(HIST 1023)

Submitted by:

CEDRIC S. DELA CRUZ School of Professional Studies ETEEAP Polytechnic University of the Philippines

Submitted to:

PROF. MARIANITO DIMAANDAL Buhay, Mga Gawain at Sinulat ni Rizal


José Protasio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda was a Filipino polymath,

nationalist and the most prominent advocate for reforms in the Philippines during the Spanish colonial era. He is considered the Philippines' national hero and the anniversary of Rizal's death is commemorated as a Philippine holiday called Rizal Day. Rizal's 1896 military trial and execution made him a martyr of the Philippine Revolution. Jose Rizal was born, the seventh child of Francisco Mercado Rizal and Teodora Alonso y Quintos, on June 19, 1861. His parents belonged to the middle class and lived on the tenant land owned by the friars in Calamba,Laguna. At the age of 3, he learned the alphabet from his mother; at 5, while learning to read and write, he already showed inclinations to be an artist. He astounded his family and relatives by his pencil drawings and sketches and by his moldings of clay. At the age 8, he wrote a Tagalog poem, "Sa Aking Mga Kababata," the theme of which revolves on the love of one’s language. He attended the Ateneo Municipal de Manila, earning a Bachelor of Arts degree at the age of 16 with an average of “Excellent”. He enrolled in Medicine and Philosophy and Letters at the University of Santo Tomas and then travelled alone to Madrid, Spain, where he continued his studies at the Universidad Central de Madrid, earning the degree of Licentiate in Medicine. He attended the University of Paris and earned a second doctorate at the University of Heidelberg. Having traveled extensively in Europe, America and

Asia, Rizal was a polyglot conversant in at least 22 languages. These include Arabic, Catalan, Chinese, English, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Italian, Japanese, Latin, Malayan, Portuguese, Russian, Sanskrit, Spanish, Tagalog, and other native dialects. He was a prolific poet, essayist, diarist, correspondent, and novelist. In the hope of securing political and social reforms for his country and at the same time educate his countrymen, Rizal, the greatest apostle of Filipino nationalism, published, while in Europe, several works with highly nationalistic and revolutionary tendencies. In March 1887, his daring book, NOLI ME TANGERE, a satirical novel exposing the arrogance and despotism of the Spanish clergy, was published in Berlin; in 1890 he reprinted in Paris, Morga’s SUCCESSOS DE LAS ISLAS FILIPINAS with his annotations to prove that the Filipinos had a civilization worthy to be proud of even long before the Spaniards set foot on Philippine soil; on September 18, 1891, EL FILIBUSTERISMO, his second novel and a sequel to the NOLI and more revolutionary and tragic than the latter, was printed in Ghent. These publications are social commentaries on the Philippines that formed the nucleus of literature that inspired dissent among peaceful reformists and spurred the militancy of armed revolutionaries against the Spanish colonial authorities. Because of his fearless

exposures of the injustices committed by the civil and clerical officials, Rizal provoked the animosity of those in power. This led himself, his relatives and As a

countrymen into trouble with the Spanish officials of the country.

consequence, he and those who had contacts with him were shadowed; the authorities were not only finding faults but even fabricating charges to pin him down. As a political figure, Rizal was the founder of La Liga Filipina, a civic organization that subsequently gave birth to the Katipunan led by Andrés

Bonifacio and Emilio Aguinaldo. He was a proponent of institutional reforms by peaceful means rather than by violent revolution. The general consensus among Rizal scholars, however, attributed his martyred death as the catalyst that precipitated the Philippine Revolution. After Rizal's arrest and exile, it was disbanded and the group splintered into two factions; the more radical group formed into the Katipunan, the militant arm of the insurrection. He was a proponent of institutional reforms by peaceful means rather than by violent revolution. The general consensus among Rizal scholars, however, attributed his martyred death as the catalyst that precipitated the Philippine Revolution.


The Filipino people agonized beneath the yoke of Spanish misrule, for they

were unfortunate victims of the evils of an unjust, bigoted, and deteriorating colonial power. The instability of Spanish politics since the turbulent reign of King

Ferdinand VII (1808-1833) marked the beginning of political chaos in Spain. This political instability in Spain adversely affected Philippine affairs because it brought about frequent periodic shifts in colonial policies and periodic rigodon of colonial officials. From 1835 to 1897, the Philippines were ruled by 50 governors general, each serving an average term of only one year and three months. The frequent change of colonial officials hampered the political and economic development of the Philippines. The colonial officials (governors-general, judges, provincial executives, etc.) were corrupt, incompetent, cruel or venal. After the loss of Spanish colonies in

Mexico, Guatemala, Chile, Argentina, and others in Latin America, numerous penniless Spanish Sycophants came to the Philippines where they became judges, executives, army officers and government employees. profligate they are either arrogant or supercilious. In the 19th century when Rizal was born, the Philippine representation in Spanish Cortes, was abolished. This worsened the conditions in the Philippines Mostly ignorant and

because there were no means by which the Filipino people could expose the anomalies perpetrated by the colonial officials. Many Filipino patriots valiantly pleaded for the restoration of Philippine representation in the Cortes but it was never restored. No wonder the likes of Jose Rizal, M.H. del Pilar, Graciano Lopez Jaena, and other youthful patriots launched the Propaganda Movement, which paved the way for the Philippine Revolution of 1896. Human rights were denied to the Filipinos, and there was no equality before the law. To the imperialist way of thinking, brown Filipinos and white Spaniards

may be equal before God, but not before the law and certainly not in practice. There where maladministration of justice during Rizal’s time and were notoriously corrupt. Justice was costly, partial and slow. Poor Filipinos had no

access to the courts because they could not afford the heavy expenses of litigation. Wealth, social prestige, and color of skin were dominant factors in winning a case in court. Even Jose Rizal, brother Paciano and his mother, Teodora was unjustly arrested, deported or exiled to various part of the archipelago without due process of law. Racial discrimination was prevalent everywhere – in government offices, in the courts of justice, in the armed forces, in the social circles, and even in the educational institutions and in the ecclesiastical hierarchy.

The form of government in the 19th century in the Philippines was called “Frailocracy” a government by friars. The friars practically ruled the Philippines

through a facade of civil government. During Rizal’s time the friars belonging to different religious orders were the richest landlords in the Philippines for they owned the best haciendas. The rural folks who had been living in these haciendas and cultivating them generation after generation became tenants. Naturally, they resented the loss of their lands which belonged to their ancestors since pre-Spanish times; legally, however, the friars were recognized as legal owners of said lands because they obtained royal titles of ownership from the Spanish crown. These rules enforced forced labor known as the polo which the Filipinos came to hate, first because they were not paid enough and often times they were not paid. Secondly, Filipinos in the land were the only one forced to work. Thirdly, this annual forced labor caused so much inconvenience and suffering to the common people.

The last hated symbol of Spanish tyranny was the Guardia Civil which was created by the Royal Decree of February 12, 1852 for the purpose of maintaining internal peace and order in the Philippines. It was patterned after the famous Guardia Civil in Spain. While it is true that the Guardia Civil in the Philippines had rendered meritorious services in suppressing the bandits in the provinces, they later became infamous for their rampant abuses, such as maltreating innocent people, looting their carabaos, chickens and value belongings and raping helpless women. The officers of these guardian civil were ill-trained and undisciplined, unlike the Guardia Civil in Spain who were respected and well-liked by the populace. Rizal actually witnessed the atrocities committed by the Guardia Civil on the Calamba

folks. He himself and his mother had been victims of the brutalities of the lieutenant of the Guardia Civil.



Early Education Rizal had his early education in Calamba and Binan. It was a typical schooling that a son of an Ilustrado family received during his time, characterized by the four R’s - reading, writing, arithmetic, and religion. Instruction was rigid and strict. Knowledge was forced into the minds of the pupils by means of the tedious memory method aided by the teacher’s whip. Despite the defects of the Spanish system of elementary education, Rizal was able to acquire the necessary instruction preparatory for college work in Manila. It may be said that Rizal, who was born a physical weakling, rose to become an intellectual giant not because of, but rather in spite of, the outmoded and backward system of instruction obtaining in the Philippines during the last decades of Spanish regime.

Ateneo de Manila When young José himself left home to attend the Ateneo in Manila, he was a physically slight, but mentally precocious child. His brother insisted that he adopt the name Rizal in order to avoid the obvious stigma that the Alonzo y Mercado name had recieved from Paciano's association with Father Burgos, and the family's prominence in the native community. Despite this precaution, Rizal was a living

challenge to the illusions of Spanish racial superiority that dominated the minds of the Spanish colonials. Imbued with scripture by his devout mother, and a love for Tagalog poetry and song, Rizal excelled in his studies, and cast the mold of intellectual independence and nationalism that would lead him on the path to confrontation with the Catholic Church and the Spanish establishment. Following the rigid methodical habits which he had learned from his father and which were taught by his Jesuit teachers, he prepared a schedule so that he would not lose an hour: study and reading until four p.m.; four to five, exercise; five to six social and miscellaneous obligations. This careful husbanding of every minute began to show results almost at once. He began at the bottom of the school, but within a month he was "Emperor". The Ateneo had divided the students into two "empires", Roman and Carthaginian, to fight for academic supremacy. It was this war that soon brought young Rizal triumph and prizes. At the end of the first quarter he received the grade "Excellent". When one of the teachers hurt his feelings he stopped trying for honors, so that at the end of the year he came out second in the school and had no prizes. Though he still had the grade "excellent", he felt like a failure, and doubtless the disappointment of his father in Calamba added to his remorse. He never did less than his best again. The second year he was first and had won nearly all the prizes and medals there were to be had. The four years in the Ateneo were a continuous pageant of brilliant scholastic triumphs, which made José Rizal the pride of the Jesuits. His scholastic records at

the Ateneo from 1872 to 1877 were “Excellent” on all subjects. He graduated with a degree in Bachelor of Arts with highest honors. He was as good as he was brilliant. The Jesuits called him "a child excellent in religious sentiments, customs and application, with progress worthy of his signal talent”. Rizal, unsurpassed in academic triumphs, was not a mere bookworm. He was active in extra-curricular activities as well. He was an active member, later a secretary of a religious society, Marian Congregation. Rizal was also a member of the Academy of Spanish Literature and Academy of Natural Sciences. He also cultivated his literary talent under the guidance of Father Sanchez and continued to solicit the latter’s help in improving his poetry. Aside from poetry, he devoted his spare time to fine arts. He studied painting and sculpture and impressed his Jesuit professors with his artistic skills. Furthermore, Rizal, to develop his weak body, engaged in gymnastics and fencing. Medical Studies at the University of Santo Tomas Rizal who was then nearly 16 years old, enters the University of Santo Tomas, taking the course Philosophy and Letters. During his first school term in UST, Rizal also studied in Ateneo taking a vocational course leading to the title of perito agrimensor (expert surveyor). He continued to participate actively in the

Ateneo’s extra-curricular activities and much has his loyalty to his old school because much of his Jesuit professors love him and inspired him to ascend to greater heights unlike his Dominican educators.

Of this period in 1879, Rizal wrote, “My second year as a boarder [1876-77] was like the first, except that in that time there had been a great development of my patriotic sentiments, as well as an acute quickness of perception.” In the following year, 1878, his poem, “A la juventud filipina,” took the prize offered in Manila for the best poem by an Indio or mestizo. Rizal, Ateneo’s boy wonder was unhappy at this Dominican institution of higher learning because the Dominican professors were hostile to him, the Filipino students were racially discriminated against by the Spaniards, and the method of instruction was obsolete and repressive. Because of this, Rizal failed to win high scholastic honors. Although his grades in in his first year of the philosophy course were all “excellent”, they were not impressive in the four years of his medical course. After finishing the fourth year of his medical course, Rizal decided to study in Spain. He could no longer endure the rampant bigotry, discrimination, and hostility in the University of Santo Tomas whose faculty and clergy demanded that he assimilate to their system. The brothers decided that the only path left to José was to continue his studies in Spain—advice that echoed the suggestion of Father Burgos that intelligent Filipinos pursue their education abroad. Without the consent of his parents, whose condemnation he feared, Rizal accepted the sponsorship of his brother and uncle to relocate in Europe. The relationship between Paciano and Jose, where the elder brother committed himself to take care of the family while Rizal furthered his education and dedicated his life to his country's cause, reflected a conscious patriotic conspiracy to advance a republican movement in the Philippines.






Once in Spain, Rizal studied ophthalmic medicine at the Central University of Madrid, inspired to do so by his mother's loss of sight due to cataracts. Additionally, he pursued a degree in Philosophy and Letters, and studied art and fencing. In the three years of study in Madrid, Rizal demonstrated himself to be an outstanding student, receiving honors in many subjects, as well as passing his medical examinations. These were accomplishments never before achieved by a Filipino, and were rare even among the European students. Yet, Rizal never lost sight of his primary goal in Spain, which is alluded to in the first letter that he received from his brother: “To my way of thinking the principal object of your going is not to perfect yourself in this career, but in other matters of greater usefulness or, which comes to the same thing, in that to which you are most inclined.” From the beginning of his overseas activities, Rizal became deeply involved in the political life of the Philippine expatriate community. He wrote letters to the editors of leading newspapers and contributed articles to numerous Filipino publications, advocating justice for Filipino citizens and equality in representation before the Spanish Cortes.

A movement had grown up, organized mainly by students of the Filipino colony in Spain, which became known as the Propaganda Movement. It advocated their political interests, and fought to strengthen their identity and to defend their countrymen from detraction. As early as 1869, Manuel Regidor, a Spaniard who had been born in the Philippines, wrote articles and published books demanding reform in the Philippines. Later, Gregorio Sancianco, a Madrid attorney, wrote a book entitled El Progreso de Filipinos, which profiled in depth the resources, finances, administration, and economic potential of the Philippines. They were joined by many others besides Rizal. There were the writers Pedro Paterno, Graciano López Jaena, Pedro de Govantes, Marcelo Hilario del Pilar (known as Plaridel); and the artists Luna, Hidalgo, Zaragoza, and Villanueva, among others. Although they did have allies in Spain, they faced continuous claims of disloyalty to Spain. They were charged with undermining the authority of the Church and other alleged seditious activity that all came under the charge of “filibusterismo.”

Rizal addressed the issue of filibusterismo from Spain in 1884, after a period of unrest in the Philippines: “In the Philippines, all those are filibusteros in the towns who do not take off their hats on meeting a Spaniard, be the weather what it may; those who greet a friar and do not kiss his sweaty hand, if he is a priest, or his habit, if he is a lay-brother; those who manifest displeasure at being addressed by the familiar 'tú' by anyone and everyone, accustomed as they are to show respect and to receive it; those who are subscribers to some periodical of Spain or of Europe, even if it treat of literature, the sciences, or the fine arts; those who read books other than the novenas and fairy-stories of miracles of the girdle, the cord, or the scapular; those who in the elections of the gobernadorcillos vote for one who is not

the candidate of the parish priest; all those, in a word, who among normal civilized people are considered good citizens, friends of progress and enlightenment in the Philippines, are filibusteros, enemies of order, and, like lightning rods, attract on stormy days wrath and calamities.”




Jose Rizal, our national hero was one of the Filipinos who asked for reforms during the Spanish era. This was one of his best contributions in building our nation. These reforms will grant the ultimate dream of the reformists; assimilation. Filipinos will be given the rights that they deserve. Rizal choose to seek for reforms than to start a revolution because he knew that Philippines was not yet ready to stand on its own (during his time). Rizal used his liberal ideas in asking for reforms. Rizal denied the existence of the 1896 Revolution because he didn’t want his conscience to be marred by the blood of his countrymen who will inevitably suffer because of their unpreparedness for a full-scale revolution. Moreover, he believed that this will not make the Philippines a better country. The Philippine Revolution freed the Filipinos from the hands of the Spaniards. Although Rizal had revolutionary ideas, he was not for armed revolution per se. He was more for the gradual and peaceful one. One that is catalyzed by the education of the Filipino people. He reasoned out that when subject people are educated, intelligent, and have become aware of their human rights, they would have self-determination and they

would strive to be free from their mother country. When this revolution happens, drastic changes will occur in the political, economical, social, religious, and intelligence sphere of a society paving the way for its independence someday. Rizal reasoned out that when subject people are educated, intelligent, and have become aware of their human rights, they would have self-determination and they would strive to be free from their mother country. When this revolution happens, drastic changes will occur in the political, economical, social, religious, and intelligence sphere of a society paving the way for its independence someday. Even though Rizal did not actually support the revolution, we can say that he also contributed in this revolution. His works and writings were the corner stone of the revolution and he was indeed an inspiration for the Katipuneros during those times. Rizal’s life was devoted to his country (Philippines).



Global fellowship is one of Rizal’s greatest contributions in the world community. Dr. Jose Rizal has his own views and concepts about Global Fellowship which is synonymous to "Internationalism", "Worldwide Brotherhood", "International Alliance", and "Global Fellowship of Humankind". The fundamental cause or reason for having the absence of human rights is eradicated through the establishment of unity. One of Rizal's wishes is the presence

of equal rights, justice, dignity, and peace. The basis for the unity of mankind is religion and the "Lord of Creations"; because a mutual alliance that yearns to provide a large scope of respect in human faith is needed, despite of our differences in race, education, and age. One of the negative effects of colonialism is racial discrimination. The presence of a worldwide alliance intends to eradicate any form of discrimination based on race, status in life, or religion. Rizal wishes Peace to become an instrument that will stop the colonialism (colonization) of nations. This is also one of Rizal's concerns related to the "mutual understanding" expected from Spain but also from other countries. Similar to Rizal's protest against the public presentation (the use as exhibits) of the Igorots in Madrid in 1887 which, according to him, caused anger and misunderstanding from people who believed in the importance of one's race However, Rizal also knew that there are hindrances in achieving such a worldwide fellowship: Change and harmony can be achieved through the presence of unity among fellowmen (which is) the belief in one's rights, dignity, human worth, and in the equality of rights between genders and among nations. From one of the speeches of Rizal he said; “The Philippines will remain one with Spain if the laws are observed and carried out (in the Philippines), if the Philippine civilization is "given life" (enlivened), and if human rights will be respected and will be provided without any tarnish and forms of deceitfulness.”

Rizal's words revealed the hindrances against an aspired unity of humankind which are absence of human rights, wrong beliefs in the implementation of

agreements, taking advantage of other people, ignoring the wishes of the people and racial discrimination. From these hindrances, Rizal promoted global fellowship through formation of organizations; included here are known scientists recognized as the International Association of Filipinologists. Rizal believed in the goals of organizations that are related to the achievement of unity and freedom of humankind. He always had the time and opportunity to join into organizations. It’s been known to us that our national hero Dr. Jose Rizal is a traveler. In every journey, he was able to meet and befriend foreigners who sympathize with the experiences and events occurring in the Philippines. Before and during his exile at Dapitan, Rizal was able to keep in touch with his friends located in different parts of the world. He was also able to exchange opinions, writings and even specimens which he then studied and examined. One thing Rizal must have learned from his extensive study and travels in Europe and abroad is that since the Industrial Revolution, the growth of economies has been powered by continual technological innovation through the pursuit of scientific understanding and application of engineering solutions. Dr. Jose Rizal also left us with great literary works. The literary aspect of Rizal's works should commend itself to each of us as an inspiration to do our own duty. I think no man can read Rizal's novels without feeling his powerful impulse of sympathy for and understanding of the people of this country. We can be moved not only by his profound reading of human nature, but we can also be inspired to

emulate, if we may, the high level of talent for which his name will ever be famous in the history of literature. Rizal also made major contributions in science and technology. Rizal was drawn to the sciences because of its immutable laws, consistency, and predictive characteristic unlike the caprices and arbitrariness of a government of flawed individuals. His study of ophthalmologic medicine had been thorough. His mother, who lost her eyesight in 1887, encouraged him to take advanced training in the field. Thus, even after finishing his medical degree at the University of Madrid in 1885, he traveled extensively throughout Europe and trained under the leading

opthalmologists of his time. He visited Paris in 1885. There he apprenticed under Dr. Louis de Wecker, a famous eye surgeon who, as Rizal wrote to his parents in 1886, “can set in position crossed eyes in two minutes.” In 1882, Rizal successfully removed the cataract in his mother's left eye in Hong Kong. His patients grew in number that he had to put up small hospital houses around his property. Many of them came from as far as Iloilo, Cebu, Manila, and Hong Kong. As a respected man of science, Rizal wrote his Austrian friend and mentor, Prof. Ferdinand Blumetritt, the following words in 1980: “I have a big library; I shall have a house built on a hill. Then I shall dedicate myself to the sciences”.


Dr. Jose Rizal, our national hero left us with a very ambitious legacy. During the Spanish era, his works and writings focused on a lot of things like idealism, reform, education, nationalism, and also the moral side of the lives of the Filipinos. Rizal played a vital role in the development of national consciousness in our country. His works like the Noli me Tangere and El Filibusterismo made a big part in awakening the Filipinos about the country’s situation during the Spanish era. Education and science and technology were the means Dr. Jose Rizal, our National Hero, had intended to use to lift the Filipinos from the quagmire of poverty and ignorance. The social iniquities that Rizal sought ardently to address was key in his relentless pursuit of the truth, the universal truth, it must be added. Rizal was a profound student of anthropology and ethnology. He was driven to master these studies by the boorish behavior of the colonial Spaniards, who treated Filipinos as though they were by nature inferior. As a schoolboy, he was deeply insulted by their arrogance toward his people. He could not understand why he should be despised and looked down on because of his short stature and Malay features. In response, he took delight in standing at the

head of his class just to prove to himself that the Spaniards were no better than his own people. Moreover, he observed that when Europeans came to our shores, they seemed to regard the natives as a class fit solely for menial service. What moral right, he once asked, has the white man to look down on the men who have similar thoughts, studies and abilities as they just because their skin is brown, or their nose is flat? He resolved to get to the bottom of the matter and see if there was any material basis for such claims. While studying in Manila, he came to the conclusion that ability did not depend upon race or color. Yet even as a student abroad, Rizal kept his eyes open to see what truth there was in the view that he was an inferior being, which he found unacceptable. And he found none. In Madrid, he grew bitter after observing the great contrast between the freedom that Spain enjoyed and the theocratic rule back in his homeland. He became disgusted with the selfishness of the Spanish colonial administrators. Another Rizal's greatest service to humanity was those scientific impulses which he gave to the world as his study. His martyrdom was but another example of the determination of organized society in every age to eliminate those that, by the pure processes of reason, have arrived at new theories for the conduct and welfare of mankind. Jose Rizal’s greatest legacy was that he lived a full and meaningful life. It did not matter that he lived for only 34 years. He accomplished so much in such a short period of time because he had a vision in his mind and a mission in his heart. The

intensity of such mission and vision translated into action that enabled him not to waste time in any trivial matters but rather devote all of his time to the accomplishment of the mission and vision that he believed was given to him. The death of this outstanding man changed the course of Philippine history. We come to acknowledge this man today as our national hero, Jose Rizal. We are at all times asked to do not forget the death anniversary of the biggest individual that the Malayan race has ever invented. What was Jose Rizal's biggest bequest? Why was he selected to turn into our national hero? For most humans they believe that Jose Rizal was justifiably selected to turn into a national hero because he influenced majority of our revolutionary leaders through his writings and example though other humans believe that he will have to only be announced a hero not "the national hero. " most humans believed that Rizal's biggest bequest is his love for his country as embodied in his writings and the activities that he took. Rizal’s unbleached devotion to the good led to the building of our nation out of a colonized race. In word and deed, he lashed at the injustice and oppression of Spanish authority. His moral stature was sealed by his “immaculate and incomparable death.” And though he saw the breaking of the dawn, he never basked in its full light, dying before the country gained independence.


Nowadays, we are suffering from problems that we, humans made. We are still looking for answers without knowing that all we have to do is simply to look back in the life and works of our national hero, Dr. Jose Rizal Our national hero Dr. Jose Rizal accomplished a lot in his short but meaningful 34 years in this world. Rizal’s contributions to humanity and the world give answers to the problems that we’ve been encountering for the last century and most importantly today. In the last few months of 2009 we’ve been hit by different types of catastrophes. There’s “Ondoy”, “Peping” and lately the mass massacre in Maguindanao. These Catastrophes should’ve been resolved if only we could lead to the answer and examples provided by our national hero Dr. Jose Rizal. The “Maguindanao Massacre” which is also considered as one of the darkest event in Philippine Journalism could have been resolved if the government would simply follow the political philosophies of our national hero Dr. Jose Rizal. He bitterly assailed and criticized in publications the apparent backwardness of the Spanish ruler’s method of governing the country which resulted in the abuse of power by means of exploitation. Rizal’s guiding political philosophy proved to be the study and application of reforms, the extension of human rights and the arousing of spirit of discontent over oppression, brutality, inhumanity, sensitiveness and self love. Global warming is also one of the biggest crises that we should work considering the fact that scientists and experts said that this is just the beginning. To think that we’ve been deeply affected so much by this dilemma. Just look at its

effects when super typhoons “Ondoy” and “Peping” came and flooded the whole Luzon. Dr. Jose Rizal contributed a lot when it comes to scientific research. In the scientific aspect of his teachings Rizal ranked high in public appreciation, higher indeed in other countries than at that time he was allowed to rank here. He was recognized for his scientific work in ethnology, in zoology, and in botany in England and in the leading universities of Germany If Rizal were alive today, no doubt he would have been gravely concerned with the state of our environment brought about by reckless and unsustainable development strategies and imperatives. In seeking to develop a comprehensive response to the challenge of environment, Rizal's thoroughness would have directed him to the address the technological, financial, and regulatory dimensions of specific problems. Yet I feel he would not have stopped at that. Rizal would have pushed for consensus-building at a more profound level: through dialogue and exchange, sharing and examining our respective views on nature, on the relation between humanity and nature, on our values. We have our own control on this growing issue of global warming and the best that we could do is follow the examples given by our national hero Dr. Jose Rizal.

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