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May 2011

DIN EN 15011
ICS 53.020.20

Cranes
Bridge and gantry cranes
English translation of DIN EN 15011:2011-05
Krane
Brcken- und Portalkrane
Englische bersetzung von DIN EN 15011:2011-05

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Appareils de levage charge suspendue


Ponts roulants et portiques
Traduction anglaise de DIN EN 15011:2011-05

Document comprises 95 pages

Translation by DIN-Sprachendienst.
In case of doubt, the German-language original shall be considered authoritative.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05

A comma is used as the decimal marker.

Start of application
The start of application of this standard is 1 May 2011.

National foreword
This standard includes safety requirements.
This standard has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 147 Cranes Safety, (Secretariat: BSI,
United Kingdom).
The responsible German body involved in its preparation was the Normenausschuss Maschinenbau
(Mechanical Engineering Standards Committee), Steering Group CEN/TC 147 ISO/TC 96 Krane.
It should be noted that the term crane as in this standard includes all machines for cyclic lifting, or cyclic
lifting and handling, of loads suspended on hooks or other load lifting attachments. This means that this
standard applies to all other equipment, such as winches, which meets this definition.
This standard contains specifications meeting the essential requirements set out in Annex I of the Machinery
Directive, Directive 2006/42/EC, and which apply to machines that are either first placed on the market or
commissioned within the EEA. This standard serves to facilitate proof of compliance with the essential
requirements of the directive.

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Once this standard is cited in the Official Journal of the European Union, it is deemed a harmonized
standard and thus, a manufacturer applying this standard may assume compliance with the requirements of
the Machinery Directive (presumption of conformity).
The European Standards referred to in Clause 2 and in the Bibliography of this document have been
published as the corresponding DIN EN or DIN EN ISO Standards with the same number. The International
Standards and publications referred to in this document have been published as the corresponding DIN ISO
Standards with the same number, except for those below, which correspond as follows:
ISO 6336-1:2006

DIN 3990-1:1987-12 (similar)

ISO 7752-5

DIN 15025:1978-01 (similar)

National Annex NA
(informative)
Bibliography

DIN 3990-1:1987-12, Calculation of load capacity of cylindrical gears Introduction and general influence
factors
DIN 15025:1978-01, Cranes Direction of actuation and arrangement of controls in crane cabins

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EN 15011

EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPENNE
EUROPISCHE NORM

January 2011

ICS 53.020.20

English Version

Cranes
Bridge and gantry cranes
Appareils de levage charge suspendue
Ponts roulants et portiques

Krane
Brcken- und Portalkrane

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 18 December 2010.


CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European
Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national
standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.
This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation
under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same
status as the official versions.

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CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,
Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland,
Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION


COMIT EUROPEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPISCHES KOMITEE FR NORMUNG

Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

2011 CEN

All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved


worldwide for CEN national Members.

Ref. No. EN 15011:2011: E

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

Contents
Page
Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3

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Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................4
1

Scope ......................................................................................................................................................5

2

Normative references ............................................................................................................................5

3

Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................7

4

List of significant hazards ....................................................................................................................8

5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7

Safety requirements and/or protective measures ........................................................................... 14


General ................................................................................................................................................. 14
Requirements for strength and stability .......................................................................................... 14
Electrotechnical equipment ............................................................................................................... 28
Non-electrotechnical equipment ....................................................................................................... 30
Limiting and indicating devices ........................................................................................................ 36
Man-machine interface ....................................................................................................................... 39
Equipment for warning ....................................................................................................................... 42

6
6.1
6.2
6.3

Verification of safety requirements and/or protective measures .................................................. 43


General ................................................................................................................................................. 43
Types of verification ........................................................................................................................... 44
Fitness for purpose testing ............................................................................................................... 46

7
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4

Information for use ............................................................................................................................. 48


General ................................................................................................................................................. 48
Operators manual .............................................................................................................................. 49
Users manual ..................................................................................................................................... 49
Marking of rated capacities ............................................................................................................... 51

Annex A (informative) Guidance for specifying the operating duty according to EN 13001-1 ................ 53
Annex B (informative) Guidance for specifying the classes P of average number of accelerations
according to EN 13001-1 .................................................................................................................... 62
Annex C (informative) Calculation of dynamic coefficient h(t)................................................................... 63
Annex D (normative) Loads caused by skewing .......................................................................................... 66
Annex E (informative) Calculation of stall load factor for indirect acting lifting force limiter .................. 73
Annex F (informative) Local stresses in wheel supporting flanges ............................................................ 75
Annex G (normative) Noise test code ............................................................................................................ 80
Annex H (informative) Actions on crane supporting structures induced by cranes ................................ 89
Annex I (informative) Selection of a suitable set of crane standards for a given application.................. 91
Annex ZA (informative) Relationship between this European standard and the Essential
Requirements of EU Directive 2006/42/EC ....................................................................................... 92
Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 93

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

Foreword
This document (EN 15011:2011) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 147 Cranes - Safety,
the secretariat of which is held by BSI.
This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical
text or by endorsement, at the latest by July 2011, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the
latest by July 2011.
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent
rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.
This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the
European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive(s).
For relationship with EU Directive(s), see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of this document.

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According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following
countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,
Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,
Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

Introduction
This European Standard has been prepared to be a harmonised standard to provide one means for bridge
and gantry cranes to conform with the essential health and safety requirements of the Machinery Directive, as
mentioned in Annex ZA.
As many of the hazards related to bridge and gantry cranes relate to their operating environment and use, it is
assumed in the preparation of this European Standard that all the relevant information relating to the use and
operating environment of the crane has been exchanged between the manufacturer and user (as
recommended in ISO 9374, Parts 1 and 5), covering such issues as, for example:

clearances;

requirements concerning protection against hazardous environments;

processed materials, such as potentially flammable or explosive material (e.g. coal, powder type
materials).

This standard is a type C standard as stated in EN ISO 12100-1.


The machinery concerned and the extent to which hazards, hazardous situations and hazardous events are
covered, are indicated in the scope of this European Standard.

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When provisions of this type C standard are different from those which are stated in type A or B standards, the
provisions of this type C standard take precedence over the provisions of the other standards, for machines
that have been designed and built according to the provisions of this type C standard.

4
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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

Scope

This European Standard applies to bridge and gantry cranes mounted in a fixed position or free to travel by
wheels on rails, runways or roadway surfaces. This European Standard is not applicable to non-fixed load
lifting attachments, erection and dismantling operations, runways and supporting structures nor does it cover
additional loads due to the mounting of cranes on a floating or tilting base.
This European Standard specifies requirements for all significant hazards, hazardous situations and events
relevant to bridge and gantry cranes when used as intended and under conditions foreseen by the
manufacturer (see Clause 4).
This European Standard does not include requirements for the lifting of persons.
The specific hazards due to potentially explosive atmospheres, ionising radiation and operation in
electromagnetic fields beyond the range of EN 61000-6-2 are not covered by this European Standard.
This European Standard is applicable to bridge and gantry cranes manufactured after the date of its
publication as an EN.

Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated
references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced
document (including any amendments) applies.
EN 81-43, Safety rules for the construction and installation of lifts Special lifts for the transport of persons
and goods Part 43: Lifts for cranes

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EN 349, Safety of machinery Minimum gaps to avoid crushing of parts of the human body
EN 795, Protection against falls from a height Anchor devices Requirements and testing
EN 894-1, Safety of machinery Ergonomics requirements for the design of displays and control actuators
Part 1: General principles for human interactions with displays and control actuators
EN 894-2, Safety of machinery Ergonomics requirements for the design of displays and control actuators
Part 2: Displays
EN 953, Safety of machinery Guards General requirements for the design and construction of fixed and
movable guards
EN 1993-6:2007, Eurocode 3 Design of steel structures Part 6: Crane supporting structures
EN 12077-2:1998+A1:2008, Cranes safety Requirements for health and safety Part 2: Limiting and
indicating devices
EN 12385-4, Steel wire ropes Safety Part 4: Stranded ropes for general lifting applications
EN 12644-1, Cranes Information for use and testing Part 1: Instructions
EN 12644-2, Cranes Information for use and testing Part 2: Marking
EN 13001-1, Cranes General design Part 1: General principles and requirements
EN 13001-2:2004+A3:2009, Crane safety General design Part 2: Load effects
prEN 13001-3-1, Cranes General Design Part 3-1: Limit States and proof competence of steel structures

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

CEN/TS 13001-3-2, Cranes General design Part 3-2: Limit states and proof of competence of wire ropes
in reeving systems
EN 13135-1, Cranes Equipment Part 1: Electrotechnical equipment
EN 13135-2:2004+A1:2010, Cranes Equipment Part 2: Non-electrotechnical equipment
EN 13155, Cranes Safety Non-fixed load lifting attachments
EN 13157, Cranes Safety Hand powered cranes
EN 13557:2004, Cranes Controls and control stations
EN 13586:2004+A1:2008, Cranes Access
EN 14492-2, Cranes Power driven winches and hoists Part 2: Power driven hoists
EN 60204-11, Safety of machinery Electrical equipment of machines Part 11: Requirements for HV
equipment for voltages above 1000 V a.c. or 1500 V d.c. and not exceeding 36 kV (IEC 60204-11:2000)
EN 60204-32:2008, Safety of machinery Electrical equipment of machines Part 32: Requirements for
hoisting machines (IEC 60204-32:2008)
HD 60364-4-41, Low-voltage electrical installations Part 4-41: Protection for safety Protection against
electric shock (IEC 60364-4-41:2005, mod.)
EN 60825-1, Safety
(IEC 60825-1:2007)

of

laser

products

Part

1:

Equipment

classification

and

requirements

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EN 60947-5-5, Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 5-5: Control circuit devices and switching
elements Electrical emergency stop device with mechanical latching function (IEC 60947-5-5:1997)
EN ISO 3744:2010, Acoustics Determination of sound power levels and sound energy levels of noise
sources using sound pressure Engineering methods for an essentially free field over a reflecting plane
(ISO 3744:2010)
EN ISO 4871, Acoustics Declaration and verification of noise emission values of machinery and equipment
(ISO 4871:1996)
EN ISO 11201, Acoustics Noise emitted by machinery and equipment Determination of emission sound
pressure levels at a work station and at other specified positions in an essentially free field over a reflecting
plane with negligible environmental corrections (ISO 11201:2010)
EN ISO 11202:2010, Acoustics Noise emitted by machinery and equipment Determination of emission
sound pressure levels at a work station and at other specified positions applying approximate environmental
corrections (ISO 11202:2010)
EN ISO 11203:2009, Acoustics Noise emitted by machinery and equipment Determination of emission
sound pressure levels at a work station and at other specified positions from the sound power level
(ISO 11203:1995)
EN ISO 11204:2010, Acoustics Noise emitted by machinery and equipment Determination of emission
sound pressure levels at a work station and at other specified positions applying accurate environmental
corrections (ISO 11204:2010)
EN ISO 11688-1, Acoustics Recommended practice for the design of low-noise machinery and equipment
Part 1: Planning (ISO/TR 11688-1:1995)
EN ISO 12100-1:2003, Safety of machinery Basic concepts, general principles for design Part 1: Basic
terminology, methodology (ISO 12100-1:2003)

6
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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

EN ISO 12100-2:2003, Safety of machinery Basic concepts, general principles for design Part 2:
Technical principles (ISO 12100-2:2003)
EN ISO 13732-1, Ergonomics of the thermal environment Methods for the assessment of human
responses to contact with surfaces Part 1: Hot surfaces (ISO 13732-1:2006)
EN ISO 13849-1:2008, Safety of machinery Safety-related parts of control systems Part 1: General
principles for design (ISO 13849-1:2006)
EN ISO 13857, Safety of machinery Safety distances to prevent hazard zones being reached by upper and
lower limbs (ISO 13857:2008)
ISO 2631-1, Mechanical vibration and shock Evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration
Part 1: General requirements
ISO 3864 (all parts), Graphical symbols Safety colours and safety signs
ISO 6336-1, Calculation of load capacity of spur and helical gears Part 1: Basic principles, introduction and
general influence factors
ISO 7752-5, Lifting appliances Controls Layout and characteristics Part 5: Overhead travelling cranes
and portal bridge cranes
ISO 12488-1, Cranes Tolerances for wheels and travel and traversing tracks Part 1: General

Terms and definitions

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For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in
EN ISO 12100-1:2003,
EN ISO 3744:2010, EN ISO 11202:2010, EN ISO 11203:2009, EN ISO 11204:2010 and the following apply.
3.1
bridge crane
crane, fixed or able to move along track(s) having at least one primarily horizontal girder and equipped with at
least one hoisting mechanism
NOTE

Building structures, where hoists are mounted, are not regarded as bridge cranes.

3.2
gantry crane
crane, fixed or able to move along track(s)/roadway surfaces having at least one primarily horizontal girder
supported by at least one leg and equipped with at least one hoisting mechanism
NOTE

Building structures, where hoists are mounted, are not regarded as gantry cranes.

3.3
rated capacity
mRC
maximum net load (the sum of the payload and non-fixed load-lifting attachment) that the crane is designed to
lift for a given crane configuration and load location during normal operation
3.4
hoist load
mH
sum of the masses of the load equal to the rated capacity, the fixed lifting attachment and the hoist medium
3.5
hoist medium
part of the hoisting mechanism, either rope, belt or chain, by which the fixed load lifting attachment is
suspended

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

3.6
underhung crane
bridge crane suspended from the lower flange of the crane track
3.7
direct acting rated capacity limiter
limiter acting directly in the chain of drive elements and limiting the transmitted force
NOTE
Those limiters can be, for example, friction torque limiters, pressure limiting valves. Directing acting rated
capacity limiters generally have no response delay.

3.8
indirect acting capacity limiter
limiter determining the transmitted force by measured signals and switching off the energy supply for the
operation and, if required, triggering application of the brake torque

List of significant hazards

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Table 1 of this clause contains all the significant hazards, hazardous situations and events, as far as they are
dealt with in this European Standard, identified by risk assessment as significant for this type of machinery
and which require action to eliminate or reduce the risk.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

Table 1 List of significant hazards and associated requirements


No.

1
1.1
1.1.2
1.1.3
1.1.4
1.1.5
1.2
1.2.2
1.3
1.3.1
1.3.2
1.3.3
1.3.5
1.3.6
1.3.9

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2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5

Hazard (as listed in EN 1050:1996)

Mechanical hazards
Generated by machine parts or work pieces, e.g.
by:
relative location
mass and stability
mass and velocity
inadequacy of mechanical strength
Accumulation of energy inside the machinery,
e.g. by:
fluids under pressure
Elementary forms of mechanical hazards
Crushing
Shearing
Cutting or severing
Drawing-in or trapping hazard
- moving transmission parts
Impact
High pressure fluid injection or ejection hazard
Electrical hazards due to:
Contact of persons with live parts (direct contact)
Contact of persons with parts which have
become live under faulty conditions (indirect
contact)
Approach to live parts under high voltage
Electrostatic phenomena
Thermal radiation or other phenomena such as
the projection of molten particles and chemical
effects from short-circuits, overloads, etc.

Relevant clause(s)
in this European
Standard

5.6.2
5.2
5.2, 5.3.6, 5.4.4,
5.6.1
5.2
5.4.1
5.1, 5.6.2, 7.2
5.6.2.4
5.6.2.5, 5.6.2.6
5.5.3.1, 7.2
7.3.3
5.3
5.3.2, 5.3.3
5.1
5.3
5.3.1
5.1

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

Table 1 List of significant hazards and associated requirements (continued)


No.

3
3.1

Thermal hazards, resulting in:


burns and scalds, by possible
contact of persons with objects or
materials with an extreme temperature,
by flames, by radiation, etc.

3.2

Hot or cold working environment

Hazards generated by noise, resulting in:

4.1
4.2

Hearing losses
Interference with speech communication,
signals

5
5.2

Hazards generated by vibration


Whole body vibration, particularly when
combined with poor postures

6
6.0
6.5

Radiation
External radiation
Lasers

Processed materials and substances,


used materials, fuels
Hazards from contact with harmful fluids,
gases, mists, fumes and dusts
Fire or explosion hazard

7.1
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Hazard (as listed in EN 1050:1996)

7.2

8
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.6
8.7
8.8

Neglected ergonomic principles in


machine design, e.g. hazards from:
Unhealthy postures or excessive efforts
Inadequate consideration of hand-arm or
foot-leg anatomy
Neglected use of personal protection
equipment
Inadequate local lighting
Human errors, human behaviour
Inadequate design, location or
identification of manual controls
Inadequate design or location of visual
display units

Relevant clause(s)
in this European
Standard
5.4.8.1, 7.3.3

5.6.1

5.6.4
5.6.4, 7.3.1

5.2.2.6, 5.6.1

See Introduction
5.4.8.2

5.4.8.4
See Introduction
5.4.8.3
See Introduction

5.6.1
5.6.1
7.3.3
5.6.3
5.5.2
5.3.5, 5.6.1
5.7

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

Table 1 List of significant hazards and associated requirements (continued)


No.

10

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10.1

Hazard (as listed in EN 1050:1996)

Unexpected start-up, unexpected


overrun/over speed (or any similar
malfunction) from:
Failure/disorder of control systems

Relevant clause(s)
in this European
Standard

5.3.4

10.3

External influences on electrical


equipment

5.3.5.3, 5.4.2

10.4

Other external influences (gravity,


wind, etc.)

10.5
10.6

Errors in the software


Errors made by the operator (due to
mismatch of machinery with human
characteristics and abilities, see No.
8.6)

5.3.5.3, 5.3.6,
5.4.2, 5.5.2.2, 5.5.4
b) and c)
5.3.4, 5.3.5.3, 5.4.2
5.3.5.3, 5.4.2

11
13

Impossibility of stopping the machine


in the best possible conditions
Failure of the power supply

5.4.4.1, 5.4.5.1,
5.5.2.2
5.3, 5.4.2

14
16

Failure of the control circuit


Break-up during operation

5.3, 5.6.1, 5.4.2


5.2, 5.4.3.6.1, 7.3.3

16.1

Thermal effect on the crane

5.3

17

Falling or ejected object or fluid

5.4.1, 7.3.3

18

Loss of stability / overturning of


machinery

5.2.3

19

Slip, trip and falling of persons


(related to machinery)

5.6.2

20

Relating to the travelling function

20.2

Movement without an operator at the


driving position

5.3.5.3, 5.3.6, 5.6.1

20.4

Excessive speed of pedestrian


controlled machinery
Excessive oscillations when moving

5.6.1

20.5
20.6

Insufficient ability of machinery to be


slowed down, stopped and
immobilized

20.7

From derailment due to travelling

5.4.4.3, 5.5.4 e),


7.2
5.4.3.6.1, 5.4.4,
5.5.2.2, 7.2
5.4.4.5

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

Table 1 List of significant hazards and associated requirements (continued)


No.

21

Linked to the work position (including


driving station) on the machine

21.1

Fall of persons during access to (or


at/from) the work position
Exhaust gases / lack of oxygen at the
work position
Fire (flammability of the cab, lack of
extinguishing means)

21.2
21.3
21.4

21.5

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Hazard (as listed in EN 1050:1996)

Mechanical hazards at the work


position
- contact with the wheels
- fall of objects, penetration by object
- contact of persons with machine parts
or tools (pedestrian control)
Insufficient visibility from the working
position

Relevant clause(s)
in this European
Standard

5.6.2
5.4.8.4.1
5.4.8.3, 5.6.1

5.6.2.5,
5.6.1
5.6.1

21.6

Inadequate lighting

5.6.3

21.7

Inadequate seating

5.6.1

21.8

Noise at the driving position

5.6.4

21.9

Vibration at the driving position

5.6.1

21.10

Insufficient means of
evacuation/emergency exit

5.6.2, 5.4.8.3

22

Due to the control system

5.6.1

22.1

Inadequate location of controls /control


devices
Inadequate design of the actuation
mode and/or action mode of controls
From handling the machine (lack of
stability)
From/to third persons
Unauthorized start-up/use

5.6.1

Drift of a part away from its stopping


position
Lack or inadequacy of visual or
acoustic warning means

5.4.5.2

22.2
23
25
25.1
25.2
25.3

5.6.1
5.4.4.3

5.7

26

Insufficient instructions for the driver /


operator

26.1

Movement into prohibited area

5.5.3.1, 7.2

26.2

Tipping - Swinging

7.2

26.3

Collision: machines-machine

26.4

Collision: machines-persons

26.5

Ground conditions

5.5.3.1, 5.5.3.3,
5.5.4 e), 7.2
5.5.3.1, 5.5.4 e),
7.2
7.3.1

26.6

Supporting conditions

7.3.1

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

Table 1 List of significant hazards and associated requirements (continued)


No.

Relevant clause(s)
in this European
Standard

27
27.1

Mechanical hazards and events


from load falls, collision, machine tipping
caused by:

27.1.1

lack of stability

5.2.3, 5.4.8.5

27.1.2

Uncontrolled loading - overloading


overturning moment exceeded

27.1.3

Uncontrolled amplitude of movements

5.2.1.5, 5.2.1.6,
5.4.3.1 to 5.4.3.4,
5.4.8.5, 5.5.1,
5.5.2.1, 5.5.4 a)
5.5.3.3, 7.2

27.1.4

Unexpected/unintended movement of
loads

5.3.4, 5.4.1, 5.4.2,


5.4.3.1, 5.6, 7.2

27.1.5

Inadequate holding devices / accessories

5.4.1, 7.2

27.1.6
27.1.7
27.2
27.3

Collision of more than one machine


Two-block of hook to hoist
From access of persons to load support
From derailment

5.5.3.1, 5.5.3.3
5.4.3.1, 5.5.3.2
7.2
5.4.4.5, 5.4.4.6

27.4

From insufficient mechanical strength of


parts
Loss of mechanical strength, or
inadequate mechanical strength
From inadequate design of pulleys, drums

5.2, 5.4.3, 5.4.5.3,


5.4.6, 5.4.7, 7.3.3

27.6

From inadequate selection/ integration into


the machine of chains, ropes, lifting
accessories

5.2, 5.4.1, 5.4.3.1,


5.4.3.6.2, 7.2

27.7

From lowering of the load by


friction brake

5.4.1

27.8

From abnormal conditions of assembly /


testing / use / maintenance

5.4.3.6.3, 5.5.4 d)

27.9

Load-person interference (impact by load)

5.6.1, 5.7, 7.2, 7.3.1

28

Electrical hazard

28.1
29

from lightning
Hazards generated by neglecting
ergonomic principles

7.3.3

29.1

insufficient visibility from the driving


position

5.6.1, 5.6.3

27.5
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Hazard (as listed in EN 1050:1996)

5.2, 5.4.1, 5.4.3.1

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

Safety requirements and/or protective measures

5.1

General

Bridge and gantry cranes shall comply with the safety requirements and/or protective measures of Clause 5.
In addition, these cranes shall be designed according to the principles of EN ISO 12100-2 for relevant but not
significant hazards, which are not dealt with by this European Standard.

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Bridge and gantry cranes shall be in accordance with the following standards as amended by this European
Standard:

EN 13001-1, Cranes General design Part 1: General principles and requirements;

EN 13001-2, Cranes General design Part 2: Load effects;

prEN 13001-3-1, Cranes General Design Part 3-1: Limit States and proof competence of steel
structures;

CEN/TS 13001-3-2, Cranes General design Part 3-2: Limit states and proof of competence of wire
ropes in reeving systems;

EN 13135-1, Cranes Equipment Part 1: Electrotechnical equipment;

EN 13135-2, Cranes Equipment Part 2: Non-electrotechnical equipment;

EN 13155, Cranes Safety Non-fixed load lifting attachments;

EN 13157, Cranes Safety Hand powered cranes;

EN 13557, Cranes Controls and control stations;

EN 12077-2, Cranes safety Requirements for health and safety Part 2: Limiting and indicating
devices;

EN 13586, Cranes Access;

EN 12644-1, Cranes Information for use and testing Part 1: Instructions;

EN 12644-2, Cranes Information for use and testing Part 2: Marking;

EN 60204-32, Safety of machinery Electrical equipment of machines Part 32: Requirements for
hoisting machines (IEC 60204-32:2008).

The requirements of this European Standard are not applicable to power driven hoist units, designed in
accordance with EN 14492-2, and incorporated in a bridge and gantry cranes. These hoist units shall be
selected accordance to the principles depicted within A.4.

5.2

Requirements for strength and stability

5.2.1
5.2.1.1

Load actions
Selection of service conditions

The service conditions that are selected and used as the basis of design, in accordance with EN 13001-1 and
EN 13001-2, shall be specified in the technical file of the crane.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

For cranes located outdoors, the recurrence period according to EN 13001-2 for out of service wind shall be not
less than:

25 years for cranes located in coastal areas;

10 years for cranes located inland;

5 years for indoor cranes which may occasionally work and/or be parked outdoors.

NOTE
Guidance for specifying the operation duty is given in Annex A. For information needed for the derivation of
classification parameters see also ISO 9374-5.

5.2.1.2

Selection of loads and load combinations

The basic load combinations for


EN 13001-2:2004+A3:2009, Table 10.

the

load

calculation

shall

be

selected

in

accordance

with

Where cranes work in atmospheres contaminated by process debris, such material accumulations deposited
upon the upper surfaces of the crane shall be taken into account in the dead load computation.
5.2.1.3

Determination of dynamic factors

5.2.1.3.1

Hoisting and gravity effects acting on the mass of the crane

The masses of the crane shall be multiplied with factor 1 = 1 + when calculating the stresses in load
combinations in accordance with EN 13001-2.
For cranes belonging to the mass distribution class MDC1, = 0,1 and 1 = 1,10.

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For cranes belonging to the mass distribution class MDC2, which have both favourable and unfavourable
effects, the dynamic factor shall be taken as 1 = 1,10 for unfavourable effects and 1 = 0,90 for favourable
effects.
5.2.1.3.2
5.2.1.3.2.1

Determination of factor 2
General principles

The hoist load shall be multiplied by factor 2 that represents the additional dynamic force applied on the
crane, when the weight of a grounded load is transferred on the hoisting medium (ropes or chains).
When assuming the most extreme conditions, the hoisting medium is slack whilst the hoist mechanism
reaches its maximum hoisting speed. In this condition the dynamic additional force is directly proportional to
the hoisting speed, with a coefficient that depends upon the stiffness properties and mass distribution of the
crane ( 2 in EN 13001-2). A calculation model for the determination of the dynamic rope force history at the
hoisting event, and resulting theoretical factor 2t, is presented in Annex C.
In physical crane operation there are other factors that influence the actual dynamic effect, such as control
systems, dampening and flexibility of other than main components (e.g. hoist slings, other lifting devices, load
itself, crane foundation). These dependencies and determination of factor 2 are represented by hoisting
classes in EN 13001-2.
When hoisting class is used it shall be selected according to 5.2.1.3.2.3.
The hoisting speed used for the determination of the dynamic coefficient shall reflect the actual use and
possible exceptional events of the crane in a realistic way. Two events shall be considered as follows:

crane in normal use where hoisting commences at a mechanism controlled speed from a slack rope
condition cases A and B as per EN 13001-2;

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

exceptional case where hoisting commences at mechanism maximum speed from slack rope condition
case C as per EN 13001-2.

Guidance on selection of hoisting speeds is given in 5.2.1.3.2.4.


5.2.1.3.2.2

Calculation of the theoretical factor 2t

The theoretical dynamic factor 2t is used for the determination of the hoisting class as defined in EN 13001-2.
It shall be estimated in one of the following ways:
make a complete dynamic simulation taking into account the elastic, inertial and dampening
properties. The maximum force in the hoisting medium during time of the first 3 s represents the hoist
load multiplied by factor 2t;
where applicable, the rope force history h(t) may be calculated in accordance with Annex C.
2t = max{h(t); t < 3 s}. (A similar simulation can be used for a crane with a chain hoist.);
use one of the simplified Equation (1).
a) for a crane with a rope hoist:

2t = 1 +

2 .8 v h , max
Rr lr
0, 45 +
1500 Z a

1/ 2

b) for a crane with a chain hoist:

2t = 1 +

2.8 v h ,max
f l
0,45 + uc c
150 Z a

1/ 2

(1)

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where

vh,max

is the maximum steady hoisting speed in metres per second;

Rr

is the rope grade according to EN 12385-4;

fuc

is the ultimate strength of the chain steel in newtons per square millimetre;

lr, lc

is the length of rope/chain fall in metres;

Za

is the actual coefficient of utilization of the rope/chain (total breaking force of the rope/chain
reeving system / hoist load).

The length lr / lc shall be taken as the typical distance between the upper and lower rope sheaves / chain
sprockets, when hoisting a grounded load. Where a loaded part, or all of the hoist media deviates from the
vertical, the length of the rope/chain fall shall be adjusted to give the equivalent flexibility in vertical direction.
NOTE
This simplified equation takes into account the rigidity and the masses of the crane parts and load and gives
values which are approximately same as calculated according to Annex C.

5.2.1.3.2.3

Selection of hoisting class

The hoisting class shall be determined in accordance with Table 2.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

Table 2 Selection of hoisting class


Condition

5.2.1.3.2.4

Hoisting class

2t

1,07 + 0,24vh,max

HC1

1,07 + 0,24vh,max

< 2t

1,12 + 0,41vh,max

HC2

1,12 + 0,41vh,max

< 2t

1,17 + 0,58vh,max

HC3

1,17 + 0,58vh,max

< 2t

HC4

Selection of the hoisting speed

The hoisting speed representing the normal use in load combinations A and B, and an exceptional occurrence
in load combination C, shall be selected according to the hoist drive class, HD, provided by the system and in
EN 13001-2:2004+A3:2009, Table 3.
5.2.1.3.2.5

Determination of 2 and hoisting class by testing

The dynamic factor 2 can also be determined by measurement from an equivalent crane. The values
measured with different hoisting speeds shall be directly used in calculations, without reference to a hoisting
class.
NOTE
The dynamic increment of deflections found by measurement or dynamic simulation may include the dynamic
effects from the mass of the crane including the trolley, see 5.2.1.3.1. The portion represented by the factor = 0,1 could
be removed from the evaluation of the final 2 to avoid it being considered twice in 1 and also in 2.

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5.2.1.3.3

Load caused by travelling on uneven surfaces

The dynamic actions on the crane by travelling, with or without hoist load, on roadway or on rail tracks shall be
considered by the specific factor 4.
For continuous rail tracks or welded rail tracks with finished ground joints without notches (steps or gaps) the
specific factor 4 = 1.
For roadways or rail tracks with notches (steps or gaps) the specific factor 4 shall be calculated according to
EN 13001-2:2004+A3:2009, 4.2.2.3. For rubber tyred cranes the flexibility of the tyre shall be taken into
account.
5.2.1.3.4

Loads caused by acceleration of drives

For crane drive motions, the change in load effect, S, caused by acceleration or deceleration is presented by
the following equation:
S = S(f) - S(i)

(2)

where
S(f)

is the final load effect;

S(i)

is the initial load effect.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

The change in load effects, S, is caused by the change of drive force, F, given by the equation:

NOTE 1

F = F(f) - F(i)
where
F(f) is the final drive force; and
F(i) is the initial drive force.

Loads induced in a crane by acceleration or deceleration caused by drive forces may be calculated using rigid
body kinetic models. The load effect S shall be applied to the components exposed to the drive forces and
where applicable to the crane and the hoist load as well. As a rigid body analysis does not directly reflect
elastic effects, the load effect S shall be calculated by using an amplification factor 5 defined in
EN 13001-2:2004+A3:2009, 4.2.2.4 as follows:
S = S(i) + p 5 a m

(3)

where
S(i) is the initial load effect caused by F(i);
5

is the amplification factor;

is the factor for effect of sequential positioning movements;

is the acceleration or deceleration value;

is the mass for which a applies.

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The factor 5 shall be taken from Tables 3 and 4 unless more accurate factors are available from elastic model
calculations or measurements. The factor p shall be taken from Table 5.
Where the force S is limited by friction or by the nature of the drive mechanism, this frictional force shall be
used instead of calculated force S.
Table 3 Factor 5 for travel, traverse and slewing mechanism
Factor 5
Drive type

Stepless speed control

Multi step speed control


Two step speed control
Single step speed control

Applied speed
control range

Minimum
practical
backlash

Considerable
backlash

1: 100

1,1

1,4

1: 30

1,3

1,7

1,6

2,0

1,8

2,2

2,0

2,4

-------

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

Table 4 Factor 5 for hoist mechanism


Drive type

Applied speed
control range

Factor 5 lifting

Factor 5
lowering

1: 100

1,05

1,10

1: 30

1,10

1,15

Multi step speed control

---

1,15

1,20

Two step speed control

---

1,20

1,35

Single step speed control

---

1,20

1,30

Stepless speed control

NOTE 2

Factors in Tables 3 and 4 take account for switching on/off the speed and speed change.

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Table 5 Factor P
Class of load positioning
in accordance with
EN 13001-1

P0 and P1

1,0

P2

1,15

P3

1,3

NOTE 3
Positioning movements may increase the total load effects, when made in non-optimal manner. This is taken
into account by factor P dependent upon the class P. Guidance for determining the class P is given in Annex B.

5.2.1.4
5.2.1.4.1

Loads caused by skewing


General

Skewing forces for top running cranes and trolleys shall be calculated in accordance with 5.2.1.4.2 to 5.2.1.4.4
and Annex D, which provide simplified methods for calculating the forces generated when considering both
RIGID and FLEXIBLE crane structures. Skewing forces for underhung cranes shall be calculated in
accordance with 5.2.1.4.5.
In general the skewing forces shall be addressed to load combination B. In cases where anti-skew devices are
provided the forces calculated without the effect of anti-skew devices shall be addressed to load combination
C. If the crane can be used without anti-skew devices functioning, the forces shall be addressed to load
combination B.
NOTE 1
The method given in EN 13001-2:2004+A3:2009, 4.2.3.4 is applicable to rigid structures. Bridge and gantry
cranes can possess both rigid and flexible characteristics; therefore, a more general method is required as given here.
With this method also flexible structures, uneven number of wheels, unequally distributed wheel loads as well as different
types of guide means and anti-skewing devices can be considered.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

NOTE 2 Forces arising from skewing are generated when the resultant direction of rolling movement of the travelling
crane no longer coincides with the direction of the runway rail, and when the front positive guiding means come into
contact with the rail. This is caused by tolerances and inaccuracies, which arise in the manufacture of the crane (bores of
track wheels) and that of the runway's rail (bends, kinks). The values and distribution of these forces depend chiefly upon
the clearances between the runway rail and the wheel flanges or guide rollers and the latter's location, also on the number,
arrangement, bearing arrangement and rotational speed synchronisation of the track wheels and structural flexibility.
NOTE 3
The use of anti-skew devices with travel motions reduces the guiding forces between the rail and guiding
means. It also reduces the lateral slip forces of the wheels, but some lateral slip remains due to wheel alignment
tolerances and lateral deformations of structures, which effect should be considered.

5.2.1.4.2

Skew angle

The skew angle shall be calculated as follows:

Sg
Wb

Wb

Wb
bh

bh

Sg

Figure 1 Parameters of skew angle


The total skew angle to be considered in design is

= g + w + t
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where

is the skew angle to be considered in design;

is the skew component sg/wb;

is the component due to wear - rail and wheel flange/guide roller;

is the component due to alignment tolerances of rail/wheel.

The values for skew angles shall be determined according to Table 6.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

Table 6 Skew angle computation


Skew
component

Skew angle resulting from

Flanged wheels

g = s g min / Wb
g = 0,75 s g / Wb

sg

Minimum values for crane travelling

s g s g min = 10 mm

s g s g min = 5 mm

Minimum values for trolley traversing

s g s g min = 4 mm

s g s g min = 2 mm

Tolerances (wheel alignment and straightness


of the rail)

4
s g min
3
4
when s g > s g min
3

when

Track clearance

Guide rollers

Wear of wheel flanges/rollers and rails

The skew angle shall be

0,015 rad

t = 0,001 rad
w = 0,10 bh / Wb

w = 0,03 bh / Wb

in order to achieve good travel behaviour of the crane or the trolley.

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NOTE
For larger track clearances the skew angle is reduced to 75 % because bridge and gantry cranes and their
trolleys use the full track clearance only rarely. Usually only the forward guide means is in contact with the rail.

5.2.1.4.3

Friction slip relationship

The following simplified empirical relationship shall be used to calculate the friction coefficient for longitudinal
and lateral slip:

f = 0 (1 e 250 )

(4)

where

is the slip coefficient;

0 is the adhesion factor equal to 0,30;


e

is the base of natural logarithms, 2,718;

is the slip factor.

NOTE
The slip factor is the ratio of the slip distance transverse and/or longitudinal to the corresponding travel
distance. For the transverse slip the slip factor is equal to the instantaneous total skewing angle ( or +). See D.3.2.

If other values lower than 0,3 are utilised for 0, a more sophisticated relationship shall be adopted, e.g. on the
basis of an adhesion factor measurement. The relationship shall consider the geometry of the affecting
surfaces, the contact pressure and the used materials.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

5.2.1.4.4

Selection of calculation methods

Either of two simplified calculation methods shall be used: either a RIGID or FLEXIBLE method. The RIGID
method assumes the structures of the crane and the runway to be rigid. The FLEXIBLE method assumes the
structure to be flexible. In cases of doubt the FLEXIBLE method should be utilised.

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Calculation models to be adopted relative to the crane/trolley structural configuration are listed within Table 7.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

Table 7 Calculation models of bridge and gantry cranes


Type

Structural configuration

Applicable method for calculation of


loads due to skewing:
Method RIGID

A
Bridge crane, trolley.
Even, horizontal, almost stiff. Guide means on only one end
carriage.
Each end carriage shall be calculated
separately with the method RIGID.

Concerning the skewing forces the crane


divides into two almost independent,
individually guided carriages.

Crane with articulation, respectively crane with flexible support


( = articulation about an axis parallel with crane track).
Guide means on both end carriages.
Method RIGID.

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Crane without articulation.


Guide means on both end carriages.
The method depends on the flexibility of the
structure.
The decision is made by the result of the
method RIGID.
Crane without articulation.
Guide means on only one end carriage.

Procedure:
a) Calculate the skewing forces with the
method RIGID;

D
b) Supply a fixed support for the end carriage with guide means. Supply a floating support for the unguided end
carriage (see Figure D.2c)). Apply the forces calculated with method RIGID to the floating end carriage. The
originally parallel end carriages receive an angle position

to each other. Calculate

f ( + )

according to 5.2.1.4.3;
c) If

f ( + ) f ( ) > 1,15

then the skewing forces have to be calculated with the method FLEXIBLE.

Otherwise the calculation with the method RIGID is sufficient. E.g.:

f ( ) = 0 (1 e (250 ) ) .

f ( + ) = 0 (1 e (250( + )) ) and

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

5.2.1.4.5

Skewing forces for underhung cranes

The skewing forces of the underhung cranes, having rigid structure and running on the bottom flanges of
rigidly fixed runway beams, shall be calculated with the same principles as the top running cranes. See D.2.
However, the guiding force YF may be divided on two wheel flanges of a leading bogie. The minor lateral
forces of the trailing bogies may be ignored. Figure 2 represents an example of the structures and one
possible set of the most critical skewing force combinations.

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For configurations where either a runway beam (or both of them) or the bogies on one of the runways, can
float laterally, the lateral forces Y1 and Y2 are balanced by separate guiding forces YF on both leading bogies.
In these cases the guiding forces YF shall be taken conventionally as 20 % of the maximum static vertical
force Z of the wheel. Y1 and Y2, frictional forces are then 10 % of the vertical wheel force of each wheel. The
guiding forces, YF, and frictional forces, Y, balance each other separately on both runways, forming internal
force systems within the bogies (element b) in Figure 2), and also local internal force systems within the
bottom runway flanges. These forces balanced locally do not impose external forces on the crane structure.

Key
1 bottom flange and cut web of runway beam No. 1
2 bottom flange and cut web of runway beam No. 2
3 crane girder; end carriage beams under the runways not shown
4 hoist trolley with load
5 4-wheel bogies at each corner of the crane
Y1 transverse frictional skewing forces applied between the wheels and the top surface of the bottom flange
of the runway 1
Y2 transverse frictional skewing forces applied between the wheels and the top surface of the bottom flange
of the runway 2
YF guiding force applied to the wheel flanges of the guiding bogie
Fy minimum transverse forces to be also considered in bogie design as shown in element b)
Z maximum dynamic wheel force in vertical direction
Figure 2 Skewing forces of underhung crane

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

Besides the skewing, the lateral forces on the bogies of the underhung cranes are created also by
acceleration of the crane loaded asymmetrically and by acceleration of the hoist trolley and load. These forces
shall be considered according to 5.2.1.3.4.
5.2.1.5

Overload condition

5.2.1.5.1

Cranes with direct acting lifting force limiter

The maximum force, Fmax.L, which is applied to the crane when the direct acting lifting force limiter operates,
shall be calculated as follows:

Fmax L = DAL m H g

(5)

where

Fmax.L

is the maximum force in newtons;

DAL

is the force-limit factor for direct acting lifting force limiters [-];

mH

is the mass of the hoist load in kilograms;

is the gravity constant 9,81 m/s .

For hydraulic systems, the factor DAL shall be less than or equal to 1,4, with friction torque limiters or
pneumatic systems this factor shall be less than, or equal to 1,6.
The force Fmax.L shall be assigned to the load combination C1 of EN 13001-2:2004+A3:2009, Table 10, and as
a load to line 13 in the stability combination C3 of Table 11 in the same standard.

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5.2.1.5.2

Cranes with indirect acting lifting force limiter

The maximum force, Fmax.L , which is applied to the crane, resulting from the operation of the indirect acting
lifting force limiter in an overload, stall load and if relevant, in a snag load case, shall be calculated as follows:

Fmax L = IAL m H g

(6)

where

Fmax.L

is the maximum force in newtons;

IAL

is the load factor for maximum force [-];

mH

is the mass of the hoist load in kilograms;

is the gravity constant 9,81 m/s .

The Fmax.L represents the final load in the hoist system after the triggering has operated and the hoist motion is
brought to rest. It shall be calculated with due consideration to stiffness of the hoist mechanism and structures
as a whole, properties of stall load protection system, properties of the hoist drive system and functioning of
the indirect acting limiter, see 5.5.1.2. Guidance of a calculation method is given Annex E.
The force Fmax.L shall be assigned to the load combination C1 of EN 13001-2:2004+A3:2009, Table 10, and as
a load to line 13 in the stability combination C3 of Table 11 in the same standard.
5.2.1.6

Test loads

The overload test loads to be taken into account in calculation shall be in accordance with 6.3.2.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

5.2.1.7

Design basis for multi point lifting in cases where the lifting forces are not equalized

For cranes, which are equipped with two or more lifting points for lifting a single load, e.g. container lifting
frame, the loading on an individual lifting point will depend upon the position of the load centre of gravity with
respect to the lifting points. Location of centres of gravities with relevant loads shall be specified in the
technical file and in the operating instructions.
In force calculations both the case of a mid-air load suspension and that of a load being grounded, possibly in
an inclined position or on an inclined plane, shall be considered. The forces from the latter case (inclined
grounding) shall be addressed to one of the load combinations A, B or C based upon its frequency of
occurrence.
The proof of static strength for the lifting points shall be based upon the maximum force resulting from the
hoist load and maximum load eccentricity. The maximum force possible in each lifting point shall be
considered as a regular load in all relevant load combinations A, B and C according to EN 13001-2. Due
consideration shall be given to the effect of horizontal load actions on the forces in the lifting points.
The proof of fatigue strength shall take into account the whole range of centre of gravity locations, the
frequency of occurrence of these locations and distribution of load values. The resulting fatigue loading shall
be expressed by a series of loads on the lifting points and their respective frequencies of occurrence.
Horizontal load actions and inclined grounding shall be considered in case they appear in load combination A.
5.2.1.8

Conditions of use of permissible stress method and limit state method

Selection of allowable stress method or limit state method shall be made in accordance with EN 13001-1 and
EN 13001-2.
5.2.2

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5.2.2.1

Limit states and proof of competence


Limit states and proof of competence of structural members

The limit states and proof of competence of structural members and connections shall be determined in
accordance with prEN 13001-3-1.
5.2.2.2

Limit states of mechanical components

Proof of competence of ropes in rope drives shall be in accordance with CEN/TS 13001-3-2.
NOTE
A European Standard for the selection of rail wheels is under preparation. While the appropriate standard is
not available, the rail wheels and rails may be selected in accordance with ISO 16881-1. Other methods that are based on
experimental knowledge on the wear of the used materials and which give comparable life of the wheels can be used.

For other components the load effects and required life (number of cycles) shall be derived from the service
and load conditions specified in 5.2.1 and they shall not exceed the limit states specified by the component
manufacturer.
5.2.2.3

Local stresses from wheel loads

The stresses of a supporting structure transmitted from local wheel loads shall be calculated and allocated to
the load combinations A, B and C (EN 13001-2:2004+A3:2009, Table 10) taking into account the relevant i
factors.
Travel wheels generally transmit vertical and tangential wheel loads. The effects of these wheel loads on all
further load transmitting elements of the supporting structure shall be proven for local stresses.
Distribution of wheel loads of a crane or a trolley shall not be considered equalized unless equalizing is
ensured by appropriate arrangements (e.g. pinned bogies, balancers, flexibility of structures).

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

Stresses resulting from vertical wheel loads in the web under the rail shall be calculated in accordance with
EN 1993-6:2007, 5.7.1 and 5.7.2.
NOTE 1

When passing over to cantilevers the local stresses will be double when leff is only half length.

NOTE 2
Annex F presents one permissible method to determine the stresses in the case of cranes with the trolley
travelling on the lower flange of the girder.

The local stress due to the wheel load shall be combined with the global normal and shear stresses for the
determination of the equivalent stress intensity in accordance with the principles given in EN 13001-2.
For fatigue assessment, the total number of rail wheel overruns at the mostly loaded position shall be
estimated.
When selecting the fatigue strength specific resistant factor mf for fatigue (see prEN 13001-3-1), the weld joint
of flange/web may be regarded as a fail-safe component.
5.2.2.4

Proof of strength of lifting points

Lifting points (holes and lugs) used for erection and maintenance purposes shall be calculated by either:

using theory of plasticity with a minimum factor of 4 and welds to structures with a minimum factor of 5
against ultimate strength of steel. To justify the use of this theory, the percentage elongation after fracture
of the materials shall be at least 15 %; or

using the theory of elasticity.

5.2.2.5

Elastic deformation

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The elastic deformations of the crane structure shall not have a detrimental influence on the function of the
crane.
NOTE

Information and guide values for the specification of crane girders are given in ISO 22986.

5.2.2.6

Vibration frequencies of crane girders

Recommended natural frequencies of structural vibrations are given in ISO 22986. Where frequencies are
lower, consideration shall be given to the effect of additional fatigue on the structure and to load control.
Consideration shall also be given to minimize the amplitude and duration of vibrations e.g. by using stepless
controls.
NOTE

5.2.3
5.2.3.1

See also 5.6.1 concerning cabins.

Stability
General requirements

A crane is considered to be stable, when the overturning moment calculated with specified loads and factors
is smaller than the stabilising moment about any tipping axis.
The partial safety factors for the proof of stability of the crane shall be taken from EN 13001-2.
5.2.3.2

Gantry crane configurations

A basic crane configuration assumes a fixed legged crane standing on four or more corners.
For other crane configurations an additional risk coefficient n shall be applied for all non-favourable loads of
EN 13001-2:2004+A3:2009, Table 11 based upon the leg configuration of a crane as follows:

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

a)

cranes supported on three corners n = 1,10;

b)

cranes supported by a hinged leg in one or more of the corners:


b1) hinged leg corner lifting up

n = 1,10;

b2) fixed leg corner lifting up

n = 1,22.

Cases b1) and b2) can appear on the same crane, see Figure 3.

b 1)

b2)

Figure 3 Typical gantry crane configuration with cantilevers


5.2.3.3

Design of tie-downs

Where the stability of the crane does not conform to 5.2.3.1 and 5.2.3.2 in out-of service wind conditions, it
shall be equipped with tie-downs. The tie-downs shall be designed with the partial load factors in accordance
with the EN 13001-2 and the relevant risk factors in accordance with 5.2.3.2.

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The material resistance factors m for design of tie-downs and their fastening points shall be taken as follows:

for steel sections

m = 1,34;

for wire ropes and chains

m = 2,5.

5.2.3.4

Stability of rubber tyred gantry crane (RTG)

Rubber tyred gantry cranes shall remain stable when they experience an immediate tyre deflation whilst
travelling at maximum speed down a maximum incline in both the loaded and unloaded conditions.

5.3
5.3.1

Electrotechnical equipment
Physical environment and operating conditions

When the physical environment or the operating conditions are outside those specified in EN 60204-32:2008,
4.4 the specification of the electrical equipment shall be amended accordingly. Attention should be given to
wind chill effects and solar heat gain.
5.3.2

Electrical supply

High voltage equipment (exceeding 1 kV AC or 1,5 kV DC) shall comply with EN 60204-11. All references to
EN 60204-1 in EN 60204-11 shall be considered as references to the respective clauses in EN 60204-32.
Where a collector system is used for the incoming supply and it cannot be totally enclosed to prevent danger
to personnel and damage by the operation of the crane or associated activities, the provisions of
EN 60204-32:2008, 12.7.1 shall apply.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

5.3.3

Protection against electric shock by direct contact

Protection against electric shock by direct contact shall comply with EN 60204-32:2008, 6.2 as amended
below.
Protection by barriers in accordance with HD 60364-4-41 is only acceptable in areas restricted to electrically
skilled persons.
Protection by placing out of reach in accordance with EN 60204-32:2008, 6.2.6 is acceptable only in the case
of conductor bars.
5.3.4
5.3.4.1

Control circuits and control functions


General

The provisions of EN 60204-32:2008, Clause 9 shall apply as amended by 5.3.4.2 and 5.3.4.3 of this standard.
All safety-related parts of control systems shall fulfil at least Performance Level c of EN ISO 13849-1:2008.
Control circuits built with electromechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic components shall fulfil at least
Performance Level c and category 1.
Control circuits built with electronic or programmable components, respectively, shall fulfil at least
Performance Level c and category 2.
In high-risk applications, as specified EN 13135-2, a hazard assessment shall be undertaken to establish a
higher performance level requirement than described above.
STOP function in cableless control systems, as laid down in EN 13557:2004, C.3.1, shall fulfil at least
Performance Level c and category 3.

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5.3.4.2

Suspension (by-pass) of safeguarding for setting, testing and maintenance purposes

The provisions specified in EN 60204-32 shall apply.


Where means for temporary suspension of safeguarding is provided, the device for suspending shall be
located inside an enclosure, access to which requires special tools, or other device not available for normal
operation, such as a key-operated switch, shall be provided.
5.3.4.3

Combined start and stop controls

Combined start and stop controls as specified in EN 60204-32:2008, 9.2.6 shall not be used for motion drives.
5.3.5
5.3.5.1

Operator interface and mounted control devices


General

Control devices mounted to the crane shall comply with the provisions EN 60204-32:2008, Clause 10 and
5.3.5.2 to 5.3.5.4 below.
5.3.5.2

Push-buttons

The recommended colours are as follows:

Start/On:

Green;

Stop/Off:

Black;

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

Hold to Run:

White;

Reset:

Blue;

Emergency Stop:

Red (with yellow background);

The stop actuator of a cableless control station: Red;

Other functions:

Yellow or grey.

The function to be activated shall be indicated on or near to the button.


5.3.5.3

Devices for emergency stop

The provisions specified in EN 60204-32 shall apply.


Devices shall also be provided in the following locations to stop the appropriate motions:

on the crane structure at ground level on both sides or at each corner of a cabin controlled gantry crane;

in the machinery room;

any other location based on risk assessment.

Emergency stop devices located at control stations shall be of the palm or mushroom-headed push-button selflatching type complying with the provisions of EN 60947-5-5. The type of emergency stop devices for other
locations shall be selected so as to achieve easy identification and access to them, and to avoid unintentional
actuation.

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Where the cableless control station is the only place of control on an overhead bridge crane, an emergency
stop actuator in addition to the stop button on the cableless control is not required, provided all the following
conditions apply:

it is ensured that a lost cableless control station cannot send any run command;

there are no operator access ways on the crane;

the crane runway has no access facilities.

5.3.6

Power driven motions

All power driven motions shall be power driven at all times.


NOTE
Exempt is an emergency situation, when mechanical brakes may be manually released by skilled personnel, if
the necessary provisions are available to stop the motion to prevent a hazardous situation occurring.

5.4
5.4.1

Non-electrotechnical equipment
General

The mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic equipment shall meet the requirements of EN 13135-2 as amended
by this European Standard.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

5.4.2
5.4.2.1

Braking systems
General

All power driven motions shall be under the control of a braking system at all times. The braking systems shall
be such that movements can be decelerated, the motions can be held and unintentional movements avoided.
The systems shall be capable of bringing a fully loaded crane to rest from the highest speed it can attain.
5.4.2.2

Mechanical service brakes in power driven motions

Only power released brakes shall be used and they shall maintain their ability to stop the motion, at all times.
Brakes shall be protected from the ingress of substances within the environment, which are likely to have a
detrimental effect on the performance of the brake.
NOTE
Where electrical braking systems are used, the associated mechanical brake is only subjected to limited use.
Special attention therefore may be needed to maintain the required mechanical braking torque, see 7.3.3.

Mechanical service brakes shall engage automatically in the following cases:

the control device returns to its neutral position;

the power supply to the brake is interrupted;

the emergency stop device is activated.

5.4.2.3

Brakes for hoisting movements

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The brakes shall be designed to exert a restraining torque of at least 60 % greater than the maximum torque
transmitted to the brake from the maximum hoist load. In addition the hoist brake shall comply with
EN 13135-2:2004+A1:2010, 5.3.3.2.
Back-up braking, as defined in EN 13135-2, shall be initiated immediately, when a failure has been detected in
the service braking system or in the kinematic chain. In normal operating conditions and in the case of
emergency stops, it shall be applied with a delay that allows the service braking system to stop the hoist
motion, unless the repeated back-up braking function has been taken into account in the design. When backup braking has been initiated by a system failure, the reset shall only be possible by skilled personnel.
5.4.3
5.4.3.1

Hoisting equipment
Selection of serial hoist units

Where a hoist unit in accordance with EN 14492-2 is used as a component in the crane, its selection shall be
based on the same classification parameters as those of the crane. A.4 gives guidance on selection.
5.4.3.2

Variable rated capacity

Where a crane is specified with variable rated capacity dependent upon trolley/crane position or crane
configuration, the rated capacity limiters and indicators shall act accordingly.
Where a crane intended for transporting hot molten masses is operated also in another mode of operation
with a higher rated capacity, separate consideration shall be given to each mode of operation. A lockable
mode selector switch shall be provided to switch the rated capacity limiter to the respective operation mode.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

5.4.3.3

Variable number of hoist units on the crane bridge

Where the hoist units are able to move from one bridge to another, thus creating a case where the total lifting
capacity of the hoist units can exceed the rated capacity of the bridge the control system shall ensure that the
crane bridge, irrespective of the number of hoist units and the suspended loads, is not overloaded.
5.4.3.4

More than one hoist unit permanently on the crane bridge

Where the total lifting capacity of the hoist units exceeds the rated capacity of the bridge, the control system
shall ensure that the crane, irrespective of the loads suspended on the hoist units, is not overloaded.
5.4.3.5

Hooks for handling of hot molten metal

Hooks for hot molten handling shall be designed either redundant or be of laminated construction or as a
forged hook designed for a load that is at least 50 % greater than rated capacity.
NOTE
For hooks that directly support the ladle and are subject to possible hot metal spillage, the laminated
construction type should be preferred.

5.4.3.6

Boom hoisting

5.4.3.6.1
The boom hoist mechanism shall be provided with a back-up brake (see EN 13135-2). The backup brake shall act directly on the drum or it may act on the primary shaft of the gear when the components in
the kinematic chain between the back-up brake and the ropes are designed with risk coefficient n = 1,60.

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5.4.3.6.2
The boom hoist mechanism shall be provided with two independent rope-reeving systems. A
failure of one rope shall be addressed into the load combination C7 of EN 13001-2:2004+A3:2009, and the
remaining rope shall meet the requirements of CEN/TS 13001-3-2 taking into account the dynamic effects.
5.4.3.6.3
If a boom rope becomes slack, the boom hoist shall be brought to a standstill (see also
EN 13135-2:2004+A1:2010, 5.4.1.5). When in the operating position, the boom shall not hang in the ropes of
the boom hoist. The trolley shall not fall out of the track, at the transit point between the bridge and the boom,
whatever the position of the boom. The travelling trolley shall only be able to pass over to the boom when the
boom is in its operating position(s).
5.4.4
5.4.4.1

Travelling and traversing


Friction drive capability

The drive and braking systems shall be designed so that they are capable of controlling and stopping
movements with maximum specified slope, operational wind speed and load.
When evaluating acceleration/deceleration characteristics, the frictional coefficient between the steel rail and
wheel shall not be taken greater than 0,14, in the case of rubber tyres on prepared ground surfaces not
greater than 0,2.
5.4.4.2

Hand driven trolleys and cranes

Hand powered hoists, trolleys and where appropriate, hand powered cranes shall conform to EN 13157 as
amended by this subclause.
If the traversing and travelling movements of the trolley and/or the crane are hand driven the operating force
required by operator, when transporting the rated load, shall not exceed:

250 N on a hand chain;

250 N on a one handed crank in the vertical plane;

400 N on a two handed crank in the vertical plane;

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

150 N on a one handed crank in the horizontal plane.

If the traversing and travelling movements are achieved by pushing the load, the horizontal force required
shall not exceed 200 N, when transporting the rated load.
Hand operated gantry cranes which can inadvertently be moved shall be equipped with a braking or arresting
device to prevent unintentional crane movement.
5.4.4.3

Drive characteristics of the rubber tyred gantry crane (RTG)

The ratio of the wheel base and the height of the centre of gravity and the stiffness of structures of the rubber
tyred gantry cranes shall be selected so that the operational accelerations and decelerations do not cause
intolerable oscillations for the operator. The limit values shall be as specified in ISO 2631-1.
5.4.4.4

Anchoring in out-of-service wind conditions

If the minimum foreseeable friction or the braking torque of the driven wheels cannot prevent the crane or
trolley from drifting away in the specified out-of-service wind conditions in accordance with EN 13001-2, the
crane or trolley shall be equipped with the following:

rail clamps that can operate at any position of the track; or

anchor pins or other means of same function that can hold the crane in certain anchoring positions.

5.4.4.5

Derailment protection

If the sudden release of a load can cause the trolley or crane to rise more than 70 % of the flange height or
guiding roller height then a means of retaining the crane or trolley shall be provided.

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The maximum stored energy in the bridge structure shall be used to evaluate the lift of the whole mass of the
crane.
In the event of an occurrence which gives rise to a derailment, the trolley or crane shall not fall. This is
achieved as follows:

lateral guides or buffers;

vertical guides.

5.4.4.6

Guide roller design

The guide rollers of the elevated travel or traverse drives shall be designed with load factor n = 1,5 in relation
to the load bearing capacity of the bearings (static and dynamic) or guarded so that falling of the roller is
prevented in case of the bearing failure.
5.4.4.7

End stops

The ends of travelling and traversing tracks shall be equipped with mechanical end stops.
5.4.5
5.4.5.1

Slewing equipment
Friction drive capability

The drive and braking systems shall be designed so that they are capable of controlling and stopping
movements with maximum specified slope and slopes resulting from elastic deformation, operational wind
speed and load.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

When evaluating acceleration/deceleration characteristics, the frictional coefficient between the steel rail and
wheel shall not be taken greater than 0,14.
5.4.5.2

Parking in out-of-service condition

The slewing mechanism shall be prevented from moving in the maximum out-of-service wind conditions. This
shall be accomplished either by a self-arresting drive mechanism, by brakes or by a mechanical locking device.
However, the performance shall not rely upon the combination of any of them.
The parking system shall meet the requirements of EN 13001-2:2004+A3:2009 (Table 10, p = 1,16 for storm
wind and m = 1,1 for the holding capacity of the parking system).
5.4.5.3

Slew bearing

The structure mounting support for the slew bearing shall be of adequate strength and stiffness, level and flat, and
present a smooth surface for the bearing. The bearing and its fixing bolts shall be able to withstand the maximum
loading associated with load combinations A, B and C of EN 13001-2.
For the proof of competence of the slew bearing lifetime, the following shall be taken into account:
a)

1)

each load/radius combination of the system, with the relevant number of work cycles;

2)

unloaded, return part of the work cycles;

3)

slewing sectors specific for the work cycles;

4)

load combinations A of EN 13001-2 with the partial safety factors and dynamic coefficients set to 1;

result of the lifetime calculation shall be expressed as a total slewing distance within the lifetime of the
bearing, and this shall be not less than the total slewing distance specified for the slewing motion
according to EN 13001-1.

5.4.6
5.4.6.1

Tolerances
Tolerances for rail mounted cranes

The rail mounted cranes shall be manufactured within the tolerances of ISO 12488-1. The tolerance class
shall be selected on the basis of the designed total travel distance according to that standard.
5.4.6.2

The tolerances for alignment of travelling wheels of RTG

The misalignment of each wheel from the travel line shall not exceed 0,2.

0,2

0,2

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b)

loading conditions for the calculation shall include:

Figure 4 Alignment tolerances of tyres


5.4.7

Gear drives

The equipment shall be in accordance with EN 13135-2 as amended by this standard.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

Gear drives shall be dimensioned according to the mechanisms classification/loading requirements selected
by referencing EN 13001-1 and EN 13001-2 for the motion under consideration.
The sizing of gearing to meet the strength and durability requirements shall be calculated according to
ISO 6336-1.
5.4.8

Protection against special hazards

5.4.8.1

Hot surfaces

On access ways and working areas where unintentional touching (0,5 s contact time) of potentially hot
surfaces in accordance with EN ISO 13732-1 is likely, these surfaces shall be guarded or marked.
5.4.8.2

Laser beams

The laser equipment, where fitted, shall conform to EN 60825-1.


5.4.8.3

Fire hazard

Fire extinguishers shall be provided in locations where fire hazards exist including operator's cabin, machinery
and electrical rooms. Exits from these rooms shall conform to the access requirements of EN 60204-32:2008,
11.5.2 and 11.5.3.
5.4.8.4
5.4.8.4.1

Processed materials and substances, used materials, fuels


Exhaust gases

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Exhaust gases from combustion engines shall be discharged sufficiently far from the fresh air inlet of the
operator's cabin and at a sufficient height above the ground level to avoid exposing personnel to harmful
gases.
5.4.8.4.2

Fuelling

The filling opening for the fuel tank shall not be located in the operator's cabin. The filling position shall be
easily accessible, preferably from ground level.
5.4.8.5

Tandem operation of cranes/trolleys from a single control station

When two or more cranes/trolleys are used for handling a single load from a single control or control station,
the control systems of the individual cranes shall be interconnected to ensure that during tandem operation:

the hoisting speeds are the same within the tolerances required for the particular application;

the travelling speeds are the same within the tolerances required for the particular application;

an interruption of the operation caused by a motion limiter or a rated capacity limiter on one crane/trolley
shall have a corresponding affect on the other.

At travelling speeds exceeding 60 m/min and hoisting speeds exceeding 20 m/min, the motion control shall
provide self-correcting synchronization and any interruption in the operation on one crane/trolley shall have a
corresponding affect on the other.
Where the cranes can be used separately and in tandem, the controls shall be clearly marked accordingly.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

5.5

Limiting and indicating devices

5.5.1
5.5.1.1

Rated capacity limiters


General

Cranes with a rated capacity of 1 000 kg or above, or an overturning moment of 40 000 Nm or above due to
the rated load shall be fitted with a rated capacity limiter complying with EN 12077-2 as amended by 5.5.1.2
and 5.5.1.3 of this standard.
5.5.1.2

Indirect acting limiter

Settings of rated capacity limiters shall be such that when lifting a load exceeding the hoist load multiplied by a
triggering-factor, the limiter shall be triggered. In general, the triggering-factor shall be 1,1.
For cranes equipped with hoists in accordance with EN 14492-2 a load exceeding the rated capacity of the
hoist multiplied by the triggering-factor shall trigger the limiter. The triggering-factor shall be less or equal to
1,25. A lifted load equal or greater than triggering factor times the hoist load, shall not be lifted from the
ground higher than the maximum rated hoisting speed multiplied by 1 s.
In cases where in normal operation the factor 2 is above the triggering factor, a delayed triggering system may be
needed. If this is provided, it shall operate as described herein. In order to allow for higher values of 2, the
functioning of the rated capacity limiter may be delayed by a pre-set time value, after this time delay the limiter
shall operate normally. In addition an instantaneous trigger shall be provided, this shall be set to trigger
immediately in cases where the force in the hoist system rises 5 % above the level of 2. The final, resulting force
in the hoisting system shall be calculated according to 5.2.1.5.2. Operation of this two-stage triggering system is
shown schematically in Figure 5. If the hoist media force encroaches into the hatched area, triggering takes place
and hoisting will be stopped.

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The force due to existence of 2 shall be considered as a regular load in accordance with 5.2.1.3.2.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

F
c
b

a
mH g

t1

t2 t3

Key
t
time
F force in hoist media
mHg force in hoist media due to hoist load
the solid curve shows the time dependence of force level when lifting load equal to the hoist load.
the dotted line shows the force level in a stall load case, rising to level c.
a triggering level of the rated capacity limiter with delay - force level a is exceeded at t = t1, however the triggering needs
to be delayed at least until t = t3 to avoid spurious tripping due to normal hoist impacting. The vertical line limiting the
hatched area indicates the trigger delay release.
b triggering level of an instantaneously acting limiter triggering at t = t2 when in a stall load case
c maximum force level occurring in stall load case

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Figure 5 Illustration of stall load protection


5.5.1.3

Direct acting limiter

Settings shall be such that a load equal to 1,1 times the rated capacity of the hoist can be lifted, in order to
perform the dynamic overload test, see 6.3.2.3, without changing the setting of the rated capacity limiter. This
setting shall not allow a load exceeding mRC multiplied by DAL to be lifted, which shall not exceed 1,6 times for
frictional or pneumatic limiters and 1,4 times for hydraulic limiters, the rated capacity of the crane.
In applications where a risk assessment shows an increased severity of possible harm as listed in
EN 13135-2:2004+A1:2010, 5.12.2, the rated capacity limiting facility shall not rely solely upon a friction
torque limiter unless the brake is placed between the friction torque limiter and the load, or the torque of the
limiter is increased to a working coefficient of at least 2 when the brake is engaged, or the same increased
coefficient of safety is achieved by other means.
5.5.2
5.5.2.1

Indicators
Rated capacity indicator

Rated capacity indicators in accordance with EN 12077-2 shall be provided on bridge and gantry cranes
where the rated capacity varies with the position of the load. Such indicators shall give a visual warning at
90 % of the rated capacity and a visual or audible warning at overload.
5.5.2.2

Wind speed indicator

Cranes operating in areas where the in-service design wind speeds can be exceeded shall be fitted with wind
speed indicators, unless other means are continuously available for the operator to receive the necessary
information.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

Where a wind speed indicator is fitted it shall activate an audible warning at the wind speed at which shut
down shall be initiated.
NOTE

Wind speed vst at which shut down should be initiated can be calculated as follows:

v st = v 2p 2 300 t
where

vp

is the permissible in-service wind speed, in metres per second;

is the time needed to shut down the crane from any operating position, in minutes.

5.5.3
5.5.3.1

Motion limiters
General

Cranes shall be equipped with limiters at the end of each motion in accordance with
EN 12077-2:1998+A1:2008, 5.6.1. Where electrical limiters are used, they shall actuate a category 0 or
category 1 stop according to EN 60204-32, but allow movement in the opposite direction to a safe condition.
NOTE 1

Guidance regarding type and location of limiters are given in ISO 10245-5.

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The horizontal motions of rail mounted cranes shall be provided with additional limiters, where there is need to
limit operation of the crane, trolley or load in certain areas.
NOTE 2

In some applications it is maybe desirable to fit slow-down limiters in addition to limiters at the end of motions.

5.5.3.2

Use of back-up limiter for hoist motion

A second (back-up) upper limiter of hoist motion independently activated from the first, complying with
EN 12077-2 shall be used in high-risk applications as described in EN 13135-2. A second upper limiter shall
also be used on cranes where:

the failure of the first limiter results in the dropping of the load, that directly or indirectly causes an
unacceptable high risk to persons and property: or

the intended use of the crane is such that the upper limit is approached frequently.

NOTE
The second upper limiter should also be used to protect valuable properties, for example: power house
cranes, shipyard cranes, harbour cranes, etc.

Following the operation of the second limiter, a restart shall only be possible by a reset action, e.g. by using a
key-lockable hold-to-run control on the control stand or a manual reset button on the hoist. An indication of a
failure of the first limiter, as required in EN 12077-2:1998+A1:2008, 5.6.1.4, shall be provided showing that a
reset action is necessary, after the second limiter has been triggered.
Indication and reset action are not necessary, if the second limiter is a friction torque limiter designed to
accommodate the movement energy.
5.5.3.3

Collision of cranes or trolleys

Buffers between the cranes or trolleys are sufficient systems for risk reduction, if they are able to absorb the
kinetic energy resulting from the moving masses in such a way as to prevent the following:
a)

the strength of the components of the crane installation being exceeded;

b)

the falling or tilting of the cranes or trolleys;

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

c)

the dropping of the load;

d)

the load swaying in a hazardous manner.

In other cases, anti-collision systems shall be provided.


Where an anti-collision system is evaluated as being required, all relevant crane or trolley motions shall be
equipped with the system. The anti-collision system shall have some or all of the following features depending
upon the assessment of the risks involved:

the ability to reduce the speed of approach of the crane(s) or trolley(s) moving towards a collision;

the ability to bring the moving crane(s) or trolley(s) to a stop before a collision occurs.

The forces resulting from kinetic energy of the collision shall also be taken into account with anti-collision
system unless the system meets the requirements of 5.3.4.1.
2

The driver shall not be exposed to a deceleration exceeding 4 m/s .


NOTE

Warning of approaching collisions can be required in some cases.

Where buffer end stops for the crane or the trolley are fixed by a bolt tightening friction device to provide the
possibility of adjustment of the travel range, there shall also be a positive locking device behind the end stop
as a back-up means or the friction grip joint of the end stop construction shall be designed with a specific
resistance factor ss = 1,8, see prEN 13001-3-1.
5.5.4

Performance limiters

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Performance limiters (see EN 12077-2:1998+A1:2008, 5.6.2.1) shall be provided where necessary, for
example:
a)

limiting the lifting capacity locally where there are limitations due to load bearing capacity of the crane
supporting structures;

b)

limiting of hoisting or travelling speed and/or acceleration/deceleration dependent upon the lifted load;
NOTE
speed.

Limiting of deceleration can introduce additional hazards, and it can be necessary to limit the maximum

c)

limiting of (travelling) speed and/or acceleration/deceleration dependent upon wind conditions;

d)

limiting of lifting capacity dependent upon the type of load, for example increasing safety factors for
dangerous lifts.

The operation of the performance limiters shall not cause additional hazards.

5.6
5.6.1

Man-machine interface
Controls and control stations

Controls and control stations shall comply with EN 13557 amended as follows:
The arrangement of the controls for cranes with cabins shall comply with ISO 7752-5. The logic of the control
arrangement shall be the same at each control station associated with the operation of the crane. The
arrangement of the controls for the cranes without cabins shall, where possible, also follow this logic.
The movement of a crane motion shall only be able to be initiated from the neutral position of the control.

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EN 15011:2011 (E)

NOTE
More information on ergonomic design principles of controls and control stations is given in EN 614-1. Cabins
should be constructed as specified in ISO 8566-5.

Windows shall be fitted with wipers and washers and designed so that the outside surface can be readily
cleaned. The whole window unit shall be designed and installed so that it cannot fall outwards.
The cabin shall be located so that collision with the transported load is prevented. If this is not possible by
location, the cabin shall be guarded with railings.
To avoid uncomfortable vibrations for the operator in a cabin, the natural frequency of the structure carrying
the cabin should not be less than 2 Hz. Where this requirement cannot be reasonably met, amplitude and
duration of vibration should be minimized e.g. by using stepless controls. Informative guide values of lowest
frequencies are given in ISO 22986.
For gantry cranes the frequency of horizontal vibrations should be not less than 0,50 Hz.
5.6.2
5.6.2.1

Guarding and access


The crane shall have permanent access to all control stations, in accordance with EN 13586.

Where access is provided by means of a permanent personnel lift, it shall comply with EN 81-43.
If there is one exit only from a cabin controlled bridge or gantry crane, a risk assessment shall be made on the
need for a special evacuation means from the cabin.

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NOTE
For requirements not covered by EN standards noted above, guidance is given in ISO 11660-5 and EN 1993-6
and in addition the following clearances are generally recommended, as examples:

clearance above the crane with access ways to the interrupted roof: 500 mm;

clearance between two cranes mounted above each other with access ways in either of the cranes: 500 mm;

clearance under the crane to the permanent obstacles: 500 mm;

clearance between the end carriage and the building taking into account the maximum skew position and allowable
wear and there is no permanent access: 50 mm.

5.6.2.2
If maintenance or inspection requires access to enclosures, the openings shall conform to
EN 13586:2004+A1:2008, Table 6.
5.6.2.3
Some maintenance and inspection work may require the use of a safety harnesses. Where such
equipment is required attachment points in conformity with EN 795 shall be provided.
5.6.2.4
To avoid crushing and shearing hazards the minimum distance between moving parts within the
crane shall be in accordance with EN 349 unless equivalent safety is provided by other means, for example a
person detector and motion limiter system.
Where there is a danger of a shearing or falling hazard occurring on the access way, the transfer points shall
be provided with gates. These gates shall be fitted with an interlocking device that disables the relevant
motion.
5.6.2.5
For cranes travelling on rails on the floor or ground level, the end carriages or the foremost bogies
in both directions shall be equipped with rail sweepers and flexible contact protection.
NOTE
These devices protect persons from getting to a hazardous contact with the crane. They need not affect the
travel drive system.

Where the crane travel rails are at a lower level than 2,5 m above ground they shall be guarded, for example
by rail sweepers. The clearance between the rail and the sweeper shall be less than 5 mm at levels 0,5 m to
2,5 m and less than 20 mm at levels 0 m to 0,5 m.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

5.6.2.6
Open gears, chain drives and similar power transmissions in personnel working and traffic zones
shall be guarded in accordance with EN 953. Exceptionally, guarding of the large slewing gears may not be
required, if the drawing in point of the pinion/gear is located sufficiently remote from the access ways, in
accordance with EN ISO 13857.
5.6.3

Lighting

The manufacturer shall clarify needs for crane-mounted lights depending on the availability of other lights on
site. Attention shall be paid on lighting:

on the working area;

on access walkways, stairs and ladders;

in machinery room and electric room.

When a crane will be used in a working place where general illumination level is less than 20 lux, it shall be
equipped with lighting that provides local illumination of at least 50 lux on the working area.
NOTE

These are minimum limits, which should be specified higher when required by the accuracy of the work.

Lighting levels on the crane shall be a minimum value of:

cabins, min. 200 lux;

machinery room, min. 100 lux;

electric room, 100 lux.

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A socket for extra local light shall be provided in each room including the cabin, in an electrical cubicle, and
other points requiring maintenance, if the fixed lighting and/or the ambient illumination is not adequate.
Cranes with a ride-on operator shall be equipped with battery powered emergency exit lighting, unless there is
emergency illumination on site.
5.6.4
5.6.4.1

Reduction of noise by design


General

Normally noise is not a significant hazard in bridge and gantry cranes. Noise can be a significant hazard in
cases where the operators position is situated close to one or more of the mechanisms or components
mentioned in 5.6.4.2, when their power level or operational speed is high.
When noise is a significant hazard there is need for low noise design. In this case the methodology for low
noise design in EN ISO 11688-1 shall be considered.
NOTE

EN ISO 11688-2 gives useful information on noise generation mechanisms in machinery.

5.6.4.2

Main sources of noise

On bridge and gantry cranes the main sources of noise are the following:

hoisting mechanism (motor, gear, brakes);

trolley traversing mechanism (motor, gear, brakes, especially rail/wheel contact);

crane travel mechanism (motor, gear, brakes, especially rail/wheel contact);

crane festoon (small festoon trolley wheels may be noisy);

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

trolley festoon;

electrical cubicles;

external devices, e.g. motor fans;

hydraulic pumps, either on the trolley or in the load lifting attachment (especially the grabs);

combustion engines and power generators.

5.6.4.3

Measures to reduce noise at the source

Typical measures to reduce noise are:

selection of low noise components;

use of elastic mountings that prevent the transmission of structure born noise from the components to the
structures.

Other measures of identical or better efficacy can be used.


5.6.4.4

The protective measures

Typical measures are:

the use of noise reducing housing around noisy components;

the use of improved noise isolation in the cabin, if any.

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5.6.4.5

Determination of noise emission values

Noise emission values shall be determined as specified in the noise test code given in Annex G.
NOTE
Effects of the supporting structure and the surrounding building (if applicable) are outside of the scope of this
European Standard.

5.6.4.6

Information on residual noise

The information on residual noise shall be given to the user, see Clause 7.

5.7

Equipment for warning

5.7.1

General

Warning labels and markings shall be provided to inform the crane operator, service personnel, inspectors,
slingers and other persons on or near the crane about the hazards related to the crane and its operations, and
on the action they would need to take to minimize the risks.
NOTE 1

EN ISO 12100-2 gives the principles of presenting hazard information using labels.

NOTE 2

EN 12644-2 gives requirements and information on the marking of cranes.

NOTE 3

Visual warning means are safety colours, pictorial signs, text warnings and warning lights.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

5.7.2

Warning markings

Warning markings shall be of contrasting colours, which will cause the markings to stand out in the operating
environment, in accordance with ISO 3864 (all parts). Warning markings shall have a reasonable life for the
anticipated operating environment.
5.7.3

Warning lights

Travelling mechanisms or leading chassis of rail-mounted cranes travelling on the floor or at ground level shall
be equipped in both directions with warning lights, which are activated during the travelling movement of the
crane. Hand powered cranes are exempt from this requirement.
The flashing warning lights shall be installed in such a manner as to attract the attention of persons in the
hazard zones. The colour of the flashing warning lights shall be yellow or amber with a flashing rate in the
range 60/min to 120/min.
5.7.4

Cableless control warning light

Bridge and gantry cranes equipped with cableless controls shall be equipped with a red warning light, which is
activated as long as the cableless control is switched on.
5.7.5

Acoustic warning means

Bridge and gantry cranes shall have an acoustic warning device to be actuated by the operator. Floorcontrolled cranes where the control system arrangement requires the operator to stay in the vicinity of the load
are exempt from this requirement (pendant control).

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NOTE

An automatically activated acoustic warning should be considered, where:

a moving crane or load can create a crushing or shearing hazard to persons; and

the crane operator has poor or no vision of the hazard zone; and

free space and escape routes in the hazard zone are limited.

5.7.6

Location of the visual display unit

Location of the visual display units, when fitted, shall be in accordance with EN 894-1 and EN 894-2 to
minimize the operator's head movements but still avoiding unnecessary hindrance of the field of vision over
the working area.

6
6.1

Verification of safety requirements and/or protective measures


General

Conformity to the safety requirements and/or protective measures specified in Clause 5 shall be verified by
the methods given in Tables 8 and 9. Where applicable, individual components may be separately verified or
tested in accordance with their relevant standards.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

6.2

Types of verification
Table 8 Verification methods for requirements

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Method of verification

Letter symbol

Visual inspection

Measurement

Testing

Calculation

Engineering assessment

EA

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

Table 9 Methods to be used to verify conformity with the safety requirements


and/or protective measures
Clause
number
5.1
5.2

5.2.1.1
5.2.1.2
5.2.1.3.1
5.2.1.3.2
5.2.1.3.3
5.2.1.3.4
5.2.1.4
5.2.1.5
5.2.1.6
5.2.1.7
5.2.1.8

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5.2.2.1
5.2.2.2
5.2.2.3
5.2.2.4
5.2.2.5
5.2.2.6
5.2.3.1
5.2.3.2
5.2.3.3
5.2.3.4
5.3.1
5.3.2
5.3.3
5.3.4.1
5.3.4.2
5.3.4.3
5.3.5.1
5.3.5.2
5.3.5.3
5.3.6
5.4.1
5.4.2.1
5.4.2.2
5.4.2.3
5.4.3.1
5.4.3.2
5.4.3.3
5.4.3.4
5.4.3.5

Title of the clause

Method of verification

General

Methods specified in referred


standards
Requirements for strength and stability
This clause describes the
methods of verification of the
strength and stability of the
crane by calculation
V, C
Selection of service conditions
V
Selection of loads and load combinations
Hoisting and gravity effects acting on the mass of C
the crane
C, T
Determination of factor 2
C
Load caused by travelling on uneven surfaces
C, M
Loads caused by acceleration of drives
C
Loads caused by skewing
C
Overload condition
V, Testing according to 6.3
Test loads
Design basis for multi point lifting in cases where the C, EA
lifting forces are not equalized
Conditions of use of permissible stress method and EA
limit state method
Limit states and proof of competence of structural C
members
C
Limit states of mechanical components
C
Local stresses from wheel loads
C
Proof of strength of lifting points
C, T
Elastic deformation
C, T
Vibration frequencies of crane girders
C
General requirements
C
Gantry crane configurations
C
Design of tie-downs
C
Stability of rubber tyred gantry crane (RTG)
V, EA
Physical environment and operating conditions
V, C, M
Electrical supply
V
Protection against electric shock by direct contact
V, EA
General
Suspension (by-pass) of safeguarding for setting, V
testing and maintenance purposes
EA
Combined start and stop controls
Operator interface and mounted control devices, V, T
General
V
Push-buttons
V, T
Devices for emergency stop
V, EA
Power driven motions
Non-electrotechnical equipment, General
Methods specified in referred
standards
T
Braking systems, General
Mechanical service brakes in power driven motions T, EA
T, V
Brakes for hoisting movements
V
Use of serial hoist units
T
Variable rated capacity
C, T
Variable number of hoist units on the bridge crane
More than one hoist unit permanently on the bridge C, T
C, V
Hooks for handling of hot molten metal

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

Table 9 Methods to be used to verify conformity with the safety requirements


and/or protective measures (continued)
Clause
number
5.4.3.6
5.4.4.1
5.4.4.2
5.4.4.3
5.4.4.4
5.4.4.5
5.4.4.6
5.4.4.7
5.4.5.1
5.4.5.2
5.4.5.3
5.4.6.1
5.4.6.2

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5.4.7
5.4.8.1
5.4.8.2
5.4.8.3
5.4.8.4
5.4.8.5
5.5.1.1
5.5.1.2
5.5.1.3
5.5.2.1
5.5.2.2
5.5.3.1
5.5.3.2
5.5.3.3
5.5.4
5.6.1
5.6.2
5.6.3
5.6.4.1
5.6.4.2
5.6.4.5
5.6.4.6
5.7.1
5.7.2
5.7.3
5.7.4
5.7.5
5.7.6

6.3
6.3.1

Title of the clause


Boom hoisting
Friction drive capability
Hand driven trolleys and cranes
Drive characteristics of the rubber tyred gantry
crane (RTG)
Anchoring in out-of service wind conditions
Derailment protection
Guide roller design
End stops
Friction drive capability
Parking in out-of-service condition
Slew bearing
The tolerances for rail mounted cranes and tracks
The tolerances for alignment of travelling wheels of
RTG
Gear drives
Hot surfaces
Laser beams
Fire hazard
Processed materials and substances, used
materials, fuels
Tandem operation of cranes/trolleys
Rated capacity limiters, General
Indirect acting limiter
Direct acting limiter
Rated capacity indicator
Wind speed indicator
Motion limiters, General
Use of back-up limiter for hoist motion
Collision of cranes or trolleys
Performance limiters
Control and control stations
Guarding and access
Lighting
Noise, General
Main sources of noise
Determination of noise emission values
Information on residual noise
Equipment for warning, General
Warning markings
Warning lights
Cableless control warning light
Acoustic warning means
Location of the visual display unit

Method of verification
T, V
C, T
T, V
C, T
C. V
C, V
V
V
C, T
C, T
C, M
M
M
C
V
T
V
V, EA
V, T
C, T
C, T
C, T
T
V, EA, T
T
EA, T
T, EA
T, EA
V, T
V, T, M
V, EA, M
M, EA
T
C, M
V
V, EA
V
V, T
V, T
T
V

Fitness for purpose testing


General

The crane shall be tested before being taken into service to ensure that it is able to fulfil its specified functions
safely. The test results shall be recorded.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

The tests shall include:


a)

functional tests according to 6.3.2.1; and

b)

load tests according to


1)

6.3.2.2 and 6.3.2.3; or

2)

6.3.2.4.

At the conclusion of testing, all limiters that may have been either disengaged or adjusted to facilitate such
testing shall be reactivated and returned to their prescribed operational settings.
6.3.2
6.3.2.1

Tests
Functional test

All motions of the crane shall be operated throughout their range of movements, without load, up to their
maximum operating speeds. Motion limiters and buffer positions shall initially be approached and contact
made at slow speed prior to contact being made at maximum operational speed. Where buffer stops are used
without other motion limiters, they shall only be contacted once at 100 % speed.
During these tests the crane shall be monitored to check that it operates smoothly, the braking systems
operate effectively and motion limiter and indicator settings are accurate.
All functions of the crane equipment shall be tested, particularly those related to safety, including back-up
brake sequencing, for correct operation.
When installed, a second (back up) upper limiter for hoist range shall be tested by disconnecting the first
limiter and then the motion driven through at both low and high speed.

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6.3.2.2

Static test

Cranes fitted with power-driven hoists shall be tested with a load, positioned 100 mm to 200 mm above the
ground and being the greater of:

all suspended loadings including that of 125 % of the rated capacity; or

the hoist load multiplied by factor 2 that has been used in design calculations in load combination A.

Cranes, that are equipped only with direct acting limiters, shall be tested in accordance with the above load
values, or with a load corresponding to the direct acting limiter setting minus 5 % of the rated capacity,
whichever is the greater.
Cranes fitted with hand powered hoists shall be tested according to EN 13157.
The test shall be carried out in the critical trolley positions, such as the middle span, extreme positions of
traverse including any cantilever outreaches, so as to qualify overload and stability requirements. Where
movements are performed during the test, they shall be made separately; a new movement shall not be
initiated until vibrations caused by the preceding movement have dampened out.
Where cranes are equipped with more than one hoist mechanism that can be used separately, they shall be
tested individually prior to the crane test unless previously tested by the manufacturer. The crane shall be
tested with the most unfavourable loading combinations of the hoist mechanisms in the specified use.
The test load shall be applied for a period necessary to make the observations and measurements to evaluate
the crane competence.
Tests are considered successful if no fractures, permanent deformations or damages affecting the function or
safety of the crane are visible and if no connections have loosened or show signs of damage.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

NOTE
Minor permanent deformations such as settling are acceptable providing they do not affect the functioning of
the crane.

6.3.2.3

Dynamic test

Dynamic tests shall be performed with a test load that is at least 110 % of the rated capacity.
The tests shall include repeated starting and stopping of each motion, including all combined movements as
provided by the intended use over the whole sequence and range of the movements.
During these tests the crane shall be continuously monitored to check for:

smooth operation of the crane;

effective operation of the braking systems;

effectiveness and accuracy of limiting and indicating devices;

that the hoist motor electrical current is proportional to the name plate or manufacturer's published
values.

The protection performance of the rated capacity limiter shall be tested by lifting a load having a mass
between 110 % to 125 % of the rated capacity as follows:

start lifting without prestressing the hoisting medium;

use maximum speed that the control system allows in this situation;

run the hoist mechanism up to the triggering point of the rated capacity limiter.

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The dynamic tests are considered successful if the components in question have fulfilled their function, the
subsequent examination does not reveal any damage to the drive or supporting structure and if no connection
has loosened or been damaged.
NOTE
The combined effect of the loaded crane/trolley when in collision with buffers should be proved by calculation,
see EN 13001-2.

6.3.2.4

Alternative test method for cranes fitted with power driven hoists

When the design of the crane allows, the tests in 6.3.2.2 and 6.3.2.3 may be replaced with a dynamic test,
using the maximum normal speeds for each drive movement with a load obtained by dividing the test load
specified in 6.3.2.2 by the dynamic coefficient 6 of test conditions, (6 = 0,5(1 + 2), see EN 13001-2).
The test is considered successful if the requirements of 6.3.2.2 and 6.3.2.3 are fulfilled.
Where instability is a hazard for the crane a static test shall be undertaken, see 6.3.2.2.

7
7.1

Information for use


General

The crane shall be provided with instructions in accordance with EN ISO 12100-2:2003, Clause 6, and
EN 12644-1 as amended by in this standard.
The design life of the crane based upon the selected service conditions, see 5.2.1.1, shall be indicated by the
manufacturer in years in relation to load and usage.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

NOTE
The design life of the crane is defined for the purpose of calculation and should not be considered as a
guarantee of life. However, it can be used as guidance for long term maintenance and refurbishment purposes, see
ISO 12482-1. Monitoring the use can be achieved by the use of cycle counter devices, see EN 13135-2 for special
applications.

7.2

Operators manual

Where there is more than one hoist mechanism on the crane or where there are any limitations for the rated
capacity on certain areas of the girder or boom, a description of the permissible loads of each hoist and the
permissible combinations of loads on the hoists shall be given. Descriptions of the operation of the load limiter
and indicator systems shall also be included.
Information regarding the operation of performance limiters shall be provided in the instruction manual.
Instructions shall be given on safe slinging to avoid accidental releasing from the hook and the load falling.
The manual shall warn about remaining hazards related to a falling load or a part of the load in case of a
failure in compiling and attaching the load.
The manual shall give information on correct operation of the crane by the operator to avoid impact, by the
moving load, with persons or property.
The manual shall describe the necessary daily checks to ensure that, e.g. the motion limiters, indicators and
warning devices are performing satisfactorily.
The instructions shall inform the correct ways of using multiple motion commands in order to suppress load
sway.
The manual shall describe the procedure for shutting down the crane and leaving it in an out-of-service
condition.

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The manual shall indicate the manner in which the operator shall receive instruction/information regarding
current wind speeds and the action to be taken to shut down the crane.
Where the load lifting attachment or the typical loads have such a shape that allows a person to enter and
stay on during lifting, the crane operator shall be instructed to refuse the lifting the persons.
For hand operated gantry cranes intended for free travelling (not rail guided) information shall be given on the
restrictions of travelling when the crane is loaded.
Where there is a risk of a lifting attachment being locked to the load during loss of power and the load is still
connected to a downward moving support (e.g. container ship), instructions shall be provided on a manual
means for releasing the hoist medium force (e.g. brakes) during loss of power. Similar situations could be
relieved by the same procedures.

7.3

Users manual

7.3.1

General

The users manual shall inform on safe use of cranes and training for the slingers and the crane operator.
NOTE 1

Information is available in ISO 9926-1, ISO 12480-1 and ISO 15513.

Where crane generated or ambient noise can disturb communication between the operator and the slingers or
other personnel the user's manual shall draw attention to the arrangement of other means of communication,
e.g. use of hand signals, radio.
Instructions as to the type and gradient of the surface on which RTG's can operate shall be provided.
Instructions for maintenance of working conditions, e.g. removal of snow and ice and improving traction by
using salt or sand, shall also be provided.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

The manual shall state that any modified clearances around the crane shall conform to 5.6.2.
The forces transmitted by the crane to the supporting structures shall be provided.
NOTE 2

Information on the forces to be taken into account is given in Annex H.

Emission sound pressure levels at the operator positions, generated by the crane, determined in accordance
with Annex G shall be indicated.
Where the A-weighted emission sound pressure level at operator positions exceeds 80 dB(A), the A-weighted
sound power level emitted by the crane shall also be indicated.
As it may be impractical to reach acceptable environmental conditions for the measuring of the sound power
level in accordance with EN ISO 3744:2010, Annex A or the crane is very large, it is acceptable to determine
and declare the sound pressure levels in specified locations around the crane as described in Annex G.
7.3.2

Instructions for installation

Where the manufacturer will not carry out the assembly or erection of the crane, instructions on erection,
assembly and fitness for purpose testing (see 6.3.2) shall be given.
7.3.3

Instructions for maintenance

Instructions for maintenance shall comply with EN 12644-1, EN 60204-32 and EN 13135-2 as amended in this
subclause.

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Instructions shall be given on:

inspection methods and intervals;

criteria for the replacement of components;

replacement of worn out or damaged parts;

tests to be carried out after replacement of components;

test to be carried out periodically.

NOTE 1

Periodic test can be subject to national regulations.

Abrasion and wearing limits shall be given for components subject to wear, for example:

sheaves;

ropes (for information, see ISO 4309), pins and rope terminals;

rope drums;

hooks;

brake linings, discs, drums;

couplings;

current collectors used in slip-ring systems and in conductor bars;

wheels (steel or rubber tyres);

chains and sprockets;

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

trolley and travel rails (for information, see ISO 12488-1);

guide rollers.

Instructions shall also be given for maintaining the braking capacity of mechanical brakes which are subject to
minimal wear due to the performance of their operational systems.
Instructions shall be provided to verify (or enable checking) the operation and setting of the safety systems, for
example the rated capacity limiter.
NOTE 2

This can require marking of the original setting values on the equipment or in the documentation.

Information shall be given on required personal protective equipment, such as harnesses against protection
for falling from heights, and on their attachment points.
Potentially hot components shall be identified, and their guarding and/or marking shall be described.
Where necessary, instructions on the disposal of materials that are replaced during maintenance and final
dismantling shall be given.
The instructions for checking the condition of an outdoor crane after a lightning strike shall include the
following:
Where a lightning strike has occurred or considered to have occurred, the following checks shall be carried
out before the crane is returned to service:

the wire rope shall be visually checked;


rail wheels and wheel bearings shall be checked for abnormal noise;

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functional checks of the crane proving limiters, indicating devices etc shall be carried out.
Instructions for rubber tyred cranes shall include instructions on inspection and maintenance of tyres, wheels
and rims, including at least the inflation of tyres and the dismounting of multi-piece rims.

7.4

Marking of rated capacities

The rated capacity of the crane is the maximum load permitted to be lifted with hoist mechanisms
simultaneously under the fixed load lifting attachments. The rated capacity shall be clearly marked on the
main girder of the crane, examples: "50 t" or "RC 50 t".
The rated capacity of each hoist mechanism shall be marked at least on their fixed load lifting attachment.
If there are any limitations related to the simultaneous use of the hoist mechanisms, they shall be marked
either on the control consoles or on the girders. For examples, see Table 10.
If the rated capacity of the crane is limited to lower values on certain areas of the girder or the boom, such
areas and their rated capacity shall be marked clearly on the structure.
The different rated capacities of the different modes of operation (see 5.4.3.2) shall be clearly marked on the
crane.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

Table 10 Examples of marking of permissible combinations of hoist mechanisms


No.

Description of limitations

Marking of permissible combinations

1.

Any hoist may be used together with the others

H1+H2+H3

2.

Hoist 1 may be used together with hoist 2 or with hoist 3


H1+H2
simultaneously; hoist 2 and 3 shall not be used together

/ H1+H3

3.

Hoist 1 and hoist 2 may be used together or hoist 3


H1+H2
separately; hoist 3 shall not be used together with
hoist 1 or 2

/ H3

4.

Any hoist shall be used just alone; no combinations


H1 H2
permissible

/ H3

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NOTE
In each example the rated capacity limiter system prevents the rated capacity of the crane and each
individual hoist being exceeded.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

Annex A
(informative)
Guidance for specifying the operating duty according to EN 13001-1

A.1 Total number of working cycles


Total number of working cycles is the sum of the working cycles through all the different work tasks that the
crane carries out during its total design life. A working cycle comprises both the work part and the return part
of a work cycle. Total number of working cycles (C) can be expressed as a specific number or it can be
selected from a series of numbers by specifying the class U, see Tables A.1 and A.3.
Specify for the crane either
a) total number of working cycles C =
or
b) class U =

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Table A.1 Determining of number of working cycles C by class U


Class

Total number of working


cycles for design

U0

C = 1,60 10

U1

C = 3,15 10

U2

C = 6,30 10

U3

C = 1,25 10

U4

C = 2,50 10

U5

C = 5,00 10

U6

C = 1,00 10

U7

C = 2,00 10

U8

C = 4,00 10

U9

C = 8,00 10

4
4
4
5
5
5
6
6
6
6

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

A.2 Load spectrum factor kQ


The load spectrum factor kQ is a parameter used to indicate the combined fatigue effect of the different net
loads handled with the different number of working cycles. The load spectrum factor is calculated as follows:

C i Qi

i =1 C
Q
n

kQ =

(A.1)

where

is the number of working sequences, where in each working sequence a constant net load at a level
of Qi is handled;

Ci is the number of working cycles in a sequence, where a net load i of magnitude Qi is handled;
C

is the total number of working cycles (i.e. summation of Ci 's );

Qi is the magnitude of a net load i constant within a working sequence;


Q

is the maximum net load of the crane.

In cases where the different net loads within the work cycles are known or can be estimated based upon the
intended use, the load spectrum factor kQ can be calculated with Equation (A.1).
Where details concerning the numbers of working cycles and the masses of the particular net loads to be
handled are not known, like in case of serially produced cranes, an appropriate Q-class of the load spectrum
factor shall be specified for the crane, see Tables A.2 and A.3.

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Alternatives to determine the load spectrum factor are either:


a) by calculation of kQ =
or
b) by specifying the class Q =
Table A.2 Determining of load spectrum factor kQ by class Q
Class

Load spectrum factor for


design calculations

Q0

kQ = 0,031 3

Q1

kQ = 0,062 5

Q2

kQ = 0,125 0

Q3

kQ = 0,250 0

Q4

kQ = 0,500 0

Q5

kQ = 1,000 0

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

Table A.3 Guidance for selection of classes U and Q, bridge and gantry cranes
No.

Type of operation

U-class

Q-class

Hand powered cranes

U 0 U2

Q1 Q4

Assembly and maintenance cranes, intermittent operation

U1 U 3

Q0 Q2

Workshop cranes in general, hook service

U 2 U5

Q0 Q2

Factory and warehouse cranes, intermittent operation

U 2 U5

Q1 Q3

Warehouse cranes, continuous operation

U 5 U8

Q1 Q3

Paper mill cranes in process operation

U3 U5

Q3 Q5

Shipbuilding cranes, hook service

U 2 U5

Q1 Q3

Cranes in steel production processes

U 4 U6

Q3 Q5

Terminal cranes, rubber tyred or rail mounted

U5 U7

Q2 Q3

10

Ship to shore container cranes

U6 U8

Q2 Q3

11

Unloading cranes, grabbing or magnet service

U 6 U9

Q3 Q5

12

Scrap-yard cranes, grabbing or magnet service

U 6 U8

Q3 Q5

13

Waste handling cranes in grabbing service

U 5 U8

Q3 Q5

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Where the planned throughput of the crane is known, the selected classification U can be verified by
comparing the throughput calculated using the classification parameters with the planned throughput as
follows

m = m av

C
T

(A.2)

where

is the throughput per year;

is the number of work cycles during design life;

mav is the average lifted mass;


T

is the design life in years.

NOTE
The throughput of the crane can differ from that of the plant throughput, e.g. the possible multiple handling of
the same load.

A.3 Average motion displacements


Duty of each crane motion is specified through average motion displacements over the work cycles of the
crane. For bridge and gantry cranes the motions are typically hoisting, trolley traversing and crane travelling.
An example is illustrated in Figure A.1.
Where crane operating displacements, loads and load locations are known, they should be used in design
calculations. In the absence of such information the average displacement method detailed below should be
used.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

The average displacements in Table A.4 for each motion represent the loaded part of a work cycle only. For
the proof calculation, however, the loading and the displacement of the return movement shall also be
considered.
Applying average displacements assumes that the displacements cover the whole range of the motion
uniformly and that different displacements have the same average loads. Where these assumptions cannot be
upheld action shall be taken as set out in EN 13001-1.
The displacements should be determined by one of the following means:

selection of a class D0 to D9 in accordance with EN 13001-1. In these cases the design value of the
displacement shall be according to Table A.4;

intermediate value of average displacements pre-selected, e.g. for the serial manufactured products;

average displacement calculated from the intended use.


Table A.4 Classes D of mechanism

Class

Average displacement for


design calculations, Xlin

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m
D0

Xlin = 0,63

D1

Xlin = 1,25

D2

Xlin = 2,5

D3

Xlin = 5

D4

Xlin = 10

D5

Xlin = 20

D6

Xlin = 40

D7

Xlin = 80

D8

Xlin = 160

D9

Xlin = 320

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

Key

average displacement of crane travelling

average displacement of trolley travelling

h1 + h2

average displacement of hoisting movement


Figure A.1 Illustration of the displacements of crane motions

Table A.5 shows an example of the average displacements and how to specify the required duty classification.

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Table A.5 Example of average motion displacements

Motion

Crane
travel

Trolley
traverse

Hoist
lift and lower

Average displacements based upon l = 55 m


the intended use

s = 12 m

h1 = 6 m, lift
h2 = 8 m, lower

Design values based upon intended Xlin= 55 m


use

Xlin= 12 m

Xlin= h1 + h2 = 14 m

D7
Xlin = 80 m

D5
Xlin = 20 m

D5
Xlin = 20 m

Design values based upon D-classes

Classifications and/or the values of the design parameters used in the design calculations shall be recorded in
the user's manual.

A.4 Derivation of the class of hoist mechanisms for the selection of a hoist in
accordance with EN 14492-2
A.4.1 General
A hoist mechanism designed according to EN 14492-2 should be classified with the same parameters of use
as the whole crane, as described in A.1 to A.3. This classification is partly covered by the Classes of
Utilization and Spectrum Classes of lifted loads as defined in FEM 1.001:1998, Booklet 2, 2.1.2 referred by
EN 14492-2 in 5.1. In addition, the average hoisting distances shall be specified.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

The appropriate class of mechanism according to FEM 1.001:1998, Booklet 2 (ISO 4301-1:1986) shall be
derived using the parameters of the crane (see A.1. to A.3). A.4.2 to A.4.3 give guidance for the selection of
the class of the mechanism according to the crane specification.
Where the selected hoist classification does not comply with the design life of the crane, the two differing
design lives, expressed in years, should be stated in the user's manual.

A.4.2 Conversion of the load spectrum factor


The load spectrum factor and class defined in A.2 are based on the relative net loads and relative number of
lifts. The load spectrum factor and class of the mechanism according to FEM 1.001 are based upon the
relative hoist loads and run times of the hoist mechanism. Therefore, the load spectrum defined for the crane
use shall be converted to the load spectrum of the mechanism. Figure A.2 illustrates the conversion.
The net load comprises the payload (the actual mass moved by the crane) and a non-fixed load-lifting
attachment, if such is used. The mass of the non-fixed load-lifting attachment is a part of the rated capacity of
the hoist and decreases the capacity remaining for the payload.

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When the load spectrum factor according to A.2 is determined, the return motion without the payload is not
considered. When the load spectrum factor for the determination of the class of the hoist mechanism is
calculated, the mass of the non-fixed load-lifting attachment and the return motion also shall be considered.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

1
qi

ri
rn
rn+1

qNA

un

ui

rFA
0

a) based upon the net load (EN 13001)

vi

vn

v n+1

b) for hoist mechanism classification (FEM 1.001)

Key

relative number of hoist cycles; ui = Ci/C; see A.1

relative net load; qi = Qi/Q = (mPli + mNA)/mQ; see A.2

qNA

relative mass of the non-fixed load-lifting attachment; mNA/mQ

relative run time of hoist mechanism; vi = ti/T

vn+1

relative run time when moving empty non-fixed load-lifting attachment (return motion)

relative hoist load; ri = mi/mHL

rFA

relative mass of the fixed load-lifting attachment; mFA/mHL

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where

ti

is the time used to lift and lower hoist loads of magnitude mi;

is the total run time of the mechanism;

mPli

is the mass of payload at level I;

mQ

is the mass equivalent to the rated capacity of the hoist;

mNA

is the mass of non-fixed load-lifting attachment;

mFA

is the mass of fixed load-lifting attachment;

mHL

is the mass of the hoist load; mHL = mFA + mNA + mPL,max = mFA + mQ.
Figure A.2 Load spectrums

For other symbols, see Equation (A.1) in A.2.


NOTE
In the example of Figure A.2 there is only one magnitude of the mass of the non-fixed load-lifting attachment,
mNA, considered. If there are different non-fixed load-lifting attachments used and their masses are different, the relative
time of handling empty lifting devices, vn+1, and the relative mass rn+1, should be divided to different parts. The different
masses of the non-fixed load-lifting attachments should also be considered when calculating the handling of payloads.

The spectrum factor of the hoist mechanism is calculated with the following sequence:
1) Calculate the times needed for handling each magnitude of loads and the total time of handling the loads,
THL:

ti =

C i X lin ,i
vh

(A.3)

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

THL = t i

(A.4)

i =1

where

vh

is the rated hoisting speed;

Xlin is the (h1+h2)i ; see A.3.


2) Estimate the time needed for return motions of the work cycles with empty lifting devices. If the hook
paths are same without loads as with the loads (h1 + h2 in A.3), the time needed for all return motions, Tr, is
equal to THL. Tr may also be smaller or larger than THL, if the return path is shorter or longer. Total run time of
the mechanism is then T = THL + Tr.
If some motion times ti and Tr can be reduced by using higher speeds for small loads, these reductions of
times shall not be considered in the classification of the hoists and in the determination of classification
parameters of the crane use, as the final goal is to count the actual stress cycles. The stress cycles in hoist
ropes and other hoist mechanism components depend on the hoisting distances, and not directly on time used
for motions.
3)

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4)

Calculate the relative parameters appearing in Figure A.2b) as follows:

vi =

ti
T
; v n +1 = r
T
T

ri =

m FA + m NA + m PLi
;
m HL

(A.5)

rn +1 =

m FA + m NA
m HL

(A.6)

Calculate the load spectrum factor of the hoist mechanism.


n +1

k m = vi ri3

(A.7)

i =1

Examples of relations of kQ and km are given in A.4.4.

A.4.3 Determination of the class of mechanism of the actual use


Referring to the definitions of ISO 4301-1 determine:
a)

the class of utilization (T0 to T9) on the basis of T;

b)

the load spectrum class (L1 to L4) on the basis of km;

c)

the class of mechanism (M1 to M8) on the basis of T- and L-classes.

Select a hoist considering the determined class of the intended use.

A.4.4 Examples of relations of load spectrum factors


Assuming the following:

mFA is 3 % of mQ;

mNA = 0;

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

THL = Tr; so vn+1 = 0,50;

q1 = 1 and u1 = 0,05;

relative load distribution is approximately linear (sloping down);

hoisting distances are equal at all load levels,

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the load spectrum factor of the hoist mechanism and the net load spectrum factor have the following
relationships, for example:
kQ =

0,062 4

0,118

0,240

0,330

0,485

0,634

0,997

km =

0,032 6

0,062 5

0,125

0,171

0,248

0,322

0,499

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

Annex B
(informative)
Guidance for specifying the classes P of average number of
accelerations according to EN 13001-1

The average number of accelerations during one cycle is mainly characterised by the type of motion drives.
Table B.1 defines the applicable classification for most applications.
Table B.1 Selection of class P
Hoisting

Horizontal
motions

Stepless speed control

P0

P1

Two step speed control

P1

P2

Single step speed control

P2

P3

Type of motion drives

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In addition to the type of motion control, many other factors, such as speed of motion, possibility to use
reduced or creep speeds and the required positioning accuracy affect the number of positioning moves
required, for example:

one step lower class P than in the table may be applied where automatic motion control systems with
smooth positioning are used;

P0 may be appropriate, where coarse positioning is acceptable, e.g. bulk handling.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

Annex C
(informative)
Calculation of dynamic coefficient h(t)

The following calculation method results in determination of the rope force history h(t) when a grounded load
is lifted starting with a slack rope and taking into account the elasticity of the crane bridge and the hoist rope.
The history of the dynamic rope force factor can be calculated using the following equation:

h(t) = 1,0 + z hl ( / g) [( 1 - q ) p sin ( p t ) - (1 - p ) q sin (q t)]/ (p - q)


2

- z0 ( / g) [cos (q t) - cos (p t)] / (p - q)


-

z cr ( / g) [p sin (p t) - q sin (q t)] / (p - q)

(C.1)

This equation represents the dynamic behaviour of the crane model shown in Figure C.1.
For the configuration of a bridge crane with a trolley at mid-span the symbols, calculations and auxiliary
factors in Table C.1

cg
me

z0

Normen-Download-Beuth-Korean Standards Association-KdNr.2285190-LfNr.5978461001-2012-11-14 09:50

z h1
lr

cr ,

mh

z h1 , z h1

Figure C.1 Crane model bridge crane

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

Table C.1 Definitions, symbols and additional calculation used in Equation (C.1)
Definition
Total mass of the crane girders
Mass of the trolley
Substitution mass (crane and
trolley)

Unit
kg
kg
kg

17
mg + mtr
35

me =
Iy

E
lcr

N/m
m
N /m

Tensional stiffness of a rope =


rigidity of the 1 m rope length
Length of a rope fall
Number of rope falls
Rigidity of the rope

crm = Er Ar

lr
n

48 E I y
lcr3

n crm
lr

cr =

N/m

Acceleration due to gravity

g = 9,81 m/s

Frequency parameter

Hoist speed
Lift-off time parameter

Lift-off time
Lift-off time parameter

(C.4)

(C.5)

cr

mh

Angular velocity

(C.3)
see Note below

(C.6)

cg

Hoist load
Mass ratio

(C.2)
see Note below

cg =

No. of equation

Total second moment of crosssection area of crane girders


Modulus of elasticity of steel
Span of the crane girder
Rigidity of the girders in the
middle

Rigidity ratio

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Symbol and equation

mg
mtr

kg
(C.7)

me
mh
1/s

cr
mh

pD =

+1

(C.9)

m/s

z hl

a rig =

(C.8)

(C.10)

z hl l

a is found from Equation (C.11), by iteration or graphically and the


condition of aj = aj+1
(C.11)
sin pD aj
+1
a j+1 = a rig

Lift-off coordinate (crane)

zcr =

pD

z hl
1
a
sin
pD
l ( + 1)

( pD a )

(C.12)

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

Table C.1 Definitions, symbols and additional calculation used in Equation C.1 (continued)
Definition
Lift-off speed (crane)

Symbol and equation

z cr =
Auxiliary quantity

z0 =
Auxiliary quantity

z hl
(1 cos
+1
mh g c g z cr

( pD a ) )

No. of equation
(C.13)

(C.14)

mh 12

p=

+ +1
1

2
2

( + + 1)2 4

q=

+ +1
1
+
2
2

( + + 1)2 4

Auxiliary quantity

Unit
m/s

(C.15)

(C.16)

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NOTE
Rigidity of the girders, cg, and the substitution mass, me, presented here represent the spring constant (ratio of
force and displacement) and the effective vibrating mass of a simply supported beam with an added mass at the middle of
the beam. This method of calculating the dynamic coefficient is applicable also for other crane configurations to which
corresponding cg and me values can be estimated.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

Annex D
(normative)
Loads caused by skewing

D.1 Assumptions for simplified calculating methods


The calculating methods given in this annex are simplified methods based upon the following:
NOTE

The statements given for a crane and its tracks are applicable also for a trolley and its tracks.

The front guide means (roller or wheel flange) of the crane contacts the rail in the skew angle while the
crane is travelling.
a)

Method RIGID:
Crane and track are represented completely rigidly. A linear form of the friction slip relationship regarding
to is allowed. The linear form is not allowed if 0 < 0,3 is used.

b)

Method FLEXIBLE:
The frame is represented flexibly. The carriages may be represented rigidly. A linear form of the friction
slip relationship is not allowed. The change of the wheel loads due to warping of the frame may be
neglected.

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For both methods the following apply:


The position of the trolley is located in such a way that the maximum skewing forces are computed. This is
usually a location on the opposite side of span in relation to the side with uncoupled drives. In cases of a
mechanically coupled drives the trolley is set in a manner to provide equal loading on the drive wheels, usually
mid crane span. Electrically coupled drives are considered to be uncoupled.
These methods assume no accelerations, even horizontal crane track, all angles are small and that the
geometrical tolerances are ignored.

D.2 Calculation of skewing forces by method RIGID


D.2.1 Calculation model
Procedure: (see Figure D.1) Select a travel direction. Assign a number j = 1, 2, , n to each wheel. Calculate
the sums S, Sd and Sdd with Equation (D.1). Calculate the intermediate value b with the Equation (D.2a)). The
forces Yj in the centre of wheel contact and the force YF at the guide means are derived from Equation (D.3).
a)

S = Zj

a)

b=

a)

Y j = f Z j ( 1 d j b )

Sd
S dd + W l 2

b)

Sd = Z j d j

b)

f = 0 (1 e 250 )

(D.2)

b)

YF = f ( S S d b ) = Y j

(D.3)

c)

S dd = Z j d 2j

(D.1)

where

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

is the friction slip coefficient regarding the skewing angle

, with =

in radians according

to 5.2.1.4.3;

Zj

is the vertical wheel force of wheel j, (j = 1, 2, , n with n = number of wheels). See


explanation below;

dj

is the distance in the travel direction from the front guide means to the wheel

j (dj will be

negative for wheels which run ahead of the front guide means);

is set to W = 0, if shaft coupling is not present. Otherwise consider D.2.3;

is the span of crane. Only required if W

0.

Zj is the actual vertical wheel force for wheels where the bearing arrangement transfers horizontal forces. Zj is
set to zero for wheels where the bearing arrangement does not transfer horizontal forces.
Result values:

Yj

is the lateral force at the contact point of wheel j;

YF

is the lateral force at the guide means.

For a crane with four wheels, flange guide, without shaft coupling ( W
to Figure D.1a) Equations (D.1) to (D.3) can be reduced to:
a) Y1

= f Z1

b)

Y2 = Y3 = 0

c) Y4

= f Z4

d)

= 0 ) and wheel numbers j according

YF = Y1 + Y4

(D.4)

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D.2.2 Shaft coupling


If wheels of the crane are connected between the carriages by shafts, the skewing forces increase. The
largest skewing forces are computed, if the wheel loads for both wheels of a shaft have the same value.
Procedure: (see Figure D.1e)) Calculate the resulting wheel force Wi of each shaft i, by Equation (D.5a)). Add
up the Wi to W, by Equation (D.5b)). The value W is required for Equation (D.2a)). The force Xi of each
individual shaft is obtained from Equation (D.5c)).
a)

Wi =

Z1i Z 2i
Z1i + Z 2i

b)

W = Wi

c) X i

= f lbWi

(D.5)

where

Z1i

is the wheel load of the first wheel of shaft

i ; ( Z1i > 0 ); ( i = 1,K m with m = number of

shafts);

Z 2i

is the wheel load of the second wheel of shaft i ;

is the span of crane.

Z 2i > 0 ;

If shaft coupling exists, the position of the trolley should be set in a manner to have equal wheel loads (usually
middle of the crane span).

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

D.2.3 Examples

e)

b)

a)

5
3

YFP

j1
YF
j4

j2
z
x

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d2,3= 1m

d)

c)
Key
1 rigid structure

j3

direction of rail

trolley

shaft coupling

articulation

Figure D.1 Cranes and 3-wheel trolley


Vectors j1 to j4 represent both wheel force components Yj and Zj; j = 1 to 4.
a)

Figure D.1a): Bridge crane with flange guiding.


With Equations (D.1) to (D.3) and 5.2.1.4.3:

f = 0,25 ; S = 10 N ; S d = 5 Nm ; S dd = 5 Nm 2 ;

b = 1 m -1 ; YF = 1,25 N ; Y1, 2,3, 4 = {0,25 0 0 1} N .


Or directly with Equation (D.4):
b)

Y1, 2,3, 4 = {0,25 0 0 1} N ; YF = 1,25 N

Figure D.1b): Bridge crane with guide rollers and with and without shaft coupling.
Without shaft coupling:

f = 0,25

S = 4 N ; S d = 3 Nm ; S dd = 2,5 Nm 2 ; b = 1,2 m -1 ;

YF = 0,1 N ; Y1, 2,3, 4 = {0,1 0,05 0,05 0,1} N .

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

W1 (Figure D.1e)): W1 = 0,5 N ; W = 0,5 N ; b = 0,057 m -1 ; YF = 0,96 N ;


= {0,24 0,24 0,24 0,24} N ; X 1 = 0,071 N .

With one shaft coupling

Y1, 2,3, 4

With two shaft couplings

W1 and W2 : W1, 2 = {0,5 0,5} N ; W = 1 N ; b = 0,029 m -1 ; YF = 0 ,98 N ;

Y1, 2,3, 4 = {0,25 0,24 0,24 0,25} N ; X 1, 2 = {0,036 0,036} N .


c)

Figure

D.1c):

Trolley

with

three

wheels.

f = 0,158

S = 118 kN ; S d = 59 kNm ;

S dd = 44,25 kNm ; b = 1,33 m ; YF = 6,3 kN ; Y1, 2,3 = {4,7 1,5 3,1} kN .


2

d)

-1

f = 0,25 . Carriage of
= {0 0,25} N ; YF = 0,25 N .

Figure D.1d): Gantry crane with hinged leg.

YFP = 0,5 N . Carriage of fixed leg: Y3, 4

hinged leg:

Y1, 2 = {0,5 0} N ;

D.2.4 Notes
Where W = 0 structures with more than two rails can be calculated with the method above.
Derivation of equations for Method RIGID:
Equations (D.1) to (D.3) can be derived from D.3.2, Equations (D.6) to (D.11). All
friction slip relationship is linear form regarding the skew angle
Equation (D.7) changes to
be resumed to &

s j are set to s j = 0 . The

f ( ) = f ( ) = f

Y j = f j Z j . If Equation (D.6) is inserted into this expression a part of it can

( x& ) = b .

Shaft coupling causes longitudinal slip x

= l d dx = l& x& . The forces


X W = f ( x )W = f xW resulting from longitudinal slip cause, with the span l , the moment

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M W = l X W . If X W is replaced by the expression given before, also here a part can be resumed
to &

( x& ) = b . Equation (D.10) is extended with the influence of the shaft coupling: 0 = M W + Y j d j .

Therein only

b is unknown and after transformation b can be calculated as shown in Equation (D.2).

For further information, see Bibliography.

D.3 Calculation of skewing forces by method FLEXIBLE


D.3.1 General
The following calculation method represents the frame as flexible. The carriage is represented as rigid. This
approach is of significance for gantry cranes with single side guidance means.

D.3.2 Calculation model


Figure D.2a) shows the model characteristics with a four-wheel crane with guide rollers as example. The
portal is flexible. Both carriages are assumed as rigid. The skewing angle is assigned to the guided
carriage. The leading guide roller is in contact with the rail. Figure D.2b) shows the forces. The eccentrically
acting force YF affects with the moment M the non-guided carriage. According to the flexibility of the frame,
the non-guided carriages skewing angle is increased by

. All angles are small.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

1
M

3
y

Yj

YF

bj dj
xb xj

xF

a) Geometry

b) Forces and moments

c) Example: Semi gantry crane

Key
1

carriage assumed as rigid

frame, deformed

rail
Figure D.2 Geometry, forces and support conditions

Procedure: Select a travel direction. Assign a number j = 1, 2 K n to each wheel. Set up the equation set
(D.6) until (D.10). The equation set may be reduced to the Equations (D.9) and (D.10) including only the two
unknown variables and (& x& ) . Solve it numerically. Calculate the forces Y j with Equation (D.7). The
force

YF at the guide means is defined by Equation (D.11).

&
j = + s j + d j

(D.6)

Y j = f ( j )Z j

(D.7)

M = s j b jY j

(D.8)

= hm M

(D.9)

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x&

0 = Yjd j

(D.10)

YF = Y j

(D.11)

where

is the skewing angle in radian (respectively m/m) according to 5.2.1.4.2;

Z j is the wheel load of wheel j , ( Z j 0 ), ( j = 1, 2 K n with n = number of wheels). The trolley


carries maximum load. The trolley should be positioned on the cranes side, which has no guide
means;

s j Switch: s j = 0 setting for wheels of the carriage with guide means;


s j = 1 setting for wheels of the carriage without guide means;
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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

is the moment turning the floating end carriage by forces Yj applied to the wheels of that carriage;

hM is the flexibility of the portal in angle per moment (e.g. rad/Nm). See Figure D.2c): Fixed support at
the carriage with guide means. Floating support and an external moment acting at the unguided
carriage. (Find out the change of angle with a statics program, or manually in simple cases.);

d j = xF x j Distance in travel direction from the front guide means to wheel j ( d j will be negative for
wheels which run ahead of the front guide means);

b j = x j xb Distance in travel direction from wheel j to the neutral line xb . (This line is neutral
concerning the bending around the plumb line, see the figure in Example D.3.3.

xb marks the

coordinate where a single force Fy applied to the floating carriage will not result in any change of
.) ( b j will be negative for wheels which run behind the neutral line).
The friction slip relationship is according to 5.2.1.4.3:

f ( j ) = 0 1 e

250 j

sgn ( )
j

(D.12)

where

Normen-Download-Beuth-Korean Standards Association-KdNr.2285190-LfNr.5978461001-2012-11-14 09:50

f(j)

is the slip coefficient;

is the adhesion factor equal to 0,30;

is the base of natural logarithms, 2,718;

is the slip factor;

sgn is the signum function = sgn( x ) = { 1 for x < 0 ; 0 for x = 0 ; 1 for x > 0 }.
Calculation values:

is the lateral slip of the wheel

f ( j )

j;

is the friction coefficient of wheel

j by lateral slip j according to 5.2.1.4.3;

is the additional skewing angle due to flexible deformation;


M

is the moment between the portal and the unguided carriage;

& x& is the portal turning speed per travel speed ( x& > 0 ). A separate value for x&
Yj

is the lateral force of wheel

YF

is the force at guide means.

is not required;

j;

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

D.3.3 Example
Semi gantry crane with guide rollers, single
sided guiding (figure at side). The girder and the
leg are solid round bars.

b1,4
b2,3

l, d

j1

Data:

j2
h, d

h = 4 m, l = 6 m, d = 0,3 m

E = 210000 N/mm 2 , G = 81000 N/mm 2

Z j = {120 119 27 35} kN

j4
x

d j = {0,25 2,75 2,75 0,25} m

j3
d1,4

b j = {1,25 1,25 1,25 1,25} m

d2,3

s j = {1 1 0 0} m

Key

= 0,0033 rad
Intermediate calculation:

hm =

neutral line

trolley

xb according bending around vertical

l
h
l 64
h 32
+
=
+
4
EI ax GI p E d
G d4

= 0,000134
Result:

Normen-Download-Beuth-Korean Standards Association-KdNr.2285190-LfNr.5978461001-2012-11-14 09:50

Figure D.3

rad
kNm

Y j = {30,2 2,2 5,4 5,0} kN ; YF = 32 kN ; = 0,00468 rad ; & x& = 0,00281 rad m

D.3.4 Notes
The linear form of the friction slip relationship

f ( j ) regarding

is not applicable for FLEXIBLE models

+ . A linear model would result in unnaturally high frictional values resulting in unnaturally high skewing

forces.

Derivation:

YF causes turning & x& of the crane during the travel. The lateral slip of a
wheel is j = + s j y& j x& . It is affected by the angle position of the carriage and by the distance d j of

The eccentrically acting force

this wheel to the guide means. With

y& j x& = d j& x& follows Equation (D.6). Equation (D.7) defines the

wheels lateral force. Equation (D.8) defines the moment acting between the portal and the unguided carriage.
The moment is calculated regarding the neutral fibres position. Thus in Equation (D.9) the deformation of the
portal is determined. Equation (D.10) forms the sum of the moments for the entire crane around the guide
means. Equation (D.11) sums up all forces.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

Annex E
(informative)
Calculation of stall load factor for indirect acting lifting force limiter

Indirect acting lifting force limiters measure the load using a sensor and override the controls to prevent
excessive loading by bringing the motion to rest. Evaluation of the measured values and filtering of
interference signals require time and act as a triggering delay. An additional time delay takes place before the
braking torque is applied.
The stall load factor IAL for indirect acting lifting force limiters can be calculated as follows:

IAL = 1.05 2 + C H v h (t IAL + t br +

t st
) / (m H g )
2

(E.1)

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where

is the 2 -factor for load combination A1; see 5.2.1.3.2;

vh

is the maximum hoisting speed at which the indirect acting force limiter may be
triggered, in metres per second;

mH

is the mass of the hoist load, in kilograms;

tIAL

is the response-time of the indirect acting lifting force limiter, in seconds;

tbr

is the reaction time of the braking, in seconds;

tst

is the time to stop the mechanism in stall condition by effects of the braking and
increasing rope force, in seconds;

CH

is elasticity factor of crane structure and rope system at the load suspension point, in
newtons per metre.

The term 1,05 2 represents the triggering point of immediate stop of the indirect acting limiter, see 5.5.1.2.
The assumed, simplified triggering and stopping process is illustrated in Figure E.1.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

V
A

D
t

tIAL

tbr

tst

Key
A triggering happens

C braking is applied

B braking receives the stopping instruction

D the hoist mechanism has stopped

Normen-Download-Beuth-Korean Standards Association-KdNr.2285190-LfNr.5978461001-2012-11-14 09:50

Figure E.1 Hoist mechanism speed (v) by time (t) at immediate stop with indirect acting lifting force
limiter

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

Annex F
(informative)
Local stresses in wheel supporting flanges

F.1 General
When trolleys travel on the girder flanges of a girder, irrespective of the girder support arrangement, flange
bending stresses occur as secondary stresses in the area of the point of application of the wheel load F.
Formulae and coefficients are given for two types of main girders:
a)

in F.2: main girder as I-beam;

b)

in F.3: main girder as box girder.

When determining the stresses in accordance with EN 13001-2:2004+A3:2009, Table 10 and in the proof of
fatigue strength, the local stresses shall be combined with the global stresses. In the load combinations A, B
and C (see EN 13001-2:2004+A3:2009, Table 10) and in the proof of fatigue strength (load combinations A),
the local stresses in the plates and shall be multiplied by 0,75 before combining with the global stresses.
If the wheel loads F are not symmetrical, the local stresses are calculated with the maximum wheel load and
the relevant distance i. In addition to these flange bending stresses and the main stresses, torsion stresses
from the resulting non-symmetrical load application point shall be calculated in the girder cross section.

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NOTE
The local stresses can be reduced by factor 0,75 because of the extra plastic bending capacity of the flange
plate or extra plastic tension capacity of the web.
In fatigue analysis the effect of local stress can be reduced, because the fatigue strength in bending of a plate is typically
30 % to 60 % higher than in tension, for the same joint or detail.

F.2 Local stresses in wheel supporting flanges (main girder as I-beam)


These stresses act in the two directions x and y as Fx and Fy (see Figures F.1a) and b)).
The stresses are calculated with the help of the following equations:

Fx = c x ( )

F
t f2

(F.1)

Fy = c y ( )

F
t f2

(F.2)

These local stresses shall be multiplied by 0,75 and combined with the global stresses both in static and
fatigue analysis.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

z
x

s
y
iF x
tf

s
y
x
F
i

Fi

y
Fi

1 2

tf

1 2

a) I-beam with parallel flanges

b) I-beam with inclined flanges

Figure F.1 Calculation points for local stresses in I-beams


The coefficients cx() and cy() are given in Table F.1 for the stresses at the lower surface of the bottom
flange in the calculation points 0, 1, and 2. The stresses at the upper surfaces of the flange have the opposite
sign.

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The variables F, tf, i and have the following meanings:

represents the maximum wheel load including the amplification factors i;

tf

is the theoretical thickness of the flange (without tolerances and wear). For the girder with inclined
flanges tf is taken at the point of wheel force application, point 1, see Figure F.1b);

is the distance from the girder edge to the point of load application;

is the width of the flange;

is the thickness of the web;

is calculated from the Equation (F.3).

i
0,5(b s)

(F.3)

Table F.1 Coefficients of the local stresses


Type of
stresses
longitudinal
bending
stresses

transverse
bending
stresses

I-beam with
parallel flanges
3,015
cx0 = 0,050 - 0,580 + 0,148 e

cx0

I-beam with
inclined flanges
1,322
= -0,981 - 1,479 + 1,120 e

cx1 = 2,230 - 1,490 + 1,390 e

-18,33

cx1 = 1,810 - 1,150 + 1,060 e

7,700

cx2 = 0,730 - 1,580 + 2,910 e

-6,00

cx2 = 1,990 - 2,810 + 0,840 e

4,690

cy0 = -2,110 + 1,977 + 0,0076 e


cy1 = 10,108 - 7,408 - 10,108 e
cy2 = 0

6,53

-1,364

cy0 = -1,096 + 1,095 + 0,192 e


cy1 = 3,965 - 4,835 - 3,965 e

6,000

2,675

cy2 = 0

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

The indexes have the following meanings:

0 stress at the transition web/flange;

1 stress at the load application point;

2 stress at the edge of the girder.

F.3 Local stresses of a box girder with the wheel loads on the bottom flange
z
z
tw
d
F

F
i

tf

y
x

0 12

z3

y0

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y1

x1, x2,

z3

Key
0, 1, 2
3
4
5

aw

calculation points as in F.2


calculation point at the weld toe of the web
wheel of the trolley
global bending stress xg
Figure F.2 Symbols used in the calculation of local stresses in box girder

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

Equations and coefficients for the calculation of the local stresses at the bottom flange of a box girder are
specified in Table F.2. The symbols used are presented in Figure F.2.
NOTE
The equations and coefficients are based upon the results of finite element method analyses and are
approximations.

Symbol used in Table F.2 is defined as

i
a tw

(F.4)

The signs of the stresses at the points 0, 1, 2 are valid at the bottom surface. The upper surface stress has
the opposite sign.
Table F.2 Formulas for stresses and coefficients
Point
0

Stress equation

x0 = C x0

F
t 2f

y0 = C y0

F
t 2f

Symbols and
limits

Coefficients

C x 0 = 0,123 + 0,48 + 0,1942

Valid for all


equations

0,5 arctan(5rt 1,375)

rt = t w / t f

C y 0 = 1,3067 1,45rt

2a < b < 16a

+ 0,5833rt + 1,933
2

0,1 < i/a < 0,5


0,15 < rt < 0,8

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x1 = C x1
y1

At the
web
plate,
at the
weld
toe

F
t 2f

C x1 = 2.23 1.49 + 2e 18,33 (1 + 1,5rt ) + 0,4rt

C y1 = 0,33(rt 1) + (1 + 2rt ) 0,3 + 0,4 sin(3,4 + 0,4rt 2 )

F
= C y1 2
tf

x2 = C x2

F
t 2f

C x 2 = 0,95 +

2,70
(2 + 0,5) rt

y2 = 0

C y2 = 0

Stress at web is the sum


of membrane (m) and
bending (b) stress

C zm = 0,4 + 1,8rt

0 , 333

F
(d + t f ) t w

6 Fd
+ k zh C zb 3
3
t w 1 + (2rt )

C zb = (0,01 + 0,0212rt ) (0,125

k zh = 1 +

b
0,25) 0,125
a

0 , 25

0,2

0,76)
rt

rh =

h
tw

4mm t w 12mm

50 t w < h

k zh = 0

+ (1,2 ( 0,1)

z 3 = z 3 m + z 3b =
z 3 = C zm

2, 5

k z0
1 + 0,0004536rh

0 h < 50 t w

k z 0 = 2 + 1,5 sin(1,5 (0,35 rt ))


+ 0,45 sin( 4 (rt 0,5))

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

At point 3, the sum of the direct tension stress and bending stress at the weld toe serves as the reference for
the weld, too, when the weld meets the following requirements.
Fillet weld with verified penetration p with conditions: p 1 mm for t 6 mm and p tw./4 for t > 6 mm,
0,5tw aw 0,7tw, quality level C (EN ISO 5817). Fatigue strength 63.
Fillet weld with verified penetration p with conditions: p 1 mm for t > 6 mm, 0,6tw aw 0,7tw, quality level C.
Fatigue strength 56.
Fillet weld without verified penetration: 0,6tw aw 0,7tw, quality level C. Fatigue strength 50.
Fillet weld without verified penetration: 0,5tw aw < 0,6tw, quality level C. Fatigue strength 40.

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With p being the penetration of the weld, total weld thickness is s = aw + p (see Figure F.2).

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

Annex G
(normative)
Noise test code

G.1 General
This noise test code specifies all the information necessary to carry out efficiently and under standardized
conditions the determination, declaration and verification of the noise emission characteristics of bridge and
gantry cranes.
Noise emission characteristics include emission sound pressure levels at operator's positions. The
determination of these quantities is necessary for:

manufacturers to declare the noise emitted;

comparing the noise emitted by machines in the family concerned;

purposes of noise control at the source at the design stage.

The use of this noise test code ensures reproducibility of the determination of the noise emission
characteristics within specified limits determined by the grade of accuracy of the basic noise measurement
method used. Noise determination methods allowed by this standard are:

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a calculation method (G.3) to determine the overall noise emitted by the noisiest components of the
crane.
This method shall be used systematically and the value resulting from the calculation shall be given in the
instructions for use (see 7.3.1) unless the measured values are available.
Noise caused by rail-wheel contact in travelling and noise emitted by the runway structures as well as
noise from crane power supply festoon system or conductor bars are excluded, because they may not be
fully in crane manufacturer's control.
This method underestimates the actual noise emission value of the crane when installed at the user's
place;

a measurement method (G.4) of the sound pressure level at the operator's position once the crane is
installed at the user's place.
This sound pressure level is not an emission sound pressure level because it includes the crane, the
structure to which the crane is fixed and the acoustic characteristics of the room or surroundings.
This method has priority over the calculated values, when the sound pressure value added by the
uncertainty exceeds 70 dB(A) at a working place.
The measurement determines two values, one for hoisting and traversing and another for the travelling of
a crane. Both values shall be given in the instructions for use (see 7.3.1). For the sound pressure level at
the operator's position, both values have to be considered. The actual value may be higher than the
biggest of them, when there is a situation where hoisting, traversing and travelling occur at the same
time.

For the cranes that have an A-weighted emission sound pressure level at the operators position higher than
80 dB the sound power level shall be indicated. Determination of the required values is presented in G.4.1.2.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

The C-weighted peak emission sound pressure levels in the bridge and gantry cranes are typically so low that
they need not to be measured and reported.

G.2 Description of machinery family


This annex is applicable to individual bridge or gantry crane in the scope of this European Standard as fully
assembled in the intended working condition including the fixed load lifting attachment.

G.3 Determination of a conventional emission sound pressure level by calculation


G.3.1 Principle of the method
The conventional emission sound pressure level at the operator's position is calculated as the summation of
the contributions at this position of the main noise sources present on the crane. These contributions are
derived from the sound power levels of these main noise sources as provided by their manufacturers.

G.3.2 Calculation
The contribution of a given noise source with A-weighted sound power level LWA is given by the following
equation:

S
L pA = LWA 10 lg
S0

(G.1)

where

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LpA is the resulting A-weighted sound pressure level at the operator's position;
LWA is the A-weighted sound power level of the source, in decibels; reference: 1 pW;
2

S = 2r , where r is the distance between the considered place and the sound source;
2

S0 = 1 m .
The values of the sound power level of the components to be used in the calculation shall correspond to the
rated loads and speeds of the crane.
The noise sources to be taken into account in the calculation are:

hoist mechanism;

trolley traverse mechanism;

crane travelling mechanisms;

fixed load lifting attachment, when power operated.

The values shall include the noise of the electrical control cubicles and power source.
The typical locations of these noise sources are shown in Figure G.1. The operator is assumed to be in a
vertical plane containing the sources. For the power operated load lifting attachment the nearest normal
operating distance shall be considered.
The values of the A-weighted sound power levels and the distances r used for the calculations shall be
reported.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

Figure G.1 Noise sources of a bridge crane


The conventional A-weighted emission sound pressure level at a certain position under the influence of
different sound sources shall be calculated by adding the sound pressure levels from the different sources in
accordance with the following equation:

N 0,1L
L pA(total ) = 10 lg 10 pAi
i =1

(G.2)

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where

LpA(total)

is the conventional A-weighted emission sound pressure level, i.e. the total A-weighted sound
pressure level at the considered position resulting from N sources;

LpAi

is the A-weighted sound pressure level resulting from sound source i;

is the total number of sound sources.

The uncertainty of the calculation is that with which the sound power levels of the components have been
determined.
This calculation method does not take into account the effect of structure-borne noise and sound reflection by
the ground and therefore the calculated noise levels are usually lower than levels that would be measured.
NOTE
The equation below illustrates the method for the addition of two A-weighted sound pressure levels,
70 dB(A) and 72 dB(A) respectively:

L pa (total ) = 10 lg 10 0,170 + 10 0,172 = 72,1 dB ( A)

(G.3)

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

G.4 Determination of emission sound pressure level at control stations and other
specified positions and determination of sound power level by measurement
G.4.1 Measurement method and points
G.4.1.1

Measurement of sound pressure level at working positions

Emission sound pressure level measurements shall be made according to EN ISO 11201 at the following
positions:
a)

The measurements shall be made in or at all control stations.


In case of movable pendant control station, the measurement point shall be at the vertical plane defined
by the pendant controls, at the height 1,6 m and distance one quarter of the crane span from the vertical
plane of the runway rail (from the closest rail, if the rails are at different heights). See Figure G.2.

b)

If there are persons working in the crane operation area and the measurement for the pendant control is
not made, the measurements shall be made at the floor or ground level, at height 1,6 m from the level, at
the distance of 1 m from the vertical plane defined by the outmost rail wheels, at the distance of one
quarter of span from the vertical plane of the runway rail (from the closest rail, if the rails are at different
heights). The highest value measured shall be reported and declared together with its position. See
Figure G.3.
This measurement covers the non-fixed operator positions like those of radio control.

During measurement of the crane travelling the measuring point shall be kept stationary.

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1,6m

S/4

Figure G.2 Noise measurement point with a pendant control

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

1m

1,6m

S/4

Figure G.3 Measurement point with radio control


G.4.1.2

Determination of sound power level or sound pressure level at determined positions

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Where the A-weighted sound pressure level at a working position exceeds 80 dB(A), the determination of the
sound power level is required. In the case of very large machinery, instead of the A-weighted sound power
level, the A-weighted emission sound pressure levels at specified positions around the machinery may be
indicated. For the bridge and gantry cranes one of the following cases shall be applied, when the A-weighted
sound pressure level at a working position exceeds 80 dB(A):
a)

Indoor bridge cranes (and sometimes gantry or semi-gantry cranes) are usually installed in the proximity
of the ceiling of the hall and the ends of the crane are close to the walls or columns. There are a lot of
reflecting and absorbing surfaces around the crane, which vary from one installation place to other. These
kinds of installation conditions do not meet the requirements for the acoustic environment for the
determination of sound power level (see EN ISO 3744:2010, Annex A). Therefore, the A-weighted sound
pressure levels shall be measured and declared at the six positions defined by coordinates:
1)

x = 0,20l, 0,50 l, 0,80 l;

2)

y = -h, h;

3)

z = 1,6 m;

and at two positions:


x = 0,10l; 0,90l; y = 0; z = 1,6 m
where

is the span (S) of the crane;

is the height from the floor level to the top of the main hoist trolley;

is the coordinate below and parallel with the essential symmetry line of the girder(s), at floor
level, origin at the vertical line of one of the supporting travel rails;

is the horizontal coordinate parallel with the travel rails of the crane;

is the vertical coordinate.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

The working cycle during the measurement shall be as described in G.4.3.2, a).
b)

Large outdoor bridge and gantry cranes have dimensions outside the radius of 16 m. In most cases the
installation conditions do not meet requirements for the determination of sound power level. The
determination of the sound power level shall be replaced by the measurement and declaration of sound
pressure levels in the positions determined essentially in the same way as for indoor cranes. In this
determination the cantilevers can be ignored, as the sound power radiated by the hoist trolley on a
cantilever is essentially same as on the span area. Exceptionally, in cases where a separate, fixed
machinery house is installed outside the span, e.g. on a cantilever, the length l shall be extended so that
it includes the machinery house totally. The length of traversing motion shall be extended accordingly.
The working cycle during the measurement shall be as described in G.4.3.2, a).

c)

Where an outdoor gantry crane is sufficiently small and acoustic environment is sufficient, the sound
power level shall be determined in accordance with EN ISO 3744. The reference box and measuring
surface parameters shall be determined on the following principles:
1)

length l 1 is the span of the crane; where fixed machineries are located outside the span, l1 shall be
extended to include them;

2)

width l 2 is the maximum distance between the outer surfaces of the vertical legs in yz-plane;

3)

height l 3 is the vertical distance from the travel rail level to the top of the main hoist trolley or the
machinery house, whichever is higher.

The key microphone positions shall be on a hemisphere with radius 16 m or on a parallelepiped


measurement surface with distance d equal to 4 m or 8 m from the reference box, depending on the
acoustic environment requirements.

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d)

Where the A-weighted sound power levels for the hoisting and traversing motion of the hoist trolley (under
loaded condition) and for the fixed load lifting attachment can be measured in a qualified acoustic
environment, those values can be declared instead of the power level of the whole crane. During
measurement of the traversing, the trolley shall be running along the steel girder(s), as this represents the
actual use.

NOTE 1
The travelling motion can be omitted, as it is usually so silent that an additional acoustic warning signal is
needed, or it depends on the construction of the overhead runways that is out of control of the crane manufacturer.
NOTE 2 Case d) above is typically applicable for serially manufactured hoists. The custom-built hoist trolleys are typically
individual and are not operable with load in a qualified acoustic environment before installation at the end users site.

G.4.2 Installation and mounting conditions


The crane shall be installed on its runway in the condition it is intended to be used excluding the sound alarm
signals which shall be disconnected during the noise measurements.
The mechanisms of the non-fixed load lifting attachments causing noise may be switched off during the noise
measurement cycle.
NOTE

Noise caused by the non-fixed load lifting attachments is the matter of the manufacturer of the equipment.

G.4.3 Operating conditions


G.4.3.1

General

In all cases, the testing position of the crane for the measurements should be so selected that the reflections
and other environmental disturbances are minimized.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

The load handled during the work cycles should be preferably the rated load, but in the case of difficulty to use
the rated load, a load representing the typical loads and having a mass that is at least 50 % of the rated load
mass may be used.
Measurements in enclosed cabins shall be taken with the doors and windows closed and the air-conditioning
and/or ventilating system(s) operating at midrange speed if more than two operating speeds are available. If
only two operating speeds are available, then the highest speed shall be used. If the air-conditioning and/or
ventilating systems have a recirculation and outside air position, it shall be set for outside air.
G.4.3.2
a)

Hoisting and traversing

Work cycle of a crane without cantilevers


The work cycle during measurement shall be as follows:
1)

Hoist the load with maximum speed at the point one quarter of span (beside the measuring point).
Duration shall correspond to one half of the total lifting height.

2)

Start traversing during the hoisting (about at the mid height of hoist path) and go on to the point 3/4
of the span.

3)

Start lowering before stopping the traversing motion and go on to the ground level.

4)

Return the load to the start position in the reverse manner.

5)

Where slewing of the trolley or slewing of a lifting attachment is included, it shall be operated during
traversing.

Where there are limitations in making movements simultaneously, the cycle description shall be modified
accordingly.

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b)

Work cycle of a crane with cantilevers


The cycle shall be identical to that of a), however the hoisting shall commence at the middle point of the
cantilever.

Test cycles and measurements in a) and b) shall be repeated at least three times.
The test result
G.4.3.3

L pA1 is the arithmetic mean of the measured maximum values.

Travelling

Noise measurement during crane travelling shall be made separately holding the load at the mid span of the
crane.
The measuring period shall start when the reference box reaches the stationary microphone, and it shall end
when the other side of the reference box has passed the microphone.
NOTE
The reference box is a hypothetical surface which is the smallest rectangular parallelepiped that just encloses
the noise sources (the whole crane structure) and terminates on the reflecting plane (floor).

Test cycles and measurements shall be repeated at least three times.


The test result

L pA2 is the arithmetic mean of the measured maximum values.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

G.5 Uncertainties
No technical data on noise emission are presently available to estimate the standard deviation of
reproducibility for the family of machinery covered by this noise test code. Therefore, the values of the
standard deviation of reproducibility stated in the basic noise emission standards may be regarded as interim
upper boundaries and used for the determination of the uncertainty K when preparing the noise declaration.
Investigations requiring a joint effort of manufacturers are necessary to determine a possibly lower value of
the standard deviation of reproducibility, which will result in a lower value of the uncertainty K. Results of such
investigations will be reflected in a future version of this standard.

G.6 Information to be recorded


Measurements shall be recorded according to EN ISO 11202:2010, Clause 12.
For the calculation method the information to be recorded is specified in EN ISO 11203:2009, Clause 7.

G.7 Information to be reported


The reports shall include the A-weighted emission sound pressure levels and the positions where they were
measured or calculated.
Where required, the A-weighted sound power level of the crane, or sound power levels of the mechanisms
during work cycles, shall be reported. The method of determining the power levels shall be indicated.

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Where the sound pressure levels in specified positions are reported (G.4.1.2, a) and b)) instead of the
required sound power level, this fact shall be reported. The acoustic environment condition shall also be
reported (for guidance on description of environment, see EN ISO 3744:2010, Table A.1).
The noise values measured during crane travelling shall be reported separately from the values representing
the specified work cycle, because such values may be more strongly affected by the noise generated in the
runways and the building.
In the calculation method the assumptions made for the calculation, the precise positions of sound sources
and operator(s), the values used as sound power input data and the results of the calculations shall be
reported.

G.8 Declaration and verification of noise emission values


The declaration and verification of noise emission values shall be made in accordance with EN ISO 4871.
These values shall be preferably the measured values obtained in accordance with G.4 or the calculated
values (G.3). Example is given in Table G.1.
The noise declaration shall be a dual number declaration as defined in EN ISO 4871, i.e. the noise emission
level and the uncertainty being indicated separately. It shall give the value of the A-weighted emission sound
pressure level at the control stations and other specified working positions, where this exceeds 70 dB; where
this level does not exceed 70 dB, this fact shall be indicated.
The noise declaration shall mention explicitly that noise emission values have been obtained in accordance
with this noise test code and indicate the basic standard that has been used, i.e. EN ISO 11201. The noise
declaration shall clearly indicate any deviation(s) from this noise test code and/or from the basic standard
used.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

Table G.1 Example of information declared, either calculated or measured values, for each position
Model number, operating conditions and other identifying information:
type, model, rated capacity, position, etc.
Calculated sound pressure value
according to G.3

L pA(total )

Uncertainty Kc
Within the range of 1,5 dB to 4 dB
A-weighted sound power
according to G.4.1.2, c) or d)

LWA

Measured sound pressure values at working positions according


to G.4
Hoisting and traversing

Travelling

L pA1

L pA2

Uncertainty Km1
Within the range of 1,5 dB to
4 dB

Uncertainty Km2
Within the range of 1,5 dB to
4 dB

level(s) Measured sound pressure values at specified points according


to G.4.1.2, a) or b)
Specified points Pi(xi, yi, zi)

Uncertainty KWA

LpAi
Uncertainty Km

NOTE
Where the information to be declared in Table G.1 is available both by calculation and measurement, only the
information obtained by measurement shall be declared.

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Noise emission data shall also be given in the sales literature.


When the noise emission values of an individual crane are verified, the measurements shall be conducted by
using the same mounting, installation and operating conditions as those used for the initial determination of
noise emission values.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

Annex H
(informative)
Actions on crane supporting structures induced by cranes

H.1 General
NOTE
By following the format of the wheel forces and buffer forces of the crane given in this annex the manufacturer
enables the designers of the crane supporting structures to create relevant load combinations in conformance with
EN 1991-3 and EN 1993-6.

4
tp

3
tp

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z
y

Key
1 rail 1
2 rail 2
3 hook approach 1
4 hook approach 2
tp1 trolley position closest to rail 1
tp2 trolley position closest to rail 2
Figure H.1 Crane with trolley positions

H.2 Actions induced by cranes


The forces Fx, Fy and Fz due to the load effects described in Table H.1 shall be given. The load positions shall
be selected so as to give the maximum loads for each end carriage. The simultaneous lighter loads in the
other end shall also be given where relevant.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

Table H.1 Load actions and relevant force components


No.

Load action

Force
components

Mass of the crane

Fz

Mass of the trolley(s)

Fz

tp1

tp2

Mass of the hoist load

Fz

tp1

tp2

Acceleration of the crane without hoist


load

Fx, Fy, (*Fz)

tp1

tp2

Acceleration of the crane with hoist load

Fx, Fy, (*Fz)

tp1

tp2

Acceleration of the trolley(s)

Fy, (*Fz)

tp1

tp2

Skewing, guiding on rail 1

Fx, Fy, (*Fz)

tp1

tp2

Skewing, guiding on rail 2

Fx, Fy, (*Fz)

tp1

tp2

In-service wind in direction x

Fx, (*Fy), (*Fz)

tp1

tp2

10

In-service wind in direction y

Fy, (*Fz)

tp1

tp2

11

Buffer forces

Fx, Fy, (*Fz)

tp1

tp2

12

Tilting forces

Fx, Fy, Fz

tp1

tp2

13

Out-of-service wind in direction x

Fx, (*Fy), (*Fz)

14

Out-of-service wind in direction y

Fy, (*Fz)

NOTE

Trolley
position

Remarks

relevant cases to
be given

trolley(s) in the
stowed position

The forces indicated by (*) are in general relevant for gantry cranes only.

H.3 Dynamic factors

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The dynamic factors applicable for the crane in accordance with 5.2.1 should be presented as listed in Table
H.2.
Table H.2 Dynamic factors i
Factor

Load action to be amplified

Dynamic factor for hoisting and gravity effects acting on


the mass of the crane

Dynamic factor for inertial and gravity effects by hoisting


an unrestrained grounded load

Dynamic factor for inertial and gravity effects by sudden


release of a part of the hoist load

Dynamic factor for loads caused by travelling on uneven


surface

Dynamic factor for loads caused by acceleration of all


crane drives, see Note

Dynamic factor for test loads

Dynamic factor for loads due to buffer forces

NOTE
The dynamic factor 5 in this context should be given as the ratio of maximum dynamic wheel force to the
static wheel force (vertical or horizontal) under the load effect in conditions of acceleration by drive forces. This definition
differs from the definition of 5 in EN 13001-2:2004+A3:2009, 4.2.2.4.

Separate factors 5 shall be given due to accelerations in hoisting, travelling and traversing.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

Annex I
(informative)
Selection of a suitable set of crane standards for a given application

Is there a product standard in the following list that suits the application?
EN 13000

Cranes Mobile cranes

EN 14439

Cranes Safety Tower cranes

EN 14985

Cranes Slewing jib cranes

EN 15011

Cranes Bridge and gantry cranes

EN 13852-1

Cranes Offshore cranes Part 1: General-purpose offshore cranes

EN 13852-2

Cranes Offshore cranes Part 2: Floating cranes

EN 14492-1

Cranes Power driven winches and hoists Part 1: Power driven winches

EN 14492-2

Cranes Power driven winches and hoists Part 2: Power driven hoists

EN 12999

Cranes Loader cranes

EN 13155

Cranes Safety Non-fixed load lifting attachments

EN 13157

Cranes Hand powered cranes

EN 14238

Cranes Manually controlled load manipulating devices


YES

NO

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Use it directly, plus the


standards that are referred to
Use the following:
EN 13001-1

Cranes General design Part 1: General principles and requirements

EN 13001-2

Cranes safety General design Part 2: Load effects

prEN 13001-3-1

Cranes General Design Part 3.1: Limit States and proof competence of steel
structures

CEN/TS 13001-3-2

Cranes General design Part 3-2: Limit states and proof of competence of wire ropes
in reeving systems

prCEN/TS 13001-3-3

Cranes General design Part 3-3: Limit states and proof of competence of wheel/rail
contacts

EN 13135-1

Cranes Equipment Part 1: Electrotechnical equipment

EN 13135-2

Cranes Equipment Part 2: Non-electrotechnical equipment

EN 13557

Cranes Controls and control stations

EN 12077-2

Cranes safety Requirements for health and safety Part 2: Limiting and indicating
devices

EN 13586

Cranes Access

EN 14502-1

Cranes Equipment for the lifting of persons Part 1: Suspended baskets

EN 14502-2

Cranes Equipment for the lifting of persons Part 2: Elevating control stations

EN 12644-1

Cranes Information for use and testing Part 1: Instructions

EN 12644-2

Cranes Information for use and testing Part 2: Marking

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

Annex ZA
(informative)
Relationship between this European standard and the Essential
Requirements of EU Directive 2006/42/EC

This European Standard has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission
and the European Free Trade Association to provide a means of conforming to Essential Requirements of the
New Approach Directive 2006/42/EC on machinery.
Once this standard is cited in the Official Journal of the European Union under that Directive and has been
implemented as a national standard in at least one Member State, compliance with the normative clauses of
this standard confers, within the limits of the scope of this standard, a presumption of conformity with the
relevant Essential Requirements of that Directive and associated EFTA regulations.

Normen-Download-Beuth-Korean Standards Association-KdNr.2285190-LfNr.5978461001-2012-11-14 09:50

WARNING Other requirements and other EU Directives may be applicable to the product(s) falling
within the scope of this standard.

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DIN EN 15011:2011-05
EN 15011:2011 (E)

Normen-Download-Beuth-Korean Standards Association-KdNr.2285190-LfNr.5978461001-2012-11-14 09:50

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[1]

EN 614-1, Safety of machinery Ergonomic design principles Part 1: Terminology and general
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[2]

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[3]

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[4]

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[5]

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[18]

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[22]

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1)

Under preparation.

93
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