible connection

Plastic Hinge

Rigid Zone

## Three Dimensional Column Element

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Shear Hinge

Plastic Hinge

Rigid Zone

Pushover Modeling

## Types of Deformation Properties

Axial
Moment only
P-M : Uniaxial P-M Interaction
P-M-M : Biaxial P-M Interaction
Shear

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Uniform
First Mode
Combination of Modes

## Pushover Analysis (Control)

Force Controlled Analysis
Deformation Controlled Analysis
Roof Displacement
Generalized Displacement Definitions
Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Story Drift

Limit of Analysis
Instability Loss of Gravity Load Carry Capacity
Excessive Distortions

## Pushover Analysis (Solution Schemes)

Event by Event Strategies
Manual

## Newton-Raphson Type Strategies

Constant Stiffness iteration
Tangent Stiffness iteration

## Problem of Degradation of Strength

Ritz Method (Reduced Space) Strategies

## Construct Capacity Spectrum

Estimation of Equivalent Damping
Determine Demand Spectrum
Determine Performance Point
Verify Acceptance

Spectral
Acceleration

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Capacity Spectrum

Spectral Displacement

## Use of Pushover Curve (ATC-40)

Response Spectrum (5% Damping)

Spectral
Acceleration

2.5CA
Cv/T

Time Period

## Use of Pushover Curve (ATC-40)

Reduced Spectrum (Equivalent Damping)

Spectral
Acceleration

2.5CA/Bs

Cv /(T BL)

Time Period

Spectral
Acceleration

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Performance Point

Spectral Displacement

Force Measure

## Expected Performance Point for

given Earthquake

Performance Limits
(IO, LS, CP)

Deformation Measure

## Displacement Coefficient Method

Estimate Target Displacement
Verify Acceptance
Estimation of Target Displacement

## Estimate effective elastic stiffness , Ke

Estimate post yield stiffness, Ks
Estimate effective fundamental period, Te
Calculate target roof displacement

## Use of Pushover Curve (FEMA-273)

Estimation of Target Displacement

## Co, Relates spectral to roof displacement

C1, Modifier for inelastic displacement
C2, Modifier for hysteresis loop shape
C3, Modifier for second order effects

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Full 3D implementation
Single Model for

## Linear Static Analysis

Linear Response Spectrum Analysis
Linear Time History Analysis
Non Linear Time History Analysis
Non Linear Static Pushover Analysis
Steel and Concrete Design

## Generally Follows ATC-40 and FEMA-273

Available Pushover Element Types

## Truss Yielding and Buckling

3D Beam Major direction Flexural and Shear Hinging
3D Column P-M-M Interaction and shear Hinging
Shell, Solids, etc (Considered Linear)
Panel Zone (later)
Shear Wall (Later)
Non-Linear Spring (Later)

## SAP2000/ETABS Pushover Options

Force - Deformation Relationship

Force

B
D
A

Deformation

## Three Dimensional Beam Element

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Shear Hinge

Flexible connection

Plastic Hinge

Rigid Zone

## SAP2000/ETABS Pushover Options

Strength Deformation and P-M-M curves
can be calculated by program for:

## Steel beams (FEMA-273)

Steel columns (FEMA-273)
Shear Hinges in EBF Links (FEMA-273)
Concrete Beams (ATC-40)
Concrete Columns (ATC-40)
Shear hinge in Coupling Beams (ATC-40)

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Pushover Analysis
Nodal Load Patterns (User, Modal, Mass)
Multi-Step Displacement or Drift Controlled

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Base Shear
Element Forces
Section Forces
Joint Displacement
Drifts
Element hinge Deformations
Limit Points reached

## Conversion to Capacity Spectrum

Calculation of Effective Period (per step)
Calculation of Effective Damping (per step)
Calculation of Demand Spectrum (per step)
Location of Performance Point
Limit Points (acceptable criteria) reached

## SAP2000/ETABS Pushover Options

Visual Display for Each Step
Deformed Shape
Member Force Diagrams
Hinge Locations and Stages

Graphs

## Base Shear VS Roof Displacement

Capacity Curves
Demand Curves
Demand Spectra at different Damping
Effective Period Lines

Examples

Example 1
P=100 Kip
m=3.6

W36x120

10 ft

Lateral Push to
0.5ft Disp

Default M3
Pushover Hinge

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Capacity Spectrum

Example 2

Axial Force, P
(Kips)

12 ft

Desired Behavior

User P Hinge

2100
1700
1000

0.1

0.6

0.8

## Measured Axial Displacement at Joint 2

(in)

Find Column E
Determine Column E to
give Appropriate Initial
Stiffness:

PL
E

= (1700 *12*12)/(24*24*0.1)
= 4250 Ksi

Axial Force, P
(Kips)

Column

Desired Behavior

2100
1700
1000

0.1

0.6

0.8

(in)

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Column

PL
D
AE

= [(2100-1700) *12*12)]/(24*24*4250)
= 0.0235 in

Axial Force, P
(Kips)

## Determine Elastic Column

from 1700 to 2100 K:

Desired Behavior

2100
1700
1000

0.1

0.6

0.8

(in)

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Column D

PL
AE

= [(2100-1000) *12*12)]/(24*24*4250)
= 0.0647 in

Axial Force, P
(Kips)

## Determine Elastic Column

from 2100 to 1000 K:

Desired Behavior

2100
1700
1000

0.1

0.6

0.8

(in)

## Find Column Deflection

Column

PL
D
AE

= 1000 *12*12)/(24*24*4250)
= 0.0588 in

Desired Behavior

Axial Force, P
(Kips)

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Determine Elastic
Column Lengthening
to 0 K:
2100
1700
1000

0.1

0.6

0.8

(in)

Hinge Properties

2100
1700
1000

0.8

0.7412

0.4765
0.5412

A
0.0

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

1000

Axial Force, P
(Kips)

2100
1700

Desired Behavior

B = 0.1 - 0.1 = 0
C = 0.6 - 0.1 - 0.0235 = 0.4765
D = 0.6 - 0.1 - 0.0235 + 0.0647 = 0.5412
E = 0.8 - 0.1 - 0.0235 + 0.0647 = 0.7412

0.1

0.6

0.8

(in)

Hinge Properties

Pushover Curve

0.8 kip/ft

W14x90

Push
0
19
2x
0
W1
x1
W8

W1
2x
19
0
W8
x1
0

W14x90

Example 3
1.2 kip/ft
0.8 kip/ft

W24x55

Example 3
M3

M3

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

PMM

M3 V M3 M3
MR

MR

PMM

MR

PMM

M3

P
Legend
P = Axial Hinge
MR = Moment Release
M3 = Moment Hinge
V2 = Shear Hinge
PMM = PMM Hinge

PMM
MR

Conversion to

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Acceleration-Displacement Response
Every Point on a Response Spectrum curve
has a unique

Spectral Acceleration, Sa
Spectral Velocity, Sv
Spectral Displacement, Sd
Time, T

## Response Spectrum Conversion

For Each value or Sai and Ti determine the
value of Sdi using the equation
2

Ti
S di
S ai g
2
4

## Spectral Acceleration and Displacement at

period Ti are given by

2
S ai g
Sv
Ti

Ti
S di
Sv
2

## Capacity Spectrum Conversion

Capacity Spectrum from Capacity or
Pushover Curve
Point by Point conversion to first mode
spectral coordinates
Vi and D roof on capacity curves are converted
to corresponding Sai and Sdi on capacity
spectrum using:
Vi
S ai
W

S di

D roof

PF
1

1, roof

Using M-Fi Curve

Procedure

## Plot M-Fi curve for cross-section

Estimate EI value from M-Fi Curve using the
following equation
M

EI
M
EI

## Calculate Rotations from Curvature using:

b

M
dx
EI
a

Reinforced Concrete
Beam-Column CrossSection
24x24
Reinforced with 12 #9
bars
Length is 12 ft

24"

24"

Example

Example

370

0.00028

Example

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

M
EI

So EI = 370/0.00028 = 1321428.6
b
M
M
Ip
dx
EI
EI
a
Find for other Moment Values and input in
Hinge Property

Considerations

## Keep moment Constant over hinge length

when integrating or integrate over the whole
member length with actual moment diagram

Ip = h/2

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Comparisons of
SAP2000 and ETABS

SAP2000 vs ETABS

SAP2000
General Purpose FEA
Software

## Classic Finite Element

Software
Steel, and Concrete Frame
Element Design
Shear Wall Design Not
Supported
Fewer Automated Meshing
Options
Does not Support
Composite Design

ETABS
Specialized FEA Software
for Building analysis and
design
Fully Object based Modeling
and Design
Steel, concrete, composite
Frame Element design
Supports Shear wall design

## Full and practical auto

meshing options
Supports Composite Design

SAP2000 vs ETABS

SAP2000
General output related to
nodes and elements is
reported

ETABS
Floor wise representation of
results such as story drift,
floor mass participation,
story shear, etc.

## General Report (text files)

Professional Report
combinations, envelopes,
multiple case, etc.
Cables, Dampers, and NL

## Relatively less ability to

Hinges

SAP2000 vs ETABS
SAP2000
Supports Solid Elements

## Relatively low versatility

for defining and editing
grid systems

ETABS
Does not support solid
elements
Powerful grid system
definition and editing

ETABS Pushover

ETABS Pushover

ETABS Pushover

SAP2000 Pushover

SAP2000 Pushover

SAP2000 Pushover

SAP2000 Pushover

SAP2000 Pushover

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

1
Steps to compute the
Displacement
(Displacement not
Monitored)
Divide the Specified
Displacement into
to attain that
displacement
Monitor which DOF at
what level/story
Save Positive Results
only
2
After a member fails
locally around failed
members or reanalyze
structure using a new
stiffness matrix
3
to apply and what is
the scaling factor for
factor

ETABS Pushover
4
Consider P-Delta
effects and Large
Displacements due to
by each step of lateral

5
For Construction
Sequence analysis.
Specify which
Pushover case to be
applied to which stage
of construction or
strengthening.

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

SAP Pushover

1
Weather to start from
unstressed condition
or if more than one
Pushover cases are
defined then may be
start the later pushover
case from the final
state of the pervious
case

2
3 is set to Loads this
becomes irrelevant
and if the Load Type in
3 is set to Acceleration
then to find modal
masses, select the
analysis case from
which the modal
masses may be

3
Accelerations needs to
be applied and what is
the scale factor for

4
application without
monitoring the
displacement or use
the displacement
control. Also specify
the DOF to be
Monitored and the
Joint at which the DOF
is to be monitored
Results Saved
Save Results at only
or after each step.
Specify Max and Min
number of steps
Staged Construction
For Construction
Sequence analysis.
Specify which
Pushover case to be
applied to which stage
of construction or
strengthening
Nonlinear Parameters
Those explained in 2
and 4 on previous slide

2
3
4

## Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

1
V=Base Shear
D=Displacement
Sa=Spectral
Acceleration
Sd=Spectral Disp
Teff=Effective
Fundamental Period
Beff=Effective Viscous
Damping

3
Demand Curves
plotted for these
Damping Ratios
4
Grey Lines are the
Constant Period Lines
drawing for period
specified here

5