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-ED:

1) Pht m l /t/ nu ng t kt thc bng: /p, k, f, s, sh, ch, gh/.


VD:

- Jump ----> jumped

- Kiss -----> kissed

- Cook -----> Cooked

- Wash -----> washed

- Cough -----> Coughed

- Watch -----> watched

2) Pht m l /id/ nu ng t kt thc bng /d/ hoc /t/.


VD:

- Wait -----> waited

- Add -----> added

3) Pht m l /d/ khi ng t kt thc bng: /b, g, v, /th/, z, j/, m, n, ng, l, r/


v tt c cc m hu thanh.
VD:

- Rub -----> rubbed

- Name -----> named

- drag -----> dragged

- Learn -----> Learned

- Love -----> loved

- Bang -----> banged

- Bathe ------> bathed

- Call -----> called

- Use ------> Used

- Care -----> cared

- Massage -----> massaged

- Free -----> freed

- Charge -----> Charged

** Ch : y m cui cng mi l quan trng ch khng phi l ch ci kt thc.

- V d: "fax" kt thc bng ch "x" nhng l m /s/

"like" kt thc bng ch "e" nhng l m /k/

* 1 s t kt thc bng -ed c dng lm tnh t pht m l /id/:

aged

naked

blessed

ragged

crooked

wicked

dogged

wretched

learned

-S / -ES:
- Nu t kt thc bng -s, -ss, -ch, -sh, - x, -z (hoc -ze), -o, -ge, -ce (sn sng chung
shc xin z- gp cm) th ta pht m l /iz/.

VD: changes; practices (cch vit khc l : practise - pht m tng t) ; buzzes,
recognizes

- Nu t kt thc bng -p,-k,- t,- f th pht m l /s/

VD: cooks ; stops...

- Nhng t cn li pht m l /z/

VD: plays; stands ....vv

Ch : y m cui cng mi l quan trng ch khng phi l ch ci kt thc.

VD: Vi t "laugh" kt thc bng ph m "gh" nhng li c phin m l /la:f/ - c kt


thc bng /f/ nn khi thm "s" ta c l /s/ ch khng phi l /z/.