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Introduction To Business

Architecture Part 1

Alan McSweeney
http://ie.linkedin.com/in/alanmcsweeney

Objectives

First of a proposed four part introduction to Business


Architecture

Intended to focus on activities associated with Business


Architecture work and engagements

January 19, 2016

Topics

Introduction And Overview

Business Architecture Change Dimensions

Business Architecture Analysis

Business Process Analysis And Design Summary

Business Architecture Engagement

January 19, 2016

Introduction And Overview

January 19, 2016

Business Change And Business Architecture

Business change without a target business architecture and a


plan is likely to result in a lack of success and even failure
Too much planning wastes resources and delays necessary
change
Objective is to create a change architecture that achieves a
balance with sufficient detail to enable effective
implementation without introducing constraints
Change Without An
Architecture And A
Plan

January 19, 2016

Too Much Detailed


Analysis and Planning

Business Change And Business Architecture

An effective approach to business architecture and


business architecture competency is required to address
effectively the pressures on businesses to change

Business architecture connects business strategy to


effective implementation and operation
Translates business strategic aims to implementations
Defines the consequences and impacts of strategy
Isolates focussed business outcomes
Identifies the changes and deliverables that achieve business
success

January 19, 2016

Business Architecture

A structured approach to analysing the operation of an


existing business function or entire organisation with a
view to improving its operations or developing a new
business function, with a strong focus on processes and
technology

Business architecture is not about business requirements


it is about business solutions and organisation changes to
deliver business objectives

January 19, 2016

Business Architecture

Defined process to address a specific area of business interest


and produce an architecture to guide further development and
implementation (of changes) in all of the core and extended
domains of change: business process, organisation, location
(facilities), application, data and technology
A business area is a subset of the enterprise identified for the
business architecture activity
Business Architecture provides the means to integrate the
components of the business within a business area
Business architecture contributes significantly to the
achievement of IT being aligned to the needs of the business
Business Architecture also divides a large business area change
program into a series of manageable releases designed to
achieve business results through a series of small successes
January 19, 2016

Business IT Needs And IT Alignment


Business Needs
Market Changes
Competitive Pressures

Business Solution Design


And Delivery

Alignment
New Products/ Services
Regulatory Changes
Customer Requirements
Organisational Changes

January 19, 2016

IT Function Underlying
Solution Delivery And
Operation Enablement
Structure

Business And Solution Architecture Are The Alignment Glue


Business Needs
Market Changes
Competitive Pressures

Business Solution Design


And Delivery

Business
Architecture
Alignment
New Products/ Services
Solution
Regulatory Changes
Customer Requirements
Organisational Changes

January 19, 2016

Architecture
IT Function Underlying
Solution Delivery And
Operation Enablement
Structure

10

What To Use Business Architecture For?

Business architecture tends to be focussed on engagements within the


organisation
Organisation and Business Function Transformation

As part of implementation projects identified during transformation

Process Redesign

Takes a cross-functional view of new and existing processes to be replaced


Uses process redesign and innovative thinking techniques to identify and overcome outmoded
approaches, views and assumptions
Deals with organisational change dimensions of process redesign

Process Improvement

Performs detailed analysis of process activities, value and performance to identify options for
process improvement

Customised Solution Implementation

Provides the solution architecture, requirements analysis, modelling, and release phasing and
planning required to define, integrate, prioritise, and coordinate solution development and
implementation tasks within a business area or function

Product-Based Solution Implementation

Provides the solution architecture, requirements analysis, and modelling needed to identify
functional and technical requirements specification for product selection and implementation
and to integrate product-based solution with customised integration and implementation

Technical Infrastructure Architecture

Provides an approach to define architecture to direct infrastructure implementation including


hardware, software and communications infrastructure
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11

Technology Is Both A Cause Of Change And An


Enabler of Change

Customers Demand Products and Services Are Delivered Using


New Technology

Competitors Avail of New Technologies to Improve Efficiencies, Reduce


Cost or Offer New Products and Services

New Technologies Offer Opportunities to Improve


Efficiencies, Reduce Cost or Offer New Products and Services

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12

Business Architecture In Context

Enterprise Architecture
Information and Data Architecture

Business
Architecture

January 19, 2016

Solutions
and
Application
Architecture

Information
Systems
Architecture

Technology
Architecture

13

Business Architecture In Context

Business Architecture sits within the overall enterprise architecture


framework
Enterprise Architecture defines the overall IT operating boundaries
Solution Architecture defines the solution boundaries
There is a substantial overlap between Business Architecture and Solution
Architecture

Business Architecture is not solely concerned with IT

Where there is an IT dimension, it will be governed by Enterprise Architecture and


work with Solution Architecture to design the overall solution and its components

There is a significant overlap between Business Architecture and Solution


Architecture
Similar skills are required
The roles may be performed by the same person or team

Enterprise Architecture without Solution Architecture and Business


Architecture will not deliver on its potential

Business Architecture is an essential part of the continuum from theory to practice

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The Long And Winding Journey From Idea To


Operation And Use
Compromise
Options

Implementation

Idea

Strategy

Operation
And Use

Workaround

Concession
Exploration
Business Architecture
Business
Analysis
January 19, 2016

Solution Architecture

Solution
Delivery

Solution
Operations

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Business Architecture And Business Change

Business changes assists the organisation to achieve greater


efficiency and/or competitive advantage

Business architecture analysis needs to focus on both business


structures and processes as well as technologies

Business architecture enables successful business change

The greatest returns are achieved when technology is used to


improve/restructure business processes rather than just
automate existing processes

Change is constant in technology

Business architecture needs to be both independent of and


aware of technologies and their possibilities and potential
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Scope of Business Architecture

Scope can be a business function or entire business

Organisation

Business
Function/
Business
Area

January 19, 2016

Business
Function/
Business
Area

Business
Function/
Business
Area

Business
Function/
Business
Area

17

Scope of Business Architecture

Scope can also be a cross-functional business process area


Organisation

Cross Functional Business Process Area


Business
Business
Business
Business
Function/
Function/
Function/
Function/
Business
Business
Business
Business
Cross Functional Technology Initiative(s)
Area
Area
Area
Area
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18

Scope of Business Architecture

This can be a vertical business function or a cross-functional business


area concerned with the delivery of a core business process or crossfunctional technology initiative
Business architecture exercises are aimed at organisation or
business function/process area within the organisation that is
implementing significant change

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Application Of Business Architecture

Business architecture engagements are focussed on:


Redesigning/redefining business processes
Developing architectures for systems/applications, information or
technology infrastructure/communications
Planning development of systems/applications
Developing major integrated systems/applications

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20

Typical Business Architecture Desired Outcomes


Reduce Process Cycle Times

Reduce Operational Costs

Improve Service Quality

Reduce Time To Introduce New Products/Services

Improve Customer Satisfaction


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Architecture

Unites constituent components and their relationships into an whole


Architecture ensures components and relationships are clearly identified
Defines the process and flow context for the interoperation of components
Architecture defines vision, principles, standards and limits
Taking an architectural approach ensures all the elements are integrated
appropriately
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22

Business Architecture And Business Changes

Business architecture is implicitly concerned with changes


across the core and extended organisation domains to increase
efficiency, reduce cost, increase return and improve
competitive advantage

Business changes both require and cause:


Process changes
Technology changes
Organisation changes

Changes in customer expectations and demands, competitive


pressure and underlying available technology require greater
responsiveness and flexibility

This requires changes in process, organisation and technology


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Drivers Of Business Change


Merger/ Acquisition/ Divestment
Customer Requirements / Expectations
Regulatory Changes
Market Changes
New Products / Services
Competitive Pressure
Organisational Changes
Business Needs
Technology Changes
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Business Architecture Change Dimensions

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Core Areas Of Business Architecture Changes

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Core Areas Of Business Architecture Changes

Location and Offices existing and new locations and facilities of the
organisation, their types and functions and the principles that govern the
selection of new locations
Business Processes current and future business process definitions,
requirements, characteristics, performance
Technology, Infrastructure and Communications current and future
technical infrastructure including security, constraints, standards,
technology trends, characteristics, performance requirements
Applications and Systems current and future applications and systems,
characteristics, constraints, assumptions, requirements, design principles,
interface standards, connectivity to business processes
Information and Data data and information architecture, data
integration, master and reference data, data access and management
Organisation and Structure organisation resources and arrangement,
business unit, function and team structures and composition, relationships,
reporting and management, roles and skills

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Business Architecture Core Internal Organisation


Areas

Location and
Offices

Organisation and
Structure

Business
Processes

Business
Architecture
Information and
Data

Applications and
Systems

January 19, 2016

Technology,
Infrastructure
and
Communications

Business
architecture is
concerned with
changes in one or
more of these areas
and co-ordinating
changes across
these areas to
deliver the greatest
benefit

28

Business Architecture Extended Areas


Organisation
Operating
Environment
and
Landscape

Location and
Offices

Organisation and
Structure

Business
Processes

Business
Architecture
Information and
Data

Technology,
Infrastructure
and
Communications

Applications and
Systems

Overall
Organisation
Strategy
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Organisation Extended Business Landscape


Shareholder

Intermediary

Competitor

Service
Provider

Supplier

Contractor

Researcher

Retail
Customer

Public

Collaborator

Business
Customer

Outsourcer

Organisation

Partner

Regulator

Dealer

Distributor

Agent
Client
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Representative

Franchisee

Counterparty

Sub-Contractor
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Organisation Extended Business Landscape

Organisations typically operate in a complex environment


with multiple interactions with different communication
with many parties of many different type over different
channels

As part of the extended view, business architecture should


examine current and new ways of interacting with some or
all of these external parties

Business architecture is not always about customer


interactions, though this may be its main focus

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Organisation Extended Business Landscape


Shareholder

Researcher
Intermediary

Shareholder

Representative

Sub-Contractor

Public
Intermediary

Agent

Counterparty
Collaborator

Service
Provider

Supplier
Regulator

Franchisee

Distributor
Contractor

Business
Customer

Client
Retail
Customer

January 19, 2016

Outsourcer
Partner

Dealer

Competitor

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Organisation Business Landscape


Not third-parties the organisation interacts with have
equal importance or of equal value
Each third-party and communications channel has
different characteristics:

Distance from the core of the organisation composite


measure of value and importance to the organisation
Volume of interactions
Complexity of interactions
Type of interaction informational or transactional

Every organisation will have a different third-party and


distance profile
Follow the value in any business architecture engagement

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Business-Related Areas Of Business Architecture


Changes

Areas of change relating to business and organisation

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Technology-Related Areas Of Business Architecture


Changes

Areas of change relating to business and organisation

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Process-Related Areas Of Business Architecture


Changes

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Importance Of Areas Of Business Architecture


Changes May Vary Depending On The Organisation

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Business Architecture Analysis

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Business Architecture Analysis Design Fundamentals


Redesign New or
Replacement
and Improve
Existing Business
Processes

Develop
Architecture to
Integrate and
Join-Up
Phase
Implementation
Using Series of
Releases

Create Energy
for Change and
Alignment

Define Vision
and Principles

January 19, 2016

Business
Architecture
Analysis

Enhance
Business
Operation and
Performance

39

Define Vision and Principles

Establish a convincing and pervasive vision and case for


action to motivate change in the business function or
overall organisation

Describe what the business will be like in the future after


change has been accomplished

Describe structure and detail expected benefits and


measures to achieve success

Define principles for six areas of business change that will


direct subsequent development and implementation

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Overarching Business Architecture Vision and


Principles

January 19, 2016

Simplification

Standardisation

Segmentation

Integration

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Overarching Business Architecture Vision and


Principles

Simplification
Eliminate unnecessary complexity across the six business
architecture domains

Standardisation
Define and adhere to standards
Research and adopt proven practices that work for others

Integration
Ensure components and operations integrate and interoperate

Segmentation
Create standard, reusable components

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Create Energy for Change And Alignment


Essential to build and continuously verify and validate
stakeholder support for the programme of business
change that will be defined as part of the business
architecture exercise
Without such support, any change programme is likely to
fail
All stakeholders need to clearly understand the basis for
the proposed change
Define a business case that details the need for action and
the likely consequences of not taking action in a way that
is convincing and directly relevant to all stakeholders

Business case is the basis for developing and obtaining support


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Redesign New or Replacement and Improve Existing


Business Processes

Analyse, document, redesign and improve the business


processes of the organisation/business function/crossfunctional area

Focus on improving performance through process


optimisation

Scope of process improvement should encompass entire


organisation/business function/cross-functional area

Process improvement implementation can therefore direct


activities in all other areas: organisation, location,
application, data and technology
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Develop Architecture to Integrate and Join-Up

Integrate systems, processes, business functions, information

Create an inventory of the applications, data and technology


capabilities required to support the business processes

Develop an architecture to achieve the integration of the


applications, data and technology

Architecture defines the components and their relationships


between the components that allow them to be implemented
separately and then connected to form an integrated totality

Integration requires identifying the organisation, location and


distribution of the applications, data and technology

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Phase Implementation Using Series Of Releases

Divide the changes planned for the organisation/business


function/cross-functional area into a sequence of releases
that can be more easily implemented

Each release needs to include a value to the business

Each release can contain changes in all the business charge


areas

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Enhance Business Operation and Performance

Core objective of business architecture is to improve


overall business performance

Business performance improvement can involves changes


to integration, coordination, communication, flexibility
and responsiveness

Maintain focus on business architecture objectives:


Reduction of process cycle times
Reduction of operational costs
Improvement of service quality
Reduction time to market/introduction of new products/services
Improvement in customer satisfaction
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Elements Of Approach To Business Architecture


Understand the Real Business
Needs
Focus on Business Processes
Address Required Changes In Their
Entirety

Core
Elements Of
Approach To
Business
Architecture

Be Aware of and Use Best Practices


Appropriately

Improve Business Process Performance

Business Process Redesign For New or


Replacement Processes
Business Process Improvement Of
Existing Processes
Exploit New Information Technology
Capabilities
Exploit New Organisational Methods and
Styles
Support Vision with Case for Action

Drive Change with Vision

Establish Overall Guiding Principles

Architect for Performance

Locate Applications, Infrastructure and


Information Effectively
Split Applications and Data as Needed

Plan Releases as a Series of


Appropriately Sized Achievements
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Understand The Real Business Needs

Maintains a business orientation and focus at all times

Seek to understand and support the business strategy

Seek to understand and satisfy customer expectations

Sees to align the processes, systems and organisation to


serve the dominant value discipline

Balances multiple perspectives and dimensions when


measuring performance and establishing performance
goals

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Focus on Business Processes

Recognise process change as the source of business value

Uses information technology and organisational change as


the primary enablers of process change

Plan business change around business processes


Business processes can cross across multiple functions,
organisations and applications
Existing business processes are often inefficient and must be
redesigned to remove fragmentation, simplify coordination and
eliminate wasted time and effort

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Business Process Performance

Seek to improve business process performance

Performance can be measured along a number of


dimensions
At a minimum these performance dimensions include time, cost,
and quality
May also include other measurements such as capital
requirements, staff requirements, variety, flexibility, innovation,
and learning

Process performance goals are driven by the expectations


of external and internal customers, by best practice and by
competitor performance
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Business Process Redesign


Replacement of an existing business process with a
completely new or substantially redesigned one
Redesign is generally accompanied and enabled by
changes in the use of information technology and people
Business process redesign derives the essential process
from the required outputs
Actively challenges and rejects old paradigms by escaping
from the normal patterns of perception and developing
new ideas
Business process redesign seeks to achieve order-ofmagnitude improvements in performance, either out of
competitive necessity or to leap ahead of the competition

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Business Process Improvement

Incremental improvement of a business process or


portions of a business process

Business process improvement strives to achieve a set of


improvements that together amount to significant
improvement

Begin with an analysis of the current process to identify


improvement leverage points

Devise process, technology, or organisational changes to


improve performance

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Address Required Changes In Their Entirety

Business change needs to be addressed as a whole to be


successful

Not sufficient to simply modify a process or create a new


computerised system

Must address all the changes required in all six core


domains of change

First determine the change required in the business


process

Then determine the change required in the other domains,


making the change in all domains aligned and mutually
supportive
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Be Aware of and Use Best Practices Appropriately

Use best practice information as a yardstick for


comparison and a source of new ideas

Two leading enablers of business change in general and


process redesign in particular are
Information technology
Organisational change

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Exploit New Information Technology Capabilities

Information technology is often used to redesign business


processes by enabling changes in the basic operating
principles of the business
Data integration
Business intelligence and analytics
CRM
Communications
Hardware
Automation
Workflow and business process management
Enterprise content management
Mobile technologies
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Exploit New Organisational Methods and Styles

Organisational changes based on new concepts and


supported by technologies can also facilitate radical
redesign of business processes

Geographically separate teams

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Drive Change with Vision

Begins with a vision of the future and works backwards toward the
present
Seek to escape from the trap of incremental thinking and planning
and can lead to discontinuous and often dramatic change
Vision serves to align and stimulate the development of change
Focus on developing the future rather than correcting the present
Correct vision will make powerful business sense at every level, but
the results envisaged will not always be justifiable by short-term
financial return
Establish performance measures and challenging performance goals
as part of defining the future state
Use these goals to stimulate creative thinking and new approaches
Uses the measures to demonstrate achievement
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Support Vision with Case for Action

Develop a business area Case for Action

Justify the business area Business Vision

Clearly communicates the need for change

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Establish Overall Guiding Principles

Establish a set of principles in all the domains of change

Serve to implement the vision and guide all subsequent


design decisions in those domains

Newly established principles represent a shift from


ingrained behaviours

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Architect For Performance

Develop application, data, and technology architectures


that meet the performance requirements of the business
processes

Select the most suitable technologies for each business


requirement

Partition, distribute, and integrate applications, data, and


technology platforms as necessary to support the business
requirements

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Locate Applications, Infrastructure and Information


Effectively

Locate the applications and data based on business


process performance requirements, such as availability,
responsiveness, flexibility, security, maintainability, and
volatility

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Split Applications And Data As Needed

Maintain a balance between integration and flexibility


through N-tier architectures

N-tier processing is a driving concern of technical


infrastructure design since it introduces system
management problems not present in more centralised
approaches

Data location may be transparent to users

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Plan Releases As A Series Of Appropriately Sized


Achievements
Discard the idea of big-bang projects that almost always
cost more than anticipated, arrive later than expected, and
deliver less than needed
Plan development as a series of releases that fit together
based on a common architecture developed for the
business area
A release is a subset of business area components that will
be developed, integrated, and deployed at the same time

Implements the principle of a series of small achievements


Has an ideal duration of three to six months
Has a maximum duration of much less than a year
Must achieve real business benefits
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Factors For Business Architecture Success


Unwavering Business Focus
Vision and Dedication

A Suitable Level of Detail


Focus on the Management of Organisational Change
Creation of Delivery Projects
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Success Factor - Unwavering Business Focus

Success depends on constantly being aware of the


business reason for each technical decision

Every decision should be made to support improved


business performance and to realise the business vision,
objectives and targets

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Success Factor - Vision and Dedication

Moving an organisation in a new direction requires the


executives to establish and communicate a vision of the
future

A compelling vision drives and draws the organisation


toward the target future

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Success Factor A Suitable Level of Detail

Business architecture is intended to plan and coordinate


development

You may be convinced to analyse requirements in more


detail than is really necessary

Details that can be postponed to the subsequent


development phase should be deferred

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Success Factor - Focus on the Management of


Organisational Change

Business change defined in business architecture will ultimately


put pressure and strain on the organisation as it undergoes
changes in culture, work force structure, and skills and
competencies needed to perform newly defined or changed
processes
Individuals in the organisation may be afraid of change and
actively or passively oppose these changes
Specific organisational interventions may be required to move
the organisation from the current state to the target future
state
These interventions occur in business architecture and
throughout the development, integration and deployment
phases
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Success Factor Creation of Delivery Projects

By focussing on certain activities while shifting focus from others,


you can modify business architecture to serve the needs of several
different types of projects
Some business architecture project issues considerations include:

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Business Process Analysis And Design Summary

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Business Process Analysis And Design

Analysis of existing business processes and their


improvement or redesign or design of new processes is a
core business architecture activity

Business process analysis includes roles, organisation


structures, technologies and locations where processes are
performed

This section is not intended to be a complete description


of business process analysis and design

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Common Core High Level Business Process Structure


Vision,
Strategy,
Business
Management

Operational Processes With Cross Functional Linkages


Develop and
Manage
Products and
Services

Market and
Sell Products
and Services

Deliver
Products and
Services

Manage
Customer
Service

Vision and
Strategy

Management and Support Processes


Business
Planning,
Merger,
Acquisition

Governance
and
Compliance

January 19, 2016

Human
Resource
Management

Information
Technology
Management

Legal,
Regulatory,
Environment,
Health and
Safety
Management

Financial
Management

External
Relationship
Management

Facilities
Management

Knowledge,
Improvement
and Change
Management

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Common High Level Business Process Structure

Every organisation will have at its high-level organisation


business process structure three process groups
1. Vision, Strategy, Leadership, Business Management
2. Operational Processes With Cross Functional Linkages
3. Management and Support Processes

Processes are what organisation must do to operate


successfully

Processes are not the same as business units or business functions

Operational processes deliver value


Management and support processes assist operational
processes
Business architecture business process analysis is mainly
concerned with operational and management and support
processes
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Common Extended High Level Business Process Structure


Business Environment
Competitors, Governments Regulations and Requirements, Standards, Economics

Customers Process Needs


Core Processes

Business
Controlling
Process
Processes That
Direct and Tune
Other Processes

Business
Measurement
Process

Processes That Create Value for the Customer


Customer
Acquisition

Product
Delivery

Order
Fulfilment

Customer
Support

Enabling Processes

Processes That
Monitor and
Report the
Results of Other
Processes

Processes That Supply Resources to Other Processes


Channel
Management

Supply
Management

Human
Resources

Information
Technology

Business
Acquisition

Suppliers Processes
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Approaches To Business Process Analysis

Business Process Improvement (BPI) identification of


problems and options and opportunities for improvement
of existing business processes

Business Process Redesign (BPR) develop new processes


to replace existing processes

Process analysis is about dividing the process into its


constituent parts

Business architecture should focus on taking a processoriented approach separate from business functions

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Getting Business Process Analysis Right

Create an overall vision for process change


Design the unconstrained process first and then add constraints
The process and design changes to it deliver value while organisation
and technology changes are secondary enablers
Process value is maximised when the totality of changes are
achieved across all business architecture domains
Put customer focus at the core of process design
Do not restrict the process design to just internal processes look at
processes that are external to the organisation
Question all existing assumptions and principles related to any
existing processes
Concentrate on the why and the what of the process and leave the
how to later
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Business Process Design Standards And Approaches

Set of principles to apply when designing processes and


the associated organisation structure and technologies

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Business Process Design Standards And Approaches


Process Simplification

Process Efficiency And


Effectiveness

Process Quality

Process People And


Organisation

Ensure Work Is Process


Focussed

Reduce Or Eliminate
Non-Value Adding
Activity

Reduce Or Eliminate
Variability

Devolve Decision Making


Authority

Reduce Or Eliminate
Handoffs

Reduce Movement of
Work

Focus On Getting The


Right Result

Structure Teams By
Process and Required
Skills

Reduce Work
Fragmentation

Reduce Searching For


Information

Reduce Or Eliminate
Rework

Reduce Complexity
Where Possible

Match Process Costs


With Value Generated

Reduce Or Eliminate The


Requirement For Review

Reduce The Requirement


For Reconciliation
Reduce The Need For
Controls

Reduce The Requirement


For Co-ordination
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Business Process Design Standards And Approaches


Process Workflow

Process Improvement

Process Technology

Process Location

Introduce Parallel
Processing Where
Possible

Enable Process
Improvement

Link Systems To
Organisation And Work
Structures

Locate Work
Appropriately

Reduce Or Eliminate
Breaks In Workflow

Provide Analysis Of
Process Performance

Collect Process
Information And Build
Knowledge Database

Centralise Or
Decentralise As
Appropriate

Have A Workflow Status


Dashboard

Encourage Process
Feedback From Users

Reduce Or Eliminate
Manual Data Entry

Separate Simple Cases


From Complex Cases

Reduce Or Eliminate
Variation

Reduce The Requirement


For Reconciliation

Automate Work As Much


As Possible

Allow Multiple Workflow


Versions In Parallel

Automate Controls As
Much As Possible

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Cross Functional Business Processes


Any business architecture-related business process
analysis and design should focus on cross-functional
business processes
Cross-functional processes are those that really affect
customers from start to end

Internal processes focus on operational functions


Cross-functional view links internal processes to get end-to-end
customer view of organisation

Business architecture change domains should seek to


optimise cross-functional operation to generate value
Structure process analysis and design to take a crossfunctional view

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Cross Functional Processes Crossing Vertical


Operational Organisational Units

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Core Cross Functional Processes

Three cross-functional processes that are common to all


organisations
Product/service delivery

From order/specification/design/selection to
delivery/installation/implementation/provision and billing

Customer management

From customer acquisition to management to repeat business to up-sell/cross-sell

New product/service provision

From research to product/service design to implementation and commercialisation

These processes cross multiple internal organisation boundaries and


have multiple handoffs but they are what concern customers
Cross-functional processes deliver value
Value to the customer
Value to the company

Integrated cross-functional processes means better customer service


and more satisfied and more customers
January 19, 2016

83

Cross Functional Processes Link Operational


Processes

Need a clear
understanding
of the
organisations
operational
processes

Need to ensure
that the
operational
processes are
optimised

Cross-functional
processes
involve
collaboration
between
operational
processes
January 19, 2016

84

Cross Functional Processes and Strategy

Effective cross-functional
processes deliver on the
organisations strategy
Cannot divorce the
organisations strategy from
operational processes and their
execution
Collecting information on the
performance of cross-functional
processes will allow the
execution of strategy to be
effectively measured
Linkage between strategy, crossfunctional processes and
operational processes means
individual process
measurements can be linked to
overall performance
Allows goals to be connected to
operational processes
January 19, 2016

Measure
Achievement
of Goals

Strategy
Delivered By
Cross-Functional
Processes

Consisting Of
Operational Processes
Set Goals

85

Barriers to Taking an Effective Cross-Functional View

No Focus on Cross-Functional Processes


No overall cross-functional business model
Too many point solutions without an overarching context

No Accountability for Cross-Functional Processes


No one is accountable for start-to-end activities
End-to-end processes not defined or even understood

No Measurement of Cross-Functional Process Metrics


No measurement of activities comprising cross-functional
processes from start-to-end
Traditional rather than start-to-end metrics are pervasive
Designed to provide an inside-out view of organisation
January 19, 2016

86

Organisation And Processes

An organisation can be viewed as an assembly of processes that coordinate activities to design, develop, produce, market, sell and
deliver products and services to customers and provide subsequent
support
These are the core value-adding activities
There are many supporting processes and activities
Core value-adding processes and their activities are grouped into
primary process groups
Each primary process group contains one or more value-adding
process activity sets as well as management and supporting
processes
Process activity set is the set of activities performed to respond to a
business event
These can be sub-divided until the Fundamental Business Process Activity Set
level is reached

January 19, 2016

87

Fundamental Business Process Activity Set

This is the lowest level of business activity that:

Is performed by a single person within the organisation either entirely


manually or with system support
Is performed by that person within a single session

Fundamental Business Process Activity Set are at the core of


business analysis and design in the context of business
architecture
We need to identify the minimum set of Fundamental Business
Process Activity Sets that comprise the business process
These will be the subject of further analysis

This set of Fundamental Business Process Activity Sets should


assume that there are no constraints across the business
architecture domains
Constraints and limitations can be added later

January 19, 2016

88

Organisation Business Process Partial Hierarchy


Organisation

Organisation
Level
Management
and Supporting
Process Groups

Primary Process
Groups

Management
and Supporting
Processes

Process Activity
Sets

Sub-Process
Activity Sets

Fundamental
Business
Process Activity
Set

January 19, 2016

SubManagement
and Supporting
Processes

Sub-Process
Activity Sets

Fundamental
Business
Process Activity
Set

89

Organisation Business Process Partial Hierarchy

This is not a full decomposition of processes down to


individual tasks and steps

Fundamental Business Process Activity Set are the sets of


tasks and steps that business architecture needs to
concentrate on

January 19, 2016

90

Business Process Complete Hierarchy

Business
Process
Hierarchy

Cross-functional
processes need
to be aligned
with actions

Consists of one or
more of

Cross Functional
Process

Performance of
Process
Process
Consists of one or
actions rolls-up
more of
to performance
Sub-Process
Sub-Process
of process
Consists of one or

Cross Functional
Process

Process

Process

more of

Activity

Activity

Consists of one or
more of
Task

Task

Consists of one or
more of
Step

January 19, 2016

Step

Step

Step

91

Sample High-Level Business Process Decomposition


Customer Product/
Service Inquiry/ Order

Handle Customer Call


and Generate Order

Triggering Action

Provide Customer
With Product/ Service
Details and Negotiate
Price and Delivery
Output or Result

Customer Confirms
Product/ Service
Order

Product/Service Order
Fulfilment

Triggering Action

= Fundamental Business Process Activity Sets

January 19, 2016

Product/ Service
Provided To Customer

Output or Result

92

Sample High-Level Business Process Decomposition

Fundamental Business Process Activity Sets:


Handle Customer Call and Generate Order
Product/Service Order Fulfilment

Each of these process activity sets will consist of multiple tasks


and steps such as:
Handle Customer Call and Generate Order

Respond to Customer
Identify Product/Service Bundle
Check Availability
Take and Validate Customer Details
Agree Price
Process Payment/Agree Credit
Handle Exceptions
Agree Delivery/Provision Schedule

This decomposition and level of detail is not required at this stage


We just need to know that its has to be and can be done later
January 19, 2016

93

Business Architecture Engagement

January 19, 2016

94

Business Architecture Engagement High Level


Actions
1. Survey Current Business

2. Survey Current
Systems

3. Survey Best Practices


and Technology Trends

4. Survey Customer
Perspectives

5. Define Business
Vision and Case for
Action

6. Design Future
Business Processes

7. Develop Conceptual
Entity Model

8. Decide On Production
Selection Direction

9. Define Technical
Infrastructure
Requirements

10 Define Application
Architecture

11. Define Information


and Applications
Locations

12. Design Conceptual


Infrastructure and
Application Architecture

13. Define
Organisational Changes

14. Analyse Costs and


Benefits

15. Plan Change


Releases

January 19, 2016

95

Business Architecture Engagement High Level


Actions

Describes a formal and structured approach to a business


architecture engagement
Full set of possible activities and their sequence that comprise the
architecture definition process for a business area or function
High-level set of actions
Use this as a framework to define analysis and design actions and
plan work
Understand the steps to be performed, the effort involved, the
resources required and the likely timescale
Develop a engagement-specific tailored set of activities
Objective is to gather sufficient information to allow informed
decisions to be made
Do it properly to get it right
January 19, 2016

96

Business Architecture Engagement Actions


Activity

Description

Create an inventory of existing business processes and describe the detail of these processes for
the area being analysed including the roles involved and where in the organisation process tasks
are performed
2. Survey Current Systems Create an inventory of applications, information and infrastructure for the area being analysed

1. Survey Current
Business

3. Survey Best Practices


and Technology Trends

Research examples of similar organisations or similar business functions in dissimilar


organisations that have similar issues being experienced or that have solved similar problems or
delivery better performance
Identify and research the customers of the business function that is the subject of the
engagement and identify any pressures for changes

4. Survey Customer
Perspectives
5. Define Business Vision Create, describe and document a vision for the future state of the business function that is the
subject of the engagement, listing the benefits of the achieving the vision and the affects of any
and Case for Action
failure to take action
6. Design Future Business Identify the Primary Process Groups to realise the business vision developed above. Define the
Process Activity Sets within the Primary Process Groups. Define their expected performance.
Processes
Design the Process Activity Sets and identify their Fundamental Business Process Activity Sets.
The Conceptual Entity Model is a high-level view of the business function showing its major
7. Develop Conceptual
entities and their relationships based on the business architecture change domains. This model
Entity Model
should be defined to support the operation of the business function
8. Decide On Production Decide on the need to conduct a product selection process. If one is deemed necessary or
beneficial establish the application architecture to be detailed in advance of the selection
Selection Direction

January 19, 2016

97

Business Architecture Engagement Actions


Activity

Description

9. Define Infrastructure
Requirements
10. Define Application
Architecture

Create a set of major infrastructure requirements based on the future business processes and
the Conceptual Entity Model across the business architecture domains

11. Define Information


and Applications
Locations
12. Design Conceptual
Infrastructure and
Application Architecture
13. Define Organisational
Changes
14. Analyse Costs and
Benefits

Create a set of major application components based on the future business processes and the
Conceptual Entity Model across the business architecture domains. List the functionality of
these major application components
Create a structure for the location of sets of information and major applications

Design a high-level architecture for applications and infrastructure and for overall processing.
Define the business functions where process will take place. Describe how the processes will
operate in the context of the conceptual architecture
Define the new future state organisation structures, working arrangements, work processing,
management and reporting. Identify the organisation changes required to move the organisation
from its current state to the desired future state
Analyse the realistic costs and achievable benefits from the business changes planned as part of
the business architecture engagement

15. Plan Change Releases Create a high-level plan for the phased delivery of the planned changes in order to achieve
results incrementally

January 19, 2016

98

Business Architecture Goals And Objectives

The objective of the engagement is to define the optimum set


of changes across the business architecture domains and to
understand the effort and impact of their implementation
The business architecture engagement has been completed
when:
Business vision has been developed and communicated
Business processes have been designed, including relationships to
organisations, technology and facilities
Applications and data entities have been defined, allocated and
integrated across platforms and locations
Architecture has been designed at the conceptual level for technical
infrastructure
Releases within the business change program have been defined,
interrelated and scheduled
January 19, 2016

99

Business Architecture Engagement Possible


Deliverables

Lists a full set of possible


deliverables from
business architecture
engagement grouped in a
hierarchy
Use this list as a menu to
agree what is required
and thus what work is
needed
Generates a work
breakdown for the
business architecture
engagement
January 19, 2016

Level 1 Groups Of
Deliverables

Level 2 Group-Specific
Sets of Deliverables

Level 3 Specific
Deliverables

Level 4 (Optional)
Specific Deliverables
100

Business Architecture Engagement Possible


Deliverables

Detailed set of logical deliverables that can be combined to


create a smaller set of physical deliverables

Designed to create a comprehensive view of the results of


the business architecture engagement and proposed
changes

January 19, 2016

101

Business Architecture Engagement Key Level 1


Groups Of Sets Of Possible Deliverables

Analyses a series of across the core areas of business


architecture as well as overall organisation

Plans plans for achievement of business architecture


changes

Reports summaries of results of architecture


engagement

Products/Solutions analysis of possible commercial


products and solutions to deliver the out

Prototypes possible prototypes to validate elements of


solution
January 19, 2016

102

Business Architecture Engagement Possible Key


Level 1 And Level 2 Groups Of Deliverables
Business Organisation Analysis
Business Process Analysis
Organisation Analysis

Analyses

Location Analysis
Application Analysis
Information and Data Analysis
Technology and Infrastructure Analysis

Plans
Reports
Products/Solutions
Options
Prototypes
January 19, 2016

Transformation and Change Plans


Overall Master Achievement Project Plan
Business Architecture Engagement Summary Report
Technical Architecture Options
Product Options and Comparisons
Application Viability and Validity Prototypes
Proof-of-Technical-Concept Prototype
103

Business Architecture Possible Key Deliverables

Comprehensive set of possible deliverables generated by


business architecture engagement exercise

Only a subset of these deliverables may be required


Decide what is appropriate or needed at the start of the
engagement and keep under review during the engagement

These key deliverables will enable effective decisions to be


made on the way to progress the implementation of the
business architecture

January 19, 2016

104

Full Set Of Possible Business Architecture


Deliverables
Business Organisation Analysis

Business Process Analysis

Business Objectives
Specific Strategies
Critical Success Factors
Critical Business Issues
Performance Measures
Case for Action
Business Vision
Key Business Policies
Business Rules Assessment
Business Process Standards

Business Processes

Business Process Performance

Organisation Standards
Organisation Status
Organisation Analysis

Organisation Composition
Future Organisation
Organisation Transition

Analyses

Location Standards
Location Analysis

Locations
Future Locations
Application Standards

Application Analysis

Applications
Application Architecture
Information And Data Standards

Business Architecture Engagement


Information and Data Analysis

Information And Data Status

Information And Data Future Model

Technology and Infrastructure Standards

Plans

January 19, 2016

Reports
Products/ Solutions Options
Prototypes

Technology and Infrastructure Analysis


Transformation and Change Plans
Overall Master Achievement Project Plan
Business Architecture Engagement Summary Report
Technical Architecture Options
Product Options and Comparisons
Application Viability and Validity Prototypes
Performance, Capacity and Throughput Prototypes

Technology and Infrastructure Status


Future Technology and Infrastructure

Business Process Principles


Business Process Constraints
Business Process Assumptions
Business Process Hierarchy
Business Process Definitions
Business Event Definitions
Business Result Definitions
Conceptual Flow Diagrams
Process Flow Diagrams
Customer Needs Summary
Best Practice Summary
Competitor Performance Summary
Process Activity Sets Performance Model
Business Process Value and Performance Model
Business Process Performance Measurement Model
Organisation Principles
Organisation Constraints
Organisation Assumptions
Organisation Profile
Organisation Key Stakeholders
Organisation Structure
Organisation Competencies
Organisation Work Functions
Organisation Structure
Organisation Competencies
Organisation Work Functions
Organisation Changes
Location Principles
Location Constraints
Location Assumptions
Current Location Inventory
Locations and Processes
Future Location Inventory
Locations and Processes
Application Principles
Application Standards and Conventions
Application Constraints
Application Assumptions
Application Inventory
Application Relationships
Application Architecture Standards
Application Internal and External Interfaces
Applications and Processes
Future Applications
Information And Data Principles and Standards
Information And Data Constraints
Information And Data Assumptions
Information And Data Inventory
Information And Data Model
Information And Data Processing and Use
Information and Data Architecture
Future Information And Data Entitles and Relationships
Information And Data Business Rules
Technology and Infrastructure Principles
Technology and Infrastructure Constraints
Technology and Infrastructure Assumptions
Technology and Infrastructure Trends
Technology and Infrastructure Risks
Technology and Infrastructure Inventory
Technology and Infrastructure Architecture
Technology and Infrastructure Components and Capabilities
Technology and Infrastructure Architecture
Technology and Infrastructure Relationships
Technology and Infrastructure Performance

105

Full Set Of Possible Business Architecture


Deliverables

These are logical deliverables that can be combined into a


small set of physical deliverables

The scope may seem unreasonable but bear in mind that


you are architecting businesses and business functions
Analysis and design is needed to get it right
Need to have a good idea of what is required before
implementation starts to reduce risk of problems
Any problems will affect business operations and ultimately
profitability and service

January 19, 2016

106

Business Organisation Analysis Level 3 Deliverables

If the scope of the business architecture engagement is a


business function or areas then you will need to reconcile
and align the business function-level analysis with the
direction of the overall organisation

Describes the lower-level collection of deliverables within


the Business Organisation Analysis set

January 19, 2016

107

Business Organisation Analysis Level 3 Deliverables


Business
Objectives

Define what the organisation wishes to achieve


Reconcile business objectives for the business function with the objectives for the organisation

Specific
Strategies

Describe how the organisation intends to achieve the business objectives


Reconcile the specific strategies for the business function with those for the organisation

Critical Success
Factors

Detail the core areas that require specific attention for the organisation to achieve its objectives and fulfil its vision
Reconcile Critical Success Factors for the business function with those of the overall organisation

Critical
Business Issues

Identify opportunities, problems, trends, threats weaknesses, problems, issues or situations requiring specific work or resolution

Performance
Measures

Create or update a balanced set of performance measures and goals for measuring the performance of the organisation based on the
Business Objectives and Critical Success Factors

Case for Action

Create a clear and precise summary of the primary business issues giving rise to the business architecture engagement to generate the
reason for necessity for change
Identify the justification for why action is required and justify the future business vision
Indicate the motivation for change. Reconcile the Case for Action for the business function with the one for the organisation

Business
Vision
Key Business
Policies
Business Rules
Assessment
January 19, 2016

Develop a short and convincing description of the future when the changes within this business function have been completed
Reconcile the Business Vision for the business area with the one for the organisation

When key decisions are made and when key issues are resolved , document the results

As deep-seated and ingrained opinions and assumptions are identified, challenged, and changed, list them as current-state and futurestate business rules
108

Business Process Analysis Breakdown Of Work And


Levels 3 And 4 Deliverables
Business Process Standards

Business Processes

Business Process
Performance

Business Process Principles

Business Process Hierarchy

Customer Needs Summary

Business Process Constraints

Business Process Definitions

Best Practice Summary

Business Process
Assumptions

Business Event Definitions

Competitor Performance
Summary

Business Result Definitions

Process Activity Sets


Performance Model

Conceptual Flow Diagrams

Business Process Value and


Performance Model

Process Flow Diagrams

Business Process
Performance Measurement
Model

January 19, 2016

109

Business Process Standards Level 4 Deliverables


Business
Process
Principles

Define and document the key principles that underpin process design

Specific
Strategies

Describe how the organisation intends to achieve the business objectives


Reconcile the specific strategies for the business function with those for the organisation

Critical
Success
Factors
January 19, 2016

Detail the core areas that require specific attention for the organisation to achieve its
objectives and fulfil its vision
Reconcile Critical Success Factors for the business function with those of the overall
organisation
110

Business Processes Level 4 Deliverables


Business
Process
Hierarchy

List the business processes in the hierarchy Primary Process Groups, Process Activity Sets and
Fundamental Business Process Activity Sets for both the current situation, if applicable, and desired
future situation

Business
Process
Definitions

Create summary descriptions of the steps of the processes

Business
Event
Definitions

List the events and circumstances that trigger the processes

Business
Result
Definitions

List the outputs from and the results of the processes

Process
Activity
Maps
January 19, 2016

Create process flow diagrams for the Fundamental Business Process Activity Sets that relate to the
desired future situation
111

Business Process Performance Level 4 Deliverables


Customer
Requirements

Define what the organisation wishes to achieve


Reconcile business objectives for the business function with the objectives for the organisation

Business
Process Best
Practices

Research and describe the proven best practices adopted by others to achieve outstanding performance

Competitor
Performance

Research and describe the performance of competitors and the means by which they achieve it

Process
Performance

Document the actual and planned cost, time and quality at the Process Activity Sets summary level for
existing and planned processes

Process
Performance
Measurement

Define the measures to be used to assess process cost, time and quality performance

January 19, 2016

112

Organisation Analysis Breakdown Of Work Levels


3 And 4 Deliverables

Organisation
Standards

Organisation
Status

Organisation
Composition

Future
Organisation

Organisation
Principles

Organisation
Profile

Organisation
Structure

Organisation
Structure

Organisation
Constraints

Organisation Key
Stakeholders

Organisation
Competencies

Organisation
Competencies

Organisation Work
Functions

Organisation Work
Functions

Organisation
Assumptions

January 19, 2016

Organisation
Transition
Organisation
Changes

113

Organisation Standards Level 4 Deliverables


Organisation
Principles

Define and document the key principles that underpin organisation design and change

Organisation
Constraints

Define the features and attributes that act as constraints to organisation design and change

Organisation
Assumptions

Define the features and attributes that contains assumptions on organisation design and
change

January 19, 2016

114

Organisation Status Level 4 Deliverables

Organisation
Profile

Document the organisation and the business function(s) that are the subject of the
business architecture engagement including the composition of the personnel, the
organisation capabilities and culture

Organisation
Key
Stakeholders

Identify and documents the significant groups or individuals who can influence or will be
influenced by the proposed organisation change
Identify the stakeholders who will be affected by each set of proposed changes

January 19, 2016

115

Organisation Composition Level 4 Deliverables


Organisation
Structure

Describe the decision-making capabilities that are needed to achieve the defined
organisation change

Organisation
Competencies

Describe the skills, experience and knowledge required to perform the organisation
processes

Organisation
Work
Functions

Document the working structures, their roles, their required competencies


Cross-reference business work functions and their roles with Fundamental Business Process
Activity Sets

January 19, 2016

116

Future Organisation Level 4 Deliverables


Organisation
Structure

Document the organisation structure and identify the locations of stakeholders


Describe the administrative and management operation of the organisation

Organisation
Competencies

Describe the changes to administrative and management operation needed to enable the
operation of the future business model

Organisation
Work
Functions

Describe the work functions required to enable the operation of the future business model
Cross-reference these new and changed business work functions and their roles with
proposed new and changed Fundamental Business Process Activity Sets

January 19, 2016

117

Location Analysis Breakdown Of Work Levels 3


And 4 Deliverables
Location Standards

Locations

Future Locations

Location Principles

Current Location Inventory

Future Location Inventory

Location Constraints

Locations and Processes

Locations and Processes

Location Assumptions

January 19, 2016

118

Location Standards Level 4 Deliverables


Location
Principles

Location
Constraints

Location
Assumptions

January 19, 2016

Define and document the key principles that underpin location selection and the allocation
of processes and work to locations

Define the features and attributes that act as constraints to location selection and the
allocation of processes and work to locations

Define the features and attributes that contains assumptions on location selection and the
allocation of processes and work to locations

119

Locations Level 4 Deliverables

Current
Location
Inventory

Create an inventory of the locations and their types where the organisation and its
business functions operate

Locations
and
Processes

Identify the locations where Fundamental Business Process Activity Sets are performed

January 19, 2016

120

Future Locations Level 4 Deliverables

Current
Location
Inventory

Create an inventory of the planned or recommended future locations and their types
where the organisation and its business functions operate

Locations
and
Processes

Identify the planned or recommended future locations where planned future Fundamental
Business Process Activity Sets are to be performed

January 19, 2016

121

Application Analysis Breakdown Of Work And


Levels 3 And 4 Deliverables
Application
Standards

January 19, 2016

Applications

Application
Architecture

Application Principles

Application Inventory

Application Architecture
Standards

Application Standards
and Conventions

Application Relationships

Application Internal and


External Interfaces

Application Constraints

Applications and
Processes

Application Assumptions

Future Applications
122

Application Standards Level 4 Deliverables


Application
Principles

Define and document the key principles that underpin application design including toolsets, deployment
and management, integration and use interface

Application
Standards
and
Conventions

Define standards and conventions for applications including naming, capacity , service continuity,
availability, service level, release, configuration, problem, security, monitoring, alerting, backup, recovery
management

Application
Constraints

Define the features and attributes that act as constraints to application architecture and design

Application
Assumptions
January 19, 2016

Define the features and attributes that contains assumptions on application architecture and design

123

Applications Level 4 Deliverables

Application
Inventory

Application
Relationships

January 19, 2016

Create an inventory of current applications, their components, their functions, roles,


security, their patterns of operation and use, their technical state and any known plans for
the future

Define the relationships between applications

124

Application Architecture Level 4 Deliverables


Application
Architecture
Standards

Describe the current and planned future application architecture standards and approaches, including the
approach to addressing current application architecture problems

Application
Internal and
External
Interfaces

Define the data exchanges and interfaces between applications and from external sources and systems

Applications
and
Processes

Describe the use of applications by business processes

Future
Applications

Define the planned applications and any gaps between current applications
Define the role these future applications will play in future planned operations and processes

January 19, 2016

125

Information And Data Analysis Breakdown Of


Work Levels 3 And 4 Deliverables
Information And Data
Standards

Information And Data


Status

Information And Data


Future Model

Information And Data Principles


and Standards

Information And Data Inventory

Information and Data


Architecture

Information And Data


Constraints

Information And Data Model

Future Information And Data


Entitles and Relationships

Information And Data


Assumptions

Information And Data


Processing and Use

Information And Data Business


Rules

January 19, 2016

126

Information And Data Standards Level 4


Deliverables
Information
And Data
Principles
and
Standards

Define and document the key principles that underpin information and data design including toolsets,
deployment and management, integration and use interface

Information
And Data
Constraints

Define the features and attributes that act as constraints to information and data architecture and design

Information
And Data
Assumptions

Define the features and attributes that contains assumptions on information and data architecture and
design

January 19, 2016

127

Information And Data Status Level 4 Deliverables


Information
And Data
Inventory

Create an inventory of existing data types, data storage, their use, the associated applications and their
technical state

Information
And Data
Model

Create a logical entity relationship model for information and data for the organisation and the business
function that is the subject of the business architecture engagement

Information
And Data
Processing
and Use

Describe the use of the information and data by processes and business functions and any issues that
exist
Identify the business importance of the information and data

January 19, 2016

128

Information And Data Future Model Level 4


Deliverables
Information
and Data
Architecture

Create an information and data architecture for the future information and data for the organisation and
the business function that is the subject of the business architecture engagement

Future
Information
And Data
Entitles and
Relationships

Create a logical entity relationship model for the future information and data for the organisation and the
business function that is the subject of the business architecture engagement
Describe how information and data is organised and distributed

Information
And Data
Business
Rules
January 19, 2016

Define the business rules that apply to the future information and data for the organisation and the
business function that is the subject of the business architecture engagement

129

Technology and Infrastructure Analysis Breakdown


Of Work Levels 3 And 4 Deliverables
Technology and
Infrastructure Standards

Technology and
Infrastructure Status

Future Technology and


Infrastructure

Technology and
Infrastructure Principles

Technology and
Infrastructure Inventory

Technology and
Infrastructure Components
and Capabilities

Technology and
Infrastructure Constraints

Technology and
Infrastructure Architecture

Technology and
Infrastructure Architecture

Technology and
Infrastructure Assumptions

Technology and
Infrastructure Relationships

Technology and
Infrastructure Trends

Technology and
Infrastructure Performance

Technology and
Infrastructure Risks
January 19, 2016

130

Technology and Infrastructure Standards Level 4


Deliverables
Technology and
Define and document the key principles that underpin technology and infrastructure architecture design
Infrastructure
and change including processing, storage, communications, distribution and security
Principles

Technology and
Define the features and attributes that act as constraints to technology and infrastructure architecture
Infrastructure
design
Constraints

Technology and
Define the features and attributes that contains assumptions on technology and infrastructure
Infrastructure
architecture design
Assumptions

Technology and
Research key trends in technology and infrastructure, functionality and capability and cost that may
Infrastructure
impact technology and infrastructure architecture design
Trends

Technology and
Infrastructure Describe the major technology and infrastructure risks, difficulties and challenges
Risks
January 19, 2016

131

Technology and Infrastructure Status Level 4


Deliverables

Technology
and
Infrastructure
Inventory

Create an inventory of current technology and infrastructure , their components, their


functions, roles, security, their patterns of operation and use, vale to the business, their
technical state and any known plans for the future

Technology
and
Infrastructure
Architecture

Define the current technology and infrastructure architecture

January 19, 2016

132

Future Technology and Infrastructure Level 4


Deliverables
Technology and
Infrastructure
Components
and Capabilities

Define the technology and infrastructure requirements including hardware, system software and
communications for the organisation and the business function that is the subject of the business
architecture engagement
Describe all the viable technology capabilities included

Technology and
Infrastructure
Architecture

Describe the future planned technology and infrastructure architecture


Describe the standards being applied
Describe the major technology components
Define and operations model
Describe the proposed physical components and likely technologies and vendors

Technology and
Infrastructure
Relationships

Describe the technology and infrastructure locations and relationships


Describe the associated applications and business processes
Describe the associated business roles

Technology and
Infrastructure
Performance
January 19, 2016

Define the expected business volumes for information and data entities and business processes for the
organisation and the business function that is the subject of the business architecture engagement
Define the performance requirements
Define the likely pattern of growth and change in technology and infrastructure performance-related
volumetrics
133

Business Architecture Engagement Plans


Breakdown Of Work Levels 3 And 4 Deliverables
Transformation and
Change Plan

Overall Master
Achievement Project Plan

Proposed Transformation Change Releases

Project Definition and Statement of Scope


and Work

Proposed Transformation Overall and Release


Schedules

Overall Project Plan and Schedule

Proposed Transformation Overall and Release


Budgets

Product Structure and Resources

January 19, 2016

134

Transformation and Change Plan Level 4


Deliverables
Proposed
Transformation
Change
Releases

Define the content and scope of each planned release within the overall delivery
Describe the new and changes processes enabled by each release
Describe the dependencies between planned releases
Define the locations associated with each release

Proposed
Transformation
Overall and
Release
Schedules

Define the schedule including expected start and end dates of each planned release within the overall
delivery

Proposed
Transformation
Overall and
Release
Budgets

Define the costs and benefits of the each planned release within the overall delivery

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135

Overall Master Achievement Project Plan Level 4


Deliverables
Project
Definition
and
Statement
of Scope
and Work

Overall
Project Plan
and
Schedule

Product
Structure
and
Resources
January 19, 2016

Create and distribute for review and approval and finalise a definition and a statement of work of the
overall transformation project and its component releases including schedule, cost, objectives, scope,
assumptions, dependencies, risks, constraints, resources responsibilities and project success factors

Create a project plan for each planned release within the overall delivery

Define the required project organisation structure including resources and staffing plan for each planned
release within the overall delivery

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Business Architecture Engagement Reports

Business Architecture Engagement Summary Report

Contains a summary of the results of the engagement including:

Vision
Case for action
Description of future state
Requirements
Best practices
Budget and savings
Implementation approach and releases
Plan and schedule
Resources

Technical Architecture Options Report

Contains details on possible technology and technical options including:

Technology standards and principles


Options and alternatives including comparisons
Viability of options
Recommendations

January 19, 2016

137

Business Architecture Engagement


Products/Solutions Options and Comparisons

Product and solutions assessment and evaluation


containing a summary of products/solutions/applications
examined and investigated to support any buy vs. build
recommendations

January 19, 2016

138

Business Architecture Engagement Prototypes

If it is necessary and useful, simple prototypes may be


constructed to establish the viability and or validity
(including performance, capacity and throughput) of
recommended options or to evaluate alternatives

January 19, 2016

139

More Information
Alan McSweeney
http://ie.linkedin.com/in/alanmcsweeney

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