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roland isakaZe

quTaisis adreqristianuli eklesiebi

istoriul wyaroebSi adreqristianuli xanis quTaisis eklesiebis


moxseniebis sul oriode SemTxveva fiqsirdeba da orive ax. w. VIII s-is
30-iani wlebis movlenebTan kavSirSi: 1. "daviT da konstantines wamebis"
mixedviT, im tbis Tavze, romelSic Cayares murvan yrus brZanebiT
nawamebi Zmebi, idga "...taZari wmidaTa kozman da damianesi" (daviT da
konstantines wameba, 1979, gv. 158); 2. anakofiasTan arabTa winaaRmdeg
brZolaSi sasikvdilod daWrili qarTlis erismTavar stefanozis Svili
miri ubarebs Zmas (arCils), rom "...mamaca Cueni mokuda SfoTsa amas
Sina da ver warveciT igi mcxeTas, warscen Zvalni misni da dahflen
saydarsa quTaTissa" (qarTlis cxovreba, 1959, gv. 241).
istoriuli wyaroebis simciris fonze TvalSisacemia quTaisis
naqalaqaris arqeologiuri kvlevis Sedegad (1984-2009 ww.) aRmoCenili
IV-VIII ss-Ta eklesiebis simravle. Tanac aRsaniSnavia, rom naqalaqaris
(da saerTod Zveli quTaisis) didi nawili jerac gauTxrelia, xolo
diubua de monperes mier 1833 wels Sedgenil quTaisis gegmaze (diubua,
1859, sur. 4) asaxul 16-mde (8 marcxena da 8 marjvena [bagratis taZrisa
da citadelis eklesiis gamoklebiT] sanapiroze) eklesias Soris
absoluturi umravlesoba Seuswavleli da dauTariRebelia. es ori
momenti kidev ufro zrdis adreqristianuli eklesiebis raodenobis
matebis albaTobas.
adreqristianuli sakulto arqiteqturis ramdenime fena gamoiyo
bagratis taZris interiersa da eqsterierSi 2003-2005-2006-2007 da
2009 wlebSi Catarebuli arqeologiuri kvlevis Sedegad1. maT Soris
qronologiurad yvelaze Zveli eklesiis naSTebi TariRdeba ax. w. IV s-
iT da warmoadgens didi zomis samnavian bazilikas (sur. 1. dawvrilebiT
ix.: o. lanCava.., 2004; o. lanCava, r. isakaZe.., 2006, gv. 4 da Smd; o.
lanCava, r. isakaZe.., 2006a; o. lanCava, r. isakaZe, 2007; o. lanCava, 2007,
gv. 112-113), sworkuTxa minaSenebiT CrdiloeTisa (sanaTlavi
[baptisteriumi] da masze dasavleTidan midgmuli saTavsi) da samxreTis
mxareze. dasavleTiT gamoiyofa narTeqsic (interieris zomebi: ZiriTadi
nawili - 27X10,6 m; narTeqsi - 10,6X6,4 m; sanaTlavi - 8,8X5,2 m; sanaTlavze
dasavleTidan midgmuli saTavsi - 5,4X5,2 m; samxreTis saTavsi - daaxl.
7,4X5,8 m.).
kvlevis am etapze gaurkvevelia bazilikis afsidebis mowyobis
sakiTxi. aseve ucnobia navebis gamyofi svetebis raodenoba. fundamentebi,
romelTa simaRle meryeobs reliefis Sesabamisad, nagebia riyis qviTa da
1
. Zeglis arqeologiuri kvleva jerjerobiT dausrulebelia. imis gamo, rom 2009
wlis samuSaoebi damTavrda dekembris Sua ricxvebSi, warmodgenil grafikul
ilustraciaze asaxulia mxolod 2007 wlisaTvis arsebuli situacia.
quTaisis adreqristianuli eklesiebi

Warbkiriani, maRali xarisxis duRabiT, kedlebis fasadebi amoyvanilia


myife jiSis TeTri kirqvis mcire zomis, Sublgamoyvanili qvebiT, Sida
sivrce Sevsebulia natexi qviTa da analogiuri duRabiT, "SeZlebisdagvarad
daculia rigebis horizontaloba, riTac igi waagavs romaul
xuroTmoZRvrebaSi kargad cnobil Opus incertum-s." kedlebis sigane 1,4
m-ia, minaSenebSi 1 m. analogiuri teqnikiTaa nagebi ax. w. IV s-iT
daTariRebuli vardcixis (v. jafariZe, 1989, gv. 112 da Smd.), noqalaqevisa
(p. zaqaraia, T. kapanaZe, 1991, gv. 17 da Smd.) da sakuTriv quTaisis (o.
lanCava, 2007, gv. 109-115, sur. 95-97-98-100-101; o. lanCava, 1996, gv. 79-98,
sur. 5-6-11-12) safortifikacio da saero nagebobebi.
bazilikis ZiriTad nawilsa da narTeqsSi dafiqsirda samSeneblo
anatkecebze dafenili kirxsnaris iatakis Txeli (10 sm-de) Sre. sanaTlavis
kedlebi, iataki da saritualo arxebi ki SedarebiT dabali xarisxis
hidravlikuri xsnaris Txeli SriTaa Selesili. CrdiloeTis kedlis
dasavleT nawilSi SemorCenilia rbili jiSis kirqvisgan gamoTlili
karis zRurbli, romelic sanaTlavze dasavleTidan miSenebul saTavsSi
gadis. karis naSTi dafiqsirda narTeqsis dasavleTis kedlis centrSic.
2009 wlis samuSaoebma uCvena, rom drois raRac monakveTSi (ix.
qvemoT), bazilikis funqcionireba Sewyvetilia, risi dasturicaa
Tavdapirvel iatakze dafenili 0,4 m-de simZlavris miwis fena, romelSic
ikiTxeba ngrevisa da naxanZrali Sreeebi. mTlianad dangreuli Cans
narTeqsi. nawilobriv dangreul dasavleTis kedelze Signidan midgmulia
Sereuli samSeneblo masaliTa da uxarisxo kirxsnariT saxeldaxelod
naSenebi, TiTqosda orsaTavsiani nagebobis naSTebi, romelic aRniSnul
naxanZral-nangrev fenas azis. nagebobis ZiriTadi nawili gauTxrel
farTobSi gadis, gaTxrebiT gamovlenili monakveTebi ki bagratis taZris
mSeneblobis drosaa dazianebuli, ris gamoc gegmis warmodgena am etapze
pirobiTia. erTi "saTavsis" interierSi fiqsirebulia lokaluri,
xangrZlivi cecxlisagan gadawiTlebuli miwuri iatakis done, romelsac
uSualod adevs bazilikis ganaxlebis droindeli (ix. qvemoT)
hidravlikurxsnariani iataki. amave periodisaa meore "saTavsSi"
dafiqsirebuli farTo, brtyelZiriani, sadazedapiriani qvevric. arc
qvevri da arc xangrZlivi, lokaluri cecxli qristianul msaxurebas ar
ukavSirdeba. SesaZlebelia, es yvelaferi drois raRac monakveTSi lazTa
mefe waTes iranTan urTierTobis da Sesabamisad cecxlis kultis arsebobis
gamoZaxilic iyos. am konteqstSi sainteresoa ioane malalas cnoba, rom
lazTa mefe waTe 523 wlamde (bizantiaSi gaqristianebamde) "...gadavida
warmarTTa sarwmunoebaze ...msxverplebsac wiravda da yovelgvar sparsul
wess asrulebda" (georgika, 1936, gv. 263-264), gaqristianebam ki ixsna
"...igi warmarTuli sarwmunoebisagan, uwminduri msxverplisagan da eSmakTa
cdunebisagan" (georgika, 1936, gv. 266). analogiur cnobebs gvawvdian
Teofane JamTaaRmwereli (georgika, 1941, gv. 77-78) da "pasqaluri qronika"
(georgika 1941, gv. 11-13). am cnobebis mixedviT prof. n. lomouri
askvnis, rom waTe ki ar gamazdeanebula, aramed warmarTTa, "elinTa
sarwmunoebaze" (ioane malala), gadavida (n. lomouri, 1968, gv. 87-88).
r. isakaZe

ioane malalas fraza - "yovelgvar sparsul wess asrulebda" - vfiqrobT,


ufro mazdeanobis sasargeblod metyvelebs. aseve esmis es pasaJi
b. diasamiZes (b. diasamiZe, 1999, gv. 56).
V s-is 50-60-ian wlebSi bizantiis formaluri vasalobidan
TavdasaRwevad gubaz mefis sparseTTan kavSiris pirvel warumatebel
cdas Sedegad svanTa separatizmi da "bizantiis poziciebis gaZliereba"
(n. lomouri) mohyva. wyaroebis uqonlobis gamo axla Znelia iranelTa
gaaqtiurebis qronologiuri mijnis dadgena. "pasqaluri qronikis"
mixedviT, "...miRebuli iyo... rodesac lazTa mefe gardaicvleboda,
sparselTa maSindeli mefe maT sxva mefes dauyenebda". aqedanac Cans,
rom sparselTa gavlena sakmao xnis ambavia da waTes "warmarTTa
sarwmunoebaze" gadasvla am procesis kulminacia iyo. "cxadia es niSnavs,
rom aseTi precedenti waTemdec yofila..." (d. musxeliSvili, 2004, gv.
160).
akad. d. musxeliSvilis azriT, V s-is 60-iani wlebis bolosTvis
irani imorCilebs egrisis samefos. es xdeba qarTlis mefe vaxtang
gorgaslis uSualo monawileobiT Tu iniciativiT, xolo kavadis dros
(488-523 ww.) "...udavo unda iyos, rom...egrisi iranis qveSevrdomia" (d.
musxeliSvili, 2004, gv. 159, 161). gansxvavebuli Tvalsazrisi aqvs n.
lomours (n. lomouri 1989; n. lomouri, 2004, gv. 7-14).
Tu zemoaRniSnuli xangrZlivi, lokaluri cecxlisgan gadawiTlebuli
sqeli (10-15 sm-de) fenis wyaroebiseul pasaJebTan Cveneuli dakavSireba
sworia, maSin bazilikis pirveli ngrevis (kvlevis am etapze ngrevis
masStabebis warmodgena Znelia) fena da saxeldaxelod gamarTuli nageboba
V s-is bolo - VI s-is pirveli meoTxediT SeiZleba davaTariRoT.
momdevno etapze bazilika safuZvlianad ganuaxlebiaT: aRdgenilia
CrdiloeTis kedlis nawili, Sendeba axali narTeqsi, romlis saxuravis
TaRebis gadasayvanad gaCenilia ori sworkuTxa sveti, interierSi Cndeba
kargad damuSavebuli qvebiT amoyvanili sworkuTxa svetebi, interierisa
da narTeqsis iatakebi mopirkeTebulia sagangebo momzadebaze dafenili
maRali xarisxis hidravlikuri xsnariT. Zeglis stratigrafiis
gaTvaliswinebiT, vfiqrobT, bazilikis aRdgena unda momxdariyo daaxl.
523-530 ww. (saomari moqmedebebis gaaqtiurebamde).
sanaTlavis iataksa da saritualo arxebSi Caleqil ngrevis fenaSi
(romelsac qveS naxanZrali Sre udevs) in situ dafiqsirebuli samSeneblo
(maRalbortiani [h=7 sm.] kramitebi da sxvadasxva zomis agurebi) da
sayofacxovrebo (pirqediani, farToZiriani dergebi, Txelkedliani,
moCalisfrokeciani, viwrod tandaRaruli amfora) keramikis fragmentebi
VI s-iT TariRdeba. bazilikis meore da saboloo ngreva VI s-is SuaxanebSi
"did omianobas," konkretulad ki quTaisSi dabanakebul iranelTa
(mermeroes) garnizons unda davukavSiroT.
VII s-Si, savaraudod, herakle keisris laSqrobebidan (VII s. 20-
iani wlebis bolo) sergi barnukis Zis ajanyebamde (697 w.), am adgilze
axali eklesia augiaT, romelic imdenadaa dazianebuli, rom gegmis
aRdgenac ki ver xerxdeba. gansakuTrebiTaa dazianebuli aRmosavleTis
nawili da afsidebis gegmis dadgena rTulia. dasavleTis kedlis centralur
quTaisis adreqristianuli eklesiebi

da samxreTis kedlis dasavleT nawilSi karis Riobebi fiqsirdeba. kedlebis


sigane 1,4 m-s Seadgens da nagebia saSualo zomis zedapirdakeWnili,
uxeSad damuSavebuli kvadrebiT. samxreTis kedlis (kedlebis maqsimalurad
SemorCenili simaRle 0,5 m.) dasavleT nawilSi erTsafexuriani cokoli
gamoiyofa.
miuxedavad imisa, rom interieris morTulobis elementebi kvlevis
am etapze ucnobia, Zeglis gabaritebi (rac TiTqmis bagratis taZris
tolia) gvaZlevs safuZvels warmovidginoT samnaviani bazilika, gare
sworkuTxedSi Cawerili naliseburi afsidebiT, romlebic momdevno
etapebis mSeneblobaSia CarTuli, sadReisod ki restavraciis SriTaa
gadafaruli da aRar ikiTxeba (sur. 1. dawvrilebiT ix.: o. lanCava..,
2004; o. lanCava, r. isakaZe.., 2006, gv. 4 da Smd; o. lanCava, r. isakaZe..,
2006a; o. lanCava, r. isakaZe, 2007; o. lanCava, 2007, gv. 150-152). swored
es aris qarTul wyaroSi moxseniebuli "quTaTisis saydari," romelSic
unda daekrZalaT stefanoz erisTavi.
murvan-yrus laSqrobis Sedegad dazianebuli "saydari"
safuZvlianadaa gadakeTebuli leon II-is mier VIII s-is bolos 2:
gafarToebulia interieri, romelsac sam navad yofda jvris formis
svetebi. samxreTis sworkuTxa mklavSi sanaTlavia mowyobili, risi
dasturicaa Rariani kramitebiT Sedgenili arxebi; dasavleTidan gaCnda
SesaniSnavad damuSavebuli safasado qvebiT agebuli narTeqsi, centrSi
jvris formis svetebs dayrdnobili TaRovani talaniT. naliseburi
absidebi Zvel gegmazea morgebuli da gare sworkuTxedSi Cawerili.
am bazilikis kedlebis qsovili (aseve sarkmlebis, sarTulis gamyofi
TaRebis, afsidiswina mrgvali svetebis naSTebi) organuladaa CarTuli
bagratis taZris struqturaSi da sarTulnaxevris simaRleze dRemde
kargad ikiTxeba. interieris elementebi ki bagratis taZris iatakis
donezea nivelirebuli. am fenas ekuTvnis warweriani (g~b) antefiqsic
(sur. 3).
momavali gaTxrebi, calkeuli arqiteqturuli fenebis
xelovnebaTmcodneobiTi kvleva da wyaroebis analizi Zeglis
stratigrafiis dazustebis, zemoaRniSnuli mosazrebebis da zogierTi
TariRis dakonkretebis saSualebas mogvcems.
quTaisis naqalaqaris teritoriaze V-VII ss-iT daTariRebul abanos
kopleqsSi (abano, wylis rezervuari, "mosasvenebeli saxli," SeSis sawyobi)
Sedis mcire zomis ornaviani darbazuli tipis eklesia, romelzec ori
samSeneblo Sre ganirCeva (o. lanCava, 2007, gv. 129-132. sur. 134, 135, 136,
137; sur. 4 #3; sur. 7).
2
prof. o. lanCava 2007 wels gamocemul monografiaSi `quTaTisis saydris" ganaxlebas
arCils ukavSirebs da VIII s-is 40-iani wlebiT aTariRebs (o. lanCava, 2007, gv. 151).
TavisTavad arCilis samSeneblo aqtivoba quTaisSi gamoricxuli araa, leon II-is
samSeneblo saqmianoba ki wyaroebiTac gamokveTilia (Ð. È îñåëèàíè, 1851, ñòð. 50; qarTlis
cxovreba, 1973, gv. 796) da arqeologiuri masalis konteqstic ufro amaze miuTiTebs
(o. lanCava, 1996, gv. 188-202); vfiqrobT, rom aRniSnuli samSeneblo periodis
adreul publikaciaSi (o. lanCava, r. isakaZe, 2004, gv. 138) mocemuli TariRis (VIII
s-is bolo) koreqtirebisTvis kvlevis am etapze masala arasakmarisia.
r. isakaZe

pirvel etapze igi erTnavian, Sverilabsidian darbazs warmoadgenda


(interieris zomebi: 6,6X4,5 m.). mogvianebiT CrdiloeTidan SedarebiT
momcro, aseve Sverilabsidiani navi miuSenebiaT (interieris zomebi:
4,05X1,95 m.). Tavdapirveli navis dasavleTisa da gansakuTrebiT samxreTis
kedlebi (sigane 0,7 m.) fundamentis donezea dangreuli, Tumca gegmis
aRdgena xerxdeba. iatakis done orive navSi waSlilia. gegmaSi kvadratuli
navebisgan absidebi mxrebiT gamoiyofa. mTavari navis dasavleTis kedlis
centrSi 1,7 m-is siganis karia gaWrili, xolo CrdiloeTis kedlisa da
absidis rkalis SeerTebis adgilze meore navTan (kedlebis sigane 0,54
m.) damakavSirebeli 0,74 m-is siganis Riobia datovebuli.
eklesiis CrdiloeTis navs, romelic, prof. o. lanCavas azriT,
samkveTlos unda warmoadgendes. dasavleTis kedlis gaswvriv gauyveba
mcire zomis (1,95X0,6 m.) ganyofileba (gamyofi kedlis sigane 0,4 m.),
romlis kirxsnariani iataki saerTo donidan 0,6 m-iTaa amaRlebuli.
eklesiis kedlebi maqsimum 1,5 m-is simaRlezea SemorCenili.
mSeneblobaSi gamoyenebulia kirqva, riyisqva da zoggan aguric.
SeZlebisdagvarad daculia rigebis horizontaloba ("izodomuri" wyoba),
Tumca gvxvdeba "Tevzifxuri" wyobac (opus spikatum). gadaxurvaSi
gamoyenebuli yofila orive tipis (soleni, kalipteri) kramitebi,
romlebic mravlad aRmoCnda ngrevis fenaSi.
V-VI ss-iT daTariRebuli orabsidiani eklesia aRmoCenilia
biWvinTaSi, dasturdeba pontos auzSic (dawvr. ix.: o. lanCava, 2007, gv.
145, sqolio 31). abanos kompleqsis eklesia mcire eklesiaTa rigisaa da
mcirericxovani mrevlisTvis iyo gaTvaliswinebuli.
adreqristianuli eklesia aRmoCenilia quTaisis citadelSic (sur.
4, #2), sadac gasuli saukunis 80-ian wlebSi gaiwminda nangrevebis saxiT
SemorCenili XIII s-is (gvian Sua saukuneebSi araerTgzis gadakeTebuli)
wm. giorgis saxelobis darbazuli eklesia (a. gabriaZe, 1998, gv. 88-91; c.
CaCxunaSvili, 1999, gv. 46-52).
eklesiis restavraciis procesSi gviandeli iatakebis qveS dafiqsirda
Zveli eklesiis naSTebi, romelzec ori samSeneblo fena gamoiyofa.
Tavdapirveli fena warmoadgens naxevarwriuli Sverili afsidebiT
daboloebul samnavian bazilikas. kargad ikiTxeba reliefiT ganpirobebul
orsafexurian cokolze amoyvanili samxreTis kedlis, centraluri da
samxreTis afsidebis erTi rigi, aseve CrdiloeTis kedlisa da afsidebis
interieri. danarCen kedlebze cokoli ar gamoiyofa. yviTel gruntSi
Casmuli, riyis qviTa da maRalxarisxiani duRabiT Sedgenili fundamentis
simaRle saSualod 1 metria, siganec amdenive. CrdiloeTisa da
aRmosavleTis kedlebi nawilobriv kirqvis kldovan baqanzea daSenebuli.
eklesiis sigrZe 12,5 m-s Seadgens (interierSi - 10,2 m.), sigane - 8,06 m
(interierSi - 6,28 m.)., kedlebis SemorCenili simaRle - 0,6 m, sigane -
0,89 m, afsidis kedlebis sigane - 0,75-0,85 m. gegmaSi kvadrats miaxloebuli
Sida sivrce sworkuTxa burjebis ori wyviliT sam nawiladaa gayofili.
afsidebis win damatebiT ori mcire zomis sworkuTxa burjia "albaT
afrebis gadasayvanad." kedlebis SemorCenil doneze karis naSTi ar
quTaisis adreqristianuli eklesiebi

ikiTxeba. kanonikis Sesabamisad, igi dasavleTis kedlis centrSi unda


vivaraudoT (sur. 5).
Zeglis stratigrafiis, gaTxrebisas mopovebuli mcirericxovani
arqeologiuri masalisa da xuroTmoZRvruli analizis safuZvelze
pirveli samSeneblo fena V-VI ss-Ta mijniT TariRdeba (c. CaCxunaSvili,
1999, gv. 46-52, nax. 1; o. lanCava, 1996, gv. 137-142, sur. 24-25-27; o.
lanCava, 2006, gv. 159-163; o. lanCava, 2007, gv. 126-128, sur. 130-131-132-
133). xuroTmoZRvrul formas paralelebi eZebneba rogorc saqarTveloSi,
aseve bizantiur samyaroSi (c. CaCxunaSvili, 1999, sqolio 8; o. lanCava,
2007, gv. 144, sqolio 23).
eklesia, rogorc Cans, VI s-is SuaxanebSi bizantia-iranis omianobas
Seewira da, savaraudod, ganaaxles VIII s-is meore naxevarSi, murvan
yrus laSqrobis Semdeg, roca citadelSi Sendeba aguris orsarTuliani
samefo sasaxle (o. lanCava, 2007, gv, 153-154, sur. 156). am etapze
mTlianad ganaxlebulia (gafarToebulia) dasavleTis kedeli, centraluri
afsidis naxevarwre centrSi odnav Setexili swori xaziTaa Secvlili,
CrdiloeTidan da samxreTidan ki ori sworkuTxa saTavsia miSenebuli
(sur. 6). samxreTis saTavsze SedarebiT kargad ikiTxeba fasadis erTi
rigi da gegma (interierSi - 2,8X2,45 m; kedlebis sigane - 0,74 m, fundamentis
sigane - 1 m-de), CrdiloeTis mxares ki erTmaneTs adevs sul mcire sami
sxvadasxva drois minaSenis (maT Soris erTi XVIII s-is Turquli meCeTis
- r. isakaZe, 2006, gv. 113-119) mxolod fundamentebi da pirveli minaSenis
gegmisa da zomebis (interierSi daaxl. 3,5X2 m, fundamentis sigane - 1 m-
de) aRdgena kvlevis am etapze miaxloebiTia3.
"daviT da konstantines wamebis" mixedviT, lodebSebmuli nawamebi
Zmebi "...STayarnen... mdinaresa mas fasonsa, romel ars eniTa qarTuliTa
rioni" (daviT da konstantines wameba, 1979, gv. 157). ramdenime abzacis
qvemoT "wamebis" avtori kidev ufro azustebs am adgils: "...adgilsa mas,
romelsa ganeCina mZlavrsa, mdinaresa tbasa mas zeda, romelsac Sen ars
taZari wmidaTa kozman da damianesi" (daviT da konstantines wameba,
1979, gv. 158).
qarTuli saistorio, saeklesio da xalxuri tradiciiT, Zmebi
mxeiZeebis martvilobis adgilad quTaisi, xolo gansasveneblad misgan
aRmosavleTiT mdebare mowameTis monasteria miCneuli.
prof. T. beraZe xaragaulis r-is soflebis - amaSukeTisa da
bJinevis teritoriaze dadasturebuli toponim "kozmanis mTis," kozmanis
saxelobis eklesiis da hidronim "wyalwiTelas" meSveobiT argveTis
erisTavTa martvilobisa da gansasvenebel adgils md. Zirulas xeobaSi
varaudobs (T. beraZe, 1974, gv. 96-97), xolo n. balanCivaZis mixedviT,
3
eklesiis eqsterieris gaTxra dausrulebelia da, Sesabamisad, gare saTavsebis
(gansakuTrebiT CrdiloeTis) gegmac srulad ar aris gamokveTili. kvlevis dasrulebis
Semdeg SesaZlebeli iqneba Zeglis stratigrafiisa da gegmis calkeuli detalebis
koreqtireba.
r. isakaZe

"mTavrebi awames da daaxrCves gviandeli saCxeiZos dasavleTiT, rion-


cxeniswylis xerTvisis raionSi (n. balanCivaZe, 1976).4"
quTais-mowameTis sasargeblod wyaroseul sxva argumentebTan erTad
is pasaJic metyvelebs, sadac wamebulTa gadasvenebis mimarTulebaa
naCvenebi: "_aiqveniT gvamni wmidaTa magaT mowameTani da wariyvaniT
tyiT kerZo aRmosavaliT da sada-igi gTndesT, mun dakrZaleniT..."
(daviT da konstantines wameba, 1979, gv. 160). vaxuSti bagrationis
mixedviTac, erisTavebi "...moswyvidian tanjviTa quTaTis." wyaroSi
figurirebs quTaisi, mdinare rioni da tba, rac erTi SexedviT gaugebrobas
qmnis, Tumca mematianis miniSneba, vfiqrobT, savsebiT naTelia: wamebuli
Zmebi Cayares iq, sadac mZlavrad momdinar rions Rrma ube (tba)
hqonda gaCenili, romlis Tavzec idga taZari.
quTaisis arqeologiuri Seswavlis amJamindeli monacemebiT, rionis
marcxena sanapiros saqalaqo ganaSenianebis pirveli niSnebi ganviTarebul
Sua saukuneebSi isaxeba (mwvaneyvavilas X-XI s-is eklesia) da Seuqcevadi
xdeba XVI s-is Suaxanebidan (r. isakaZe, 2006, gv. 38-43 da Smd., sqolio
4, gv. 155).
istoriulad ganaSenianebul marjvena sanapiroze wyaroSi aRweril
adgils miesadageba dRevandeli "wiTeli xidis" zemoT yazbegisa da daviT
da konstantines quCebis gasayarTan arsebuli monakveTis reliefi, sadac
mdinare samxreTiT mkveTr mosabruns akeTebs, riTac kldovan
sanapirosTan sakmaod Rrma ubes da, Sesabamisad, morevs aCens, rac
gansakuTrebiT TvalSisacemia wyaluxvobisas (sur. 3).
diubua de monperes gegmaze (romelic, rogorc TviTon aRniSnavs,
1822 wlis quTaisis gegmis mixedviT Seudgenia) aRniSnul monakveTSi
#31-iT ("qvis Zveli eklesiebis narCenebi" [am nomriT gegmaze ramdenime
sxvadasxva eklesiaa aRniSnuli - r.i.]) moniSnulia eklesia da mis qveS
organyofilebiani, gaurkveveli daniSnulebis nageboba (sur. 4, #4).
gegmis mixedviT, eklesia oTxi Zveli quCis (gzis) gasayarTan, kldis qimze
mdebareobs da zemodan dascqeris izogifsebiT naCveneb, mTeli sanapiros
gaswvriv gawolil orterasian kldovan ferdobs, romelsac gza gauyveba.
es "cixedarbazis gza" "foTis gzis" (diubuas mixedviT) Crdilo-aRmosavleT
gagrZelebas warmoadgens, romelic "wiTeli xidis" mimdebare monakveTidan
zemoaRniSnul orterasian kldovan ferdobze adis, "xorxebTan" (e.w.
"gabaSvilis gorisa" da "cacxvebis ubnis" gamyofi xevi da Rele [l. jiqia,
1995, gv. 147-149], romelic "wiTeli xididan" 50-iode metrSi mdinares
uerTdeba), rionis muxlis Sesabamisad uxvevs, sanapiros miuyveba da
naqalaqaris galavanSi Sedis.
gzis calkeuli monakveTebi kerZo mosaxleTa ezoebSi (daviT da
konstantines q. me-3 Ses.) dResac ikiTxeba, erTi toti ki sagangebodaa
4
mowameTis gaTxrebis Sedegebis gacnobisas b-nma T. beraZem CvenTan saubarSi aRniSna,
rom misi es mosazreba erTgvar samuSao hipoTezad rCeba. n. balanCivaZe, romelsac
quTaisis Zveli istoriis Sesaxeb araerTi saintereso da originaluri mosazreba aqvs
gamoTqmuli, samwuxarod, sagazeTo statiaSi wyaros ar uTiTebs da arc raime
argumentiT amagrebs Tavis mosazrebas.
quTaisis adreqristianuli eklesiebi

aRniSnuli diubuas gegmaze (sur. 4, literi A, #17, "quCa qveda qalaqSi")


da TiTqmis mTlianadaa SemorCenili bagratis q. me-2 SesaxvevSi. am gzis
"xorxebisa" da eklesiis mimdebare monakveTs aRwers n. nikolaZe Tavis
mogonebebSi: "es saxeli ("xorxi" - r.i.) erqva Zlier viwro biliks,
romelzedac ori imeruli jori Zlivs auvliden mxars erTmaneTs, da
romelic kldeSi gamokveTli iyo mTis kideze, rionis marjvena napiriT,
sadac Semdeg, 1859-1860 ww. mTeli ferdobi laRmebiT CaTales da
gzatkecili gaiyvanes TeTri xidedan Zvel Cangreul xidemde. am xorxze
Cinebulad gaxednil jorebsac ki eZnelebodaT siaruli, iseTi sazareli
iyo rionis jurRmulis zevidan danaxva" (n. nikolaZe, 1984, gv. 10).
sul mcire IV-VI ss-Si (adreSuasaukuneebis cixe-qalaqTan erTad
formirebuli es gza da "qveda qalaqis" infrastruqturis didi nawili
Tavdapirvel reliefTan erTad XIX s-is 60-ian wlebSi axali gzis
gayvanas Seewira, roca sanapiros gaswvrivi kldovani ferdobi "laRmebiT
CaTales" (o. lanCava, 2006, gv. 79-156).
am konteqstSi sainteresoa XIX s-is ori publikacia: gazeT "mwyemsis"
mixedviT, murvan-yrum nawamebi Zmebi Caayrevina "...kldidgan rionSi....im
adgilis cota qvemoT, sadac uwin yofila Zvel q. quTaisSi, mTaze
aSenebuli wmida kosmisa da damianes ekklesia" ("mwyemsi" 1884, gv. 13-14);
gazeT "kvalis" mixedviT: "...miiyvanes... mowameni tbasa zeda, saca idga
saydari kozman da damianesi...es tba iyo Seqmnili quTaisis kldis
gamo, romelzedac rioni Tavs gadadioda, radgan maSin jer kidev
ar iyo klde ise garRveuli, rogorc aris xorxis TavSi" (g.
wereTeli, 1893, gv. 7).
vfiqrobT, mTeli zemoT motanili msjeloba sakmarisia imis
sailustraciod, rom kozman da damianes saxelobis eklesia dRevandeli
"wiTeli xidis" zemoT, "xorxis TavSi," miaxloebiT vaJa-fSavelas, yazbegisa
da daviT da konstantines quCebis gasayarTan mdebareobda da dRes an
mTlianad waSlilia, anda Tanamedrove dasaxlebiT da infrastruqturiT
aris gadafaruli.
saarqivo masalis mixedviT irkveva, rom sruliad gansxvavebul
cnobebze dayrdnobiT analogiur daskvnamde misula petre Wabukiani.
quTaisis saxelmwifo istoriuli muzeumis arqivSi or gansxvavebul
egzemplarad daculia petre Wabukianis xelnaweri naSromi "istoriis,
arqeologiis da bunebis ZeglTa aRricxva quTaisis olqSi (dawyebulia
1933 wlis 1 ivnisidan)".5 pirveli egzemplaris me-5 punqti: "goraze
yazbegis quCaze kldeze eklesiis naSTebi. kozma da damanes saxelobis.
gadmocemiT daviT da konstantines salocavi. iqve qvemoT yofila
qvabulebi, sadac imalebodnen xsenebuli gmirebi. qvabulebi mospobilia
gzis gayvanis dros XIX s-Si (q.i.m. arqivi, #133/1, gv. 7); me-16 punqti:
"molotovis quCaze, rionis pirad wiTelsa da jaWvis xidebs Sua daviT
da konstantines saxelTan dakavSirebuli bunebrivi gvirabi, romelic
5.
quTaisis saxelmwifo istoriuli muzeumis arqivSi daculi aRniSnuli naSromis
Sesaxeb inforacia mogvawoda arqivis direqtorma b-nma m. kezevaZem.
r. isakaZe

imave dros Rvarsadenia mrTeli gorisTvis" (q.i.m. arqivi, #133/1, gv. 9).
meore egzemplaris me-12 punqti: "yazbegis quCaze kldeze cixis naSTebi.
kozman da damianes eklesiis naSTi. VII. sauk." (q.i.m. arqivi, #133/
2, gv. 4); 29-e punqti: "molotovis quCaze, rionis pirad, wiTelsa da
jaWvis xidebs Sua, marjvena mxareze "daviT da konstantines" gamoqvabuli."
(q.i.m. arqivi, #133/2, gv. 5)6.
1956 wels petre Wabukianis daxmarebiT qarTvel mTamsvlelTa
jgufma (alioSa nemsiwveriZe, givi yalambegaSvili, foto korespodenti
bondo maRlaferiZe) orive im gamoqvabulSi SeaRwia, romelTac, xalxuri
gadmocemiT, Zmebi mxeiZeebis saxeli ukavSirdeba. CvenTvis gansakuTrebiT
sainteresoa, rom mTamsvlelTa gaangariSebiT daaxl. 2 km-is sigrZis
gvirabs zog adgilze xelovnuri damuSavebis (gafarToebis) kvali etyoba
(n. cxvediani, 2007).
samomavlod "daviT da konstantines wamebis" yvela arsebuli
redaqciis teqstologiuri kvleva, saarqivo (gansakuTrebiT saqarTvelos
centraluri arqivSi daculi "gzaTa mimosvlis me-8 olqis fondi" [XIX
s.]) da XIX-XX ss-is mijnis presis masalebis Seswavla, agreTv aRniSnuli
ubnisa da gamoqvabulebis arqeologiuri gamokvleva adreqristianuli
xanis saqarTvelosa da konkretulad quTaisis istoriis axal furclebs
gadaSlis.

6
xelnaweriT sargeblobisaTvis madlobas vuxdiT muzeumis direqcias da xelnawer
da ZvelnabeWd wignTa koleqciebis ganyofilebis kurators q-n c. mumlaZes.
quTaisis adreqristianuli eklesiebi

sur. 1
sur. 3
r. isakaZe

sur. 5 sur. 6

sur. 7
quTaisis adreqristianuli eklesiebi

damowmebuli literatura

n. balanCivaZe, 1976 - n. balanCivaZe, mowameTa, gaz. quTaisi, 17. 08. 1976.


T. beraZe, 1974 - T. beraZe, dasavleT saqarTvelos zogierTi
geografiuli adgilis lokalizaciisaTvis, `macne", istoriis... seria,
#1, Tb., 1974.
a. gabriaZe, 1998 - a. gabriaZe, quTaisis citadelis wm. giorgis
eklesia, Ziebani, #1, Tb., 1998.
georgika, 1936 - georgika, bizantieli mwerlebis cnobebi
saqarTvelos Sesaxeb, s. yauxCiSvilis redaqciiT, t. III, Tb., 1936.
georgika, 1941 - georgika, bizantieli mwerlebis cnobebi
saqarTvelos Sesaxeb, s. yauxCiSvilis redaqciiT, IV, nakv. I, Tb., 1941.
daviT da konstantines wameba, 1979 - daviT da konstantines wameba,
Zveli qarTuli moTxroba, r. TvaraZis redaqciiT, Tb., 1979.
b. diasamiZe, 1999 - b. diasamiZe, qristianobis istoriisaTvis dasavleT
saqarTveloSi, baTumi, 1999.
diubua, 1859 - Frederik Dubois de Montfereus, Voyage autour du Caucase..,
I, Paris, 1859.
p. zaqaraia, T. kapanaZe, 1991 - p. zaqaraia, T. kapanaZe, cixe-goji-
arqeopolisi-noqalaqevi, Tb., 1991.
r. isakaZe, 2006 - r. isakaZe, quTaisi XV-XVIIII ss-Si, sakandidato
disertacia, xelnabeWdi, quTaisi, 2006.
o. lanCava, 2006 - o. lanCava, quTaisis Sidacixis bazilika,
qarTveluri memkvidreoba, X, quTaisi, 2006.
o. lanCava, 2007 - o. lanCava, quTaisis arqeologia, quTaisi, 2007.
o. lanCava, 1996 - o. lanCava, quTaisi egris-lazikis cixe-qalaqTa
sistemaSi, quTaisi, 1996.
o. lanCava.., 2004 - o. lanCava, r. isakaZe. d. berZeniSvili, quTaisis
arqeologiuri eqspediciis 2003 wlis angariSi, quTaisi, 2004.
o. lanCava, r. isakaZe.., 2006 - o. lanCava, r. isakaZe, d. berZeniSvili,
m. WumburiZe, n. qarciZe, quTaisis arqeologiuri eqspediciis 2005 wlis
savele samuSaoebis winaswari angariSi, quTaisi, 2006.
o. lanCava, r. isakaZe.., 2006a - o. lanCava, r. isakaZe, d. berZeniSvili,
m. WumburiZe, n. qarciZe, oTar lorTqifaniZis arqeologiis institutisa
da akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo universitetis erToblivi arqeologiuri
eqspediciis mier bagratis taZris interierSi 2006 wlis ivlis-oqtomberSi
Catarebuli arqeologiuri samuSaoebis angariSi, quTaisi, 2006.
o. lanCava, r. isakaZe, 2007 - o. lanCava, r. isakaZe, saqarTvelos
erovnuli muzeumis oT. lorTqifaniZis arqeologiis centrisa da akaki
wereTlis universitetis arqeologiuri eqspediciis mier quTaisSi,
bagratis taZris eqsterierSi 2007 wels (15 ivnisi-30 agvisto) Catarebuli
arqeologiuri samuSaoebis angariSi, quTaisi, 2007.
n. lomouri, 1968 - n. lomouri, egrisis samefos istoria, Tb., 1968.
n. lomouri, 1989 - n. lomouri, saqarTvelo-bizantiis urTierToba
V saukuneSi, Tb., 1989.
r. isakaZe

n. lomouri, 2004 - n. lomouri, saqarTvelos politikuri viTarebis


garkvevisaTvis (V s-is meore naxevari), saqarTvelos xelovnebis saxelmwifo
muzeumis `narkvevebi", IX, Tb., 2004.
d. musxeliSvili, 2004 - d. musxeliSvili, saqarTvelo IV-VIII
saukuneebSi, Tb., 2004.
`mwyemsi" 1884 - mowameTis monasteri imereTSi da wmidani mowameni
daviT da konstantine, gaz. `mwyemsi", #11, 1884.
n. nikolaZe, 1984 - n. nikolaZe, mogonebebi, Tb., 1984.
c. CaCxunaSvili, 1999 - c. CaCxunaSvili, uqimerionis wm. giorgis
sax. eklesia quTaisSi, saqarTvelos istoriisa da kulturis ZeglTa
dacvis mTavari sammarTvelos `weliwdeuli", III (1997-1999 ww.), Tb.,
1999.
n. cxvediani, 2007 - n. cxvediani, miwisqveSa quTaisi, gaz.
`postskriptumi", #2 (398), 2007.
g. wereTeli, 1893 - g. wereTeli, wminda mowameni daviT da konstantine,
gaz. `kvali", #45, 1893.
v. jafariZe, 1989 - v. jafariZe, vardcixis naqalaqari, Tb., 1989.
l. jiqia, 1995 - l. jiqia, `zeqedas mTis" lokalizaciisaTvis,
eTnografiuli quTaisi-I, XIX s-is II naxevari, quTaisis muzeumis masalebi,
krebuli VII, quTaisi, 1995.

ROLAND ISAKADZE

EARLY CHRISTIAN CHURCHES IN KUTAISI

Historical sources have only two instances to mention the early Christian
churches of Kutaisi and both are dated in relation of the events of the 30s of the 8th
century. Considering this fact the present archaeological discoveries of the multitude
of churches, belonging to the 4th-8th centuries, become a noteworthy issue. The
more so, the number of churches is likely to increase parallel to the subsequent
excavations.
Chronologically, the most ancient of the churches is the 4th century big three
nave basilica discovered during the excavation of the Bagrati Cathedral. In about the
5th-and the early half of 6th centuries the edifice seems have been substantially rebuilt.
The two nave small church with protruded apses discovered in the "Inner
City" territory revealing two construction layers and belonging to the Bath complex
is of 5th-7th centuries. Dated the close of the 5th and the beginning of the 6th century
is a three apse church discovered under the floor of the 13th century Citadel Church.
The church has the well-definable traces of the later reconstruction of 7th-8th centuries.
The 4th century big basilica was presumably destroyed during the Iran invasion in
quTaisis adreqristianuli eklesiebi

6th century. In the 7th century we see the new basilica in the same place, which
according to Kartlis Tskhovteba (The Georgian Chronicles) is called Kutaisi Saqdari
(church). Leon II, the king of Egris-Apkhzeti, carried out reconstruction works at
the end of the 8th century after it had been damaged during the invasion of the Arabs
headed by Murvan the Deaf. The wall texture of the new basilica is organically
included in the Bagrati Cathedral building and is easily discernable up to the storey
and a half level. As for the elements of the interior they are erased on the floor level.
It is the ruined layer of this basilica where archaeologists discovered inscribed antefix
(G "B).
I think that Kozma and Damiane Church, up to the Red Bridge, mentioned in
"the Life of David and Konstantine" must have been located at the fork of the present
A.Kazbegi and David and Konstantine streets which is either covered by the present
houses or was lost in the 60s of the 19th century during the Lechkhumi road
construction when the historically inhabited slope was cut off by "making use of
explosive materials" (N.Nikoladze)