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Project Management Professional

PMP

Memo No (973)

Projects Cost Management


(Computer Software Oriented)
‫ادارة التكاليف للمشروعات بأستخدام الحاسب‬

by

Dr. Abdalla El Daoushy

March, 2009
Jan, 2010
2

Index
Page
Theoretical Part
Projects Cost Management . . . . . . .
5
1. Project’s Resources Planning . . . . . .
13
1.1 Inputs to Project’s Resource Planning . . . .
15
1.2 Tools & Techniques for Project’s Resource Planning . .
17
1.2.1 Applying Expert Judgment . . . . 17
1.2.2 Identifying Alternative Solutions . . . 18
1.2.3 Relying on Project Management Software . . 18
1.3 Outputs of Project’s Resource Planning . . . 19

1.3.1 Identifying Resource Requirements . . . 19

2. Project’s Cost Estimating . . . . . . .


20
2.1 Inputs to Project’s Cost Estimating . . . .
20
2.1.1 Using Work Breakdown Structure . . . 22
2.1.2 Relying on the Resource Requirements . . 22
2.1.3 Calculating Resource Rates . . . . 22
2.1.4 Estimating Activity Duration . . . . 24
2.1.5 Using Estimating Publications . . . 26
2.1.6 Using Historical Information . . . . 26
2.1.7 Referencing the Chart of Accounts . . . 27
2.1.8 Acknowledging the Cost of Risk . . . 27
2.2 Tools & Techniques for Project’s Cost Estimating . .
28
2.2.1 Using Analogous Estimating . . . . 28
2.2.2 Using Parametric Modeling . . . . 28
2.2.3 Using Bottom-Up Estimating . . . . 30
2.2.4 Using Computer Software . . . . 30
2.3 Outputs of Project’s Cost Estimating . . . .
31
2.3.1 Estimating Project Costs . . . . 31
2.3.2 Analyzing Cost Estimating Results . . . 31
2.3.3 Refining the Cost Estimates . . . . 32
2.3.4 Considering the Supporting Detail . . . 32
2.3.5 Developing the Cost Management Plan . . 32

3. Completing Project’s Cost Budgeting . . . . .


33
3

3.1 Inputs to Project’s Cost Budgeting . . . .


34
3.1.1 Cost Estimates . . . . . . 34
3.1.2 Work breakdown Structure . . . . 34
3.1.3 Project Schedule . . . . . 34
3.1.4 Risk management Plan . . . . 34
3.2 Tools & Techniques of Project’s Cost Budgeting . .
35
3.2.1 Analogous Budgeting . . . . .
35
3.2.2 Parametric Modeling . . . . . 35
3.2.3 Bottom-Up Budgeting . . . . . 35
3.3.4 Computerized Tools . . . . . 35
3.3 Outputs of Project’s Cost Budgeting . . . .
36
3.3.1 Creating the Cost Baseline . . . . 36
Page
4. Implementing Project’s Cost Control . . . . .
37
4.1 Inputs to Project’s Cost Control . . . . 38
4.1.1 Cost Baseline . . . . . . 38
4.1.2 Performance Reports . . . . . 38
4.1.3 Change Requests . . . . . 38
4.1.4 Cost Management Plan . . . . 38
4.2 Tools & Techniques of Project’s Cost Control .
. 39
4.2.1 Creating a Cost Change Control System . . 39
4.2.2 Measuring Project Performance . . . 40
4.2.3 Planned Value (PV) . . . . . 41
4.2.4 Earned Value (EV). . . . . 41
4.2.5 Actual Cost (AC) . . . . . 41
4.2.6 Additional Planning . . . . . 41
4.2.7 Using Computers . . . . . 42
4.3 Outputs of Project’s Cost Control --- Cost Control Results
. 43
4.3.1 Revising the Cost Estimates . . . . 43
4.3.2 Updating the Budget . . . . . 44
4.3.3 Applying Corrective Actions . . . . 45
4.3.4 Preparing for the Estimate at Completion . . 45
4.3.5 Calculating the Cost Performance Index (CPI) . 45
4.3.6 Calculating Estimate at Completion (EAC). .
48
4.3.7 Experiencing Expected Condition . . 48
4.3.8 Accounting for Flawed Estimates . . 49
4.3.9 Accounting for Anomalies . . . . 50
4.3.10 Accounting for Permanent Variances . . 51
4.3.11 Closing Out the Project . . . . 52
4.3.12 Updating Lessons Learned . . . . 52
4

Summary . . . . . . . . . 53

Key Terms . . . . . . . . . 55

Self Test . . . . . . . . . 61

Practical Part
Page
Scenario 1: . . . . . . . . . 69
 Defining Roles, Resources, & Costs . . . 70
 Assigning Roles . . . . . . 71
 Assigning Resources & Costs . . . . 72
 Analyzing Resources . . . . . . 73

Scenario 2: . . . . . . . . . 74
 Optimizing the Project Plan . . . . . 75
 Baselining . . . . . . . 76
 Project Execution & Control . . . . 77

Scenario 3: . . . . . . . . . 78
 Reporting Performance . . . . . 79

Workshop (Case Study): Building 2nd Floor of a Villa . . .


80

References . . . . . . . . .
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5

Theoretical Part
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Projects Cost Management


Execution &
Controlling
Planning (Updating)

11 22 33 44
Resource Cost Cost Cost
Cost
Resource Cost Cost
Planning Estimating Budgeting Controlling
Controlling
Planning Estimating Budgeting

Cost Estimating is the process of calculating the Costs of Resources needed to complete the Project Work.
Cost Budgeting is the process of assigning a cost to an individual work package.
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Projects Cost Management:

 Most likely there is more negotiating, questioning, and


evaluating for larger Projects than for smaller ones.

 The relation between the Project’s Cost and the Project’s


Scope should be direct: you get what you pay for.

 A successful Project Manager must be able to plan, predict,


budget, and control the costs of a Project.

 Costs associated with Projects are not just the costs of goods
procured to complete the Project.

 The cost of Labor may be one of the biggest


expenses of a Project.

 The Project Manager must rely on time


estimates to predict the cost of the labor to complete the
Project Work.

 In addition, the Cost of Equipments and


Materials needed to complete the Project Work must be
considered into the Project’s Expenses.
In brief:

Projects Cost Management Processes:


1. Resource Planning

1.1 Inputs to Resource Planning

1.1.1 WBS

1.1.2 Historical Information

1.1.3 Scope Statement

1.1.4 Resource Pool Description

1.1.5 Organizational Policies

1.1.6 Activities Duration Estimates

1.2 Tools & Techniques of Resource Planning

1.2.1 Expert Judgment

1.2.2 Alternatives Identification

1.2.3 Project Management Software

1.3 Outputs of Resource Planning

1.3.1 Resource Requirements


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Hint: Refer to “Scenario1” of “Practical Part”

2. Cost Estimating

2.1 Inputs to Cost Estimating

2.1.1 Using WBS & RBS

2.1.2 Relying on Resource Requirements (output of previous process)

2.1.3 Calculating Resource Rates

2.1.4 Activities Duration Estimates

2.1.5 Using Cost Estimating Publications

2.1.6 Using Historical Information

2.1.7 Referencing the Chart of Accounts

(Chart of Accounts: A Coding System used by Performing


Organization’s Accounting System to account for the Project
Work)

2.1.8 Acknowledging the Cost Risk

2.2 Tools & Techniques for Cost Estimating

2.2.1 Using Analogous Estimating

2.2.2 Using Parametric Modeling

2.2.3 Using Bottom-Up Estimating

2.2.4 Using Computerized Tools

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2.3 Outputs of Cost Estimating

2.3.1 Estimating Project Costs

2.3.2 Analyzing Cost Estimating Results

2.3.3 Refining the Cost Estimates

2.3.4 Considering the Supporting Detail

(Supporting Detail: Any Information that supports Decisions,


including the Project Plan as a whole. Supporting Detail can
include Books, Articles, Web Sites, Vendor Information, Results of
Testing, Historical Information, and many others Information
Sources.)

2.3.5 Developing the Cost Management Plan

Hint: Refer to “Scenario1” of “Practical Part”

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3. Completing Cost Budgeting

3.1 Inputs to Cost Budgeting

3.1.1 Cost Estimates (from previous process)

3.1.2 WBS

3.1.3 Project Schedule

3.1.4 Risk Management Plan

3.2 Tools & Techniques of Cost Budgeting

3.2.1 Analogous Budgeting

3.2.2 Parametric Modeling

3.2.3 Bottom-Up Budgeting

3.2.4 Computerized Tools

3.3 Outputs of Cost Budgeting

3.3.1 Creating the Cost Baseline

Hint: Refer to “Scenario2” of “Practical Part”

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4. Implementing Cost Control

4.1 Inputs to Cost Control

4.1.1 Cost Baseline (from previous process)

4.1.2 Performance Reports

4.1.3 Change Requests

4.1.4 Cost Management Plan (from process 2)

4.2 Tools & Techniques of Cost Control

4.2.1 Creating a Cost Change Control System

4.2.2 Measuring Project Performance

4.2.3 Earned Value Management (EVM)

4.2.3.1 Planned Value (PV)

4.2.3.2 Earned Value (EV)

4.2.3.3 Actual Value (AV)

4.2.4 Additional Planning

4.2.5 Computerized Tools

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4.3 Outputs of Cost Control --- Cost Control Results

4.3.1 Revising the Cost Estimates

4.3.2 Updating the Budget

4.3.3 Applying Corrective Actions

4.3.4 Preparing for the Estimate at Completion

4.3.5 Calculating the Cost Performance Index(CPI)

4.3.6 Calculating Estimate At Completion (EAC)

4.3.7 Accounting for Anomalies

4.3.8 Accounting for Variances

4.3.9 Project Closeout

4.3.10 Updating Lessons Learned

Hint: Refer to “Scenario2” of “Practical Part”

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In details,

Project’s Resources Planning:

 As part of the Planning Process, the Project Manager must determine


what Resources are needed to complete the Project.

 Resources include Labor (people), Nonlabor (Equipments), and


Materials that will be utilized to complete the Project.

 In addition, the Project Manager must identify how many & when of
the Resources are needed for the Project.

 The Identification of Resources, the Needed Quantity, and the


Schedule of Resources are directly linked to the expected cost of the
Project as shown:

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 Example: Automate a “New Home” Project:

o The Lights, Air-Conditioning, Electrical Devices, and Home


Security are all connected through a Central Computer
Operating System.

o The Resources to complete the Project Work would include


Technicians, HVAC Experts, Electricians, and other People
with the knowledge to install and configure the components.

o The Resources in this case, however, would also include the


Network Cabling to connect the components, Diagnostic Tools to
monitor and test the installation, and the Equipments & Tools to
physically install the components.

o In addition, Services are considered Resources as well. Your


Project may require a Vendor's Service, such as a Printer, a
Carpenter, or Other Service.

o If these services are not available for the Project as planned, the
Project will suffer from delaying. Some Projects require you to
lease space; the Leased Space is considered a Resource.

o In some instances, it is most cost effective to hire a Consultant or


Subject Matter Expert (SME) to identify details unique to the
Project Work, such as permissions, laws, and so on. The expense
of relying on the SME may be far less than the cost of the time to
research the unique details and requirements of the Project. The
knowledge gained from the SME can balance the expenses that
would otherwise result from not having specialized knowledge of
the Project Work.
Exam

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1.1 Inputs to Project’s Resource


Planning
 Resource Planning is the process of examining the Project Work and
determining what Resources (People, Equipments, and Materials)
are needed to complete the Project.

 Resource Planning also includes identifying the expected quantity of


each Resource so the Predicted Cost can be calculated.

 The following are some familiar Inputs to Resource Planning:

1.1.1 Work & Resource Breakdown Structure: The WBS &


RBS help the Project Manager and the Project Team identifies the
components requiring specific People, Equipments, and Materials.

1.1.2 Historical Information: Historical Information should be used


if it is available, as it is Proven Information.

1.1.3 Project Scope: The scope statement serves as a key input to


Resource Planning since the Scope Statement defines the Project
Work. The required work, therefore, can help identify the Required
Resources to Complete the Project.

1.1.4 Resource Pool Description:

o The Project Manager should identify the availability of Resources


for the Project (People, Materials, and Equipments).

1.1.5 Performing Organization's Policies:

o The Performing Organization's Policies regarding Staff


Achievements must be taken into consideration.

o In addition, any Procurement Policies to ascertain


(determine) lease or rent equipment must be evaluated.

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o The Project Manager should be aware of these requirements


before Resources Planning.

o Time invested identifying Resources may be lost if the


process conflicts with the Organizational Policies.
1.1.6 Activities Duration Estimates:

o The duration of the Project’s Activities are needed so the


Project Manager and the Project Team can consider the
Resources & Costs and therefore the benefits of assigning
more effort to reduce Activities’ Duration where feasible.

o The Activities Duration Estimates should be readily


available from the “Time Management Processes”.

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1.2 Tools & Techniques for


Project’s Resource Planning

1.2.1 Applying Expert Judgment

 Preparing the Inputs to Resource Planning, the Project Manager and the
Project Team should be ready to identify and plan the need for the Project
Resources.

The Project Manager and Project Team will examine the Project Work
and Resources Availability and then apply reason, logic, and experience
in evaluating the Available Resources in relation to the Project’s
Requirements.

 A Person or Group can offer Expert Judgment on the Project Resource


Needs. The Person or Group offering the Expert Judgment should have
the expertise, experience, or training needed to evaluate and analyze the
Resources that the Project needs.

 Expert Judgment can come from several Sources:

 Internal Subject Matter Experts (SME), such as Resources


from other Departments

 External Subject Matter Experts (SME), such as


Consultants

 Trade and Professional Associations

 Industry Groups

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1.2.2 Identifying Alternative Solutions

 Alternatives-Identification is any process that identifies other solutions


to an Identified Problem. These Approaches typically use
brainstorming and imaginative thinking. In this process, Alternatives-
Identification may include Buy-versus-Build Scenarios,
Outsourcing, Cross Training, and Other Activities.

 The idea of using Alternatives-Identification is to ensure that the


Identified Resources are complete and that the Cost of Resources is the
best fit for the Project Work.

 Value Analysis is an Approach to find more affordable (reasonable)


and less costly Methods of accomplishing the same work. For
example, a Project Manager may change Activities-Sequencing to
shorten the Project’s Duration, while saving Labor Costs by assigning
high-cost Resources only to the Activities that demand them.

1.2.3 Relying on Project Management Software

o Project Management Software can assist in Resource Panning.

o Project Management Software can help the Project Manager


identify and organize the Resources Pool.

o Project Management Software can be configured to organize


Common Resources, Talents, Skill Sets, Resources Calendars,
Rates, Contract Information, and more.

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1.3 Outputs of Project’s


Resource Planning
1.3.1 Identifying Resource Requirements:

 Once the Project Manager and Project Team have completed Resource
Planning, the required Resources to complete the Project will have been
identified.

The Resource Identification is specific to the lowest level of the WBS


(i.e., Project Activities).

 The Identified-Resources will need to be obtained through Staff-


Acquisition or through Procurement.

 Resource Planning identifies all of the Required-Resources.

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Project’s Cost Estimating

 Cost Estimating is the process of calculating the Costs of Resources


needed to complete the Project Work.

 The Person or Group doing the Cost Estimating must consider the
possible fluctuations, inflation, conditions, and other causes of
Variances that could affect the total Cost Estimating.

 Cost Estimating and Pricing:

o There is a difference between Cost Estimating and Pricing.

o A Cost Estimate is the cost of Resources required to


complete the Project Work.

o Pricing, however, includes a profit margin. In other


words, a Company performing Projects for other
Organizations may do a cost estimate to see how much the
Project is going to cost to complete. Then, with this Cost
Information, they will factor a profit into the Project Work,
as shown:

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 The costs for Scheduled Activities are:

o Labor (People)

o NonLabor (Equipments)

o Materials

o Expenses:

 Services

 Facilities

 Inflation Allowance

 Contingency (emergency) Cost

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2.1 Inputs to Project’s Cost


Estimating
 Cost Estimating relies on Historical Information and Policies from the
Performing Organization.

2.1.1 Using the Work Breakdown Structure:

Of course, the WBS is included. It is an input to five major Planning


Processes:
1- Activity Definition,
2- Resource Planning,
3- Cost Estimating,
4- Cost Budgeting, and
5- Risk Management Planning.

2.1.2 Relying on Resource Requirements:

The output of Resource Planning serves as a key input to Cost


Estimating.

The Project will have some Resources Requirement. The Skills of the
Labor, the Availability of Materials, or the Function of
Equipments, must all be accounted for Cost Estimating.

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2.1.3 Calculating Resource Rates:

The Estimator has to know how much each Resource costs.


The Cost should be in some Unit of Time or Unit of Measure ---
such as:
$/hr, $/ton, $/lf (long feet), or $/use.

There are four Categories of Cost:

1. Direct Costs: These costs are accredited directly


to the Project Work and cannot be shared among
Projects (airfare, hotels, long distance phone
charges, and so on).

2. Indirect Costs: These costs are representative of


more than one Project (Utilities-of-Performing-
Organization, Access-to-Training-Room, Project-
Management-Software-License, and so on).

3. Variable Costs: These costs vary depending on


the conditions applied in the Project (number of
Meetings for Participants, Supply and Demand of
Materials, and so on).

4. Fixed Costs: These costs remain constant


throughout the Project (the Cost-of-Rented-
Equipment for the Project, the Cost-of-Consultant
brought onto the Project, and so on).

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2.1.4 Estimating Activity Durations:

 Activities’ Durations Estimating (which predicts the length of the


Project as a whole) are needed for decisions on Project’s
Financing.

 Recall the formula for Present Value. It is:

FV= PV * (1+R)n
;
PV is the present value,

FV is the future value,

R is the interest rate, and

n is the number of time periods.

 The Future Value of the Money the Project will earn may need to
be measured against the Present Value to determine if the Project
is worth financing, as shown here:

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 Determining of the Activities’ Durations are needed in order to


estimate the Total Cost of the Project. For example, if an Activity is
estimated to last 14 hours and Suzanne’s Cost is $80/h, then the
Cost of this Activity will be $1,120.

The Duration shows Management how long the Project is expected


to last and which Activities will cost the most and provides the
opportunity to re-sequence Activities to shorten the Project’s
Duration---which consequently shortens the finance period for the
Project.

 There are three Approaches to estimate the Product’s Cost:

1. Straight-Line Depreciation: allows the Organization to


write off the same amount each year. The formula for straight-line
depreciation is:

Yearly Deduction =
(Purchase Value - Salvage Value) / Number of Years in Use.

‫ قيمممة‬- ‫الخصممم )تكلفممة الهلك( السممنوي = )سممعر الشممراء‬


‫الخردة ( ÷ العمر النتاجي للصل‬

See Question no 19 page 65……

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For example, if the purchase price of a photocopier is $7,000 and


the salvage value of the photocopier in five years is $2,000, the
formula would read:

Yearly Deduction = (7,000 - 2,000)/5 = $1,000

2. Double-Declining Balance: is considered accelerated


depreciation. This method allows the organization to double the
percentage written off in the first year.

In our preceding example, a single deduction was $1,000 per year,


which is 20% of the total deduction across the five years.

With double-declining, the customer would subtract 40% the first year,
and then 40% of the remaining value each subsequent year.
In our example, the deducted amount for year one would be $2,000.
For year two, it would be $1,200, and year three it would be $720.

This is a great method for Equipment that you don’t anticipate to have
around for a very long time---such as Computer Equipment.

3. Sum of the Year’s Depreciation is like a magic trick. It


works by writing out the number of years the equipment is in
production and adding each year to the year before.

In our example: it was five years, so we do this: 5+4+3+2+1=15 (note


the largest to smallest).

The sum of the years (15) becomes our denominator; the five, for the
first year, is our numerator.

So for the first year, we’d deduct 5/15 (or one third) of the Photocopier
Cost after the Salvage Amount, which would be $1,650.

The second year, the four would be the numerator and we deduct
$1,250, and so on. Each year we’d deduct a slightly smaller percentage
than the year before.

2.1.5 Using Cost Estimating Publications:

 There are (for different Industries) Commercial Cost Estimating


Publications. These references can help the Project Estimator confirm

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and predict the accuracy of estimates. If a Project Manager elects to use


one of these Commercial Databases, the Cost Estimate should include a
pointer to this document for future reference and verification.

2.1.6 Using Historical Information:

 Historical Information is Proven Information and can come from


several places:

 Project Files: Past Projects within the Performing


Organization can be used as a reference to predict Costs and Time.
Caution must be taken that the records referenced are accurate,
somewhat current, and reflective of what was actually experienced in
the Historical Project.

 Commercial Cost-Estimating Database: These


databases provide estimates of what the Project should cost based on
the variables of the Project, Resources, and other Conditions.

 Team Member’s Knowledge: Team Members may have


specific experience with the Project Cost Estimate. Recollections
may be useful, but are highly unreliable when compared to
documented results.

Lessons Learned: Lessons Learned could include Cost



Estimates obtained from previous Projects that are similar in Scope
and Size.
Exam Watch

2.1.7 Referencing the Chart of Accounts:

This is a Coding System used by the Performing Organization’s


Accounting System to account for the Project Work.

Estimates within the Project must be mapped to the correct code of


accounts so that the Organization’s Ledger reflects the Actual Work
Performed, the Cost of the Work Performed, and any billing (internal or
external) that was charged to the Customer for the Completed Work.

2.1.8 Acknowledging the Cost of Risk:

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The impact of Risks, for positive or negative effect, must be evaluated


and considered in the Cost Estimates.

2.2 Tools & Techniques for


Project’s Cost
Estimating

2.2.1 Using Similar Estimating:

 Similar Estimating relies on Historical Information to predict the Cost of


the current Project. It is also known as Top-Down Estimating.

 The process of Similar Estimating takes the Actual Cost of a Historical


Project as a basis for the current Project. The Cost of the Historical
Project is applied to the Cost of the Current Project, taking into account
the Scope and Size of the Current Project as well as other known
Variables.

 Similar Estimating is a form of Expert Judgment. This Estimating


Approach takes less time to complete than other Estimating Models, but is
also less accurate. This Top-Down Approach is good for fast estimates to
get a general idea of what the Project may cost.

 Example of Similar Estimating:

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The “Carlton Park Project” was to grade and pave a sidewalk around a
Swimming Pool in the Community-Park. The sidewalk of Carlton Park
was 1,048 feet by 6 feet, and cost $25,287 to complete.

The current Project, “King Park Project”, will have a similar surface and
will cover 4,500 feet by 6 feet. The Analogous Estimate for this Project,
based on the work in Carlton-Park, is $108,500. This is based on the
price/foot of Material at $4.02.

2.2.2 Using Parametric Modeling:

 Parametric Modeling uses a Mathematical Model based on known


parameters to predict the Cost of a Project. The parameters in the
Model can vary based on the type of work being completed.

 A parameter can be cost/long foot, cost/cubic yard, cost/unit, and so on.

 A complex parameter can be cost per unit with adjustment factors based
on the conditions of the Project. In addition, the adjustment factors may
have additional modifying factors depending on additional conditions.

 To use Parametric Modeling, the factors the model is based on must be


accurate. The factors within the Model are quantifiable and do not vary
much based on the effort applied to the Activity. And finally, the Model
must be scalable between Project-Sizes.

 The Parametric Model using a scalable Cost/Unit Approach is depicted


here:

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There are two types of Parametric Cost Estimating:

1. Regression Analysis:

This is a Statistical Approach to predict what Future Values may be


based on Historical Values.

2. Learning Curve:

This Approach is simple. The cost/unit decreases the more units


Workers complete; this is because Workers learn as they complete
the required Work. The more an Individual completes an Activity,
the easier it is to complete. The estimate is considered parametric,
as the formula is based on repetitive Activities such as wiring
Telephone-Jacks, Painting-Hotel-Rooms, or other Activities that
are completed over and over within a Project. The cost/unit
decreases as the experience increases because the time to complete
the Work is shortened.

2.2.3 Using Bottom-Up Cost Estimating:

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 Bottom-Up Estimating starts from zero, accounts for each component of


the WBS, and arrives at a sum for the Project. It is completed with the
Project Team and can be one of the most time-consuming Methods to
predict Project Costs.

 While this method is more expensive (because of the time invested to


create the estimate) it is also one of the most accurate.

 Exam Watch
2.2.4 Using Computer Software:

 Computer Software can assist the Project Manager. There are several
different Computer Programs that can make Accurate Estimates for
the Project Work.

2.3 Output of Project’s Cost


Estimating
2.3.1 Estimating Project Costs:

 Management, Customers, and other interested Stakeholders are all


going to be interested in what the Project is going to cost to complete.

 The Estimates are reflective of the Accuracy of the Information the


Estimate is based upon. The more Accurate the Information, the better the
Cost Estimate will be.

2.3.2 Analyzing Cost Estimating Results:

 The output of Cost Estimating is the Cost Estimates of the Resources


required to the complete the Project Work.

 The Estimate is typically quantitative and can be presented in detail


against the WBS Components or summarized in terms of a Grand Total,
by phases of the Project, or by Major Deliverables (like Sub-Contractors).

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Each Resource in the Project must be accounted for and assigned to a


Cost Category.

Cost Categories include:

 Labor Costs
 Material Costs
 Travel Costs
 Supplies
 Hardware Costs
 Software Costs

 The Cost of the Project is expressed in Monetary Terms, such as dollar,


euro, or yen, so Management can compare Projects based on Costs.

It may be acceptable, depending on the demands of the Performing


Organization, to provide estimates in Staffing Hours or Days of Work to
complete the Project along with the Estimated Costs.

2.3.3 Refining the Cost Estimates:

 Through the Project Progresses, the Estimates are refined. Industry


Guidelines and Organizational Policies may define how the Estimates are
refined, but there are generally three accepted Categories of
Estimating Accuracy:

1. Rough Order of Magnitude: This Estimate is ‘rough’ and is


used during the Initiating Processes and in Top-Down Estimates. The
range of variance for the estimate can be -25% to +75%.

2. Budget Estimate: This Estimate is also somewhat broad and is


used early in the Planning Processes and also in Top-Down Estimates.
The range of variance for the estimate can be -10% to +25%.

3. Definitive Estimates This estimate type is one of the Most


Accurate. It is used late in the Planning Processes and is associated with
Bottom-Up Estimating. The range of variance for the estimate can be -5%
to +10%.

2.3.4 Considering Supporting Detail:

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 Once the Estimates have been completed, Supporting Detail must be


organized and documented to show how the Estimates were created.

The Supporting Detail includes the following:

o Information on the Project Scope Work This may


be provided by referencing the WBS.
o Information on the Approach used in
Developing the Cost Estimates This can include how
the estimate was accomplished and the parties involved with the
Estimate.
o Information on the Range of Variance in the
Estimate For example, based on the estimating method used,
the Project Cost may be $220,000 ± $15,000. This Project Cost
may be as low as $205,000 or as high as $235,000.

2.3.5 Developing the Cost Management Plan:

 The Cost Management Plan details how Project Costs Variances will be
managed.

3. Completing Project’s Cost


Budgeting

 Cost Budgeting: Cost Budgeting is the process of assigning a cost to an


Individual Work Package. The goal of this process is to assign costs to the
Work in the Project so that the Work may be measured for performance.

 Cost Budgeting involves aggregating the estimated Costs of Individual


Activities or Work Packages to establish a Total Cost Baseline for
measuring Project Performance.

 This is the creation of the Cost Baseline, as shown:

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 Cost Budgeting and Cost Estimates may go hand-in-hand, but


Estimating should be completed before a Budget is requested or
assigned.

 The difference between Cost Estimates and Cost Budgeting is that


Cost Estimates show Costs by Category, whereas a Cost Budget
shows Costs across Time according to Project’s Schedule.

3.1 Inputs to Project’s Cost Budgeting

 Because Cost Budgeting and Cost Estimating are so closely related, you
can expect many of the same inputs for both.

 Here are the inputs to Cost Budgeting:

3.1.1 Cost Estimates: These serve as key inputs; they are the
predicted cost for the Project Work.

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3.1.2 Work Breakdown Structure: It is a key input to this


process, as it is the Deliverables of the Project.

3.1.3 Project Schedule: The Project Schedule is needed to


determine when the money in the Budget will be spent.

3.1.4 Risk Management Plan: The Risk Management Plan is


considered because of information it provides of the probability
of Identified Risks and their associated Costs. In addition, the
Risks may have an expected Risk Value that contributes to the
Contingency Reserve for the Project.

3.2 Tools & Techniques of Project’s Cost


Budgeting --- Developing the Project
Budget

 The Tools and Techniques used to create the Project Cost Estimates
are also used to create the Project Budget. Here is a quick reminder of
the four components:

3.2.1 Similar Budgeting: This is a form of Expert


Judgment that uses a Top-Down Approach to predict Costs.
It is generally less accurate than other Budgeting Techniques.

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3.2.2 Parametric Modeling: This Approach uses a


Parametric Model to extrapolate what Costs will be for a
Project (for example, cost/hr and cost/unit).

3.2.3 Bottom-Up Budgeting: This Approach is the most


reliable, though it takes the longest time to create. It starts at
zero and requires each Work Package to be accounted for.

3.2.4 Computerized Tools: The same Software Programs


used in Estimating can help predict the Project Budget with
some accuracy.

3.3 Output of Project’s Cost Budgeting

3.3.1 Creating the Cost Baseline


o A Project’s Cost Baseline shows what is expected to be spent on
the Project. It is usually shown in an S-curve as follows:

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o The idea of the Cost Baseline allows the Project Manager and
Management to predict when the Project will be spending
money and over what time period. The purpose of the Cost
Baseline is to measure and predict Project Performance.

o The figure above “Cost Baselines” shows predicted Project


Cost and Phase Cost Performance.

o Large Projects that have multiple Deliverables may have


multiple Cost Baselines to illustrate the Costs within each Phase.
Additionally, larger Projects may have Cost Baselines to predict
Spending Plans, Cash Flows of the Project, and overall
Project Performance.

o The purpose of a Cost Baseline is to measure Performance,


and a Baseline will predict the expenses over the life of the
Project.

o Any inconsistency early in the predicted Baseline and the Actual


Costs serve as a signal that the Project is slipping.

4. Implementing Project’s Cost


Control

 Cost Control focuses on the Ability of Costs to Change and on the ways
of allowing or preventing Cost Change from happening.

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 When a Cost Change does occur, the Project Manager must document the
change and the reason why the change has occurred and, if necessary,
create a Cost Variance Report.

 Cost Control is concerned with understanding why the Cost Variances


(both good and bad) have occurred. The “why” behind the variances
allows the Project Manager to make appropriate decisions on future
Project Actions. Ignoring the Project Cost Variances may cause the
Project to suffer from Budget Shortages, Additional Risks, or Scheduling
Problems.

 Cost Control allows the Project Manager to deal with the problem, find a
solution, and then act accordingly.

Specifically, Cost Control includes:

o Controlling Causes of Cost Change to ensure the changes are


actually needed

o Controlling and Documenting Cost Changes to the Cost Baseline as


they happen

o Controlling Cost Changes in the Project and their influence on Cost

o Recording Appropriate Cost Changes in the Cost Baseline

o Preventing Unauthorized Changes to the Cost Baseline

o Communicating the Cost Changes to the Proper Stakeholders

o Working to Bring and Maintain Costs within an Acceptable Range

4.1 Inputs to Project’s Cost Control

4.1.1 Cost Baseline:

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The Cost Baseline is the Expected Cost the Project will incur
(deserve). The Cost Baseline is a tool used to measure Project
Performance.

4.1.2 Performance Reports:

These Reports focus on Project Cost Performance, Project Scope,


and Planned Performance versus Actual Performance. The Reports
may vary according to Stakeholder Needs.

4.1.3 Change Requests:

When Changes to the Project Scope are requested, an analysis of


the Associated Costs to complete the Proposed Change is required.
In some instances, such as removing a portion of the
Project Deliverable, a Change Request may reduce the Project
Cost.

4.1.4 Cost Management Plan:

The Cost Management Plan dictates how Cost Variances will be


managed.

4.2 Tools & Techniques of Project’s Cost Control

4.2.1 Creating a Cost Change Control System:

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 Sometimes a Project Manager must add (or remove) Costs from a


Project.
 The Cost Change Control System is a part of the Integrated Cost
Change Control System which documents the procedures to Request,
Approve, and incorporate Changes to Project Costs.
 When a Cost Change enters the System, there is appropriate
Paperwork, a Tracking System, and Procedures the Project Manager
must follow to obtain Approval on the Proposed Change.
 The following figure demonstrates a Typical Workflow for Cost
Change Approval. If a Change gets Approved, the Cost Baseline is
updated to reflect the Approved Changes. If a Request gets denied, the
denial must be documented for future Potential Reference.

Three Phases of Change Management


(from Primavera Expedition)

Phase 1.Investigation 2.Change Impact 3.Resolve Change


Identify Change Tools to
($ & Time)
DOC CIC Initiate EST Tools CO
Type RFI/Answer Change RFP Collect
Sketch PCO PRO
Bulletin COR
Meeting Minutes
Phone Record
DONE Project Project Approving Authority
BY Engineer Manager

A “Cost Change Control System” tracks and documents Cost Change


Issues. The following represents some of Cost Change Documents:

CIC = Change in Condition


RFI = Request for Information
EST = ESTimate
RFP = Request For Proposal
PCO = Proposed Change Order
COR = Change Order Request
CO = Change Order
PRO = Proceed Order

4.2.2 Measuring Project Performance:

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 Earned Value Management (EVM) is the process of measuring


performance of Project Work against Plan to identify Variances. It
can also be useful in predicting future variances and the final Costs
At Completion. It is a System of Mathematical Formulas that
compares Work Performed against Work Planned and measures the
Actual Cost of the Work Performed.

 EVM is an important part of Cost Control as it allows a Project


Manager to predict future variances from the expenses to date
within the Project.

 EVM, in regard to Cost Management, is concerned with the


relationships between three formulas that reflect Project
Performance.

 The following figure demonstrates the relation between these EVM


Values:

Earned Value Management measures Project Performance.

4.2.3 Planned Value (PV):

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Planned Value is the Work scheduled and the Budget authorized to


accomplish that Work.

Example:

If a Project has a Budget of $100,000 and month 6 represents 50%


of the Project Work, the PV for month 6 is $50,000. Planned Value
used to be known as the Budget Cost of Work Scheduled
(BCWS).

4.2.4 Earned Value (EV):

Earned Value is the Physical Work Completed to Date and the authorized
Budget for that Work.

Example:

If a Project has a Budget of $100,000 and the Work Completed to


Date represents 25% of the Entire Project Work, its EV is $25,000.
Earned Value used to be known as the Budgeted Cost of Work
Performed (BCWP).

4.2.5 Actual Cost (AC):

Actual Cost is the actual amount of money the Project has required to
date.

Example:

If a Project has a Budget of $100,000 and $35,000 has been spent


on the Project to Date, the AC of the Project would be $35,000.
Actual Cost used to be known as Actual Cost of Work Performed
(ACWP).

These three values are key information about the Worth of the Project to
Date:

These values will be revisited later.


4.2.6 Additional Planning:

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Planning is an Iterative Process. Throughout the Project, there will be


demands for Additional Planning and an output of Cost Control is one of
those demands.

Consider a Project that must complete by a given date and that also has a
Budget. The balance between the Schedule and the Cost must be kept.

The Project Manager can not assign a large crew to complete the Project
Work if the Budget would not allow it.

The Project Manager must (through planning) get as creative as possible


to figure out an Approach to accomplish the Project without exceeding the
Budget.

The Balance between Cost and Schedule is an ongoing battle (fight).


While it is usually easier to get more time than money, this is not always
the case. Consider deadlines that can not move, or the Company may face
penalties, or a deadline that centers on a tradeshow, or the start of the
school year.

4.2.7 Using Computers:

Project Managers can rely on Project Management Software (Primavera,


MS Project, etc…) and Spreadsheet Programs to assist them in calculating
Actual Costs, Earned Value, and Planned Value.

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4.3 Outputs of Project’s Cost Control --- Cost


Control Results

The Project Manager always does the following:

o Monitor Cost Variances and then understand why Variances


have occurred.

o Update the Cost Baseline as needed based on Approved


Changes.

o Work with the conditions and Stakeholders to prevent


unnecessary Changes to the Cost Baseline.

o Communicate to the Appropriate Stakeholders to discuss


Cost Changes as they occur.

o Maintain Costs within an Acceptable and Agreed Range.

4.3.1 Revising Cost Estimates:

As the Project progresses and more detail come available, there may be a
need to update the Cost Estimates.

A revision to the Cost Estimates requires communication with the key


Stakeholders to share why the Costs were revised.

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4.3.2 Updating the Cost Budget:

Updating the Cost Budget is slightly different than revising a Cost


Estimate.

Cost Budget Updates allow the Cost Baseline to be changed.

The Cost Baseline is the “before Project Snapshot” of what the Total
Project Scope and the Individual WBS Components should cost.

Should the Project Scope grow, as shown here, the Cost will also likely
change to be able to fulfill the new Scope.

If a Project has a drastic (radical) changes due to large changes to the


Project Scope (false assumptions, or new demands from the Customer), it
may be necessary to re-baseline the Project Cost.

Re-baselining is done only in drastic changes. All Historical Information


up to the re-baseline is cleared, and the Project starts fresh.

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4.3.3 Applying Corrective Actions:

Throughout a Project, the Project Manager will apply Corrective Actions.

Corrective Actions are any actions applied to Project Performance to


bring the Project back into position with the Project Plan.

Corrective Actions can be Scheduling Changes, a Shift in Resources, a


Different Approach to completing the Project Work, Any Action to bring
the Project back to its expected level of Performance.

4.3.4 Preparing for the Estimate at Completion:

 The Estimate at Completion (EAC) is a hypothesis of What the Total


Cost of the Project will be. Before the Project begins, the Project Manager
completes an Estimate for the Project Deliverables based on the WBS.

 As the Project progresses, there will be in most Projects some variances


between what the Cost Estimate was and what the Actual Cost is. The
difference between these Estimates is the Variance for the Deliverable.

 EAC is part of the Earned Value Management Approach (EVM). We


have talked about Earned Value, Planned Value, and Actual Costs earlier.

 To complete this discussion on EAC, we well need another formula from


the EVM family. It is the CPI (Cost Performance Index) as follows.

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4.3.5 Calculating the Cost Performance Index (CPI):

CPI is a value that demonstrates how the Project Costs are performing.

CPI is a value that reveals How Much Money the Project is Losing. Or, if
you are an optimist, How Much Money the Project is Making.

Example:

A Project with a CPI of .93 is losing seven cents on the Dollar


(assuming US dollars). Or, for the Optimist, it is making .93 cents
on the Dollar.

The fact of the matter is, a Project with this CPI Value is likely to
be Over Budget because for every Dollar spent, 7 cents evaporates
(vanishes). The following shows the CPI in action:

CPI relates the Work you have accomplished to the amount you have
spent to accomplish it.

A Project with a CPI of .93 means you are spending 1.00 for every .93
Worth of Work Accomplished.

Therefore, a CPI under 1.00 means the Project is Performing Poorly


against the Plan.

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However, a CPI over 1.00 does not necessarily mean that the Project is
Performing Well. It could mean that Estimates were inflated or that
expenditure for equipment is late or sitting in accounts payable and has
not yet been entered into the Project Accounting Cycle.

In summary,

If you do not want to think of the CPI Value as making or losing money,
that is fine too. Just know the CPI Value should be as close to 1.00 as
possible and do not celebrate too loudly if the CPI is greater than 1.00. A
CPI greater than 1.00 may just reflect Poor Estimates rather than an Over-
Performing Project.

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4.3.6 Calculating Estimate at Completion (EAC):

There are many approaches to calculating the EAC:

4.3.7 Experiencing Expected Conditions:

Estimate At Completion = Budget at Completion /Cost Performance


Index

EAC=BAC/CPI

Example:

If the Project’s BAC is $575,000 and the CPI is .91, the EAC for
this Project is $631,868. Those 9 cents on every dollar sure do add
up!

4.3.8 Accounting for Flawed (faulty) Estimates:

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Imagine a Project to Install a New Operating System on 1,000


Workstations.

One of the assumptions the Project Team made was that each Workstation
had the correct hardware to install the Operating System automatically.

As it turns out, this assumption was wrong, and now the Project Team
must change their approach to installing the Operating System.
Exam Watch
Because the assumption to install the Operating System was flawed
(defective), a new Estimate To Complete the Project is needed.

This new Estimate to Complete the Work is known as the “Estimate to


Complete (ETC)”.

The ETC represents how much more money is needed to complete the
Project Work, and its formula is:

ETC=EAC-AC.

In this scenario of a flawed (imperfect) assumption, the Project Manager


will use a slightly different formula to predict the EAC:

EAC = AC +ETC

Example:

If the Project’s Original BAC was $100,000 and the Project Team
had spent $20,000 before realizing the Project Assumption was
flawed (faulty), they have to create a new ETC the remaining work.

Let’s pretend (imagine) the ETC the Project Team arrived at was
$175,000.

The formula EAC = AC+ETC


EAC = $20,000+$175,000
= $195,000.

This is because the Project had spent $20,000, and $175,000 more
is needed to complete the Work.

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4.3.9 Accounting for Anomalies:

Sometimes a Project suffers from Anomalies.

Example:

o Consider a Project to construct a “Wooden Fence Around a Large


Building”.

o One of the Project Team Members made a mistake while installing


the Wooden Fence and reverses the face of the Fencing Material. In
other words, the Material for the outside of the Fence faces the
wrong direction.

o The Project Manager now has to consume Additional Time to


remove the Fence Material, correct the problem, and replace any
Wood that may have been damaged in the incorrect Installation.

o This anomaly likely would not happen again, but it will add Costs
to the Project.

o For these instances, when events happen but the Project Manager
doesn’t expect similar events to happen again, the EAC Formula
should be used:

EAC=AC+BAC-EV. See page 48

o Let’s try this out with our “Fencing Project”:

 The Project’s AC so far was $7,000

 The BAC was $24,500

 The EV is only $2,450, as the Project has barely (just)


started. (EV = %Comp * BAC)

 Therefore, EAC=$7,000+$24,500-$2,450
= $29,050 ---- a costly mistake.

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4.3.10 Closing Out the Project:

As part of Project Closeout, Phase Closeout, or even Project


Cancellation, there must be Identified Processes and Procedures on how
to shut down the Project.

A formal Auditor may be called for to review the Time, Costs,


Materials, and Budget of the Project.

In some instances, a review may happen with Management or the Project


Sponsor to account for the Project Budget and how well Cost Control
was managed within the Project.

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4.3.11 Updating Lessons Learned:

As part of Cost Control, the Project Manager should update the Lessons
Learned document to reflect the decisions behind the actions taken.

For example, the Project Manager should identify:

o Changes to Cost Baseline and why they were Approved

o Corrective Actions and why they were Implemented

o Cost Control Challenges and Issues and how they were Resolved

o Other Cost Control Information that may be beneficial for other


Projects

Summary

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• There are several factors that affect the Project’s Cost:

o The Expense of Labor to complete the Project,

o The Expense of Materials needed to complete the Project, and

o The Expense of the Equipments needed to complete a Project.

• These expenses must be estimated, planned for, and monitored for a


Project to finish on Budget.

• Management and Customers want to know how much a Project is going


to cost so they can determine if the Project is worth doing, if the Project
Deliverable (outputs) will be worth the Cost, and if the Project will be
Profitable.

• The Estimates for Project Costs can come in several forms:

o Similar Estimating: Uses similar historical information to predict


the cost of the current project.

o Parametric Modeling: Uses a parameter, such as cost per metric


ton, to predict project costs.

o Bottom-Up Estimating: Starts from zero and adds the expenses


from bottom-up.

o Top-Down Estimating: Uses a similar Project as a Cost Baseline


and factors in current project conditions to predict costs.

o The Resources needed to complete a Project may be one of the


biggest expenses in the Project’s Budget. The Activities the
Resources complete must be worthy of the Resource’s Time. In
other words, the Project Manager does not want to assign a $125/hr
Engineer to filing Activity that a $15/hr Administrative Assistant is
qualified to do.

o Accurate Assignment of Project Resources to Project Activities


helps prevent waste.

o Projects also have four different kinds of Cost:

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 Direct Costs: These are costs that consumed directly in


the project and cannot be shared with operations or other
Projects.

 Variable Costs: Costs that vary depending on the


conditions within the Project.

 Fixed Costs: Costs that remain the same throughout the


Project.

 Indirect Costs These costs can be shared across


multiple projects that use the same Resources ---such
as Training Room or Equipments.

Key Terms

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 Earned Value (EV): A method of measuring project


performance by comparing the amount of work
planned with that actually accomplished, in order to
determine if cost and schedule performance are as
planned.

 Planned Value (PV)

 Actual Cost (AC)

 Budget At Completion (BAC)

 Estimate At Completion (EAC)

 Schedule Variance (SV)

 Cost Variance (CV)

 Variance At Completion (VAC)

 Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM)

o RAM --- The integration of the WBS and the OBS


(Organizational Breakdown Structure).

o Proper creation of the RAM results from


locating the intersection of the OBS unit that is
assigned responsibility for the work and the
specific WBS element that defines the work to
be performed.

o Example:

 WBS Element : 1.1 Frame


 OBS Element:Frame Shop
 RAM: Mr. I. M. Smart
 Budget: $125,000
 Schedule: Jan – Jun 08

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 Performance Measurement Baseline (PMB)

 Schedule Variance (SV)

o Comparing the EV (the amount originally


budgeted for the work that has been completed
or in-progress) to the PV (the amount budgeted
for the work that was planned to have been
accomplished)

o SV = EV – PV

o A –ve result means less work has been


performed than was planned.

o SV Example:

 PV = $42,000

 EV = $38,000

 AC = $48,000

 SV = EV – PV
= $38,000 - $42,000 = - $4,000

 SV% = SV / PV = -$4,000 / $42,000 = -0.095


= - 9.5%

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 Cost Variance (CV):

o Comparing the amount originally budgeted for


the work completed or in progress (EV) to the
actual costs of that work (AV). That is:
CV = EV – AC

o A –ve CV means more dollars were spent to


accomplish the work than was planned.

o Cost Variance Example:

 PV = $42,000

 EV = $38,000

 AC = $48,000

 CV = EV – AC
= $38.000 - $48,000 = -$10,000

 CV% = CV / EV
= -$10,000 / $38,000
= -26%

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 Cost Performance Indices:

o Cost Performance Index (CPI) = EV / AC

o CPI Example:

 PV = $42,000
 EV = $38,000
 AC = $48,000
 CPI = EV / AC = $38,000 / $48,000 = 0.79

That is $0.79 worth of work was actually done


for each
$1.00 spent.

o Schedule Performance Index (SPI) = EV / PV

o SPI Example:

 PV = $42,000
 EV = $38,000
 AC = $48,000
 SPI = EV / PV = $38,000 / $42,000 = 0.90

That is $0.90 worth of work has been done for


each $1.00 worth of work that was planned to
be done.

 Estimate At Completion (EAC):

o After Variance Analysis, the estimated cost at


completion is determined

o EAC Example:

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 BAC = $80,000
 CPI = 0.79
 EAC = BAC / CPI = $80,000 / 0.79 =
$201,265

 Variance At Completion (VAC):

o VAC Example:

 BAC = $80,000

 EAC = $201,265

 VAC = BAC – EAC


= $80,000 - $101,265 =
$21,265

Based on past performance, project planned


budget will exceed by $21,265.

 To Complete Performance Index (TCPI):

o Work Remaining / Cost Remaining

o TCPI = (BAC – EV) / (EAC – AC)

= ($80,000 - $38,000) / ($101,000 -


$48,000)
= $42,000 / $53,000
= 1.4

 Example:

PV EV AC EAC BAC
100 125 75 600 560
125 100 100 850 800

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75 75 75 700 560
100 75 100 570 600

 Problem:

o Given:
 BAC = $40K
 EV = $20K
 PV = $28K
 AC = $26K

o Calculate:
 % of Work Scheduled
 % of Budget Spent
 % of Work Accomplished
 Cost Variance
 Schedule Variance

 Solution:

 % of Work Scheduled = PV / BAC = $28K /


$40K
= 70%

 % of Budget Spent = AC / BAC = $26K /


$40K
= 65

 % of Work Accomplished = EV / BAC = $20K


/ $40K

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= 0.50

 Cost Variance = EV – AC = $20K -


$26K
= -$6K

 Schedule Variance = EV – PV = $20K -


$28K
= - $8K

Self Test (Reference 2)


1. Which one of the following best describes analogous estimating?

A. Regression analysis
B. Bottom-up estimating
C. Less accurate
D. More accurate

2. You are the project manager for GHG Project. You are about to create the
cost estimates for the project. Which input to this process will help you
the most?

A. Parametric modeling
B. WBS
C. Project scope
D. Requirements document

3. You are the project manager for the JKH Project. You have elected to use
parametric modeling in your cost estimating for the project. Which one of
the following is an example of parametric modeling?

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A. $750 per ton


B. Historical information from a similar project
C. Estimates built bottom-up based on the WBS
D. Estimates based on top-down budgeting

4. You are the project manager for a new technology implementation


project. Management has requested that your estimates be as exact as
possible. Which one of the following methods of estimating will provide
the most accurate estimate?

A. Top-down estimating
B. Top-down budgeting
C. Bottom-up estimating
D. Parametric modeling

5. Your company has been hired to install the tile in 1,000 hotel rooms. All
rooms will be identical in nature and will require the same amount of
materials. You calculate the time to install the tile in each hotel room as
six hours. The cost for labor for each room is calculated at $700. Your
Project Sponsor disagrees with your labor estimate. Why?

A. You haven’t completed one hotel room yet so you don’t know
how long the work will actually take.
B. You have not factored in all of the effort applied to the work.
C. You have not considered the law of diminishing returns.
D. You have not considered the learning curve.

6. You are the project manager for a construction project to build 17 cabins.
All of the cabins will be identical in nature. The contract for the project is
set at a fixed cost, the incentive being the faster the project work is
completed, the more the profitable the job. Management has requested
that you study the work method to determine a faster, less costly, and
better method to complete the project. This is an example of which one of
the following?

A. Time constraint
B. Schedule constraint
C. Value analysis
D. Learning curve

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66

7. You are the project manager for a technical implementation project. The
customer has requested that you factor in the after-the-project costs, such
as maintenance and service. This is an example of which one of the
following?

A. Life cycle costs


B. Scope creep
C. Project spin off
D. Operations
(The after-the-project costs are known as the life cycle cost)

8. Which one of the following provides the least accurate in estimating?

A. Rough order of magnitude


B. Budget estimate
C. Definitive estimate
D. WBS estimate
(The rough order of magnitude is the least accurate approach, as it may vary from
-25% to +75%.)
9. Which one of the following is true?

A. The cost management plan controls how change management


affects the BAC.
B. The cost management plan controls how cost variances will be
managed.
C. The cost management plan controls how the project manager may
update the cost estimates.
D. The cost management plan controls how the BAC may be adjusted

10. You have just started a project for a manufacturer. Project team members
report they are 30 percent done with the project. You agree with their
completion status but do not change any of the progress in your report to
the customer. This is an example of which one of the following?

A. 50/50 rule
B. 0/100 rule
C. Percent Complete Rule
D. Poor project management
(This completion method allows for 0%credit on an activity until it is 100%
complete)

11. You and your project team are about to enter a meeting to determine
project costs. You have elected to use bottom-up estimating and will base

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your estimates on the WBS. Which one of the following is not an attribute
of bottom-up estimating?

A. People doing the work create the estimates.


B. Creates a more accurate estimate.
C. More expensive to do than other methods.
D. Less expensive to do than other methods.

12. What is the present value if the organization expects to make $100,000
four years from now and the annual interest rate is 6%?

A. $100,000
B. $58,000
C. $25,000
D. Zero
{PV = FV/(1+R)n [FV=future value; R=interest rate; n=number of time periods]}

13. Youare the project manager for the construction of a new hotel. Before
you begin the cost budgeting process, what is needed?

A. Costs estimates and project schedule


B. Cost estimates and supporting detail
C. EAC and BAC
D. Parametric model used to arrive at the costs submitted
(B, C, & D are all not inputs to cost budgeting)

14. Youare the project manager of the MNJ Project. Your project is falling
behind schedule and you have already spent $130,000 of your $150,000
budget. What do you call the $130,000?

A. Planned value
B. Present value
C. Sunk costs
D. Capital expenditure
(Sunk Costs are monies that have been spent)

15. You are the project manager of the JHD Project. Your project will cost
your organization $250,000 to complete over the next eight months. Once
the project is completed, the deliverables will begin earning the company
$3,500 per month. The time to recover the costs of the project is which
one of the following?

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A. Not enough information to know


B. Eight months
C. 72 months
D. 5 years
(This is calculated by dividing the ROI of $3,500 per month into the project cost)

16. You are the project manager for the consulting company. Your company
has two possible projects to manage, but they can only choose one.
Project KJH is worth $17,000, while Project ADS is worth $22,000.
Management elects to choose Project ADS. The opportunity cost of this
choice is which one of the following?

A. $5,000
B. $17,000
C. $22,000
D. Zero, as project ADS is worth more than Project KJH
(The opportunity cost is the amount of the project that was not chosen)

17. You are the project manager for the CSR Training Project, and 21,000
customer service reps (sales representatives) are invited to attend the
training session. Attendance is optional. You have calculated the costs of
the training facility, but the workbook expense depends on how many
students register to the class. For every 5,000 workbooks created the cost
is reduced a percentage of the original printing cost. The workbook
expense is an example of which one of the following?

A. Fixed costs
B. Parametric costs
C. Variable costs
D. Indirect costs
(The more students that register to take the class the more the cost of the books will
be)

18. You are the project manager of a construction project scheduled to last 24
months. You have elected to rent a piece of equipment for the duration of
a project, even though you will need the equipment only periodically
throughout the project. The costs of the equipment rental per month are
$890. This is an example of ________________.

A. Fixed costs
B. Parametric costs
C. Variable costs
D. Indirect costs

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19. Youare the project manager for the Hardware Inventory Project. You
have a piece of equipment that was purchased recently for $10,000 and is
expected to last five years in production. At the end of the five years the
expected worth of the equipment is $1,000. Using straight-line
deprecation, what is the amount that can be written off each year?

A. Zero
B. $1,000
C. $1,800
D. $2,000
[The straight-line depreciation takes the purchase value of the item, minus the
salvage price of the item, divided by the number of time periods. That is ($10,000 -
$1,000)/5 = $1,800 per year.]

20. You are the project manager of the LKG Project. The project has a budget
of $290,000 and is expected to last 3 years. The project is now 10%
complete and is on schedule. What is the BAC?

A. $29,000
B. $290,000
C. $96,666
D. $9,666
(The BAC is the budget at completion, which is $290,000)

21. Your project has a budget of $130,000 and is expected to last 10 months,
with the work and budget spread evenly across all months. The project is
now in month 3, the work is on schedule, but you have spent $65,000 of
the project budget. What is your variance?

A. $65,000
B. $39,000
C. $26,000
D. $64,999
(This is calculated by subtracting the actual costs of $65,000 from the earned value of
$39,000. EV is calculated by taking the 30% completion of the project against the
BAC. The project is considered to be 30% complete because it is slated (scheduled)
for 10 months, is currently in month 3, and is on schedule.)

22. You are the project manager of the Carpet Installation Project for new
building. Your BAC is $600,000. You are now 40% done with the

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project, though your plan called for you to be 45% done with the work at
this time. What is your earned value?

A. $240,000
B. $270,000
C. $30,000
D. ?$30,000
(The earned value is calculated by multiplying the % of completion, 40%, by the BAC,
which is %600,000, for a value of $240,000.)

23. You are the project manager of the Carpet Installation Project for new
building. Your BAC is $600,000. You have spent $270,000 of your
budget. You are now 40% done with the project, though your plan called
for you to be 45% done with the work at this time. What is your CPI?

A. 100
B. 89
C. .89
D. .79
(The EV of $240,000 is divided by the AC of $270,000 for a value of .89.)

24. You are the project manager for the Facility Installation Project. The
project calls for 1500 units to be installed into a new baseball stadium.
Your team wants to know why you have not assigned the same amount of
time for the last 800 units as you had for the first 500 units. You tell them
it is because of the learning curve. Which one of the following best
describes this theory?

A. Production increases as workers become more efficient with the


installation procedure.
B. Efficiency increases as workers become more familiar with the
installation procedure.
C. Costs decrease as workers complete more of the installation
procedure.

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D. Time decreases as workers complete more of the installation


procedure in the final phases of a project.

25. Of the following, which one is the most reliable source of


information for estimating project costs?

A. Historical information from a recently completed project


B. An SME’s opinion
C. Recollections of team members that have worked on similar
projects
D. Vendor’s white papers

Practical Part

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Scenario 1:

 The Project Team has determined the Types of Skills (Roles) required
for completing the Project Activities. The Project Team has also
estimated the effort needed to accomplish the work.

 Specific Resources have not yet been assigned to the Project. Roles can
be used as temporary placeholders for future Resource Assignments. A
Role represents a Skill or Job defined in the Application. View the Roles
Dictionary to become familiar with the Skill Sets that have been defined.

 Resource Management is divided into 3 distinctive parts:

1. Defining Resources in the Resource Pool:


Defining Resources has already been completed by the
Project Office. Only specific information about specific
Resources that have been defined has to review at the
Corporation.

2. Assigning Resources to Activities:

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Before Assigning Resources, the Project Manager must


negotiate with the Resource Manager about the Resources
Availability. Once the negotiation has occurred, it is the time
to assign the Resources to the appropriate Activities.

3. Analyzing Resource Allocation:

After Resource Assignment, we can start analyzing


Resource Allocation. In this case, the Resources Over-
Allocation (Resources that are assigned to more work than
they can perform) must be resolved.
During Resource Allocation Analysis, a review of the
Projects’ Cost has to make to ensure that the Project is
within Budgetary Constraints.

Defining Roles & Resources:

Lesson 13, Training Material, Course 102


PRIMAVERA

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Assigning Roles:

Lesson 14, Training Material, Course 102


PRIMAVERA

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Assigning Resources & Costs:

Lesson 15, Training Material, Course 102


PRIMAVERA

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Analyzing Resources:

Lesson 16, Training Material, Course 102


PRIMAVERA

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Scenario 2:

 Project Manager is responsible for evaluating the Project against the


triple constraints:

1. Schedule,
2. Resources, and
3. Cost.

He is also responsible to ensure that the Project Requirements as


outlined in the Scope Document are being met.

 Initially, the Project Manager should verify that the Project is scheduled
to finish on time. If the Project delays, he has to make adjustments to the
Project Plan by analyzing the Resources and resolve the over-allocation.

 Once the Schedule & Resources Adjustments have been made, validate
the Project’s Cost. The Project’s Cost may have changes due to the
Adjustments of Resources.

 Once the Project is optimized, baseline the Project. Baseline is a copy of


a Project that can be used to compare against the Current Project to
evaluate progress.

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 Once the Baseline has been created, move to the Execution & Control
Process.

 Information must be distributed to the Teem Members performing the


work on the Project. Then the Work Accomplished must be reported
back to the Project Manager. The Project Manager gathers information
from the Teem Members and enters the data directly into Primavera to
reflect the progress in the Project up to the Data Date.

Optimizing the Project Plan:

Lesson 17, Training Material, Course 102


PRIMAVERA

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Baselining the Project Plan:

Lesson 18, Training Material, Course 102


PRIMAVERA

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Project Execution & Control:

Lesson 19, Training Material, Course 102


PRIMAVERA

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Scenario 3:

 As a Project Manager, you must prepare for a monthly Project Status


Meeting, where Project Engineers report out on the progress of their
works.

 The Project Manager needs to create a number of reports to distribute at


the meeting to the Project Executive Committee.

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Reporting Performance:

Lesson 20, Training Material, Course 102


PRIMAVERA

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CASE STUDY

Building A 2nd Floor Of A Villa

Background:

1. You have been assigned the responsibility for scheduling and


monitoring the progress of building the 2nd floor of a villa.

2. Major Engineering Design tasks have been completed.

3. The project consists of 29 major activities. The following list of


project activities includes the basic information which you need to schedule
and track the principle activities in the project.

4. While you are in charge of the scheduling and implementing of the


overall project, you will receive monthly reports of project implementation
progress from the construction site supervisors.

5. On the basis of monthly reports from the project site, you will
monitor the progress of project execution.

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6. In carrying out your assignment, you are aware that the OWNER
is anxious to open the project as early as possible.

This Case Study will cover the following points:

1. Creating Project Calendar(s),

2. Creating Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) with Responsible


Managers Assignment.

3. Entering project Activities with their Duration and


Relationships.

4. Scheduling & Assigning Constraints.

5. Establishing Project & Activity Codes which may determine


Project #, Project Manager, Responsibilities, Locations, Area,
Phases, Milestones, etc….

6. Establishing Roles & Resources Dictionaries and Assign them to


Activities as needed to execute the Project which may be Labor,
Material, Nonlabor (Equipments), and Money (Expenses).

7. Use the Cost Accounts feature to determine every item cost in


the Project.

8. Analyze Project Resources, Optimize the Project Plan,


Baselining the Project Plan, Execute, and Control (Update).

9. Producing different set of Reports, for example:

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. Tabular Schedules,

. Bar Charts,

. Time-Scaled Logic Diagrams,

. Project Network Diagrams,

. Resource and Cost Reports:

.. Project Labor, Nonlabor(Equipments), Material,


and Expenses Costs,

.. Project Cash-Flow, etc….


1. Project’s Calendar(s):

Create a Project called Case_01 --- Creating Calendar called “Case


Cal”

Planning Unit: Day

Workdays/week: 5

Week Start on: Sunday

Project Start: 01-JAN-11

Holidays:

o 07-JAN-11
o 25-JAN-11, (28-JAN..31-JAN & Exception 30-JAN..31-JAN-11)
o 04-APR .. 09-APR & Exception 07-APR..09-APR-11)
o 01-MAY-11
o 18-JUN-11
o 23-JUL-11
o 06-OCT-11
Hint:

 Calendar is a Global or Project Data.

 Create a New Global Calendar named for example, Case Cal


------ 5 D/W [SUN] with Holidays.

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 There are no Repeated Holidays.

 Exception affects only on the Weekends days or the holidays from an


“Inherited Holidays & Exceptions from Global Calendar”.

 To assign the created calendar to the project:

o Highlight the Project in the “Projects” window.

o In the Project Details, click “Default” tab.

o Assign the created Calendar from the “Calendar” field.

2. Creating WBS of the Project:

Background:

The Project Structure has been defined for this Project. We now need
to add the WBS elements and assign Responsible Managers.

The Project will be named Case_02 – Creating WBS.


From “Projects” window, use “Edit -- Copy/Paste” & change the name
of the new Project….

WBS Code WBS Name Responsible


Manager (OBS)
Case_02.Admin Project Administrator
Case _02.Prep Preparation for the
Project & Analysis
Case _02.Concrete Concrete Works
Case _02.Concrete.Columns Columns
Case _02.Concrete.SlabStairs Slab and Stairs
Case _02.BlockWorking Block Working
Case _02.WoodenWorks Wooden Works
Case _02.Electrical Electrical Works
Case _02.Sanitary Sanitary Works INP_OBS
Case _02.Isolation Isolation Works
Case _02.IntPlastering Interior Plastering

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Case _02.Painting Painting Works


Case _02.FrontPlastering Frontal Plastering
(Facades)
Case _02.Flooring Flooring Works
Case _02.Ceramic Ceramic Works
Case _02.HO Hand Over

Hint:

 To make “Indent/Outdent” Active:


o Click “Layout Option Bar/Group and Sort By/WBS”
o Check the “ID/Code” box.

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3. Creating Project’s Codes:


(Enterprise / Project Codes…)

The Project will be named Case_03 – Creating Project Codes.


Use “Edit--Copy/Paste” & change the name of the new Project….

Project Code Code Value Code Description

Project # Case Building 2nd Floor of a House

Project Location AR Air Port Road

Project Manager Hesham Hesham Mostafa

Project Region Heliopolis Heliopolis, Cairo

 A Project Code Value can be associated with one User.

 To Create Project Codes:

 Project Codes is a Global Data.

 Create New Project Codes Hierarchy & Globally from


“Enterprise/Project Codes”, or

Assign Project Code Values to the existing Project Codes (our


case).

o So, Assign Project Codes to the Project (Click “Projects” & use
“Codes” tab from “Project Details”).

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4. Adding Activities
The WBS and Project’s Calendar have been defined and approved for the
Building of 2nd Floor in a Villa.

The next step is to finish adding Activities to the Project. You will also add
a Notebook topic and Steps to perform System Requirements Analysis.

Project will be named Case_04 – Adding Activities.


Use “Copy/Paste” & change the name of the new Project….

Hint:
 All of the following Activities are of Duration Type “Fixed Duration
& Units” and “Activity Type: Task Dependent” except for the 1st
Activity (ADM2) which is of Activity Type “Level of Effort”

 PD = Planned Duration ** = Level of Effort Type

WBS Activity Activity Name PD S.No.


Code ID

Case_04.Admn ADM2 Project Administration ** 1

Case_04.Prep PRP2 Preparing Project Requirements & 10d 2


Analysis ‫التجهيز لبدء العمل‬

CO22C100 FormWork (Columns) 7d 3


‫اعمال شد النجارة للعمدة‬.
CO22C200 R.F.T (Columns) ‫رص الحديد‬ 4d 4
‫للعمده‬
Case_04. CO22C300 Cast-in-place Concrete (Columns) 3d 5
Concrete. ‫صب الخرسانة المسلحة‬
Columns ‫للعمدة‬
CO22C400 Curing Time for Columns 5d 6
‫اعمال المعالجة للعمدة‬
Case_04. CO22S100 FormWork (Slab/ٍStairs) 10d 7
Concrete. ‫شد النجارة المسلحة للسقف‬
‫والسللم‬
SlabStairs
CO22S200 R.F.T (Slab/Stairs) ‫رص الحديد‬ 7d 8
‫للسقف‬
‫والسللم‬
CO22S300 Cast-in-Place (Slab/Stairs) 3d 9
‫صب الخرسانة المسلحة‬
‫للسقف والسللم‬

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CO22S400 Curing Time & Removal of 10d 10


FormWork for Slab/Stairs
‫ فك الشدة‬+ ‫اعمال المعالجة‬
‫الخشبية‬
Case_04. BLO2 100 Block Working thick 25 cm 12d 11
BlockWorking ‫ سم‬25 ‫أعمال مباني سمك‬
BLO2 200 Block Working thick 12 cm 4d 12
‫ سم‬12 ‫أعمال مباني سمك‬
WOD2 100 Windows & Doors Sub-Frames 7d 13
Case_-04. Installation
‫تركيب حلوق البواب‬
WoodenWorks
‫والشبابيك‬
WOD2 200 Windows & Doors Installation 10d 14
‫تركيب البواب والشبابيك‬
ELE2 100 Electrical Conduits 7d 15
‫تركيب مواسير الكهرباء في‬
‫الحوائط‬
Case_04. ELE2 200 Electrical Wires 14d 16
Electrical ‫ادخال السلك في المواسير‬
‫الكهربية‬
ELE2 300 Electrical Switches Lighting Fix. 14d 17
‫تركيبات كهربية نهائية‬
SAN2 100 Sanitary Pipes ‫تركيب مواسير‬ 20d 18
‫الزهر‬
SAN2 200 Potable Water Piping Circuits 9d 19
.. ‫تركيب مواسير الشرب‬
Case_04.Sanitary ‫ سباكة‬..
SAN2 300 Install of Sanitary Fixtures 6d 20
.. ‫تركيب الحواض والحنفيات‬
‫ سباكة‬..
Case_04. ISO2 100 Bathrooms Proofing 2d 21
Isolation ‫اعمال العزل للحمامات‬

INP2 100 Internal Plastering for Walls & 20d 22


Slabs ‫البياض الداخلي للحوائط‬
Case_04. ‫والسقف‬
IntPlastering INP2 200 TRATZO Plastering height 2m 8d 23
‫عادة ما‬.. ‫م‬2 ‫سفل بارتفاع‬
‫يكون بالممرات‬
PAI2 100 Painting Preparation Layers 6d 24
Case_04.Painting ‫اعمال البطانة للدهانات‬
PAI2 200 Painting Layers 12d 25
‫اعمال‬
‫الدهانات النهائية‬

Case_04. Frontal Plastering


FRP2 100 ‫ بياض الواجهات‬21d 26

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FrontPlastering

Case_04.Flooring FLO2 100 Mosaic Tiles dim 40*40 cm 10d 27


40*40 ‫تركيب بلط‬
‫سم‬
Case_04.Ceramic CER2 100 Ceramic Working 4d 28
‫تركيب السراميك للحوائط‬
‫والسقف‬
Case_04.HO END2 Hand Over ‫ تسليم‬10d 29
‫الدور الثاني‬

 Add a Purpose Notebook topic to Activity “PRP2” as follows:

o ِ ssign “Customer Problem” and add the following Notebook:


A
“Participate in Analyzing User Input provided by the Acquirer to
gain an understanding of User Needs. This input may take the form
of Need Statements, Surveys, Interviews, or other User Feedback.”

 Add the following Steps to Activity PRP2:

o Identify Required States and Modes

o Define System Requirements

o Perform Requirements Tracing

o Document Requirements

5. Creating Activities Relationship*

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Background:

Now that the Activities have been entered, Relationships need to be


established.
Use the information from the table below to create relationships between
the Activities.

The Project will be named Case _05 – Creating Relationships.

Activity Activity Name Successor Relation Lag


ID Type

ADM2* END2 FF 0

BLO2 100 WOD2 100 SS 8


BLO2 200 WOD2 100 FS 0

CER2 100 PAI2 100 FS 0

CO22C100 CO22C200 SS 4
CO22C200 CO22C300 FS 0
CO22C300 CO22C400 FS 0
CO22C400 CO22S100 SS 3

CO22S100 CO22S200 FF 2
CO22S200 CO22S300 FS 0
CO22S300 CO22S400 FS 0
CO22S400 BLO2 100 FS 0
CO22S400 BLO2 200 FS 0

ELE2 100 INP2 100 FS 0


ELE2 100 SAN2 100 FS 0
ELE2 200 PAI2 100 FS 0
ELE2 300 END2 FS 0

FLO2 100 PAI2 100 FS 0

FRP2 100 SAN2 300 FS 0

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INP2 100 INP2 200 FS 0


INP2 200 ELE2 200 FS 0
INP2 200 FLO2 100 FS 0

ISO2 100 CER2 100 FS 0

PAI2 100 FRP2 100 FS 0


PAI2 200 ELE2 300 FS 0

PRP2 CO22C100 FS 0

SAN2 100 SAN2 200 FS 0


SAN2 200 ISO2 100 FS 0
SAN2 300 WOD2 200 FS 0

WOD2 100 ELE2 100 FS 0


WOD2 200 PAI2 200 FS 0

• The “Level of Effort” Activity (ADM2*) requires both a


Predecessor and a Successor.

o Predecessor: Start-to-Start relationship with PRP2 Activity


with 1 day of Lag.

o Successor: Finish-to-Finish relationship with END2 Activity.

6. Project Scheduling

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Background:

Having entered Activities, Duration, and Relationships for the Project,


You are now ready to schedule the Project. Open the Project Case-06 –
Scheduling and schedule the Project and view the “Schedule Log” of the
Project’s Statistics.

The Project will be named Case_06 – Scheduling.


Use “Copy/Paste” & change the name of the new Project….

Question:

 Use the “Schedule Log” to answer the following questions:

7. How many activities are in the Project? ________________

8. How many relationships are in the Project? _____________

9. How many activities do not have Predecessors and/or


Successors (Open Ends) in the Project? ______ _______

10. What is the Latest Early Finish Date for the Project? _____

11. How many Critical Activities in the Project? ____________

Hint:

 Press “Schedule” icon

 Press “View Log” to see Schedule Report.

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2. Creating Activity Codes Dictionary:

The Project will be named CASE_07 – Creating Activity Codes Dictionary.

No Act. Code Name/ Code Code Title


Description Value
1 Case_Resp AHMED Resp of Reinforcement Works & Others
Responsibility
AMR Resp of Electrical Works & Others

NOHA Resp of Finishing Works & Others


2 Case_Area AR Air Port Road, Heliopolis, Cairo
Area/Location
3 Case_Mile E MileStone for Electrical Works
MileStone C MileStone for Concrete
P MileStone for Painting Works
S MileStone for Sanitary Works
4 Case_Type1 ADM Project Administration
Type of Work 1 BLO Block Works
CER Ceramic Tiles
CO2 Reinforcement Concrete(RFT)
ELE Electrical Works
END Hand Over
FLO Flooring Works
FRP Frontal Plastering
INP Internal Plastering
ISO Isolation Works
PAI Painting Works
SAN Sanitary Works
PRP Preparation for the Project
WOD Wooden Works
5 Case_Floor# 1 First Floor
Floor Number 2 Second Floor
6 Case_ColSlab C
Columns/Slab&Stairs S
7 Case_Type2 100
Type of Work 2 200
300
400

 Activity Codes here will be created on the Global-Level. !!!!!


 Open the Project.
 Click “Enterprise/Activity Codes…”, a “Primavera” Alarm window displays.
 Click “OK”
 Choose “Global”.
 Click “Modify”
 Click “Add”
 Continue…

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3. Assigning Activity Codes: (Activities Sorted Alphabetically)

The Project will be named Case_08 – Assigning Activity Codes.

Case_
A M T Col
No Activity Activity Name PD Resp r i y S …
ID e l p l
a e 1 a
b
01 ADM2 Project Administration --- AHMED AR
02 BLO2 100 Block Work thick 25 cm 12 NOHA AR
03 BLO2 200 Block Work thick 12 cm 4 NOHA AR
04 CER2 100 Ceramic Work (Walls & 4 NOHA AR
Slabs)
05 CO22C100 Form Work Columns 7 AHMED AR C CO2 C
06 CO22C200 R.F.T Columns 4 AHMED AR C CO2 C
07 CO22C300 Cast-in-Place Concrete 3 AHMED AR C CO2 C
Columns
08 CO22C400 Curing Time for Columns 5 AHMED AR C CO2 C
09 CO22S100 Form Work (Slabs & 11 AHMED AR C CO2 S
Stairs)
10 CO22S200 R.F.T (Slabs & Stairs) 7 AHMED AR C CO2 S
11 CO22S300 Cast-in-Place (Slabs & 3 AHMED AR C CO2 S
Stairs)
12 CO22S400 Curing Time & Removal of 10 AHMED AR C CO2 S
FormWork for Slab/Stairs
13 END2 Hand Over 10 NOHA AR
14 ELE2 100 Electrical Conduits 7 AMR AR E
15 ELE2 200 Electrical Wires 14 AMR AR E
16 ELE2 300 Electrical Switches 14 AMR AR E
Lighting Fix.
17 FLO2 100 Mosaic Tiles Dim 40*40 10 NOHA AR
cm
18 FRP2 100 Frontal Plastering 21 NOHA AR
19 INP2 100 Internal Plastering for 20 NOHA AR
Walls & Stairs
20 INP2 200 TRATZO Plastering 8 NOHA AR
Height 2m
21 ISO2 100 Bathrooms Proofing 2 AHMED AR
22 PAI2 100 Painting Preparation 6 NOHA AR P
Layers
23 PAI2 200 Final Painting Layers 12 NOHA AR P
24 SAN2 100 Sanitary Pipes 20 NOHA AR S
25 SAN2 200 Potable Water Piping 9 NOHA AR S
Circuits

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26 SAN2 300 Installation of Sanitary 6 NOHA AR S


Fixtures
27 PRP2 Preparing Project 10 AHMED AR
Requirements & Analysis
28 WOD2 100 Windows & Doors Sub- 7 NOHA AR
Frames Installation
29 WOD2 200 Doors & Windows 10 NOHA AR
Installation

* Activities here are sorted alphabetically.


** Note: You can sort them by ES and TF.
*** MileStone here does not mean Activity MileStome. It is used for example to group
Activities.

Questions Related to Activity Codes:

1. Display all activities of RFT.


 Check that the Code Case_Type1 is assigned to the activities: CO22C100 ..
CO22S400.
 Create and execute a Filter: Where “Case_Type1 = CO2”

2. Display all Activities related to Eng Ahmed & Columns Only.


 Do not forget to assign the Activity Code “Case_ColSlab” to the corresponding
Activities.

3. Display all Activities of Columns.

4. Display all Activities of Slab & Stairs.

5. Display any Activities of Eng. Ahmed or Amr.

6. Display all Activities of Eng. Ahmed and Amr.

7. Display all Activities in 2nd Floor & RFT (i.e., CO2…activities)

8. Create Schedule Report with ES < 01-MAR-09 and Eng. Ahmed

9. …etc

Hint: The following Layout comes from:


o “Layout Option Bar/Group and Sort/Group By ---- Case_Resp
o Click “ID/Code” box

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4. Resources Management
The Project will be named CASE_09 – Resource Breakdown Structure.

Resources Breakdown Structure (RBS)


Root: Case_RBS
 LaborCase ------ Labor of Case_RBS
o Carpenter
o Steel.Men
o Con.Labor
o Ord.Labor
o Bric.Lay
o Door.Carp
o Plas.Men
o Plumber
o Tile.Men Resources
o Iso.Men
o Cer.Men
o Paint.Men
o Plumber-1
o Front.Plaster
o Light.Fixturer
o Removal
o TRAT.Plaster.Men
o . . .
 EquipmentsCase ------ Equipments of Case_RBS
o Conc.Mix
o Up.Crane Resources
o . . .
 MaterialsCase ------ Materials of Case_RBS
o R.F.T
o Cement
o Sand
o Gravel
o Water.Price
o Brick.Mat
o Gypsum
o Paint.Mat
o San.Pipe
o WhiteCem Resources
o Iron.Pip
o Mosaic
o Isolation
o San.Fix
o Mos.Door

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o Light.Fixation
o Ord.Tiles
Now,

 Click “Enterprise/Resources”.

 Click the “Display Option” bar.

 Choose “Group and Sort By/Default”.

 Press “Add” in the “Command” bar

o Add the Root of the RBS:


Resource ID: Case_RBS
Name: Case Study Resources

o Under the Root Resource ID (Case_RBS), “Add” the 2nd Levels.


For example:
Case_RBS. LaborCase
Case_RBS.EqupmentsCase
Case_RBS.MaterialsCase

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 Hint: Creating Resources’ Units of Measure

 You can establish the Resource’s Units of Measure (to be used with
Materials Resources) as follows:

o Click “Admin/Admin Categories…”

o Click “Units of Measure” button, the “Admin Categories”


displays.

o Click “Add”.

o Write the “Unit Abbreviation” & “Unit Name” for the


required Units of Measure.

o For our Case Study, we have the following Units of Measures:

SN Unit Unit Name


Abbreviation
01 Ton Ton
02 Day Day
03 CM Cubic Meter
04 SM Square Meter
05 LM Long Meter
06 Part Part
07 Each Each

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 After establishing Units of Measure, You can select the Unit of


Measure when assigning the Resources to Activities in the Activities
window.

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5. Creating Resources Dictionary

The Project will be named Case_10 – Resource Dictionary.

“Add” the coming Resources for each corresponding RBS Items…

A) LaborCase (People)*

Hint: Do not forget to assign the Default Project Calendar (It should be better to be
Global Calendar. It is called in our case: Case Cal- 5 D/W [SUN] with Holidays) to the
different Resources except when there are Resource Calendars…

NO RESOURCE/ Def. Max. Price/


DISCRIPTION Units Units Unit ($)
/Time /Time
(h/d) (h/d) ($/d)
01 Administer 1h/d 1h/d 50/h
02 Plumber ‫ طقم‬-- ‫سباك‬ 8/d 24/d 23/d
Crew(1 Blumber+ 1 Assistant)
03 Bric.Lay ‫بنآ‬ 8/d 32/d 75/d
Crew(8 B.L +2 Mortar + 2 Handling)
04 Carpentr ‫النجارين‬ 8/d 80/d 25/d
Crew(Carpenter + Assistant)
05 Cer.Men ‫متخصص تركيب سيراميك‬ 8/d 16/d 28/d
Crew(1 Chief + 1 Assistant)
06 Con.Labor ‫الطبلية‬ 8/d 16/d 300/d
Crew(20 Workers)
07 Door.Carp ‫نجار باب و شباك‬ 8/d 56/d 28/d
Crew(1 Carpenter + 1 Assistant)
08 Front.Plaster ‫ واجهات‬--- ‫بياض المحارة‬ 8/d 32/d 60/d
Crew(2 Palstmen + 2 Assistant + 1 Worker)
09 Iso.Men 8/d 16/d 25/d
Crew(1 Chief + 2 Assistant)
10 Ord.Labor 8/d 136/d 20/d
Ordinary Labor
11 Paint.Men ‫النقاشين‬ 8/d 16/d 100/d
Crew(4 Painters + 2 Assistants)
12 Plas.Men ‫متخصص بياض‬ 8/d 40/d 25/d
Crew(1 Plaster Man + 1 Mortar)
13 Removal 8/d 40/d 20/d
Removal of FormWork to Upper Level

14 Steel.Men ‫الحدادين‬ 8/d 32/d 70/d


Crew(2 St. Cut. + 2 St. Erection + 3 Assist.)
15 Tile.Men ‫المبلطين‬ 8/d 16/d 130/d

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Tile Men for Mosaic Flooring)


16 TRAT.Plaster.Men ‫المبيضين‬ 8/d 16d 50/d
Crew(2 Plastermen + 2 Mortar) TRATZO Plaster Men.
17 PM 8/d 16d 300/d
Project Manager

Data to be entered in the “Resource Dictionary”

B) EquipmentsCase - NonLabor

NO RESOURCE/ Def. Max. Price/

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DISCRIPTION Units Units Unit of


/Time /Time Time
(h/d) (h/d) ($/d)
1 Conc.Mix ‫الخلطة الخرسانية‬ 8/d 16/d 400/d
Concrete Mixer used for R.F.T , P.C *
* (P.C = Plain concrete)

2 Up.Crane ‫ونش لرفع الطوب‬ 8/d 8/d 50/d


Up. Lift Crane used for Bricks

C) MaterialsCase
NO RESOURCE/ Unit of Def. Max. Price/
DISCRIPTION Measure Units Units/ Unit
/Time Time ($/U)
01 Brick.Mat ‫الطوب‬ SM 180/d 6
Brick material thickness 12 cm
01d Brick.Mat ‫الطوب‬ SM 180/d 12
Brick material thickness 25 cm
02 Cement Ton 10/d 8/d 380
Cement
03 Ceramic SM 50/d 25
Ceramic Dim 20*20 cm
04 Gravel ‫زلط‬ CM 60/d 22
Gravel for Different Tasks
05 Gypsum ‫جيبس‬ Ton 1/d 108
Gypsum for different Tasks
06 Insulation ‫المادة العازلة‬ SM 50/d 5
Insulation Material for Water Proofing
07 Iron.Pip ‫مواسير الحديد‬ LM 100/d 5
Iron Pipe diameter .5”
08 Light.Fixation ‫تركيبات كهربية‬ Part 10/d 200
Electric Switches and Lighting Fixtures
9 Mos.Door ‫البواب والشبابيك‬ Part 12/d 150
‫الموسكي‬
Moskey Materials (Door + Window)
10 Mosaic ‫الموزايك‬ SM 60/d 20
Mosaic Tiles dim 40*40 cm
11 Ord.Tile ‫بلط عادي‬ SM 40/d 5
Ordinary Tiles for Roof dim 20*20 cm
12 Paint.Mat SM 300/d 3
Painting Materials
13 R.F.T ‫حديد التسليح‬ Ton 3/d 3600
Reinforcement Steel
14 San.Fixt ‫أجهزة صحي‬ Part 10/d 1200
Sanitary Fixtures
15 SAN.PIPE ‫مواسير الصرف الصحي‬ LM 30/d 20
Pipe Material for Sanitary Pipes
16 Sand CM 12/d 5

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Sand for Different Tasks

17 Water.Price ‫مياه‬ CM 10/d 10


Water
18 WhiteCem Ton 1/d 500
White Cement

Hint:
Click “Edit/User Preferences…/Time Units tab” to customize the
Units of Time as follows:

 Units Format:
o Unit of Time: hour

 Duration Format:
o Unit Time: day

 Units/Time Format:
o Choose “Show as units/duration”

 No need for writing values in the “Default Units/Time” of


Materials except when needed…

 Close

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6. Assigning Resources and Costs


Project Manager has identified the specific Resources that will be work on this Project.

Project will be named Case_11 – Assigning Resources & Costs.

 Assign Resources based on the table below. If an activity has multiple resource assignments, the 1st resource listed
is the Primary Resource.

(Activities are sorted by Act. ID)

No Act. ID Title Resource Res. Unit Default Budgeted


OD
ID Type of Units/ Units/
Measure Time Time
01 ADM2 Project Administration --- Administer L 1h/d 1h/d
02 PRP2 Preparing Project 10d PM 8/d
Requirements & Analysis
03-1 BLO2 100 Block Work thick 25 cm 12d Bric.Lay L 1/d 24/d
03-2 BLO2 100 Block Work thick 25 cm 12d Cement M TON 10/d 20/d
03-3 BLO2 100 Block Work thick 25 cm 12d Brick.Mat M CM 180/d
04-1 BLO2 200 Block Work thick 12 cm 04d Bric.Lay L 1/d 16/d
04-2 BLO2 200 Block Work thick 12 cm 04d Brick.Mat M SM 80/d
04-3 BLO2 200 Block Work thick 12 cm 04d Cement M TON 10/d

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05-1 CER2 100 Ceramic Work (Wall&Slabs) 04d Ceramic M SM 50/d


05-2 CER2 100 Ceramic Work (Wall&Slabs) 04d Cer.Men L 1/d 16/d
05-3 CER2 100 Ceramic Work (Wall&Slabs) 04d Sand M CM 3/d
06 CO22C100 Form Work Columns 07d Carpenter L 1/d 48/d
07-1 CO22C200 R.F.T Columns 04d R.F.T M TON 3/d
07-2 CO22C200 R.F.T Columns 04d Steel.Men L 1/d 24/d
08-1 CO22C300 Cast-in-Place Concrete Columns 03d Conc.Mix E 1/d 2/d
08-2 CO22C300 Cast-in-Place Concrete Columns 03d Con.Labor L 1/d 32/d
08-3 CO22C300 Cast-in-Place Concrete Columns 03d Cement M TON 10/d
08-4 CO22C300 Cast-in-Place Concrete Columns 03d Sand M CM 20/d
08-5 CO22C300 Cast-in-Place Concrete Columns 03d Gravel M CM 25/d
09-1 CO22C400 Curing time for Columns 05d Water.Price M CM 10/d
09-2 CO22C400 Curing time for Columns 05d Ord.Labor L 1/d 8/d
10 CO22S100 Form Work (Slabs/Stairs) 11d Carpenter L 1/d 80/d
11-1 CO22S200 R.F.T (Slabs/Stairs) 07d Steel.Men L 1/d 24/d
11-2 CO22S200 R.F.T (Slabs/Stairs) 07d R.F.T M TON 4/d
12-1 CO22S300 Cast-in-Place (Slab/Stairs) 03d Con.Labor L 1/d 16/d
12-2 CO22S300 Cast-in-Place (Slab/Stairs) 03d Conc.Mix E 1/d 2/d
12-3 CO22S300 Cast-in-Place (Slab/Stairs) 03d Cement M TON 25/d
12-4 CO22S300 Cast-in-Place (Slab/Stairs) 03d Sand M CM 30/d
12-5 CO22S300 Cast-in-Place (Slab/Stairs) 03d Gravel M CM 60/d

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13-1 CO22S400 Curing Time & Removal of 10d Ord.Labor L 1/d 8/d
FormWork for Slab/Stairs
13-2 CO22S400 Curing time & Removal of 10d Water.Price M CM 16/d
FormWork for Slab/Stairs

14-1 ELE2 100 Electrical Conduits 07d


14-2 ELE2 100 Electrical Conduits 07d

15-1 ELE2 200 Electrical Wires 14d


15-2 ELE2 200 Electrical Wires 14d

16-1 ELE2 300 Electrical Switches Lighting Fix 14d Light.Fixation M PART 18/d
16-2 ELE2 300 Electrical Switches Lighting Fix 14d

17 END2 Hand Over 10d

18-1 FLO2 100 Mosaic Tiles dim 40*40 cm 10d Mosaic M SM 125/d
18-2 FLO2 100 Mosaic Tiles dim 40*40 cm 10d Tile.Men L 1/d 16/d
18-3 FLO2 100 Mosaic Tiles dim 40*40 cm 10d Sand M CM 5/d
18-4 FLO2 100 Mosaic Tiles dim 40*40 cm 10d Cement M TON 10/d 1/d
19-1 FRP2 100 Frontal Plastering 21d Front.Plaster L 1/d 40/d
19-2 FRP2 100 Frontal Plastering 21d Cement M TON 10/d 2/d
19-3 FRP2 100 Frontal Plastering 21d Sand M CM 4/d
19-4 FRP2 100 Frontal Plastering 21d Gypsum M TON 1/d
19-5 FRP2 100 Frontal Plastering 21d WhiteCem M TON 1/d

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20-1 INP2 100 Internal Plastering for Walls & Slabs 20d Front.Plaster L 1/d 32/d
20-2 INP2 100 Internal Plastering for Walls & Slabs 20d Cement M TON 10/d 2/d
20-3 INP2 100 Internal Plastering for Walls & Slabs 20d Sand M CM 6/d
20-4 INP2 100 Internal Plastering for Walls & Slabs 20d Gypsum M TON 1/d

21-1 INP2 200 TRATZO Plastering 08d Plas.Men L 1/d 24/d


21-2 INP2 200 TRATZO Plastering 08d Cement M TON 10/d 2/d
21-3 INP2 200 TRATZO Plastering 08d Sand M CM 30/d
21-4 INP2 200 TRATZO Plastering 08d Gypsum M TON 1/d
21-5 INP2 200 TRATZO Plastering 08d WhiteCem M TON 1/d
22-1 ISO2 100 Bathrooms Proofing 02d Isolation.Men L 1/d 8/d
22-2 ISO2 100 Bathrooms Proofing 02d Insulation M SM 100/d
23-1 PAI2 100 Painting Preparation Layers 06d Paint.Men L 1/d 16/d
23-2 PAI2 100 Painting Preparation Layers 06d Paint.Mat M SM 308/d
24-1 PAI2 200 Final Painting Layers 12d Paint.Mat M SM 308/d
24-2 PAI2 200 Final Painting Layers 12d Paint.Men L 1/d 16/d
25-1 SAN2 100 Sanitary Pipes 20d Plumber-1 L 1/d 24/d
25-2 SAN2 100 Sanitary Pipes 20d San.Pipe M LM 60/d
26-1 SAN2 200 Potable Water Piping Circuits 09d Plumber-1 L 1/d 24/d
26-2 SAN2 200 Potable Water Piping Circuits 09d Iron.Pip M LM 20/d

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27-1 SAN2 300 Install of Sanitary Fixtures 06d Plumber-1 L 1d 16/d


27-2 SAN2 300 Install of Sanitary Fixtures 06d San.Fixt M PART 2/d

28 WOD2 100 Windows & Doors Sub-Frames 07d Door.Carp L 1/d 32/d
Installation

29-1 WOD2 200 Windows & Doors Installation 10d Door.Carp L 1/d 56/d
29-2 WOD2 200 Windows & Doors Installation 10d Mos.Door M PART 8/d

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7. Cost Accounts Dictionary


Project will be named Case_12 – Coat Account Dictionary.

Cost Accounts Structure:

Root: Case_CA

Cost Categories:

Cost Category Code Category Title


-------------------------- ----------------------------
L Labor
E Nonlabor (Equipment)

M Material

S Expenses

Hint:

Use “Enterprise/Cost Accounts…” to build Cost Account Dictionary..

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Cost Account:

Hint: Each Activity has its own Cost Account. So, most of Cost Accounts take the names of Activities IDs

Cost Cost
No Account Account ID Cost Account Name Cost Account Category
Prefix Suffix
01 ADM2 Project Administration
02 BLO2 100 Block Work thick 25 cm
03 BLO2 200 Block Work thick 12 cm
04 CER2 100 Ceramic Work (Walls & Slabs)
05 CO22C100 Form Work Columns
06 CO22C200 R.F.T Columns
07 CO22C300 Cast-in-Place Concrete Columns
08 CO22C400 Curing time for Columns
09 CO22S100 Form Work (Slabs & Stairs)
10 CO22S200 R.F.T (Slabs & Stairs)
11 CO22S300 Cast-in-Place (Slabs & Stairs)
12 CO22S400 Curing time & Removal of
FormWork for Slab/Stairs
13 END2 Hand Over
14 ELE2 100 Electrical Conduits Each Cost Account
15 ELE2 200 Electrical Wires have all of the Cost
Case_CA.
16 ELE2 300 Electrical Switches Lighting Fix. Categories:
17 FLO2 100 Mosaic Tiles Dim 40*40 cm L, E, M, and S
18 FRP2 100 Frontal Plastering
19 INP2 100 Internal Plastering for Walls & Stairs
20 INP2 200 TRATZO Plastering Height 2m
21 ISO2 100 Bathrooms Proofing

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22 PAI2 100 Painting Preparation Layers


23 PAI2 200 Final Painting Layers
24 SAN2 100 Sanitary Pipes
25 SAN2 200 Potable Water Piping Circuits
26 SAN2 300 Installation of Sanitary Fixtures
27 PRP2 Preparing Project Requirements &
Analysis
28 WOD2 100 Windows & Doors Sub-Frames
Installation
29 WOD2 200 Doors & Windows Installation

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8. Assigning Cost Accounts


Project will be named Case_13 – Assigning Coat Accounts

Note: There is only one Cost-Account (with different categories) for each Activity
Cost Accounts exist where there are Resources….

No Act. ID Title Resource Res. Cost


OD
Name Type Account
01 ADM2 Project Administration --- L ADM2.L

02 PRP2 Preparing Project 10d PRP2.L


Requirements & Analysis
03-1 BLO2 100 Block Work thick 25 cm 12d BRIC.LAY L BLO2 100.L
03-2 BLO2 100 Block Work thick 25 cm 12d CEMENT M BLO2 100.M
03-3 BLO2 100 Block Work thick 25 cm 12d BRICKMAT M BLO2 100.M

04-1 BLO2 200 Block Work thick 12 cm 04d BRIC.LAY L BLO2 200.L
04-2 BLO2 200 Block Work thick 12 cm 04d BRICKMAT M BLO2 200.M
04-3 BLO2 200 Block Work thick 12 cm 04d CEMENT M BLO2 200.M

05-1 CER2 100 Ceramic Work (Wall&Slabs) 04d CERAMIC M CER2 100.M
05-2 CER2 100 Ceramic Work (Wall&Slabs) 04d CER.MEN L CER2 100.L
05-3 CER2 100 Ceramic Work (Wall&Slabs) 04d SAND M CER2 100.M

06 CO22C100 Form Work Columns 07d CARPENTR L CO22C100.L

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07-1 CO22C200 R.F.T Columns 04d R.F.T M CO22C200.M


07-2 CO22C200 R.F.T Columns 04d STEELMEN L CO22C200.L

08-1 CO22C300 Cast-in-Place Concrete Columns 03d CONC.MIX E CO22C300.E


08-2 CO22C300 Cast-in-Place Concrete Columns 03d CON.LABR L CO22C300.L
08-3 CO22C300 Cast-in-Place Concrete Columns 03d CEMENT M CO22C300.M
08-4 CO22C300 Cast-in-Place Concrete Columns 03d SAND M CO22C300.M
08-5 CO22C300 Cast-in-Place Concrete Columns 03d GRAVEL M CO22C300.M

09-1 CO22C400 Curing Time for Columns 05d WATERPRI M CO22C400.M


09-2 CO22C400 Curing Time for Columns 05d LABOUR L CO22C400.L

10 CO22S100 Form Work (Slabs/Stairs) 11d CARPENTR L CO22S100.L

11-1 CO22S200 R.F.T (Slabs/Stairs) 07d STEELMEN L CO22S200.L


11-2 CO22S200 R.F.T (Slabs/Stairs) 07d R.F.T M CO22S200.M

12-1 CO22S300 Cast-in-Place (Slab/Stairs) 03d CON.LABR L CO22S300.L


12-2 CO22S300 Cast-in-Place (Slab/Stairs) 03d CONC.MIX E CO22S300.E
12-3 CO22S300 Cast-in-Place (Slab/Stairs) 03d CEMENT M CO22S300.M
12-4 CO22S300 Cast-in-Place (Slab/Stairs) 03d SAND M CO22S300.M
12-5 CO22S300 Cast-in-Place (Slab/Stairs) 03d GRAVEL M CO22S300.M

13-1 CO22S400 Curing time & Removal of Form 10d LABOUR L CO22S400.L
Work for Slab/Stairs
13-2 CO22S400 Curing time & Removal of Form 10d WATERPRI M CO22S400.M
Work for Slab/Stairs
14-1 ELE2 100 Electrical Conduits 07d ELE2 100.L
14-2 ELE2 100 Electrical Conduits 07d ELE2 100.M

15-1 ELE2 200 Electrical Wires 14d ELE2 200.L

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15-2 ELE2 200 Electrical Wires 14d ELE2 200.M

16-1 ELE2 300 Electrical Switches Lighting Fix 14d LIG.FIXT M ELE2 300.M
16-2 ELE2 300 Electrical Switches Lighting Fix 14d L ELE2 300.L

17 END2 Hand Over 10d END2.L

18-1 FLO2 100 Mosaic Tiles dim 40*40 cm 10d MOSAIC M FLO2 100.M
18-2 FLO2 100 Mosaic Tiles dim 40*40 cm 10d TILE.MEN L FLO2 100.L
18-3 FLO2 100 Mosaic Tiles dim 40*40 cm 10d SAND M FLO2 100.M
18-4 FLO2 100 Mosaic Tiles dim 40*40 cm 10d CEMENT M FLO2 100.M

19-1 FRP2 100 Frontal Plastering 21d FRON.PLA L FRP2 100.L


19-2 FRP2 100 Frontal Plastering 21d CEMENT M FRP2 100.M
19-3 FRP2 100 Frontal Plastering 21d SAND M FRP2 100.M
19-4 FRP2 100 Frontal Plastering 21d GUYPSUM M FRP2 100.M
19-5 FRP2 100 Frontal Plastering 21d WHITECEN M FRP2 100.M

20-1 INP2 100 Internal Plastering for Walls & 20d PLAS.MEN L INP2 100.L
Slabs
20-2 INP2 100 Internal Plastering for Walls & 20d CEMENT M INP2 100.M
Slabs
20-3 INP2 100 Internal Plastering for Walls & 20d SAND M INP2 100.M
Slabs
20-4 INP2 100 Internal Plastering for Walls & 20d GUYPSUM M INP2 100.M
Slabs

21-1 INP2 200 TRATZO Plastering 08d PLAS.MEN L INP2 200.L


21-2 INP2 200 TRATZO Plastering 08d CEMENT M INP2 200.M
21-3 INP2 200 TRATZO Plastering 08d SAND M INP2 200.M
21-4 INP2 200 TRATZO Plastering 08d GUYPSUM M INP2 200.M
21-5 INP2 200 TRATZO Plastering 08d WHITECEN M INP2 200.M
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22-1 ISO2 100 Bathrooms Proofing 02d ISO.MEN L ISO2 100.L


22-2 ISO2 100 Bathrooms Proofing 02d INSULATI M ISO2 100.M

23-1 PAI2 100 Painting Preparation Layers 06d PAINTMEN L PAI2 100.L
23-2 PAI2 100 Painting Preparation Layers 06d PAINTMAT M PAI2 100.M

24-1 PAI2 200 Final Painting Layers 12d PAINTMAT M PAI2 200.M
24-2 PAI2 200 Final Painting Layers 12d PAINT L PAI2 200.L

25-1 SAN2 100 Sanitary Pipes 20d BLUMBER L SAN2 100.L


25-2 SAN2 100 Sanitary Pipes 20d SAN.PIPE L SAN2 100.L

26-1 SAN2 200 Potable Water Piping Circuits 09d BLUMBER L SAN2 200.L
26-2 SAN2 200 Potable Water Piping Circuits 09d IRON.PIP L SAN2 200.L

27-1 SAN2 300 Install of Sanitary Fixtures 06d BLUMBER L SAN2 300.L
27-2 SAN2 300 Install of Sanitary Fixtures 06d SAN.FIXT M SAN2 300.M

28 WOD2 100 Windows & Doors Sub-Frames 07d DOORCARP L WOD2 100.L
Installation
29-1 WOD2 200 Windows & Doors Installation 10d DOORCARP L WOD2 200.L
29-2 WOD2 200 Windows & Doors Installation 10d MOS.DOOR M WOD2 200.M

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9. Analyzing Resources & Costs

Objectives:

 Verify a “Gantt Chart” is displayed in the top Layout window.

 Display a “Resource Usage Profile” in the bottom Layout window.

 Format the Timescale to display a Date Interval once of


“Year/Month” and once of “Month/Week” or “Week/Day”.

 Adjust the Timescale to view the Date Range of the entire


Project.

 Verify that only the Resources assigned to the Case Study


are displayed in the “Resource/Role” Hierarchy.

 Hide the Legend in the Resource Profile.

 Display the resource called “Cement” Profile.

 Rsolve the “Over-Allocation” of all Over-Allocated


Resources.

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Resolve Resource Over-Allocation:

All of the following Resources are over-allocated and the over-allocation


resolved (for simplicity) by the suggested “Max. Units /Time”:

Unit of Suggested
Resource Measure Max. Units
/Time
1 BrickMat SM 1200 SM/d
2 Cement Ton 70 Ton/d
3 Light.Fixation Part 90Part/d

4 Mosaic SM 600 SM/d


5 Sand CM 150 CM/d
6 R.F.T Ton 18 Ton/d

 By this manner, the project becomes optimized.

Hint: Many waysto resolve Resource-overallocation

o There is what we call Resource-Leveling, and

o Activities Relationships

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10. Optimizing the Project Plan


Verify that the Projeect Plan meets the Project Stakeholders’s Dates,
Resource, and Cost Requirements.

 Shorten a Project Schedule

o The most important date in the schedule is the calculated


Project Finish Date.

o If the calculated Finish Date of the Project is behind the


required Project Finish Date, the Project must be shortend.
In addition, each deliverable in the Project should be
scheduled to finish by the dates imposed by the Project
stakeholders.

 It is required for our case that the Project must finished by 01-Sep-
11. However, the scheduled indicates that the Project will not finish
until 29-Sep-11.

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 Focusing on Critical Activities:

o Click the “Setting” tab in the “Projects” window.

o In the “Critical Activities” section, select “Logest Path”.

o Go to “Activities” window.

o Choose “Filter…” from the “Layout Option Bar”.

o Check “Critical” and press OK as shown:

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o Decrease the Duration of Activity “FRP2 100” from 21 days


to 14 days, the Project Schedule Finish Date becmes
08-Sep-11.

o Add a Successor Actvity “ELE2 300” to “ELE2 200” with


Relationship type “SS” and “Lag time = 1”, the Project
Schedule Finish Date becmes 20-Sep-11.

o Decrease the Duration of Activity “ELE2 300” from 14 days


to 13 days, the Project Schedule Finish Date becmes
14-Sep-11.

o Decrease the Duration of Activity “INP2 100” from 20 days


to 14 days, the Project Schedule Finish Date becmes
06-Sep-11.

o Decrease the Duration of Activity “PAI 200” from 12 days


to 10 days, and

o Decrease the Duration of Activity “WOD2 200” from 10


days to 7 days, the Project Schedule Finish Date becmes

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01-Sep-1 as shown:

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Cost Report Using Cost Account:

 Click “Tools/Report Wizard”

 Choose “New Report”

 Select Subject Area: Cost Accounts

 Select Additional Subject Area: Activity Resource and Role


Assignments

 Columns:

o Cost Account ID

o Cost Account Name

o Cost Account Description

o Labor Cost

o Nonlabor (Equipment) Cost

o Material Cost

o Total Cost

 Continue…

 For Cost Accounts: Use “Tools/Reports” to run the ready


made report:
o Report Group: Cost

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 Report Group: Control


CC-01 Budgeted Cost by Cost Account
11. Baselining the Project Plan
 Creating BaseLine:

o Open the Project “Case_15 --- BaseLining the Project Plan”

o In the “Project” menu, click “Maintain Baselines”.

o Verify the Project to which you are associating the Baseline


“Case_15 BaseLining the Project Plan” is selected.

o Click OK.

o Select the Baseline “BaseLining the Project Plan - B1”

o Type a new Baseline name “Base 1: Case_Target”

o In the “Baseline Type” drop-down-list, select “Initial Plan”

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 Assigning a BaseLine:

o Click “Project/Assign Baselines…”

o In the opened dialog box, select “Base 1: Case_Target” in both


“Project Baseline” & “User Baselines – Primary” fields.

o Click OK.

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 Viewing Baseline Bars & Bar Style:

o In the “Layout Option Bar”, click “Bars”.

o Mark the check boxes next to “Primary Baseline” & “Baseline


Milestone”

o Click OK.

o Notice the Baseline Bars appears in the “Gantt Chart”.

o Save this Layout with the name “Current vs. Baseline Bars”

 Bar labels:

o In the “Layout options Bar”, click “Bars”.

o Highlight a bar, “Current Bar Labels”.

o Click the “Bar Labels” tab.

o In the “Label” column, replace “Activity Name” with “Finish”

o Click “Add”.

o In the “Label” column, select “Total Float”.

o Click OK.

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12. Project Execution & Control

 Once the Project Information has been distributed, the next step is to
update the Project with Actuals.

 Information has been distributed about the Project. The Project has
started. You have gathered information from the Team Members.
You can now manually update the Activities and apply the progress to
the Project.

 Updating the Project:

You may need to update daily, weekly, or monthly, depending on the


length of the Project and how frequently you want to adjust your
forecasts.

 How Data is Collected?

o Project Managers manually enter the Actual Date, Resource,


and Cost Information.

 Record Actual Dates and Progress, Actual Resource


Usage and Costs.

o Approve and Apply Timesheets:

 Team Members use the Timesheets Module to update


Activities.

 Project Managers review and approve timesheets.

 Project Managers apply timesheets to the Project.

 Data Date:

o The Data Date is the date up to which Acual Performance


Data is reported and the Date from which future work is
scheduled.

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 Updating Process:

o Create a Baseline Plan.

o Enter Activity Progress.

o Use Suspend & Resume Dates as necessary.

o Apply Actuals to the Project

o Perform Target Analysis:

 Compare the Current Plan to the Target Plan to analyze


variances.

o Determine whether Project Objectives are being met:

 Will the Project finish on time?

 Are Project Resources being used effectively?

 Use the following Activity Progress:

o Actual Data is usually different from Planned Data. It is the real


Time/Cost associated with an Activity.

o Record Actual Information for the Project using the Actual Data
coming from the Site,

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Act ID Act Name Dur AS AF Expected PCT


Finish

ADM2 Project Administration 170 1/1/11

PRP2 Preparing Project Requirements & 10 3/1/11 17/1/11


Analysis
CO22C100 FormWork (Columns) 7 4/1/11 11/1/11

CO22C200 RFT (Columns) 4 8/1/11 12/1/11

CO22C300 Cast-in-Place Concrete (Columns) 3 13/1/11 16/1/11

CO22C400 Curing Time for Columns 5 19/1/11 25/1/11

CO22S100 FormWork (Slab/Stairs) 10 24/1/11 10/2/11

CO22S200 RFT (Slab/Stairs) 7 30/1/11 … 80.0

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 Remember that The Earlist Completion Date of the Projerct was


01-Sep-2010.

 Drag the “Data Date” to the morning of 01-Feb-11 as shown:

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Entering Actuals:

 For Completed Activities:

o Actual Start & Actual Finish Dates

o Actual regular Units/Costs

o Actual Expense Costs

 For Activities In-Progress:

o Actual Start Date

o Suspend and/or Resume Dates

o Percent Complete and/or Remaining Duration

o Expected Finish Dates

o Actual regular Units/Costs and Remaining Units/Costs

o Actual and Remaining Expense Costs

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 Resheduling Project & Viewing the Results:

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 Controlling the Project:

o It seems that the Project is behid the target by 7 days.

o Repeat the process of solving this problem as mentioned


before.

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13. Reporting Performance

In this section, We demonstrate how to run & create Tabular Reports as a


means of reporting performance information.

 Describe Reporting Methods

 Run a Schedule Report

 Create a Resource Report with the Report Wizard

 Create a Report using the Current Layout

Methods for Performance Reporting:

There are many methods to distribute Schedule, Resource, and Cost


Performance Information to Project Team.

1. Open the Project, Case_15.

2. From the “Directory” bar, click “Reports”

3. Locate a Report Group Title Band, “Schedule”.

4. Highlight the report “SR-03 Schedule Report with Activity


Budget”

5. In the “Command” bar, click “Run Report”.

Hint: When you see the report, right-click and choose “Save As ---
image.jpg”

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Report Wizard

You can report “Resource Assignment” by creating and printing a “Resource


Report” in the “Report Wizard”.

1. Click “Reports” from “Direcory” bar.

2. On the “Command” bar, click “Add”, the “Report Wizard”


displays.

3. Click “Next”

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4. Select a subject area, Resources.

5. Click “Next”

6. Select an additional subject area, Activity Notebook.

7. Click “Next”

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8. Select “Resources”

9. Click “Columns”. Choose Resource ID & Resource Name.

10. Add a Filter to the Report:

1. Click “Filter…” and choose as shown

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2. Click Ok, the following window appears:

3. Type a descriptive report title: Case_15: Assigning


Resources to Activities

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4. Click “Next”, the following window appears:

5. Click “Run Report”.

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Creating a Report Using Current Screen:

 The “Report Wizard” can also be used to create reports based on the
screen that is currently visible in Primavera.

 This enables the User to easily create a wide variety of reports by basing
them on the layout of the current screen.

1. Navigate to the “Activities” window.

2. Select & Modify the Current “Layout”.

3. Click “Tools/Report Wizard”

4. In the “Create or Modify Report” window,


select “Use Current Screen”.

5. Continue as usual….

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References

Project Management Institute,


A Guide to the Project Management Body of
Knowledge
PMPOK Guide, 2000 Edition

Joseph Phillips,
Project Management Professional (PMP)
Study Guide

Premavera P6 Project Management


Reference Manual

Abdalla ElDaoushy
Projects Time Management & Controlling using
Project Management Software, Dec. 2008,
Institute of National Planning, Cairo, Egypt

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