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9/23/2015

pssr

Importance of the Course


Working on ship is a hazardous occupation
The Employer and the Master should ensure
that every risk to the health or safety of a person
working on board ship is properly evaluated.

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Gangway
Must be:
- properly rigged & deployed
- bearing good construction, free
from patent defects, and properly
maintained
- fitted with suitable fencing along
the entire length
Hazard/s:
- loose or missing gratings

Safety Net
Must be:
- fitted where there is a risk of person
falling from the access equipment or
from the quayside or ships deck
adjacent to access equipment.

Hazard/s:
- falls through loose gratings and
slippery platform and handrails.

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Main Deck
Must be: fitted with duck board to prevent accidental
tripping
Hazards:
- may cause slips, trips, and falls due to slippery
surface
- liable to become wet and slippery

Holds and Hatches


Must be: free from patent defects
Hazards:
- lack of oxygen
- may cause slips, trips, and falls due to
obstructions (pipelines, rusty ladders, walkways
and handrails)

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Forecastle and Poop Deck


Must :
- have no small craft and obstacles under the low
- rollers and fairleads should turn smoothly and a visual
check be made that corrosion has not weaken them.
Hazard:
- pose risks of injuries from dirt and rust particles and
debris thrown off as chain pay off

Windlass
Hazard:
- danger of getting caught in moving machinery and
personal injuries through flying debris when doing
anchor works.

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Anchors
Must:
- a seaman engaged in stowing an anchor cable
into the locker should stand at protected position
and as far as practicable and should keep in
constant communication with the windlass operator.

Winches
Must:
- when winches is changed from single to double gear
or vice versa any load should be released first and the
clutch should be secured so that it cannot become
disengaged when winch is working.
Hazard:
- danger of getting caught in moving machinery

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Cranes and Derricks


Must:
- have sufficient technical information
- be provided with efficient braking mechanism
- have information on length, size and working load
Hazard:
- may cause head injuries due to falling equipment,
materials or overhead loads

Manifold and Deck Pipeline System


Must:
- checking should always be done before opening up
- must devise precaution against the contingency that the
content is other than what is expected
Hazard:
- presence of hydrocarbons, toxic gases and oxygen
deficiency.

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Accommodation
- includes sleeping rooms, mess rooms, catering
accommodation (including store rooms and
storage spaces), sanitary accommodation,
hospital
accommodation
and
recreation
accommodation provided for the use of the crew.

Accommodation Ladder
- carried on ship of 120 meters or over
- maximum designed angle of use and the maximum
safe loading are based on both number of
persons and total weight.

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Bridge
- the part of the ship from which it is controlled

Engine Room
- remote control fitted for stopping machinery or
pumps or for operating oil setting tank

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Engine Room
- bilges should at all times be kept clear of rubbish
and other substances so that mud boxes are not
blocked and bilges may be ready and easily
pumped.
- quick closing valves, in the event of fire, should be
tested regularly to ensure that they are functioning
satisfactorily

Various Shipboard Hazards


- Slips, trips and falls due to slippery surfaces (oil,
grease, garbage, water, ice, etc.) or obstruction
(pipelines, welding cables, lashing eyes, wire,
ropes etc.)
- Head injuries due to low doorway entrances,
overhead loads, falling equipment or material etc.
- Falls through open manholes, unfenced twin
decks, loose or missing gratings etc.

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Various Shipboard Hazards


- Clothing, fingers, etc. getting caught in moving
machinery such as grinding wheels, winch drums,
gears, flywheels, etc.
- Burns from steam pipes, hot machinery, welding
sparks, etc.
- Eye injuries through chipping, welding, chemicals, etc.
- Injuries and sliding / fall of unsecured equipment due
to ship movement in rough weather.

Various Shipboard Hazards


- Hazards of extreme weather
- Lack of oxygen in confine spaces
- Presence of hydrocarbon and toxic gases
- Hazards of chemical used on board
- Collision / grounding / flooding / sinking
- Pirates and stowaways
- Fire

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Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)


1. helmet
2. goggles
3. gloves

4. ear muffs

5. safety harness

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)


5. safety shoes

6. dusk mask and respirators

7. protective clothing

8. self-contained
breathing apparatus

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Life-Saving Appliances (LSA)


1. Lifejacket

2. Lifebuoy

3. Life raft

4. Lifeboat

Life-Saving Appliances (LSA)

5. Line throwing apparatus

6. EPIRBs and SARTs

7. TPAs and Immersion suits

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Fire Fighting Appliances (FFA)


1.Fire Hoses, Nozzles, Hydrants & Fire Main

2. Portable Fire Extinguishers

Fire Fighting Appliances (FFA)

3. Fire Axe

4. Fire Detecting System

5. Fixed Extinguishing System

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Medical Equipment
1. Resuscitator

2. Stretcher

3. Medicines

4. Medical Equipment

Oil Spill Equipment


1. Absorbent Pads
2. Absorbent Roll
3. Chemical Dispersant
4. Saw Dust, Brooms,
Dust Pans, Shovels
and Barrels

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Head Protection
Importance and functions of the helmet
The most important part of the human body is the head.
It needs utmost protection which is provided by a hard
plastic helmet on the ship.
A chin strap is also provided with the helmet which
keeps the helmet on place when there is a trip or fall.

Gloves
Different types of hand gloves are provided onboard ship.
All these are used in operations wherein it becomes
imperative to protect ones hands.

power tool use

for normal
operation

chemicalresistant

work gloves

cold-resistant

disposable

heat-resistant

welding

high voltage

cut-resistant

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Eye Protection
Importance of Eye Protection
A seaman's eyesight survived a recent
incident because he was wearing eye protection
when a grinder disk shattered. Had he not been
wearing safety goggles, he would almost certainly
have suffered serious injury and loss of an eye.
Although the seaman suffered injury to his face,
the safety goggles played a vital role in preventing
serious eye damage.

welding goggles

work goggles

Ear Protection
Types of ear protection
1.ear muffs

2.ear plugs

3.canal caps

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Ear Protection
Ear muffs, ear plugs, and ear canal caps protect
the ears from excessive noise which may cause:
1. hearing loss and deafness
2. hypertension
3. disturbance of psychosocial well-being
4. annoyance

Respiratory Protection
Respirators use filters to remove contaminants from
the air being breathed in. They can be either:
non-powered respirators relying on the wearers
breathing to draw air through the filter; or
powered respirators using a motor to pass air
through the filter to give a supply of clean air.

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Respiratory Protection
Breathing Apparatus
needs a supply of breathing-quality air from an
independent source
will supply air from an independent source such as
a compressed air cylinder or air compressor
can be used against a range of airborne hazards
and in different atmospheres.

Respiratory Protection
Self-contained breathing apparatus(SCBA)
- an atmosphere-supplying respirator for which
the breathing air source is designed to be
carried by the user.
- an SCBA wearer must be capable of carrying
the weight of an air tank.

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Safety Footwear
Features of a safety shoes
have impact-resistant toes and heat-resistant soles
that protect the feet against hot work surfaces
the metal insoles protect against puncture wounds
may be designed to be electrically conductive to
prevent buildup of static electricity in areas potential for
explosive atmospheres or nonconductive to protect
workers from electrical hazards

Safety Harness
Tie or die - take the right precautions to avoid falls!

Safety
harnesses
prevent
injuries and fatalities from
occupational falls, but their use
needs to be managed so that
they do not contribute to injury
in the event of a fall.

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Operations on board that are Hazardous


1. Loading / unloading of cargoes
2. Mooring / unmooring
3. Working aloft
4. Handling of chemicals
5.Engine room watch keeping
and maintenance

Operations On Board that are Hazardous


6. Lifting loads
(manually and mechanically)
7. Entry into enclosed spaces
8. Hot work
9. Anti-piracy watch and stowaways
operations

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Loading and Unloading of Cargoes


In general cargo vessel, bulk
carrier, and container ship,
cargo is lifted on and off the
vessel by crane or derricks.

Bulk cargo is poured into the


ship by conveyor belts.

Loading and Unloading of Cargoes


Must:
no unauthorized person should be allowed in the
working area
all personnel should raise the offshore side of the
deck.
Hazard :
on such vessels, in the holds and on the jetty
alongside, mainly from overhead loads
lifting gear and cargo handling equipment such as
trucks and forklifts

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Loading and Unloading of Cargoes


Ro-ro and Car Carrier

has several decks connected


by ramps
cargo is driven on and off the
vessel and up to the various
decks via the ramps
Hazard: Vehicles are driven at high speed and

any person standing in the way is likely to be


run over.

Loading and Unloading of Cargoes


Tankers

oil, chemical, or gas cargo is


in the liquid state and is pumped
in/out through pipelines.
Must:
personnel must have special knowledge of the
hazards involve and working procedures
Hazard:

liquefied cargo could be flammable, toxic, or


could cause lack of oxygen

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Loading and Unloading of Cargoes


Passenger ship may also carry cars
or other cargo, and includes ferries

Must: Personnel must have knowledge of crowd control


especially in emergency situations.
Hazards:
lapses in safety and emergency procedures
inability of megaships to handle emergencies or largescale evacuations at sea
big cruise ships can quickly become crippled by small fires
that disable complex systems
(The New York Times, Oct2013)

Mooring and Unmooring


Mooring is the tying up of a ship to a jetty,
berth, or pier. Arrangement should be made to
receive mooring line so as to avoid the
necessity for a seaman to jump ashore, a
dangerous practice which cause many
accidents.

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Requirements for Mooring/Unmooring


mooring lines (extremely
heavy synthetic ropes
around 100mm diameter
or more)

mooring wires (heavy


around 50mm diameter
depending on the size of
the ship)

Requirements for Mooring/Unmooring


All mooring equipment, wire rope, heaving line,
stopper shackles, winches and windlass, etc. must be
in good order and condition before the operation

Windlass

and Mooring Winches

The ship is brought alongside by passing one or


more lines ashore and heaving on these lines using the
windlass and mooring winches.

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Mooring and Unmooring


Hazards:

The ropes and wires are risky to handle and can


be extremely dangerous to those in the vicinity
especially when under stress.
When the ropes and wires parted under the
stress, they can cause a whiplash that can kill or
dismember a person.

Mooring and Unmooring


Remember!!!!
A person engaged in mooring operations must
be extremely careful and aware of the risk and stay
well clear of a rope or wire under tension.
This operation is more risky during strong
winds, heavy seas or swell, rain or by the need of
speed.

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Mooring and Unmooring


Remember!!!!
Persons should never stand in the bight of a
rope or wire.
The person heaving up the rope on the hawser
drum must hold it loosely and can be ready to slacken
it, should it slip under tension.
Mooring lines must be constantly checked and
always maintain tight.

Mooring and Unmooring


Special attention must be paid to mooring lines
when:
1.Loading or unloading at a high rate
2.Large tidal range in the port or strong current
3.Strong wind or a berth exposed to sea

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Enclosed Space

Spaces normally closed to atmosphere,


which are not capable of being continuously
ventilated by means of natural, or mechanical
ventilation system, and not a usual place to work
where the atmosphere is dangerous to life.

Enclosed Space
Possible Enclosed Spaces
forepeak tank
chain locker
cofferdams
topside tanks
cargo tanks
ballast tanks
duct keel
after peak tank
bunker tank, etc.

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Enclosed Space

Careless Entry
Careless entry into such
spaces
has
resulted
to
accidents, sometimes fatal, if
the person has overcome by a
lack of breathable atmosphere
or is injured and not rescued
on time.

Enclosed Space
Types of Hazards
1. Atmospheric hazards
- toxicity, flammability, and oxygen deficiency
2. Physical hazards
- structures, handrails, tools

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Enclosed Space
Atmospheric Hazard
- presence of hydrocarbon gas
- presence of toxic gas or
- deficiency in oxygen
Hydrocarbon vapors can be present due to:
- petroleum leakage
- retention in tank structure
- retention in pipeline
- disturbance of sludge / scale

Enclosed Space
Atmospheric Hazard
Other gases such as Nitrogen, Nitrogen
Oxide, Sulphur Oxide, Carbon Monoxide, Benzene,
Hydrogen Sulphide, etc. can be a toxic hazard.
This gases can evolve from cargo, ships
stores, or ship operation

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Enclosed Space
Threshold Limit Value (TLV)
the maximum concentration of a chemical
allowable for repeated exposure, for an 8-hourworkday of 40-hour work per week, day after day
without adverse health effect.

Enclosed Space
Threshold Limit Value (TLV)
Toxic gases should not be present in
concentrations more than their TLVs. The
atmosphere may be rendered deficient in oxygen
due to:
1. ingress of inert gas (in inverted tank or leakage
across from inert tank into adjoining enclosed
space)
2. rusting

4. hydrogen

3. Paint drying

5. electrical cleaning fluids

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Enclosed Space
Threshold Limit Value (TLV)
6. solvent / emulsifiers
7. refrigerants
8. burning
9. flooding with carbon dioxide to fight fire
10. welding and gas cutting without proper
ventilation
11. running an internal combustion engine in a
confined space
12. decay of organic matter, e.g. vegetables,
grains, fruits, etc.

Enclosed Space
Physical hazards that may cause physical or even fatal
injury
* darkness
* unsecured ladders
* slippery surfaces
* obstructions
* unguarded openings
* unsecured objects left from previous visit
* flooding
* getting trapped-in accidentally

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Enclosed Space
Precautions to be observed
an enclosed space entry permit system must be
strictly followed
the space is to be thoroughly ventilated and
confirmed by testing of the atmosphere
there must be sufficient oxygen to support life
(21%)
toxic gas must be less than TLV

Enclosed Space
Precautions to be observed
proper protective equipment and approved
torchlight, non-sparking tools, etc., must be used.
vigilance and alertness must be exercised, the
atmosphere must be monitored and all precautions
must be observed while the job is under way.

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Hot Work
Hot work is any work which generates heat or
sparks of sufficiently high temperature or intensity
to ignite a flammable gas-air mixture.
Example of Hot Works
Welding, cutting, burning,
heating, chipping and use of
some power tools general heat,
open flame, electric arc, or
continuous sparks

Hot Work
Hot work Hazards
* fire
* explosion
* heat injuries
* strong light injuries
(ultraviolet light affecting
eyes)
* shock injury to personnel

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Hot Work
Areas on board where hot work is carried out in
ascending order of danger:
* engineers workshop
* engine room
* poop deck and accommodation
* cargo area

Hot Work
Contents of a Hot work Permit
1. work to be done
2. authorized person in charge
3. period of validity of permit
(should not exceed 24 hours)
4. authorizing officer (signed, time, date)
5. location (designation of space)
6. crew detail (names)

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Working Aloft
Working aloft is working at a height above the
ground or deck where the primary hazard is of
failing and consequently injury.
A man working at a height may not be able to
give his full attention to the job at the same time
guard himself against falling.

Working Aloft
Job aboard where working aloft is necessary
1. painting bridge font bulkheads, mats, engine
room deck head
2. cleaning or painting funnel
3. greasing, maintenance or repair of radar scanner,
crane or derrick blocks, and wires.
4. chipping, painting, cleaning or inspecting tanks or
holds
5. painting the shipside underside of flying bridge
wings, etc.

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Working Aloft
Hazards from Working Aloft

falling from height due to loss of balance,


failure of ropes, etc.
injury due to falling materials or equipments
burns due to contact with hot surfaces such
as funnel or steam from the whistle

Working Aloft
Hazards from Working Aloft

emission from carbon dioxide or toxic gases


from the funnel due to combustion, incineration,
etc.
exposure to wind and cold
electric and radiation hazard due to proximity
with radar scanners or radio aerials.

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Working Aloft
Prior notice must be given to the responsible
person concerned prior to commencement of work:
1. Duty engineer when working in the vicinity of the
funnel to refrain from soot blowing or incineration
or to shutoff steam to the whistle when working
near it.
2. Bridge watch keeping officer when working near
radar scanners

Working Aloft
continued
3. Bridge watch keeping officer or radio officer
when working near radio aerials or satellite
communication dome
4. Chief officer when working on deck.

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Working Aloft
Remember!!!!
Equipments whose operation is a
hazard to the work is to be locked or
tagged with the responsible officer.

Procedures may be covered by a


checklist or a permit-to-work system.

Working Aloft
Equipments used for Working Aloft
* gantlines
* safety lines
* wooden stages or
bosuns chairs

gantlines
safety lines
bosuns chair

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Working Aloft
Equipments used for Working Aloft
* hooks and shackles
* fall arrester

fall arrester

* ladders, scaffoldings, etc.

scaffolding
shackle

hooks

Working Aloft
Remember!!!!
Equipment for working aloft..
should be stowed in a separate locker away
from paints or chemicals
is to be used for any other purpose except
when working aloft
is to be checked every time prior to use by a
person who is competent to detect faults in wood
and rope.

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Working Aloft
Remember!!!!
knots, hitches, and turns should be correctly and
carefully made to prevent slipping especially when
synthetic ropes are used
wooden stages or bosuns chair should be hoisted
or lowered by winch
anchoring points for safety lines or suspension
points for gantlines should be strong and not
subject to movement

Working Aloft
Remember!!!!
ropes should not run over hot surface or sharp
objects.
a safety net should be rigged whenever possible
especially under a free hanging stage.
stages should be secured against ship movement
especially if they are free hanging
work aloft should not be carried out
ship is moving violently in a seaway

while the

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Working Aloft
Remember!!!!
tools or material should be passed in a bucket or
by a rope and never thrown
ladders are used for climbing on to or from a
stage and the ropes that suspend the stage
rigid ladders should be placed on a firm base
tools or equipment should be secured and not
placed at the edge where they can fall.

Working Aloft
Remember!!!!
inexperienced persons or those under 18
years old should not work aloft or over the side
work over the side should not be carried out
while the ship is underway
in addition to normal protective equipment a
buoyant vest or lifejacket should be worn
a lifebuoy with heaving line and light should
be kept in readiness.

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Engine Room Watch keeping


and Maintenance
General Lay-out of an Engine - Room

Engine Room Watch keeping


and Maintenance
Machineries located in the engine room

main engine

boiler

compressor

generator

alternator

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Engine Room Watch keeping


and Maintenance
Machineries located in the engine room

motors

electrical equipment

pump systems

Engine Room Watch keeping


and Maintenance
Other equipment located in the engine room

steering
gear

refrigeration
machinery

two-way portable
VHF

hydraulic or
pneumatic
equipment

lead acid
batteries

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Engine Room Watch keeping


and Maintenance
Injuries suffered in the engine room

1. burns through contact with


steam pipes, hot surfaces,
welding sparks, etc.
2. head injuries through overhead
obstructions or falling objects.
3. slips,
trips,
or
fall
on
companion ways, open floor
plates, protruding parts

Engine Room Watch keeping


and Maintenance
Injuries suffered in the engine room

4. hearing loss through


constant exposure to
high decibel noise
5. contact with moving
parts of machinery such
as grinder wheels,
flywheels, propeller shaft.

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Engine Room Watch keeping


and Maintenance
Remember!!!!
The use of proper protective equipment is
absolutely necessary.
Good housekeeping and safe working practices
can prevent accidents.

Engine Room Watch keeping


and Maintenance
Examples of good housekeeping
1. Oil or water leaks should immediately attended to
2. Oil spills should be immediately cleaned and oil
stained lagging replaced
3. Oily rags or cotton waste should be properly
disposed of in a close container and not left lying
around the ignite spontaneously

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Engine Room Watch keeping


and Maintenance
Examples of good housekeeping
4. Tools should be attended to during work so that
they do not fall off ledge or flat forms and
properly collected and slowed after work.
5. Guards for moving parts of machinery should
be in position and in good condition.

Engine Room Watch keeping


and Maintenance
Examples of good housekeeping
6. All parts of engine room should be adequately
lighted
7. Bilges should be kept clean and dry bottom
platform gratings should never be left open unless
the area is fence and warning signs posted
8. Bottom platform gratings should never be left open
unless the area is fenced and warning signs are
posted

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Engine Room Watch keeping


and Maintenance
Examples of good housekeeping
9. Equipment, stores and parts of opened up
machinery should be lashed and secured
against movement.
10.Access to firefighting equipment, escape
routes and emergency exists should not be
obstructed by stores or equipment.

Engine Room Watch keeping


and Maintenance
Safe working practices should include:
1.Proper locking and lagging of machinery under
repair to prevent inadvertent starting
2.Proper checks of equipment used for lifting or
other purposes prior to use
3. Proper calibration of test equipment
4. Proper test of enclosed spaces prior to entry
5. Use of proper tools for the job and in proper way

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Interpersonal Relationship (IPR)


Good relationships make the life of seafarers
more comfortable, healthy, and less prone to
accidents.
Human relationship is the mans ability to
effectively interact / co-exist with his/her fellow men
or co-workers.

Interpersonal Relationship (IPR)


Elements of a better relationship
The following could be of great help in
establishing a better relationship:
1. policies of the company
2. functions of shipboard management
3. clarity of responsibilities with reference
4. structure and flow authority

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Interpersonal Relationship (IPR)


Elements of a better relationship
5. Importance of understanding needs
individual needs
ship needs
company needs
social needs

Interpersonal Relationship (IPR)


Remember!!!!
Everyone
should
respect
each
other's
individuality, value, culture and purpose of work
Open communications makes
relationship. It sure enhances IPR

healthy

Shipboard environment demands better IPR from


seafarers both during on duty or off duty hours

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Interpersonal Relationship (IPR)


Methods to improve IPR
introducing and understanding each other
commitment of senior officers
valuing of individual differences rather maximizing
weaknesses.
fairness in dealing with personnel
true appraisal
discipline on board

Team Building
Shipboard operation is team work and the
effectiveness of it depends on effectiveness of
the team member
The team help in better decision making.
Team goal is a common set of plans, aims
of objectives of any organization in which all
group members should achieved to ensure
success

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Team Building
Role of individual members

It is a specific role performed by every


member that once combined into a team or
group, it may promote unity and progress.
Need of Cohesiveness

The need for unity, oneness,


or cooperation of every member in
order to realize all goals and
objectives set.

Team Building
Deterrents to team operation
1. distortion of aims
2. inflexible behavior of members
3. groupism
4. status / ego problems
5. hidden agendas
6. physical / environmental problems
7. handling of grievances / counseling

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Team work
Why is team work is essential on board?

The shipping company comprises a number of


small mobile industrial units (the ship) which may at
any particular moment be distributed over large
distances throughout the world.
When making a voyage, the ship can undergo
considerable climatic changes, which may
adversely affect personnel.

Team work is essential on board


Why is team work is essential on board?

Ships are operating for 24 hours each day, and the


crew must be organized in regulated shift system,
such that people on board are well rested and fit for
duty at all times.

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Team work is essential on board


Ship personnel must be organized in operations being
performed simultaneously:
watch keeping at sea and in port
(navigation and machinery operation)

cargo operations

maintenance of hull, machinery


and equipment

continued

Team Work
safety checks and drills, emergency
actions

repair/dry-docking

stocking provisions, cooking food,


housekeeping

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continued

Team Work

communication ship-shore-ship, with a high degree


of responsibility and flexibility by using:
1. e-mail/ internet access
2. wireless phone
3. VHF
4. newspapers/newsletter
5. mail
6. fax services
7. INMARSAT
* Language used is English and/or maritime vocabulary

Basic Team Working Principles


Team
A group of people with a
full set of complementary skills
required to complete a task, or
job
Team Work
The process of working
collaboratively with a group of
people in order to achieve a
goal.

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Basic Team Working Principles


Characteristics of an effective team
1. There is a clear unity of purpose.
2. The group is self-conscious about its own operations.
3. The group has clear and demanding performance goals.
4. The atmosphere is informal, comfortable, and relaxed.
5. There is a lot of discussion in which virtually everyone
participates.

Basic Team Working Principles


Characteristics of an effective team
6. People are free in expressing their feelings as well as
their ideas.
7. There is disagreement and this is viewed as good.
8. Most decisions are made at a point where there is
general agreement.
9. Each individual carries his or her own weight
10. Criticism is frequent, frank, and relatively comfortable.
11. The leadership of the group shifts from time to time.

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Basic Team Working Principles

Basic Team Working Principles


Principles of effective teamwork
Communicate, communicate, communicate.
Listen actively.
Support and build on ideas.
Involve the entire team.
Make a commitment to excellence for the
team and with yourself

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Fundamentals of Communication
Good communication is the most essential
element of safety and pollution onboard.
Peoples cooperation can be achieved by
effective communication
Effective communication is the basic
element for human survival. It can modify
habits, values, and attitudes
Language is a means of transmitting ideas,
views, instruction, etc.

Fundamentals of Communication
Basic elements of the communication process

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Methods of Communication
Classification under the following heads:
Verbal
use of sounds and language to relay a message, e.g. reading,
speaking, writing and any communication using words

Non-verbal
sending and receiving wordless (mostly visual) cues
between people, e.g. body language, sounds, gestures

Iconic
sending messages using pictures, graphics, diagrams, signs,
figures, and photographs

All three methods need to be effectively used on


board

Barriers of Communication

* transmitters conceptualization stage


* transmitters capability
* mode of transmission
* receivers capability
* receivers understanding of the concept
* feedback stage
* receipt of feedback by transmitter

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Effective Communication
What are the basic principles of effective
communication?
Know your audience
Communication should always be packaged to suit the
listener's level of understanding.
Know your purpose
Make it clear whether you are delivering specific
information, requesting information, or being social.
Know your topic
Be aware of all the facts and details.

Effective Communication

Anticipate objections
Objections often arise due to misunderstandings.
Present a rounded picture
Communicate the benefits for both parties.
Achieve credibility with your audience
Support your statements with evidence (e.g.
statistics or testimonials).

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Effective Communication
Follow through on what you say
Do not promise what you cannot deliver. (Work
within legislative requirements and organizational
policies and procedures.)
Communicate a little at a time, then check the
listener understands
Pause, ask questions and give the listener an
opportunity to ask questions.

Effective Communication

Present information in several ways


What worked for one listener/reader may not
work for another.
Develop practical, useful ways to get
feedback
Feedback is the best way to evaluate the
effectiveness of your communication.

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Effective Communication

Use multiple communication techniques


Most people have a preferred learning style:
visual, textual, or aural (sound).
For example, talking is the best technique
for aural learners, but pictures and diagrams
are more effective for visual learners.

Effective Transmission Skills


The effectiveness of communication lies primarily
with the sender.
The sender must:
define the purpose of the particular
communication
identify the time, place, and person addressed in
the context of initiating the communication
consider language and vocabulary, e.g. examples
of usage of Maritime English

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Effective Transmission Skills


The sender must:
understand the different kinds of barriers in
communication to help in better transmission, like:
-

personal (a different attitude or perspective


from another person)
semantic (one person has a different
understanding of a word in phrase than
another person)
physical (interferences, such as noise in a
distance)

Effective Transmission Skills


The sender must:
be capable of effective speaking, writing,
acting, drawing, and using available sounds
and signaling apparatus

The effectiveness of transmission can be checked


by the feedback from the receiver.

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Effective Listening Skills

Listening is the responsibility of


the receiver
A good listener knows that being attentive to what
the speaker doesn't say is as important as being
attentive to what he does say.
Look for non-verbal cues such as facial
expressions and posture to get the full gist of what the
speaker is telling you.

Effective Listening Skills


Difference of hearing and listening

Hearing is a physical ability.

Listening is a skill.
Understanding the various barriers
of listening will improve listening
capabilities.

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Effective Listening Skills


How can we enhance active listening?
maintain eye contact
don't interrupt the speaker
sit still
nod your head
lean toward the speaker
repeat instructions and ask appropriate
questions when the speaker has finished

Effective Listening Skills


Understanding the various barriers of
listening will improve listening capabilities

bias or prejudice
language differences or accents
noise
worry, fear, or anger
lack of attention span

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Effective Listening Skills


People can speak at the rate of 150 wpm
whereas they can listen at a rate of 1,000 wpm

This results in idle time of 850 wpm, which


makes the mind wander

Ideally, this idle time should be used for


paraphrasing the body language and other
signals from the speaker

Effects and Consequences of


Wrong Communication
Wrong communication can:
affect safety of life, property, and the
environment
leads to argumentation and debate which result
to trouble and misunderstanding of both parties.

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Effects and Consequences of


Wrong Communication
Wrong communication can:
cause human problems and problems in
relationships on board
improper communication causes stress, loss of
time, loss of resources, and even ships
profitability

Communication Sum-up
Remember!!!!
Effective communication creates the atmosphere
conducive to safe working, happy living, and
sociable relationship among fellow shipmates
Habits, values, and attitudes can also be modified
by effective communication and knowing the
basics of interpersonal relationships, learning
skills, and team skills

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Emergency
Emergency is a situation when ones life is in

danger because of different circumstances


beyond control.

loss of life
Injury
loss of or damage to property
damage to environment

There is a need for an immediate action in case


of emergency!

Comply with Emergency Procedures


Emergencies which may occur on board ships

Fire

Collision

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Comply with Emergency Procedures


Emergencies which may occur on board ships

Grounding

Foundering

Comply with Emergency Procedures


Emergencies which may occur on board ships

Man Overboard

Ingress of Water

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Comply with Emergency Procedures


Emergencies which may occur on board ships

Heavy Weather

Oil Spill

Comply with Emergency Procedures

Shipboard contingency plans should be


available for response to emergencies

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Comply with Emergency Procedures

Alarm Systems Available onboard Ship

General Alarm: This is recognized by 7 short ringing of


bell followed by a long ring or 7 short blasts on the ships
horn followed by one long blast. The general alarm is
sounded to make aware the crew on board that an
emergency has occurred.
Fire Alarm: This is sounded as continuous ringing of ships
electrical bell or continuous sounding of ships horn.

Comply with Emergency Procedures

Alarm Systems Available onboard Ship

Navigational Alarm: This is located in the navigation bridge,


which sounds when navigational equipment or navigational
light systems malfunction.
Machinery Space Alarm: When any of the machinery
safety devices and alarms in the engine room malfunction,
this alarm is operated and the problem can be seen in the
engine control room control panel.

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Comply with Emergency Procedures

Alarm Systems Available onboard Ship

Machinery Space CO2 Alarm: The machinery space is


fitted with CO2 fixed with fire extinguishing system whose
audible and visual alarm is entirely different from machinery
space alarm and other alarm for easy reorganization.
Cargo Space CO2 Alarm: The cargo spaces of the ship are
also fitted with fixed fire fighting system which has a
different alarm when operated.

Comply with Emergency Procedures

Alarm Systems Available onboard Ship

Abandon Ship Alarm: When the emergency situation


on board ship goes out of hand and ship is no longer
safe for crew on board ship, the general alarm is
sounded and every body comes to the emergency
muster station where the master or his substitute (chief
Officer) gives a verbal order to abandon ship.

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Comply with Emergency Procedures

Alarm Systems Available onboard Ship

Ship Security Alarm System: Most of the ocean going


vessels are fitted with security alert alarm system, which is
a silent alarm system sounded in a pirate attack
emergency. This signal is connected with different coastal
authorities all over the world via a global satellite system to
inform about the piracy.

Comply with Emergency Procedures

Different alarm signals of the vessel are


clearly described in the muster list along
with the action to be carried out so that
all crew members can perform their
duties within no time in actual
emergency.

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Comply
Drills
and
with
Muster
Emergency Procedures
A muster list is displayed in prominent areas of the
vessel so that every crew member on onboard can read
it on a go, e.g. bridge, engine room, accommodation
alleyways, mess room, and areas where ships crew
spends the maximum of their time.

Drills and Muster


Important Features Displayed in
the Muster List
Types of emergency and different alarms for the
same
Instruction to follow in case of different types of
emergency
Common muster point for all the crew
Crew list of all crew member with assigned life
boat

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Drills and Muster


Important Features Displayed in
the Muster List

Assigned duties for abandon ship


Different teams with assigned duties for the
individuals of the team for emergencies
Ship specification and emergency
communication equipment
Special and general instruction by master

Drills and Muster


Actions to be taken on hearing the emergency alarm

* Attire yourself adequately and properly


* Go to muster action
* Find out nature of the emergency
* Take action as per muster list or duty list

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Drills and Training


Three aspects of needs of drills and training
1. regulatory or legislative
i.e. requirements of SOLAS, MARPOL, STCW,
ISM, etc.
2. operational
- to ensure correct and effective action, can only
be achieved by regular and realistic drill
3. state of mind
e.g. on exposure to an emergency all persons are
affected and there is general dip or reduction in
performance. This dip in performance can only be
compensated for by regular and realistic drills.

Internal Communication
Internal communications used for emergency
on board ships

telephone
emergency-powered or sound operated
phone
public address system
lifeboat VHF
walkie-talkies
emergency alarms, etc.

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Emergency Escape Routes


Probable location of emergency escape
routes on board ship
escape panels in doors
stairways and ladderways should, as far as possible, be
pitched fore and aft, not athwartships
corridors and doorways providing access to and from
stairways or open decks
below the lowest open deck the main means of
escape shall be a stairway and the second escape may
be a trunk or a stairway.

Emergency Escape Routes


Probable location of emergency escape
routes on board ship
above the lowest open deck the means of escape shall
be stairways or doors to an open deck or a combination
thereof.
escape windows and sidescuttles
from a machinery space, two sets of steel ladders, as
widely separated as possible, leading to doors in the
upper part of the space

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Pollution and Pollutants

Pollution is the introduction of a


contaminant into the environment. It is
created mostly by human actions, but
can also be a result of natural disasters.

Pollution has a detrimental effect on any living organism


in an environment, making it virtually impossible to
sustain life.

Pollution and Pollutants


Pollution caused by human activity

air pollution
from manufacturing, mining,
construction, vehicles, coal
fired power plants, nuclear
power plants, chemical plants,
petro chemical industries,
nuclear
waste
disposal
organizations and the like.

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Pollution and Pollutants


Pollution caused by human activity
land pollution
due to inappropriate waste
disposal of livestock, metal, and
plastic production factories and
heavy industries
light pollution
occurs when artificial lights
radiate their light upwards instead
of downwards where it belongs

Pollution and Pollutants


Pollution caused by human activity
noise pollution
can be man-made noise that
comes from things such as
airports, railways, vehicles,
construction,
manufacturing
plants, and more.

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Pollution and Pollutants


Pollution caused by nature
air pollution
pollen swirls around in the air and
infects individuals with hay fever
allergy
windstorms increase a large
amount of dirt, sand, mud and other
particles into the atmosphere

Pollution and Pollutants


Pollution caused by nature
forest fires can occur naturally or be
fuelled by human activities
cause pollution as the smoke
from them is immense and thick
and blows unsafe gases into the air
may be lethal because the smoke
from these fires reaches many
miles

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Pollution and Pollutants


Pollution caused by nature
volcanic eruptions
gases released remain suspended in the
atmosphere for long periods of time
volcanic ash reduces air visibility,
leading airplanes crashing mid-flight and
other similarly disastrous events and
causes respiratory problems in human
beings

Pollution and Pollutants


Pollution caused by nature

animals
release methane gas into
the air, e.g. cow
release organic matter
that is harmful to their
environment

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Pollution and Pollutants


Main Sources of Marine Pollution
1. Shipping and marine activities
2. Oil exploration and exploration activities
3. Domestic waste
4. Industrial Waste
5. Run-off agricultural pesticides and herbicides

Pollution and Pollutants


Environmental Impact of Shipping
greenhouse gas emissions

exhaust emissions

oil pollution

oil spills

ballast water

sewage

sound pollution

solid waste

ship impacts

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Pollution and Pollutants


Pollutants discharged by ship due to accidental causes
Accidents involving oil tankers or offshore
platforms or oil pipelines have caused many and
sometimes very large oil spills which cause acute oil
pollution of the marine environment.

Pollution and Pollutants


Pollutants discharged by ship due to accidental causes
Leakages from sunken, grounded, or
abandoned ships is another potential (and often
very real) source of oil to the marine environment.
These can be merchant or military vessels.

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Pollution and Pollutants


Causes of marine pollution at sea by ships
stranding
and collision

lightering
operation

Pollution and Pollutants


Causes of marine pollution at sea by ships
unchecked garbage
and sewage disposal

tank cleaning, washing,


and line flushing

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Pollution and Pollutants


Causes of marine pollution at sea by ships
unchecked chemical
disposal in bulk or
packaged form

deballasting

Effects of Marine Pollution


Hazards posed by chemical, sewage, and
garbage disposal
can ignite and cause a fire
are corrosive and can eat away materials and
destroy living tissue when contact occurs
can be explosive and/or reactive and can
release poisonous fumes when exposed to air,
water or other chemicals
are toxic or poisonous, either immediately or
over a long period of time

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Effects of Marine Pollution


Hazards to human beings
toxic gases may be inhaled
eye injury from contact with pollutants
cancer caused by contact with carcinogenic
pollutants, chemical burns etc.
burns and smoke inhalation should pollutant
catch fire

Effects of Marine Pollution


Hazards to wildlife
inhaling, ingesting, or otherwise absorbing

toxic substances
coating of oil reducing insulation of feathers
or fur
strangulation or other injury by plastic or
other garbage
loss of food resources

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Effects of Marine Pollution


Loss of livelihood
Fisherman, tourism operators, or others
dependent on a clean marine environment
well-populated with wildlife will suffer
where marine pollution depletes stocks or
otherwise renders an area unproductive.

Infamous Oil Pollution Incidents


Torrey Canyon
About 80 km of French and 190 km
of Cornish coast were contaminated.
Around 15,000 seabirds were killed, along with huge
numbers of marine organisms, before the 270
square miles (700 km2) slick dispersed. Much damage
was caused by the heavy use of detergents to
break up the slick.

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Infamous Oil Pollution Incidents


Amoco Cadiz
Due
to
prevailing
westerly winds, oil spread at
approximately 160 km east
along the coast.
Oil penetrated the sand on
several beaches to a depth of
20 inches (500 mm). Piers and
slips in the small harbors were
covered with oil.

Infamous Oil Pollution Incidents


Exxon Valdez
About 10.1 to 11 million US
gallons were spilled into the
Prince William Sound.
The spill affected the
delicate food chain that supports
commercial fishing industry.
Migratory shore birds and
waterfowls, sea otters, harbor
porpoises and sea lions, whales
were endangered.

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Pollution Prevention
International measures for pollution prevention,
pollution avoidance, and containment of pollutants
MARPOL 73 / 78 as amended
The International Convention for the Prevention
of Pollution from Ship, 1973, as amended aims
to achieve the complete elimination of
international
pollution
of
the
marine
environment by oil and other harmful
substances.

Pollution Prevention
International measures for pollution prevention,
pollution avoidance, and containment of pollutants

Segregated Ballast Tanks


- as per MARPOL Annex I Regulation 18
- ballast water tank in a tanker which is
completely separated from oil cargoes and fuel
oil system and is permanently allocated to the
carriage of ballast; this arrangement reduces
the risk of pollution when deballasting

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Pollution Prevention
International measures for pollution prevention,
pollution avoidance, and containment of pollutants

Double-hull Design
- OPA 90, the legislation enacted after the
Exxon Valdez incident mandated double hull
technology, essentially wrapping a second hull
around the first, on all newly built tankers.

Pollution Prevention
International measures for pollution prevention,
pollution avoidance, and containment of pollutants
Reception Facilities
- IMO recognized that provision of reception
facilities is crucial for effective MARPOL
implementation, and the Marine Environment
Protection Committee (MEPC) has strongly
encouraged Member States, particularly those
Parties to the MARPOL Convention as port
States, to fulfill their treaty obligations on
providing adequate reception facilities.

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Pollution Prevention
International measures for pollution prevention,
pollution avoidance, and containment of pollutants

Sewage Disposal Arrangements


- the regulations in Annex IV of MARPOL
prohibit the discharge of sewage into the sea
within a specified distance of the nearest
land, unless they have in operation an
approved sewage treatment plant.

Pollution Prevention
International measures for pollution prevention,
pollution avoidance, and containment of pollutants

Garbage Management Plan


- the Garbage Management Plan is a complete
guideline for collecting, storing, processing,
and disposing of garbage generated onboard
ship as per regulations provided in Annex V of
MARPOL , as amended

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Pollution Prevention
International measures for pollution prevention,
pollution avoidance, and containment of pollutants

Garbage Record Book


Resolution MEPC.201(62) Amendments to MARPOL
Annex V (in force 1 Jan 2013)
- to meet the latest guidance for the revised
MARPOL Annex V, all garbage discharges,
including accidental, and incinerations must be
recorded and retained on board for at least two
years after the final entry is made.

Pollution Prevention
International measures for pollution prevention,
pollution avoidance, and containment of pollutants
The Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan
(SOPEP)
- SOPEP , an oil prevention plan, is a
requirement under Annex I MARPOL 73/78. It
must be carried by all ships with 400 GT as
per the norms and guidelines laid down by
IMO under Marine Environmental Protection
Committee (MEPC) Act.

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Pollution Prevention

Garbage disposal arrangements and handling


keep anything too hard out of the disposal.
do not put fibrous or starchy items in the
disposal
garbage must be composted
avoid placing trash or hard items down the
disposal
cut large items into smaller pieces
run cold water while the disposal is on
clean it regularly.

Pollution Prevention
Shipboard organization to deal with pollution

Master: shall be familiar with the contents of the


SOPEP and shall conduct training to ensure that
shipboard personnel are aware of their duties in
the various emergency conditions outlined in the
SOPEP.
2nd Engineer: responsible for implementation of
SOPEP and the equipments involved with the
same.

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Pollution Prevention
Interface between shipboard and shore
organization

- ship alongside the terminal berth must advise the


terminal emergency plan particularly the alarm
signals, emergency escape routes and how to
summon assistance in the event of an emergency.
shore organization should draw a plan in
consultation with the port authority, fire brigade,
police etc., and be complete with any port
emergency to report .

Pollution Prevention
Article 8 and Protocol I of MARPOL
- requires a report be made to the nearest
coastal, without delay, when a pollution
incident involves:
a discharge above the permitted level or
probable discharge of oil or of noxious liquid
substances for whatever reason including
those for the purpose of securing the safety of
the ship or for saving life at sea; or

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Pollution Prevention
continued
a discharge or probable discharge of harmful
substances in packaged form, including those
in freight containers, portable tanks, road and
rail vehicles and ship borne barges; or
damage, failure, or breakdown of a ship of 15
meters in length or above which:
1. affects the safety of the ship; including but
not limited to collision, grounding, fire,
explosion, structural failure, flooding and
cargo shifting; or

Pollution Prevention
continued
2. results in impairment of the safety of
navigation; including but not limited to, failure
or breakdown of steering gear, propulsion
plant, electrical generating system, and
essential ship borne navigational aids; or
a discharge during the operation of the ship of
oil or noxious liquid substances in excess of the
quantity or instantaneous rate permitted under
the present Convention

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Pollution Prevention
Who is responsible for reporting
pollution incidents?

The master or other person having charge of any


ship involved in an incident is required to make
the report. If this cannot be done, then the
owner, charterer, manager or operator of the
ship, or their agent is responsible for making the
report.

Pollution Prevention

Whom to report pollution incidents

nearest coastal state


harbours and terminals (in port)
ship owners manager
P &I Insurer
head charterer
cargo owner
refer to contact list

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Pollution Prevention
Oil spill response team assigned duties

- SOPEP states the specific assignment of the


crew and officers. It entails the person-incharge, shut-off operation, cleaning and
recovery on board and on the water in relation
to the number of ships personnel.

Pollution Prevention
Oil Spill Control
booms: floating barriers used to clean
oil from the surface of water and to
prevent slicks from spreading
skimmers: boats that can remove the oil
off the water by using pumps or
vacuums to remove oil as it float on
water.
sorbents: sponges that collect the oil

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Pollution Prevention
Oil Spill Control
dispersants: chemicals used to
break down oil and move it from
the top of the water.
bioremediation : a process used
to accelerate the process of
biodegradation of the oil after a
spill

Pollution Prevention
Oil Spill Control
controlled burn: burning freshly
spilled oil with fireproof booms to
contain the oil

manually: scooping, cleansing, and


scraping of the rocks and sand until
the oil has been removed

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Pollution Prevention
Importance of shipboard drills to deal with
pollution of the marine environment
The master of a ship must ensure that
personnel are trained in the handling and use of
the oil spill equipment and are thoroughly
conversant with the duties assigned to them. It
is vital, that practice drills are carried out as
realistically as possible.

Sewage from Ships


What constitute sewage?
Drainage

and other wastes from any form of toilets,


urinals, and WC scuppers
from medical premises (dispensary, sick bay,
etc.) via wash basins, wash tubs, and
scuppers located in such premises
from spaces containing living animals; or
other waste waters when mixed with the
drainages

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Sewage from Ships


Prohibition on discharge of sewage
The discharge of sewage into the sea is prohibited,
except when the ship has an approved sewage
treatment plant or when the ship is discharging
comminuted and disinfected sewage using an
approved system at a distance of more than three
nautical miles from the nearest land. Sewage which
is not comminuted or disinfected has to be
discharged at a distance of more than 12 nautical
miles from the nearest land.

Sewage from Ships


Prohibition on discharge of sewage
The MEPC also adopted a standard for the
maximum rate of discharge of untreated
sewage from holding tanks when at a distance
equal or greater than 12 nautical miles from the
nearest land. (Resolution MEPC. 157(55).

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Garbage from Ships


What is garbage?

- all kinds of victual, domestic, and operational waste


excluding fresh fish and parts, thereof generated
during the normal operation of the ship and liable to
be disposed of continuous or periodically except
those substances which are defined or listed in other
annexes to the present Convention.

Garbage from Ships


Disposal of garbage outside special areas /
prohibited zones
Prohibition of the disposal of plastics into the
sea, including but not limited to synthetic
ropes, synthetic fishing nets and plastic
garbage bags.

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Garbage from Ships


Disposal of garbage outside special areas /
prohibited zones
The disposal into the sea of the following
garbage shall be made as far as practicable from
the nearest land but in any case is prohibited if the
distance from the nearest land is less than:
a. 25 nautical miles for dunnage, lining, and
packing materials that floats.
b. 12 nautical miles for food waste and all other
garbage including paper products, rags,
glass, metal, bottles, crockery and similar
refuse

Oil discharge from Machinery Spaces


and Oil Fuel Tanks
Discharge of oil at sea (1):
all discharges of oil are prohibited unless
certain criteria are satisfied
machinery space (bilge and sludge)
all ship types
machinery space
bilge waste: oily water from the bilges
sludge: waste residue from the filtration of
fuel oil

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Oil discharge from Machinery Spaces


and Oil Fuel Tanks
Discharge of oil at sea (1):
ship must be en route
oily mixture must have been processed
through the oil filtering equipment
oil content of the mixture does not exceed
15 parts per million (ppm)
oily mixture is not mixed with cargo
residues

Oil discharge from Machinery Spaces


and Oil Fuel Tanks
Discharge of oil at sea (2):
all discharges of oil are prohibited unless certain criteria
are satisfied

cargo space (slops)


oil tankers
must be more than 50nm from nearest land
30 liters per nautical mile
discharged through the Oil Discharge Monitoring
Equipment (ODME)
maximum discharge quantity on a ballast voyage should
not exceed 1/30,000 of the total quantity of the particular
cargo of which the residue formed a part

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Oil discharge from Machinery Spaces


and Oil Fuel Tanks
Discharge of oil at sea (3):
all discharges of oil are prohibited unless certain criteria
are satisfied
Oil discharge monitoring and control systems (tankers)
Regulations 31 & 32
Oil filter equipment (all ship types)
Regulation 14
Oil Discharge Monitoring Equipment (ODE)
Oily Water Separators (OWS)

Oil Record Book


In accordance with Regulation 20:
Every oil tanker of 150 GRT and above and every
ship of 400 GRT and above other than an oil tanker
shall be provided with an Oil Record Book Part 1
(Machinery Space Operations).
Every oil tanker of 150 GRT and above shall also
be provided with an Oil Record Book Part 2
(Cargo/Ballast Operations).
The Oil Record Book(s) shall be in the form (s)
specified in Appendix II of Annex I.

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Contents of Oil Record Book


Entries made in the Oil Record Book
Part 1 Machinery Space Operations (All Ships)
A. Ballasting or cleaning of oil fuel tanks
B. Discharge of dirty ballast or cleaning water from oil
fuel tanks
C. Collection, transfer and disposal of oil residues
(sludge)
D. Non-automatic starting of discharge overboard,
transfer or disposal otherwise of bilge water which
has accumulated in machinery spaces

Contents of Oil Record Book


Part 1 Machinery Space Operations (All Ships)

continued.
E. Automatic starting of discharge overboard, transfer
or disposal otherwise of bilge water which has
accumulated in machinery spaces
F. Condition of the oil filtering equipment
G. Accidental or other exceptional discharges of oil
H. Bunkering of fuel or bulk lubricating oil

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Contents of Oil Record Book


Part 2 Cargo/Ballast Operations for Tankers
A. Loading of oil cargo
B. Internal transfer of oil cargo during voyage
C. Unloading of oil cargo
D. Crude oil washing
E. Ballasting of cargo tanks
F. Cleaning of cargo tanks
G. Discharge of dirty ballast
H. Discharge of water from slop tanks into the sea

Contents of Oil Record Book


Part 2 Cargo/Ballast Operations for Tankers

continued
I. Disposal of residues and oily mixtures not
otherwise dealt with
J. Discharge of clean ballast contained in cargo
tanks
K. Condition of oil discharge monitoring and
control system
L. Accidental or other exceptional discharges of oil
M. Additional operational procedures and general
remarks example

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Discharge of Oil and Special


Special Areas (1):
Areas
All the previous discharge criteria regulates outside
a Special Area
Regulation 1 - A Special Area is a sea area where
for recognized technical reasons in relation to
oceanographic and ecological condition and to the
particular character of its trafficspecial
mandatory methods for the prevention of sea
pollution by [oil] is required.
And as such there shall be NO discharge
whatsoever of cargo residues/slops from oil tankers

Discharge of Oil and Special


Areas
Special Areas according
to MARPOL Annex I:Oil
-

Mediterranean Sea
Baltic Sea
Black Sea
Red Sea
Gulf Areas
Gulf of Aden
Antarctic Area
Northwest European Waters
Oman Area of the Arabian Sea
Southern South African Waters

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Annex VI of MARPOL

The Protocol of 1997 (MARPOL Annex VI)

sets limits on sulphur oxide and nitrogen


oxide emissions from ship exhausts and
prohibits deliberate emissions of ozone
depleting substances.
a global cap of 4.5% m/m on the sulphur
content of fuel oil.

Annex VI of MARPOL

The Protocol of 1997 (MARPOL Annex VI)

contains provisions allowing for special SOx


Emission Control Areas (SECAs) to be established
with more stringent controls on sulphur emissions.
sulphur content of fuel oil used onboard ships
must not exceed 1.5% m/m.
ships must fit an exhaust gas cleaning system
or use any other technological method to limit
SOx emissions.

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Annex VI of MARPOL

The Protocol of 1997 (MARPOL Annex VI)

The Baltic Sea Area is designated as a SOx


Emission Control area in the Protocol.
The North Sea was adopted as SOx Emission
Control Area in July 2005.

Annex VI of MARPOL

The Protocol of 1997 (MARPOL Annex VI)

prohibits deliberate emissions of ozone depleting


substances,
which
include
halons
and
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
new installations containing ozone-depleting
substances are prohibited on all ships.
new
installations
containing
hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are permitted
until 1 January 2020.

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Annex VI of MARPOL

The Protocol of 1997 (MARPOL Annex VI)

sets limits on emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx)


from diesel engines.
mandatory NOx Technical Code, which
defines how this shall be done, was adopted by
the Conference under Resolution 2.
prohibits the incineration onboard ship of
certain products, such as contaminated
packaging
materials and
polychlorinated
biphenyls (PCBs).

Rights and Obligation of Crew


Each crew member has a social
responsibility to his ship, himself, his
colleagues, to the company and to the
environment

* right to his convictions


* right to express his convictions

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Rights and Obligation of Crew


Each crew member has a social
responsibility to his ship, himself, his
colleagues, to the company, and to the
environment

* right to make a request of another as long as


he can appreciate that the other has a right to
say no
* right to clarify communications to enhance
interpersonal relationships

Rights and Obligation of Crew


Shipping is a commercial entity and profit
making is part of the operation, thus:

The crewmember must discharge his


duties sincerity to the fullest of his
capabilities
He should be responsible towards
the three elements of the shipping
operation,
namely:
company,
government, and individual

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Rights and Obligation of Crew


Responsibilities
obedience, respect, discipline, and following
orders of his supervisors
abiding by company policies laid down in the
safety manuals and rules and regulations of
governing flag state requirements and other
mandatory legislations
adhering to safety and environment protection
policy at all times and to assist fellow seamen in
distress, search and rescue operations, and oil
pollution mitigation operations

Employment Conditions, etc.


Employment contract
refers to an individual written agreement
between the foreign principal/employer
and the seafarer

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Employment Conditions, etc.

POEA Policies

The shipping / manning company should provide


every seafarer it deploys with a copy of the
approved employment contract
The individual employment contract is presented
at the time of processing or issuance of the POEA
exit clearance.

Employment Conditions, etc.


Basic Provisions of the
Employment Contract

name of the seafarer and employer


site of employment
duration and commencement
position
salary
work hours
overtime pay

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Employment Conditions, etc.


Basic Provisions of the
Employment Contract

leave pay
transportation
food and accommodation
medical and dental services
Insurance
repatriation of Remains
Allotment
termination

Employment Conditions, etc.


Minimum Terms and Conditions
of an Employment Contract

guaranteed wages for regular work hours


and overtime pay.

free transportation to and from the worksite,


or offsetting benefit

free food and accommodation, or offsetting


benefit

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Employment Conditions, etc.


Parties to the contract are allowed
to stipulate other terms and
conditions provided:

The whole employment package should be more


beneficial to the worker than the minimum.

The same shall not be contrary to


policy , and morals

The Philippine agencies shall make foreign


employers aware of
the standards of
employment of POEA.

law, public

Employment Conditions, etc.


Minimum Terms and Conditions
of an Employment Contract

just/authorized causes for termination of the


contract or of the workers.

other possible basis for termination:


- existing labor and social laws of a country
- relevant agreements, conventions,
delegations, or resolutions
- relevant bilateral and multilateral
agreements, or arrangements
- prevailing condition in the market.

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Drug and Alcohol

In regard to prevention of drug and alcohol abuse ,


guidance is contained in the STCW Code (Section
B-VIII/2 Part 5, paragraphs 34-36).
Administrations have agreed to implement the
requirements.
Guidance on Prevention of Drug and Alcohol
Abuse is contained as Appendix 12

Drug and Alcohol


International
Maritime
Organization
(IMO)
recommends a maximum of 0.08% blood alcohol
level (BAC) during watch keeping duties as minimum
safety standard on ships.
However, the BAC allowed differs from company to
company; some allow a maximum of 0.04% (during
off hours) whereas others prefer 0% BAC.
Lately, most of the companies have totally banned
possession and consumption of alcohol on board
their ships

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Drug and Alcohol

Alcohol test meters (Intoximeter) and a combined


programme of un-announced drug testing and
routine medical examination are used to check any
crew member of having alcohol or drugs in his
system and is incapable of carrying out his duties
Seafarers who fail to follow the Drug and Alcohol
Policy of the company is bound to face disciplinary
actions and even dismissal from employment

Drug and Alcohol

The misuse of legitimate drugs, or the use,


possession, distribution or sale of illicit or unprescribed controlled drugs on board ship should
be prohibited.
Seafarer using prescribed controlled drug which
causes unacceptable job performance or unusual
job behavior should be excused from duty until
such time he is repatriated, or treatment and its
after-effects cease

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Drug and Alcohol


Dangers of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Neurological
impaired vision, hindered motor coordination and
blackouts
Respiratory Dangers
Alcohol: depressed respiratory system, abscesses
on the lungs, tuberculosis, and even pneumonia,
throat and/or mouth cancer
Drugs: failure of the respiratory system, cough,
lung infections

Drug and Alcohol


Dangers of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Psychological
Alcohol: inability to concentrate, impaired speech,
impaired judgment, disrupted relationships with
anyone
Drugs: psychological harm, paranoia, confusion,
insomnia, depression, forgetfulness, change in
appetite.

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Drug and Alcohol


Dangers of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Addictive
cause a person to consume more to achieve the
feeling he seeks from either substance
Pregnancy Complications
Drugs: abnormalities/death of fetus, underweight or
underdeveloped babies, preterm labor and delivery
Alcohol: can lead to Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS),
which cause birth defects, decrease or slow fetal
growth, altered size of the baby's head, baby's
intellectual and behavioral development

Health and Hygiene on Board


It is a moral responsibility of all on board to
observe hygiene and promote good health
Cleanliness and good housekeeping
fundamental to good health

is

Ships personnel must be highly motivated:


There is a definite relation between
human needs and motivations
Delegations can be a powerful tool in
motivating people

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Principal Dimensions of Fatigue


What is fatigue?
A reduction in physical and/or mental
capability as the result of physical, mental or
emotional exertion which may impair all physical
abilities and including strength, speed, reaction time,
coordination, decision making or balance

(Source: MSC/Circ.1014)

Principal Dimensions of Fatigue

Issues on fatigue

A major safety concern in many fields,


especially in transportation as fatigue can
result in disastrous accidents
An internal precondition for unsafe act leading
to errors as it negatively affects the human
internal state
It regards human performance
at work

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Aware of the Principal Dimensions of Fatigue


Dangers posed by fatigue on seafarers
More risks to human lives, property damage
and environmental disaster s
Economic losses due to fines for accidents
and /or increased premiums
Serious health implications to
seafarers

Principal Dimensions of Fatigue

Basic concepts underlying fatigue

Sleep need of a human body to have an


average of 7 8 hours of continuous, good
quality sleep per 24-hours daily
Circadian rhythm - tendency of humans to
experience a regular schedule and normal
cycle in attentiveness and sleepiness through
24-hours daily

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Principal Dimensions of Fatigue

Basic concepts underlying fatigue

Stress inability or difficulty of an individual to


cope
with
overwhelming
environmental
demand or threat

Principal Dimensions of Fatigue


Factors affecting the seafarers
fatigue

A seafarer is captive of shipboard work


environment
He/She works and lives away from home,
on a vessel subjected to unpredictable
environmental factors
There is no clear separation between
shipboard work and recreation

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Principal Dimensions of Fatigue


Factors affecting the seafarers
fatigue

The crew is composed of various nationals who


work and live together for long periods of time
Shipping activities are more complex than
shore industries due to varied ship types,
pattern and length of voyage port rotation and
stay in port

Principal Dimensions of Fatigue


Crew Specific Causes of Fatigue

sleep and rest


biological clock/circadian rhythm
psychological and emotional condition
age
health
stress
ingested chemicals
work load
shift and work schedule
jet lag

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Principal Dimensions of Fatigue


Management Causes of Fatigue
Organizational Factors

Staffing policies and retention


Role of riders and shore personnel
Schedule-shift, overtime, breaks
Company culture and management style
Paper works requirement
Economics
Resources
Training and selection of crew
Upkeep of vessel
Rules and regulations

Principal Dimensions of Fatigue


Management Causes of Fatigue
Voyage and Scheduling Factors

Frequency of port calls


Time between ports
Routing
Weather and sea conditions on
route
Traffic density on route
Nature of duties/workload while in
port

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Principal Dimensions of Fatigue


Ship specific Causes of Fatigue

Ship design
Level of automation
Level of redundancy
Ship motion, noise and vibration
Age of vessel
Inspection and maintenance
Equipment reliability
Physical comfort in work spaces
Physical comfort of accommodation
spaces
Location of quarters

Principal Dimensions of Fatigue


Environmental specific Causes of Fatigue
Internal Conditions
Temperature (heat, cold)
Humidity
Noise
Vibration
External Conditions
Sea
Weather
Port
Vessel traffic

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Principal Dimensions of Fatigue


Specific Causes of Fatigue
Lack of Sleep
Poor quality of sleep
Insufficient rest of time between work
periods
Poor quality of rest
Stress
Food (timing, frequency, content and
quality)

Principal Dimensions of Fatigue


Specific Causes of Fatigue
Boring and repetitive work
Noise or vibration
Ship movement
Medical conditions and illness
Ingesting chemicals
Jet lag
Excessive work load

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Principal Dimensions of Fatigue

Signs of Fatigue

nodding off
boredom
lack of coordination
slow reflexes
stress
hunger

thirst
anger
yawning
fidgeting
moodiness
lack of concentration

Principal Dimensions of Fatigue


Effects of Fatigue on Seafarers

Detrimental on state of alertness, particularly


on bridge watch keeping and lookout duties
Significantly impaired performance, such as,
decision-making, response time, judgment,
coordination, etc.
Susceptible to errors of attention and memory
like, omission of steps in sequence
Often select risky strategies as they require
less effort to execute

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Principal Dimensions of Fatigue


Effects of Fatigue on Seafarers

Affects ability to perceive, interpret or


understand stimuli, and can take longer
reaction time
Affects problem-solving skills especially in
handling new tasks
Affects performance and reduce crew
effectiveness and efficiency , decrease
productivity, lower standards of work which
may all lead to errors

Principal Dimensions of Fatigue


Fight Fatigue
early to bed
quality sleep
early start
plan work
eat healthy snacks
regular meals
rotate jobs
regular breaks
fresh air
drink water

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Effects of Physical Stressors on Seafarers


Unable to lift heavy box or walk as far as you can
Experience decline in performance or impair the
ability to perform
Fall asleep, react very slowly or be inattentive
Affect ones judgment productivity, work
efficiency and quality
Increase risk to the individual, the crew, the ship
and its cargo
Incur safety problems that can lead to serious
occupational accidents

Effects of Environmental Stressors on


Seafarers
Difficulty in falling asleep or sleep soundly
and eventually suffer sleep deprivation
Build up a stressful condition
Addiction to alcohol and drugs
Disruptive thinking and behavior
Exertion of extra effort or difficulty in
maintaining balance
Medical and mental health problems
Anxiety and depression

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Effects of Schedule Changes on


Seafarers Fatigue
Can lead to accidents
Long hours of work may lead to
insufficient recuperative rest
The likelihood of reporting impaired health due to
fatigue increases in relation to exposure to them
Fatigue reduces the individual well-being and
increases the risk of acute illnesses and lifethreatening chronic diseases
Fatigue and reduces performance may lead to illhealth and life-span among seafarers

How to Mitigate Fatigue

Interest and Opportunity


an interesting challenge, an exciting idea, a
change in work routine or anything new and
different may help to keep you awake
Environment
bright lights, cool dry air, obtrusive or loud
music or another annoying irregular sounds,
and some invigorating aromas may temporary
increase alertness

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How to Mitigate Fatigue


Food and consumption of chemicals
caffeine in coffee and tea or in colas and
chocolate may combat sleepiness in some
people for short periods
Muscular activity
any type physical exercise helps to keep you
alert, running, walking, stretching or even
chewing gum can stimulate your level of
alertness
Social interaction
conversation cam help you stay awake

How to Mitigate Fatigue


Job Rotation
changing the order of activities, where
personnel are assigned tasks that include
variety in the nature of tasks, can be beneficial
in breaking up job monotony
Strategic Napping
as a short-term relief technique to help
maintain performance levels during long
periods of wakeness

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Reduce Crews Fatigue

Ensure compliance with the minimum hours of


rest and/or maximum hours of work
Utilize rested personnel in lieu of newly
reported ones expected to go on watch as
soon as they arrive
Encourage reporting when fatigue is impairing
ones performance without recriminations

Reduce Crews Fatigue

Schedule drills in a manner that minimizes the


disturbance of rest/sleep periods
Establish an efficient scheduling of ships work
and rest periods, watchkeeping and other
duties
Mix tasks to break monotony and combining
work that requires high demand with lowdemand tasks

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Reduce Crews Fatigue

Schedule potentially hazards tasks for daytime


hours.
Promote the need to accomplish the individual
record keeping of hours rested and worked
Appraise traditional work and areas of
responsibility to establish an efficient utilization
of resources

Reduce Crews Fatigue

Ensure
that
shipboard
maintained in good state

conditions

are

Assess and evaluate incidence of fatigue and


taking of lessons learned
Increase awareness of the long-term health
care and appropriate lifestyle behavior

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How to Prevent the onset of Fatigue

Get up the very best quality and quantity of


sleep, an average of 7 8 hours of
uninterrupted , deep sleep per 24 hours
Take rest or break from ships work to
maintain the physical requirement in the
performance of the job of which shall be
based on the length and intensity or a change
in activity

Guidelines on Developing
Good Sleeping Habits

Develop and follow a pre-sleep routine to


promote sleep at bedtime
Make the sleep environment conductive to
sleep
Ensure that you will have no interruptions
during your extended period of sleep

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Guidelinespreventing
on Developing
Strategies
Fatigue
Good Sleeping Habits

Consider relaxation techniques such as


meditation and yoga
Satisfy any other physiological
before trying to sleep

needs

Avoid alcohol and caffeine prior to sleep

Guidelines for Maintaining Performance

Take strategic naps


Get sufficient sleep
Ensure continuous periods of sleep
Eat regular, well-balanced meals
Take breaks when
breaks are assigned

scheduled

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Guidelines for Maintaining Performance

Develop and maintain good sleep habits


Exercise regularly
Manage hours of work and rest by
maintaining individual records
Maintain fitness
medical fitness

for

duty

including

Rules and Regulations to Deal with Fatigue

Flag Administration Guideline

Company policies

STCW Convention and Code

ILO Maritime Labor Convention


(MLC) 2006

ISM Code

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Importance of Rest
Prevents commission of unsafe acts that
may lead to human error, hence,
accidents
Preserves
condition

ones

fitness

and

health

Enhances ones mental alertness and


physical work
Gives someone a break from routine and
monotonous activity

Importance of Rest

Heals the trauma on the bodys muscle


fibers caused by over physical
exertion
Helps improve ones performance and
quality of work
Regains ones physical strength and
stamina

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Minimum Rest Period


The 2010 Standards of Training, Certification
and Watchkeeping (STCW) Convention has
adopted the 2006 Maritime Labor Convention
(MLC) work and rest hour requirement for
seafarers

Minimum Rest Period


Section A-VIII/1, Chapter III of the STCW code
provides that all persons who are assigned
duty as OIC of the Watch or as Ratings Forming
Part of the Watch and those whose duties
involve designated safety, prevention of
pollution, and securities shall be provided with
a rest period of not less than:
A minimum of 10 hours of rest in any 24
hours period
77 hours in any 7-day period

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Minimum Rest Period

Seafarers must always have 10 hours rest in


any 24 hour period with no exceptions,
except in an emergency
It is mandatory to maintain records of each
individual seafarers rest hours, which may
be inspected by Port State Control

Minimum Rest Period


The rest hour limit apply to most seafarers
on board, including Masters, not only watch
keepers
From January 2012, seafarers will need to
review and sign a record of their work/rest
hours at least once a month, to ensure
compliance with minimum rest hours as
stipulated

138