REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY

:
INTRODUCTION & OVERVIEW
By Dr. M. Anthony David, MD Professor of Physiology

NOMAD: REP PHYSIOL: INTRO & OVERVIEW

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A DIVIDED HUMANKIND

MALE

FEMALE
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WHY THE DIVISION?

SRY

S Region of the Sex Chromosome Y

SPEG
 

A Single Pair Of Endocrine Glands Testes or Ovaries!
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NOMAD: REP PHYSIOL: INTRO & OVERVIEW

ARE MEN AND WOMEN THE SAME?

MEN ARE FROM MARS WOMEN ARE FROM VENUS THEY MET ON PLANET EARTH! - John Gray
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GENETIC SEX DETERMINATION
OVA
MEIOSIS

SPERMS
22 X MEIOSIS

44 XX

22 X

22 X

44 XX FEMALE

22 X 22 X 44 XY 22 Y

22 X Polar Bodies

44 XX

22 X

22 X

44 XY MALE

22 Y

22 X Polar Bodies

22 Y
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NOMAD: REP PHYSIOL: INTRO & OVERVIEW

ZYGOTES

SEX DETERMINATION, DIFFERENTIATION & DEVELOPMENT
22 Y 22 X 44 XY 22 X 22 X 44 XX FEMALE INT GENITALIA

ZYGOTE BIPOTENTIAL PRIMORDIA EMBRYONAL GONADS
MIS

FEMALE INT GENITALIA

T MALE DHT INT & EXT GENITALIA T MALE REP PHYSIOL: INTRO & OVERVIEW NOMAD:

FEMALE

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SEX DETERMINATION, DIFFERENTIATION & DEVELOPMENT
TESTIS ADULT GONADS OVARY

DHT

ESTROGENS

SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS
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GONADAL DEVELOPMENT
PRIMORDIAL GONAD CORTEX MEDULLA

INDIFFERENT GONAD
BY DEFAULT

TESTIS
Effect of SRY
NOMAD: REP PHYSIOL: INTRO & OVERVIEW

OVARY
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DEVELOPMENT OF EXTERNAL GENITALIA

INDIFFERENT STAGE VII – VIIIth WEEK OF INTRA UTERINE LIFE: differentiation begins XIIth WEEK OF I.U.L: Differentiation becomes clear.
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GENETIC SEX DETERMINATION ABERRATIONS

MATERNAL NON DISJUNCTION:
 TURNER’S

SYNDROME OR GONADAL DYSGENESIS: GENOME: 44 XO  SUPERFEMALE:? NORMAL: 44 XXX  KLINE FELTER’S SYNDROME: SEMENIFEROUS TUBULE DYSGENESIS: 44 XXY  LETHAL: 44 YO

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MATERNAL NON DISJUNCTION 1
22 X 44 XX 22 0 22 X 22 XX 44 XXX SUPERFEMALE TURNER’S SYNDROME

44 XO

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MATERNAL NON DISJUNCTION 2
22 Y 22 0 44 XX 22 Y 22 XX 44 XXY KLINE FELTERS SYNDROME 44 YO LETHAL: NOT COMPATIBLE WITH LIFE

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HERMAPHRODITISM

TRUE HERMAPHRODITISM:
 XX/XY

MOSAICISM  HAS BOTH OVARIES & TESTES

PSEUDO HERMAPHRODITISM:
 GENETIC

FEMALES WITH MALE EXT.GENITALIA: ENLARGED CLITORIS  GENETIC MALES WITH FEMALE EXT. GENITALIA
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REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY : an Overview:
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY : Basics  OVARIAN PHYSIOLOGY  MENSTRUAL CYCLE  PHYSIOLOGY OF PREGNANCY  FETAL PHYSIOLOGY

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REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY
PHYSIOLOGY OF PARTURITION  PHYSIOLOGY OF LACTATION  MALE REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY  CONTRACEPTIVE PHYSIOLOGY  ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY

NOMAD: REP PHYSIOL: INTRO & OVERVIEW

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TIME

FOR

A BREAK

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BACK TO LEARNING…

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OVARIAN PHYSIOLOGY
By Dr.M.Anthony David MD Professor of Physiology
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THE JOURNEY OF THE PRIMORDIAL OVARIAN FOLLICLES 7,000,000
ATRESIA, LOSS

IUL: PRIMORDIAL FOLLICLES AT BIRTH OF THE GIRL: NEONATE INFANCY: 0 – 1 Year AT PUBERTY CHOSEN TO BE STIMULATED BETWEEN 15 – 45 Years COMPLETE THE II MEIOTIC DIVISION IN THE LIFETIME
NOMAD: REP PHYSIOL: INTRO & OVERVIEW

2,000,000 1,000,000
ATRESIA

50% ATRESIA

30,000
ATRESIA

500 2, or 3 1

RESULTS IN YOU!

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CONGRATULATIONS !
YOU ARE ONE IN SEVEN MILLION!
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OOGENESIS: FETAL LIFE
 

 

BEGINS IN FETAL LIFE OOGONIA ARE THE PRIMORDIAL CELLS WHICH DIVIDE AGAIN AND AGAIN. THEY ARE ALL DIPLOID ALL THE DIVISIONS IN THIS PHASE ARE MITOTIC. THE FINAL DIVISION, THE IST MEIOTIC ONE, BEGINS IN THE PRIMARY OOCYTE
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OOGENESIS IN THE CHILDHOOD
THE PRIMARY OOCYTES CONTINUE THEIR MEIOTIC DIVISION THROUGH THE CHILDHOOD.  THEY COMPLETE THEIR FIRST PHASE OF MEIOTIC OR REDUCTION DIVISION AT OVULATION.

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OOGENESIS AT PUBERTY
THE PRIMARY OOCYTE COMPLETES ITS FIRST MEIOTIC DIVISION.  ONE SECONDARY OOCYTE AND THE FIRST POLAR BODY ARE FORMED.

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OOGENESIS: COMPLETION AT FERTILIZATION

THE PROCESS OF OOGENSIS IS COMPLETED AT FERTILIZATION. THE SECOND MEIOTIC DIVISION IS COMPLETED AFTER FERTILIZATION A HAPLOID OVUM AND POLAR BODIES ARE FORMED. THIS OVUM MAY TAKE PART IN FERTILIZATION
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OOGENESIS: A SCHEMA

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FOLLICULAR GROWTH
THE FOLLICLES GROW ALONG WITH THE OVA IN THE OVARY.  THE STAGES OF FOLLICULAR GROWTH ARE:

 PRIMORDIAL

FOLLICLE  PRIMARY FOLLICLE  VESICULAR FOLLICLE  MATURE FOLLICLE (Graafian Follicle)
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MATURE GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE
 

THE OOCYTE IS ENVELOPED BY GRANULOSA CELLS: THECA GRANULOSA THERE IS AN ANTRUM FILLED WITH FLUID IN THE GRANULOSA CELLS A STALK: CUMULUS OOPHORUS ATTACHES TO THE OOCYTE AROUND THE GRANULOSA CELLS ARE THE THECA CELLS THE MATURE FOLLICLE IS ABOUT 1.5 cms. IN DIAMETER
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A MATURE GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE

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GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE TO CORPUS LUTEUM
FROM THE MATURE GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE, THE OVUM IS RELEASED.  THIS IS THE PROCESS OF OVULATION, THE CENTRAL EVENT OF THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE.  THE FOLLICLE WHICH IS EMPTY OF THE OVUM DEVELOPS INTO THE CORPUS LUTEUM.

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GROWTH OF AN OVARIAN FOLLICLE

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FUNCTIONS OF ESTROGENS

ON GENITALIA: THEY INCREASE:
 BLOOD

SUPPLY OF UTERUS  THE UTERINE MYOMETRIUM  GROWTH OF OVARIAN FOLLICLES

ON BEHAVIOUR:
 INCREASE

LIBIDO: THE SEX DRIVE

ON SODIUM & WATER:
 CAUSES

RETENTION
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SYNTHETIC FORMS OF ESTROGENS
DIETHYL ESTRADIOL  DIETHYL STILBESTEROL  CAN BE GIVEN ORALLY  INDICATED IN CASES OF POLYCYSTIC OVARIAN DISEASE AND OTHER DISEASES.

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