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LTE Feature Performance

http://www.linkedin.com/pub/ray-khastur/36/965/b7a

Beam Forming

4G LTE Feature Performance| Page 2

Beamforming Increase Capacity


BF with better SINR

Benefits

4T Single-flow BF
1

UE

2
3

Cell B

4
Single-flow BF

4T Dual-flow BF
11

21

31
S1

41

Cell A
S1
S2

UE

12
22

S2

32

Single user dual-flow BF

BF significantly improve
downlink system throughput
and coverage performance and
also provide good user
experience by offering higher
data rates.

42

8T Single &Dual flow


adaptive BF
2R

U
E

Throughput (Mbps)

Cell C

15% Increase
15% Increase

DL 2*2 MIMO
DL 4*2 BF: Single &Dual flow adaptive
DL 8*2 BF: Single &Dual flow adaptive

28% Increase
25% Increase
Average Throughput
Edge-User Throughput
* Based on Huawei system simulation

4G LTE Feature Performance| Page 3

MIMO & Beamforming Adaptation


DL Scheme
High speed move UE

Low speed move UE

Utilize CSI

Open Loop
Cell edge

SFBC/TM2

Cell center

SM/TM3

Cell edge

Single layer
/TM7,TM8

Cell center

Dual layer,MU-BF
/TM8

Scenario of low speed and low channel correlation

Scenario of high speed


Adaptive MIMO

MIMO mode and Beamforming are adaptive


according to channel condition and users velocity
4G LTE Feature Performance| Page 4

IRC

4G LTE Feature Performance| Page 5

IRC to reduce UL interference


When Uplink inter-cell interference arise
Cell2

Noise
Evaluated

antenna 1

Cell1
Signal
Interference

IRC uses the spatial characteristics of


inter-cell interference.

Consider interference correlation.

Evaluate the power of interference and


remove it.

Enhance Coverage and capacity in interference


limited scenario.

combining

Noise
Evaluated

antenna 2

Cell3

=
=

Gain of 7dB at 10-1


FER in interference
limited environment

MMSE: Minimum Mean Square Error


IRC: Interference Rejection Combination
ICE: Ideal Channel Estimate
RCE: Real Channel Estimate
MRC: Maximum Ratio Combination
IRC: Interference Rejection Combination

4G LTE Feature Performance| Page 6

Comparison
Static ICIC and
Dynamic ICIC

4G LTE Feature Performance| Page 7

Inter-Cell Interference Coordination


ICIC reduces the inter-cell interference, improves cell edge users throughput
Power

22
7
7

Cell

Frequency

3
3
11

Power

6
6

4
4
55

Cell

2,4,6

Cell

3,5,7

Frequency
Power
Frequency

Increase the coverage

Increase cell edge data rate

DL Load

DL ICIC Gain (dB)

UL ICIC Gain (dB)

100%

0.3

70%

1.5

0.2

50%

0.5

30%
0%

Link

Cell edge 5% user

DL ICIC OFF

Benchmark

0.1

DL ICIC ON

36.2%

UL ICIC OFF

Benchmark

UL ICIC ON

13.9%

4G LTE Feature Performance| Page 8

Content
1

Overview of SFR & ICIC Feature on TD-LTE

Coverage Prediction of TD-LTE with SFR

Summary

4G LTE Feature Performance| Page 9

Adaptive ICIC: Improve 30% Cell Edge Throughput


Cell edge interference lead
to low throughput

Adaptive ICIC:

eCoordinator

Frequency: reuse=1

Frequency: reuse=3

Low

High

30%
improved

Low
Cell Edge
Interference

Adaptive ICIC switch on / off


Support cell edge frequency
reuse (1, 1/3, 1/6).

Cell Edge
Throughput

Cell Edge
Interference

Cell Edge
Throughput

Unique cell edge frequency reuse 6 in telecom


industry

Content
1

Overview of SFR & ICIC Feature on TD-LTE

Coverage Prediction of TD-LTE with ICIC

Summary

4G LTE Feature Performance| Page 11

Comparison of Implementation ICIC - SINR


SINR Coverage without ICIC

SINR Coverage with Adaptive ICIC

In TD-LTE configuration 1x3x1 all sector using same resource carrier, the disadvantage of
using single frequency is in the cell edge, end user equipment will deteriorate of signal
quality due to UE receive same frequency that will impact as interferer. In this simulation UE
using Smartphone in the outdoor case.

Adaptive ICIC is the most powerful feature to minimize interference in the cell edge, this type
of SFR will divided BW in 6 style of cell edge. In the center of cell SINR size better than using
static ICIC.

Comparison of Implementation ICIC - SINR


SINR Coverage without ICIC

SINR Coverage with Static ICIC

In TD-LTE configuration 1x3x1 all sector using same resource carrier, the disadvantage of
using single frequency is in the cell edge, end user equipment will deteriorate of signal
quality due to UE receive same frequency that will impact as interferer. In this simulation UE
using Smartphone in the outdoor case.

By using SFR (Soft Frequency Reuse), same like FFR (Fractional Frequency Reuse) in WiMAX
technology. The Bandwidth divided into 3 style of edge, which 1/3 BW will be used in cell
edge then 2/3 BW will be used in the center of cell. This method to minimize interference
and improve the cell edge throughput.

Comparison of Implementation ICIC - SINR (Animation)


With
Without
With Static
Adaptive
ICIC
ICIC
ICIC

Comparison of Implementation ICIC SINR Statistic

There is SINR improvement with using ICIC feature, Adaptive


ICIC show the best improvement than Static ICIC

Comparison of Implementation ICIC Radio Bearer


Radio Bearer Coverage without ICIC

Radio Bearer Coverage with Static ICIC

TD-LTE modulation coding scheme without implementing ICIC is much degraded in the cell
edge, especially in the inner city. End User in the cell edge will get QPSK as the highest MSC
that serving their UE.

After implementing AFP function in U-Net for static ICIC we get better improvement in the
cell edge area. Bur on the center of coverage cell radius of MCS 64 QAM will be reduce.

Comparison of Implementation ICIC Radio Bearer


Radio Bearer Coverage without ICIC

Radio Bearer Coverage with Adaptive ICIC

TD-LTE modulation coding scheme without implementing ICIC is much degraded in the cell
edge, especially in the inner city. End User in the cell edge will get QPSK as the highest MSC
that serving their UE.

After conduct AFP with adaptive ICIC, the cell edge is better than static ICIC. And the cell
radius of MCS 64 QAM is more longer than static ICIC.

Comparison of Implementation ICIC Radio Bearer (Animation)


Without
With
With Static
ICIC
Adaptive
ICIC
ICIC

Comparison of Implementation ICIC DL Throughput


DL Throughput Coverage without ICIC

DL Throughput Coverage with Static ICIC

In TD-LTE without activating ICIC, we can see much of area in the inner city with low DL
Throughout due to impact of interference from same frequency that receive by UE.

After implementing static ICIC, there are much improvement for DL Throughput than before.
End user experience will be increase while interference impact decrease.

Comparison of Implementation ICIC DL Throughput


DL Throughput Coverage without ICIC

DL Throughput Coverage with Adaptive ICIC

In TD-LTE without activating ICIC, we can see much of area in the inner city with low DL
Throughout due to impact of interference from same frequency that receive by UE.

After implementing adaptive ICIC, cell edge DL Throughput are better than static ICIC, really
recommend to using this feature to manipulate lack of customer BW resource.

Comparison of Implementation ICIC DL Throughput (Animation)


Without
With
Static
ICIC
Adaptive
ICIC

Comparison of Implementation ICIC DL Throughput Statistic

This graphic show the cumulative of DL Throughput from all coverage, even the cumulative of TD-LTE without ICIC is better, but
the this is just focus on center of center of cell coverage. The cell edge throughput is better after implementing of ICIC

Content

Overview of SFR & ICIC Feature on TD-LTE

Coverage Prediction of TD-LTE with SFR

Summary

4G LTE Feature Performance| Page 23

Summary
Static ICICcell center use 2/3 bandcell edge use 1/3 band
so, in cell edge, frequency reuse 3, different cell edge use
different frequency. Tx power in cell center lower than cell
edge Tx power to control interference.

eCoordinator
Adaptive frequency reuse pattern selection: The system automatically
selects an appropriate edge frequency allocation pattern for each cell.
The patterns for allocating cell edge frequencies are as follows:
Reuse1, Reuse3, and Resue6. These patterns can be flexibly used in
different scenarios. For example, reuse1 is used in the low interference
scenario, reuse3 is used in medium interference scenario and reuse6
is used in the high interference with mass neighbor cells scenario.

Frequency: reuse=6

4G LTE Feature Performance| Page 24

Self
Optimization
Network : ANR

4G LTE Feature Performance| Page 25

ANR Classification

Based on neighbor relations, ANR is classified into intra-RAT ANR and


inter-RAT ANR.
Based on the methods of measuring neighboring cells, ANR is classified
into event-triggered ANR and fast ANR (also known as periodic ANR).
4G LTE Feature Performance| Page 26

ANR Feature Benefit and influence

Benefit
ANR is a self-optimization function. It automatically maintains the integrity and effectiveness of
neighbor cell lists (NCLs) and neighbor relation tables (NRTs) to increase handover success
rates and improve network performance. In addition, ANR does not require manual
intervention, which reduces the costs of network planning and optimization.

Event ANR
Find the missing neighbor cells when handover measurement is reported, handover success rate and
call drop rate can be improved.

Fast ANR
Choose some UE to measure neighbor cells and report periodically, the neighbor cell relations can be
convergent more faster.

4G LTE Feature Performance| Page 27

ANR Feature Benefit and influence

Influence
Event ANR
CGI report process will introduces extra delays in handovers of the UEs that meet the handover
conditions.

Fast ANR
In fast ANR processes, UE will report PCI periodically and read CGI when the neighbor cell is unknown.
In intra-frequency scene, periodical PCI reporting does not impact system performance, whereas CGI
reading interrupts UE services.
In inter-frequency and inter-RAT scene, periodical PCI reporting impacts UE throughput, and CGI
reading interrupts UE services.

4G LTE Feature Performance| Page 28

Relation between ANR and others


Relation between ANR and others

Intra-RAT ANR
Intra-RAT ANR needs UE to support Long DRX cycle and ANR-related measurement. If
ANR measurements need to be performed, a temporary dedicated DRX cycle needs
to be configured for the UE. During this cycle, the UE obtains the CGIs of neighboring
cells in dormancy periods.
Intra-RAT ANR has an impact on Feature PCI Collision Detection & Self-Optimization.
When neighboring cell information changes because of intra-RAT ANR, PCI conflict
detection is triggered.

Inter-RAT ANR
Inter-RAT ANR needs UE to support Long DRX cycle and ANR-related measurement.

If ANR measurements need to be performed, a temporary dedicated DRX cycle


needs to be configured for the UE.
4G LTE Feature Performance| Page 29

Intra-RAT Event ANR - Missing Neighbor Detection

By UE Measurement

1. The source eNodeB delivers the intra/interfrequency measurement configuration to the UE,
instructing the UE to measure neighboring cells that
work on the frequencies specified in the
measurement configuration.
2. The UE detects that the PCI of cell B meets the
measurement requirements, and reports the PCI to
the source eNodeB.
3. The source eNodeB checks whether its intra-RAT
NCL includes the PCI of cell B. If so, the procedure
ends. If not, the source eNodeB sends the
measurement configuration to the UE, instructing
the UE to read the ECGI, tracking area code (TAC),
and PLMN ID list of cell B.
4. The source eNodeB allows the UE to read these
parameters over the broadcast channel (BCH).
5. The UE reports the obtained parameter values to
the source eNodeB.

4G LTE Feature Performance| Page 30

Intra-RAT Event ANR - Missing Neighbor Detection

By UE UE History Information

Source
Cell
(Cell A)

1.Handover request

Target
Cell
(Cell B)

1. The source eNodeB sends a Handover Request

M2000

2.Handover response

message to the target eNodeB including UE


history information.
2. The target eNodeB obtains the UE history
information from the message. If the target
eNodeB detects that the ECGI of the last visited

cell (that is, cell A, the source cell) does not exist
3.Report cell A ECGI

4.Send info to cell B

in the NCL of the target cell (cell B), cell A is


considered as a new neighboring cell of cell B.
Information
3. The target eNodeB reports the ECGI of cell A to
query
the M2000.
4. The M2000 queries the PCI, TAC, and PLMN ID list
of cell A based on the reported ECGI and sends
the parameters to the target eNodeB.
5. The target eNodeB adds cell A to the intra-RAT

NCL of cell B.
4G LTE Feature Performance| Page 31

Inter-RAT Event ANR


1. The source eNodeB delivers the inter-RAT measurement
configuration (including target RATs and ARFCNs) to the UE,
activates the measurement gap mode, and instructs the UE
to measure the neighboring cells that meet the
measurement requirements.
2. The UE detects that cell B meets the measurement
requirements and reports its scrambling code to cell A. If the
NCL of cell A does not include the scrambling code of cell B,
the source eNodeB proceeds to the next step.
3. The source eNodeB requests the UE to read the parameters
of cell B.
If cell B is a GERAN or UTRAN cell, the parameters to
be read are the CGI, location area code (LAC), and
routing area code (RAC).
If cell B is a CDMA2000 cell, only the CGI is to be read.
4. The source eNodeB schedules appropriate measurement
gaps to allow the UE to read the CGI and other parameters of
cell B over the BCH.
5. The UE reports the CGI and other parameters of cell B to the
source eNodeB.

4G LTE Feature Performance| Page 32

Intra & Inter-RAT Fast ANR

Period
measurement
report

In order to reduces the impact of


event-triggered UE measurements on
handover performance, system
supports period measurement.

4G LTE Feature Performance| Page 33

Intra & Inter-RAT Fast ANR


When current UE number involved in fast ANR
achieve the threshold, eNodeB stop selecting
new UE for fast ANR
When the specific UE measurements achieve
the threshold, the UE stop fast ANR report
When the total Ue number involved in fast ANR
achieve the threshold in the certain period, the
eNodeB will get into the state of monitoring or
start a new FastAnr Period .

Periodic UE measurements have a negative impact on the uplink throughput of


the network. Therefore, fast ANR restricts the number of concurrent UEs
involved in periodic measurements by several mechanisms.
4G LTE Feature Performance| Page 34

Neighbor Relations MaintenanceNRT/NCL Maintenance

Period calculation
Result analysis
Adjust the list of NRT

Added to NRT / NCL


Kept in NRT / NCL
Removed from NRT /
NCL

4G LTE Feature Performance| Page 35

Self
Optimization
Network : CSFB

4G LTE Feature Performance| Page 36

CSFB: Architecture and functionalities


Need to be R8 ready
Maintaining SGs
association with MME

GERAN

MSC/VLR

Gb

A
Iu-cs

Gs
SGSN

for the mobility


management and
paging procedures
between EPS and
CS domain.
C/D
Gr

UTRAN
Multi-mode G/U/L
CSFB capable
Support of procedures:
Combined EPS/IMSI
Attach, Update, Detach.

Iu-ps

HSS/HLR

SGs

S3

S6a

S12
PCRF

S4

MME

Deriving a VLR number and LAI


from the TAI of the current cell, or
using a default VLR number and LAI.
Maintaining SGs association with
MSC/VLR for EPS/IMSI Attached UE
Triggering paging to eNodeB (when
MSC-S pages the UE)
Initiating IMSI Detach at EPS
Detach

S11
S7

S1-MME
S5
S1-U
E-UTRAN
S-GW
G/U/L handset
Forwarding paging request for CS
domain to the UE.
Directing the UE to the target CS
capable cell. (PS HO/redirection
with or without SIBs).

SGi
PDN-GW

Rx
Internet / intranet /
Operators & 3rd
Party Applications

4G LTE Feature Performance| Page 37

CSFB: Mobile Originating call


7

6
Inter-system change

NodeB

RNC

MSC-VLR HSS/HLR

SGSN
SGs

UMTS
LTE

Phase
A

4
1

eNodeB

MME
B

SAE-GW

Flows
1.Ext Service Request (CSFB indicator)
2.S1 AP Message (CSFB indicator)
3.Optional measurement
4.PS HO or PS redirection
5.eNodeB direct the UE to G/U
6. Resource located, UE initiate CS call
7. MSC processes UEs calling(IAM)

CSFB MO procedure:

A: Voice service request is activated from UE;

B: MME indicates UE fall back to GERAN/UTRAN for voice service via eNodeB, UE sends service request to GERAN/UTRAN; in the mean time,
MME informs GSM/UMTS CS Core to prepare resource;

C: When resource in GSM/UMTS network is allocated, UE falls back to GERAN/UTRAN for voice service; And then UE will initiate the CS voice
call, MCS processes the UEs calling request and sends IAM(Initial Address Message) to CS core.

4G LTE Feature Performance| Page 38

Page 38

CSFB: Mobile Terminating call


1

Inter-system change

NodeB

RNC

HSS/HLR

MSC-VLR
SGSN

UMTS
LTE

SGs
Phase
A

2
2

eNodeB

MME
3

SAE-GW
C

Flows
1.IAM: Initial Address Message
2.Paging Request (Domain indicator: CS)
3.Ext Service Request (CSFB indicator)
4.S1AP Message (CSFB indicator)
5.Measurement
6.PS HO or PS Redirection
7.eNodeB direct the UE to G/U
8.Paging Response
9.Voice Call establishment

CSFB MT procedure:

A: GSM/UMTS MSC initiates CS paging to the called party (LTE UE), voice service is requested by LTE UE;

B: MME indicates UE fall back to GERAN/UTRAN for voice service via eNodeB, UE sends service request toGERAN/UTRAN; in the mean time,
MME informs GSM/UMTS CS Core to prepare resource;

C: When resource in GSM/UMTS network is allocated, UE falls back to GERAN/UTRAN for voice service;

4G LTE Feature Performance| Page 39

CSFB to UMTS (PS HO)


MO call
UE

eNodeB

MT call
RNC

MME

MSC

SGSN

UE

eNodeB

RNC

1. Extended Service Request


(containing a CS Fallback Indicator)

MME

MSC

SGSN

S-GW
P-GW

1.Paging Request
Paging

2. S1-AP Message
(containing a CS Fallback Indicator)

2.Extended Service Request


(containing a CS Fallback Indicator)

S1-AP Response Message

Service
Request
3. Optional measurement report

3. S1-AP message with CS Fallback indicator


4. PS handover preparation phase
Handover Command

4. Subsequent procedure similar to that in a mobile-originated case, with the CS


call establishment procedure replaced with a Paging Response message

Handover
Command

5.CS call establishment procedure with LAU or combined RAU/LAU


6.PS handover execution phase

4G LTE Feature Performance| Page 40

CSFB to UMTS (PS RRC Redirection w/o RIM)


MO call (R9: with RIM)
UE

eNodeB

RNC

MO call (R8: without RIM)


MME

MSC

1.Extended Service Request


(containing a CS Fallback Indicator)
2.S1-AP Message with CS Fallback Indicator
S1-AP Reponse Message

SGSN

UE

eNodeB

RNC

MME

MSC

SGSN

1.Extended Service Request


(containing a CS Fallback Indicator)

2.S1-AP Message with CS Fallback Indicator


S1-AP Reponse Message

3.Optional measurement report


3.Optional measurement report

4. RRC Connection Release with UTRAN


frequency\cell id\cell System information
S1 UE context release
5. LAU, combined RAU/LAU, or RAU and LAU

PS Suspend
6.CS call establishment procedure

4. RRC Connection Release with UTRAN frequency


S1 UE context release
5. LAU, combined RAU/LAU, or RAU and LAU

PS Suspend
6.CS call establishment procedure

*MT calls procedure is same.


4G LTE Feature Performance| Page 41

CSFB to GERAN (PS HO)


MO call
UE

eNodeB

MT call
BSC

MME

MSC

SGSN

S-GW
P-GW

1. Extended Service Request


(containing a CS Fallback Indicator)

UE

eNodeB

RNC
BSC

2. S1-AP Message
(containing a CS Fallback Indicator)

MME

MSC

SGSN

S-GW
P-GW

1.Paging Request
Paging

S1-AP Response Message


2.Extended Service Request
(containing a CS Fallback Indicator)

3. Optional measurement report


Service
Request

4a. PS handover preparation phase

3. S1-AP message with CS Fallback indicator

Handover Command
Handover
Command
4b.Suspend
Update
Bearers

4. Subsequent procedure similar to that in a mobile-originated case, with the CS


call establishment procedure replaced with a Paging Response message

5.CS call establishment procedure with LAU or combined RAU/LAU


6.PS handover execution phase

In case GERAN or UE cant support DTM (Dual transfer Mode) the PS service will be suspended

4G LTE Feature Performance| Page 42

CSFB to GERAN (PS RRC Redirection w/o RIM)


MO call (R9: with RIM)
UE

eNodeB

BSC

MO call (R8: without RIM)


MME

MSC

1.Extended Service Request


(containing a CS Fallback Indicator)
2.S1-AP Message
(containing a CS Fallback Indicator)
S1-AP Reponse Message

SGSN

UE

eNodeB

BSC

MME

MSC

1.Extended Service Request


(containing a CS Fallback Indicator)
2.S1-AP Message
(containing a CS Fallback
Indicator)
S1-AP Reponse Message

3.Optional measurement report

3.Optional measurement report


4. RRC Connection Release with GERAN frequency
group\Cell id\Cell system information
S1 UE context release

4. RRC Connection Release with GERAN frequency group


S1 UE context release

5.LAU, combined RAU/LAU, or RAU and LAU

5.LAU, combined RAU/LAU, or RAU and LAU

6.Suspend

6.Suspend

7.CS call establishment procedure

7.CS call establishment procedure

4G LTE Feature Performance| Page 43

SGSN

CSFB to GERAN (CCO w/o RIM)


MO call (w/o RIM)
UE

eNodeB

BSC

MME

MSC

SGSN

1.Extended Service Request


(containing a CS Fallback Indicator)
2.S1-AP Message
(containing a CS Fallback Indicator)
S1-AP Response Message
3.Optional measurement report

4. MobilityFromEUTRACommand
(CCO optionally with NACC)
5. S1 UE context release
6.LAU, combined RAU/LAU, or RAU and LAU
7.Suspend
8.CS call establishment procedure

In case GERAN or UE cant support DTM (Dual transfer Mode) the PS service will be suspended

4G LTE Feature Performance| Page 44

CSFB to UTRAN: Three mechanisms

R8 PS Handover: base on the


inter-RAT PS handover procedures
R8 PS redirection: RRC release with
redirectedCarrierInfoIE to UE
R9 PS redirection: RRC release with a
carrier frequency and UTRAN cells SIBs
acquired by RIM procedures before CSFB.

4G LTE Feature Performance| Page 45

CSFB to GERAN: Four mechanisms


R8 PS Handover: base on the
inter-RAT PS handover procedures
R8 PS redirection: RRC release with
redirectedCarrierInfoIE to UE
R9 PS redirection: RRC release with a
carrier frequency list and cells SIBs
acquired by RIM procedures before CSFB.
R8 CCO with NACC: HandoverCommand
With target cell and SI

4G LTE Feature Performance| Page 46