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saqarTvelos semiotikis

sazogadoeba
semiotikis kvleviTi centri

semiotika
samecniero Jurnali

XV
SEMIOTICS
SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL

Tbilisi
Tbilisi
2015

UDC 8122

mTavari redaqtori
cira barbaqaZe

Editor-in-Chief
Tsira Barbakadze

redaqtorebi

Editors

Tamar berekaSvili
guram Yyifiani
marina giorgaZe
gia joxaZe
daviT andriaZe

Tamar Berekashvili
Guram Kipiani
Marina Giorgadze
Gia Jokhadze
David Andriadze

semiotikis kvleviTi centri 2015

ISSN 1512-2409

dagvikavSirdiT:
E-mail: semiotics@iliauni.edu.ge

Sinaarsi
qalaqis semiotika
Sorena bolqvaZe (baTumi, SoTa rusTavelis fo

, doqtoranti)
didi qalaqebis semiotika memuaristikaSi

(,

)
konstantine gamsaxurdias urbanistuli lirika

15

(, )
qarTuli qalaquri xalxuri musikis semiotikuri
aspeqtebi
22
nino gogiaSvili (Telavi, iakob gogebaSvilis

saxelmwifo universiteti)
wylidan amozrdili qalaqis semiotika

31

(,

)
italo kalvinos uxilavi qalaqi

37

xaTuna TavdgiriZe (, gr. robaqiZis )


qalaqi da gamoqvabuli _ miTopolitikuri narativis
dasawyisi
43
nestan kutivaZe (quTaisi, akaki wereTlis

)
bednieri qalaqi _ sabWoTa totalitaruli saxelmwifos
metafora
67

4
irine maniJaSvili (, sdasu, saqarTvelos daviT

aRmaSeneblis )
Tbilisi terenti granelis poeziaSi

72

irakli mWedliSvili (, filosofiis doqtori,

damoukidebeli mkvlevari)
polisuri sivrce _ socialuri kosmosi da
kosmopolitizmi

83

maka saxuria (, 1-li sajaro skola, filologiis

doqtori)
vefxistyaosnis xuTi qalaqis semiotika

103

bela CekuriSvili (, ivane javaxiSvilis

, doqtoranti)
didi qalaqi _ pirovnebis gaqrobis adgili

110

mindia cecxlaZe (baTumi, SoTa rusTavelis fo

, doqtoranti)
qalaqis mistikuri alegoria

118

(, ,

)
Tbilisuri ekleqtika

126

qeTevan jiSiaSvili (, ,

)
mitingis qronotopi

135

semiotika da sxva
(, )
ena sazRvrebSi da sazRvrebs miRma
146
Tamar berekaSvili (, fo

)
sisulelis aqtualoba

153

(Telavi, iakob gogebaSvilis

saxelmwifo universiteti)
platonis gamoqvabulis miTisa da houkingi _ penrouzis
kinodarbazis metaforebi
161
maia kaWkaWiSvili (quTaisi, kerZo skola goni,

maswavlebeli)
hezitacia quCaSi

165

Qqalaqis semiotika
Sorena bolqvaZe
didi qalaqebis semiotika
memuaristikaSi
memuaristika individisa da sazogadoebis
xedvas aerTebs; gvCvenebs, ra rCeba zogadidan kerZoSi. is mkiTxvels cnobili
faqtebisa Tu movlenebis Sesaxeb uyveba,
radgan maT raRac doziT saerTo warsuli da warsulis xedvis saerTo instrumentebi aqvT.
semiotika informaciis SekumSvas, mis
kodamde dayvanasac niSnavs, cxadia, informaciis Senaxvis, gamartivebis mizniT.
es procesi mexsierebis fenomens ukavSirdeba. Tu ki ama Tu im semiotikuri
niSnis semantika koleqtiur mexsierebaSi
araerTgvarovania, SeuZlebeli gaxdeba
misi gamoyeneba pragmatika. CvenTvis sainteresoa literaturul teqstSi, kerZod, memuaristul prozaSi mocemuli metafora
Tu alegoria SemdgomSi iqca
Tu ara epoqis, sazogadoebis saxeobrivi
azrovnebis niSnad.
memuaruli proza, mxatvrul-dokumenturi Janris sinTezis wyalobiT, erTdroulad gvTavazobs realobis fotografiul suraTsac da mxatvrul versiasac.
inaxavs iseT avTentur sagnebs Tu cnebebs, romelTac ganzogadebis potencia
aqvs.

Sorena bolqvaZe

memuaristikaSi gamoyofen mogzaurobis Janrs. mogzauris Canawerebi erTgvari mxatvrul-dokumenturi prozis nimuSia, rogorc
literaturuli Janri, XVIII- XIX saukuneebis mijnaze yalibdeba da gansakuTrebul popularobas XIX saukunis pirvel naxevarSi iZens. mogzauris Canawerebis gmiri realur geografiul garemoSi mogzaurobs da Taviseburad moiazrebs nanaxsa da
gancdils, gadmogvcems pirad damokidebulebas aRwerili movlenebis mimarT. mocemul paradigmaSi ganvixilavT salome zurabiSvilis memuarebs saqarTvelosken.
simboloTa sistemaSi, romelic SeimuSava kulturis istoriam,
qalaqi gansakuTrebul adgils iWers. amasTan, saWiroa gamovyoT
qalaquri semiotikis ori ZiriTadi sfero: qalaqi, rogorc sivrce da qalaqi, rogorc saxeli.
postsabWoTa periodis memuaristikaSi sabWoTa qalaqebi sabWoTa
realobis struqturas qmnian, am qselSi funqciebi sakavSiro
masStabiTaa gadanawilebuli. qalaqi, rogorc Caketili sivrce,
ormag damokidebulebaSia mis irgvliv arsebul miwasTan. mas SeuZlia ganasaxieros saxelmwifo an sistemis komponentad warmodges.
giorgi merCule grigol xanZTels moixsenebs, rogorc udabnoTa qalaqTmyofels. qalaqi aq mowesrigebuli, orienti
sociumad moiazreba da ara - urbanuli tipis dasaxlebul punqtad. mowesrigebuloba, infrastuqtura qalaqis arsebobis umTavresi pirobaa.
amdenad, ganvixilavT qalaqs, rogorc sistemas da qalaqs rogorc sistemis nawils.
ierusalimi, romi, moskovi sxvadasxva teqstSi moiazreba, rogorc garkveuli samyaros centrebi (pirobiTad, koncentrirebuli vuwodoT). Tumca qalaqi, SesaZlebelia, ganlagebuli iyos
mocemuli miwis aracentralur nawilSi (vuwodoT maT eqscentrirebuli qalaqebi). aseTi qalaqebi, rogorc wesi, ganlagebulia kulturuli sivrcis ganapiras, zRvis sanapiroze.
qalaqi, rogorc rTuli semiotikuri meqanizmi, kulturis generatoria, am funqcias is swored imis damsaxurebiT asrulebs,

didi qalaqebis semiotika memuaristikaSi

rom warmoadgens kodebisa da teqstebis saxarS qvabs. nebismier


qalaqs swored semiotikuri poliglotoba sxva SemTxvevaSi SeuZlebeli semiotikuri koliziebis asparezad. sxvadasxva
erovnebis, religiis sociumis kodebisa da teqstebis SejaxebiT,
qalaqi warmoqmnis semiotikuri Targmanebis axal versiebs,
ax xelaxal kodirebas. ase iqmneba sruliad axali
informacia, romelic yveba axal ambavs am konkretuli qalaqisas,
rasac, SeuZlebelia, analogi . magaliTad, mxolod sabWoTa qalaqebSi arsebobda Cekebis maRaziebi (TbilisSi - cicinaTela); bnedianebi mxolod saxelovani sabWoTa fsiqiatria
icnobs am termins; specifikuri movlenaa deficitis cneba sabWoTa ekonomikaSi; gemovnebis miuxedavad, yvela sabWoTa moqalaqes axsovs induri xsnadi yava da sigareti kosmosi. es aris
is, rasac , analogi hqondes, radgan lokaluri
drois semiotikas warmoadgens.
semiotikuri koliziebis wyarod SeiZleba iqces ara mxolod
sinqronuli mdgomareoba sxvadasxvari semiotikuri warmonaqmnisa,
aramed diaqronulic. gardasuli epoqebis reliviebi warmogvidgebian, rogorc koduri programebi, romlebic mudmivad xelaxla generireben teqstebs istoriul warsulze.
roca vudi alenma SuaRame parizSi gadaiRo, warmoudgenlad
CaTvala am qalaqis Cveneba meoce saukunis aTiani wlebis parizis
gacocxlebis gareSe da legendebad qceul quCebsa da Senobebs
sicocxle rom dabruneboda, moqmedeba swored am periodis qalaqSi gadaitana. TiToeuli qalaqi, Tavisi semiotikiT, yveba
konkretuli epoqis Sesaxeb, kulturuli, sayofacxovrebo Tu
politikuri warsulis (erTi konkretuli periodis) aRmniSvnel
niSanTa sistemiT.
cxadia, Cven mier ganxiluli qalaqebi arsebobdnen sabWoTa kavSiramde, magram am epoqaSi maT axali funqcia da saxe miiRes, Sesabamisad, maTi semiotikuri aRmniSvnelebic ganaxlda.
Jak derida struqturisa da centris mimarTebaze saubrisas aRniSnavs: yovelTvis iTvleboda, rom centri struqturaSi qmnida
swored imas, rac marTavs mas da, amave dros, is struqturis
miRma rCeba. amitomac struqturis Sesaxeb klasikuri TvalazrisisTvis paradoqsulia is, rom centri mdebareobs rogorc

10

Sorena bolqvaZe

struqturaSi, - mis miRma. is mdebareobs raRac mTlianis


centrSi da, amave dros, am mTlianobas sxvagan Tavisi sxva centri (derida 2000:408).
am TvalsazrisiT, sainteresoa moskovis, rogorc multikulturuli sivrcis, gaazreba sabWoTa adamianisagan, da Semdgom - misi
gadaazreba postsabWoTa periodis memuaristikaSi (moskovi imperiis centri, sxva mxriv, periferiaa qurduli samyarosTvis,
romlis centri sxva sabWoTa qalaqi gaxldaT).
moskovi imperiis dedaqalaqia (koncentrirebulia, misi yvela
wertilidan aqeT moiltvian. amitomac xsovna am qalaqze usaTuod gulisxmobs rigebs, grZel rigebs. rigia kremlis bufetSic
- xizilalaze, leninis mavzeleumSic, kinofestivalis bileTebze, pikasos gamofenaze).
moskovs cremlebis ar sjera, Tumca gakvirvebulia qarTvelebis qonebiT: Cveni simdidre gansakuTrebiT ruseTSi gamovlindeboda xolme. aba, romeli rusi studenti SeZlebda kalininis
prospeqtze, dom knigiSi gamofenili sezanis, pikasosa Tu diufis 50-maneTiani ucxouri albomebis yidvas, Tu ara Cven, qarTvelebi... (gvaxaria2013:81). mdidari qarTvelis tipaJi sabWoTa kinematografiis erTob sayvareli personaJic xdeba.
sabWoTa kavSiri ierarqiuli sistema gaxldaT, Tumca gamoiyofoda partiul Tanamdebobrivi, qurduli samyaros ierarqia da
inteligenturi (samecniero sferos) subordinirebuli sazogadoeba. Sesabamisad, gvaqvs sami centri moskovi, odesa, leningradi.
odesur moTxrobebSi babelma romantikulad aRwera meoce saukunis dasawyisis odesa, ebraeli kriminalebisa da ubralo xalxis cxovreba, Zegli daudga qurdebis, mZarcvelebis, ostatebisa
da wvrili movaWreebis egzotikur da Zlier xasiaTebs (berZeniSvili2010:130).
peterburgis (moviazrebT eqscentrirebul qalaqad) gansakuTrebuloba mdgomareobs misi TviTSefasebis sakiTxSi. es gulisxmobs
erTgvar garegan, arapeterburgul dakvirvebas. es SeiZleba iyos
mzera evropidan da mzera ruseTidan. Tumca am dros mudmivi

didi qalaqebis semiotika memuaristikaSi

11

rCeba peterburgis kultura, romelic TviTkonstruirebs garegan mzeras sakuTar Tavze. es xasiaTi am qalaqma gansakuTrebiT
mkafiod gamoxata swored sabWoTa periodSi.
leningradi sabWoTa inteleqtualuri inteligenciis (arsebobda
soflis inteligentis cnebac) placdarmad da disidenturi andegraundis TavSesafrad iqca. zonis ufrosebisTvis leningradelebi da sinamdvileSi peterburgelebi anu piterelebi nebismieri politikuri zonis mniSvnelovan Semadgenel nawils
warmoadgendnen (berZeniSvili 2010:105). swored inteleqtualobisken midrekili Crdilouri dedaqalaqi avsebda sabWoTa disidentebis rigebs.
70-ian wlebSi leningradSi praqtikaze Tbilisis samxatvro akademiis studentebs saSualeba hqondaT, aramarto aqauri naSebis gemo egrZnoT, ara marto aqaur spekulantebTan gamoenaxaT
saerTo ena da magrad daSmotkiliyvnen, ara marto aqauri planis
niuansebSi garkveuliyvnen, aramed erTi TvaliT mainc SeexedaT
ermitaJis SedevrebisTvis... (gvaxaria 2013:176).
igorma is moxuci qalic gamaxsena, rembrandtis naxats 40 weliwads rom sdarajobda. aRmoCnda, rom mSoblebi, Zveli bolSevikebi, 1937 wels dauxvrites. ... axalgazrda leningradel mxatvrebTan megobrobda da saxlSi Cais smebs awyobda. ermitaJSi
mTavar disidentkas eZaxdnen (gvaxaria 2013:181).
qalaquri semiotikis kvlevis TvalsazrisiT, memuaristuli Sinaarsis TxzulebaTa Soris gansakuTrebiT informaciuli aRmoCnda mogzaurobis Janris teqstebi. mogzaurobis fabulaze agebuli literaturuli nawarmoebebis gmiri geografiuli marSrutis
gavlasTan erTad, Sinagan, sulir mogzaurob, mamis saxlSi dabruneba (odisevsis SemTxvevaSi) gulisxmobs gmiris sulier iniciacias, zrdas, zeswrafvas. CvenTvis sainteresoa, am
konteqst gmirisTvis ra funqcias iZens esa Tu is qalaqi.
aris is gzis dasawyisi, gzajvaredini, ufskruli (dacema) Tu piriqiT, mTaze asvla ierusalimi.
am TvalsazrisiT, saintereso teqstia salome zurabiSvilis memuari saqarTvelosken eseebis krebuli. emigranti qarTvelis
saqarTveloSi dabruneba winaparTa ganvlili gzis (ara mxolod

12

Sorena bolqvaZe

- geografiuli) gagrZelebiTaa motivirebuli, es erTgvari erovnuli Tu genetikuri identifikaciis wyurvilia.


ainteresoa, emigranti qarTvelis diplomatiuri karieris kvaldakval, rogor aRiniSneboda msoflios didi qalaqebi mis cnobierebaSi; aseve, sainteresoa sabWoTa qalaqebze rkinis fardis
miRma gazrdilis pirveli STabeWdileba ra vizualuri formiT Tu leqsikiT aRniSna man nanaxi.
Tbilisi stambuli parizi axlo winaprebis mier ganvlili
es marSruti ambiciuri axalgazrda diplomatisTvis ara ganvlilis, gasavlelis ufro macnea. memuari, cxadia, P...iwereba, avtori ki Tavisi warsulis refleqsiisas yvelafers am ideaze kinZavs. diplomatiuri karieris yoveli qalaqi samSoblosken gasavleli traeqtoriis mniSvnelovani kvanZia.
romi, (diplomatiuri karieris debiuti swored romSi Sedga),
Tavisi arqaulobiT, aristokratizmis pedalirebis aqezebs,
rac misi renomes mTavari Strixi xdeba. romi maradiulia, is
yvelafers inaxavs, relikviad saxavs salomec skivrs, saqarTvelodan wamoRebuls, romelic masTan erTad agrZelebs mogzaurobas. swored am sxvenis qveS, antikvarebisa da antikvaruli nivTebiT savse Teatraluri dekoraciis msgavs via de koronaris
quCaze, pirvelad vigrZeni Tavi sakuTar saxlSi (zurabiSvili
2013:30).
iu-iorki didi vaSli, dRevandeli msofliosTvis Tavisuflebis, usafrTxoebisa da keTildReobis simbolo: Cemi studentobis niu-iorki 70iani wlebis qalaqi iyo... is idumalebiT moculi kontinentia, saSiSi, gulisamrevi, magram mimzidveli.....
(zurabiSvili2013:66).
1977 welia. am qalaqSi meored Cavdivar... me sruliad gansxvavebul niu-iorks vecnobi... es Cemi studentobis wlebis qalaqi
aRar aris: maSin Tu saSiSi iyo, axla usafrTxoa(zurabiSvili
2013:68).
moskovi sxvagvarad aRiniSneba arasabWouri TvalTaxedvis
ar: pirvelad Cavdivar ssrkSi, moskovSi rkinis fardis
iqiT. breJnevis mmarTveloba zenitSia. sruli uZraobaa da arc

didi qalaqebis semiotika memuaristikaSi

13

etyoba, odesme raime rom amoZravdeba. 1981 wlis zamTarSi moskovi Zalian pirquSad gamoiyureboda: usaxuri vitrinebi, romelTa sicarieles erTmaneTze dawyobili konservis kolofebi avsebda (zurabiSvili 2013:72).
gasabWoebuli dasavleTevropuli qalaqi gaucxoebulia evropul
sivrceSic:
berlini: civ da rux, moRuSul qalaqSi seirnobisas Zalian ucnauri grZnoba dameufla... quCaSi mosiarule adamianTa fexis xma
ar ismoda; mereRa SevniSne, rom es uCveulo siCume rezinis Zirebiani fexsacmelebis brali iyo, romelsac im dros atarebdnen
gdr-Si(zurabiSvili 2013:70).
oTar WilaZis CanawerebSi ca miwidan iwyeba qalaqi gaiazreba,
rogorc adamianis formirebis sivrce. is daibada baTumSi, izrdeboda siRnaRSi da damkvidrda TbilisSi. mis CanawerebSi arc
erTi qalaqi ar rCeba specialuri aRniSnvis gareSe. ormociani
wlebis TbilisSi pirvelad moxvedrili kacisTvis rom gekiTxaT,
yvelaze metad ram miiqcia Seni yuradReba am qalaqSio, daufiqreblad gipasuxebdaT pianinos xmamo (WilaZe 2015:133).
amrigad, postsabWoTa periodis memuaristika warmogvidgens sabWoTa kavSiris qalaqebis (moskovi, leningradi, odesa) semiotikas. moskovi struqturis centria (romi), peterburgi evropa,
xolo odesa Savi qalaqi. Tuki vizualizacias mivmarTavT, SegviZlia SevqmnaT posterebi (rigebi cumsa da gumSi an konservis
qilebis piramidebi vitrinebSi).
mogzaurobis, saxlSi dabrunebis, paradigmaSi qalaqebis semiotika ase gamoiyureba: arqauli romi genetikuri warsulis
skivri; niu-iorki, dakavSirebuli SiSisa da usafrTxoebis konceptebTan. kulturul markerad miviCnieT berlinSi rezinisZirebiani fexsacmelebi da pianinos xma fanjrebidan TbilisSi.
amdenad, memuaristikis kvlevam bunebrivad miiRo interdisciplinuri xasiaTi, is gascda literaturaTmcodneobis farglebs da
socio-kulturologiur da istoriografiul plastebs Seexo.

Sorena bolqvaZe

14
literatura

berZeniSvili 2010: levan berZeniSvili, wminda wyvdiadi; Tbilisi.


gvaxaria 2013: gogi gvaxaria, cremliani saTvale; Tbilisi.
derida 2000: , c; .
zurabiSvili2013: salome zurabiSvili, saqarTvelosken; Tbilisi.
WilaZe 2015: oTar WilaZe, ca miwidan iwyeba; Tbilisi.

konstantine bregaZe

konstantine gamsaxurdias
urbanistuli lirika
modernistuli lirikis erT-erTi
mniSvnelovani poetologiuri da struqturuli maxasiaTebelia is, rom, tradiciuli lirikisagan gansxvavebiT, romelic, ZiriTadad, orientirebulia lirikuli gmiris/lirikuli me-s mkveTrad
gamoxatul subieqturobasa da mis msoflmxedvelobriv da emocionalur wiaRsvlebze (mag. sentimentaluri, romantikuli an realisturi poezia), romelsac
Semdgom efuZneba tradiciuli lirikuli
teqstis mTeli ideur-msoflmxedvelobrivi, saxismetyvelebiTi da struqturul-kompoziciuri sistema, modernistul lirikaSi amis sapirispirod ukana
planze gadadis an sruliad gauqmebeulia e. w. lirikuli gmiri/lirikuli
me da misi mkveTrad gamoxatuli subieqturoba. Sesabamisad, modernistuli
lirikis lirikuli me teqstSi ukve
aRar fuZndeba umTavres sabaziso struqturul erTeulad anu avtorisa da teqstis ZiriTadi msoflmxedvelobrivi da
emocionaluri
mTlianobis
mediumad,
romlis garSemoc tradiciul lirikaSi
Semdgom igeba xolme lirikuli teqstis
mTliani struqturul-formaluri sistema (tropika, ritorika, versifikacia).

16

konstantine bregaZe

Sedegad, modernistul lirikul teqstSi e. w. lirikuli


me da misi subieqturoba an sruliad ganeitralebulia, ukana
planze gadadis an sulac gauqmebuli da ukugdebulia, mag., eqspresionistul lirikaSi [andreoti 2009: 306-329].
modernistul lirikaSi mocemuli es struqturuli ryeva,
erTi mxriv, gamowveulia samyaroseuli harmoniulobisa da yofierebis gonis warmarTulobisadmi modernisti avtoris undoblobiT da miuReblobiT (hegelis nakadis uaryofa), meore mxriv,
gonebis ganmanaTlebluri kultisa da subieqtis subieqturobis
yovlisSemZleobisadmi skepsisiT (kantianur da fixteanur nakadTa uaryofa). aq ki vlindeba mentalobis globaluri da sayovelTao cvalebadoba - Teocentristuli da anTropocentristuli arqetipuli paradigmebis destruireba, rac gamowveulia nicSeseuli RmerTis sikvdiliT. amitomac modernistul lirikul
teqstebSi imTaviTve gacxadebulia subieqturobis krizisi da
lirikuli gmiris subieqturobisagan dacla, misi ganpirovneba
(Entpersnlichung), rac, rogorc ukve aRvniSne, aisaxa modernistuli lirikis TviT struqturul donezec ki, sadac lirikuli
gmiris disocirebuli, daSlili, darRveuli subieqturoba aRar
fuZndeba lirikuli teqstis sabaziso struqturul erTeulad.
k. gamsaxurdias eqspresionistuli lirika, sadac imTaviTve
dominirebs urbanistuli toposebi, zedmiwevniT asaxavs, erTi
mxriv, am struqturul transformacias, xolo, meore mxriv,
mentalobis cvalebadobiT gansazRvrul subieqturobis daSlasa
da rRvevas (Ichdissoziation), subieqtis ganpirovnebas. ganpirovnebuli, desubieqtivirebuli e. w. lirikuli gmiri ki swored
disharmoniul, disocirebul, daSlil samyaroSi egzistirebs da
sruliad atomizdeba masSi, sabolood inTqmeba da qreba araraSi.
k. gamsaxurdias urbanistuli lirika eqspresionizmis poetikisa da msoflmxedvelobis konteqstSi viTardeba, rodesac igi
Semoqmedebis pirvel etapze (daaxl. 1918-1925) eqspresionizmis
winamZRoli da misi Tanmimdevruli gamtarebelia saqarTveloSi.
rogorc sayovelTaod cnobilia, zogadad, modernizmi da misi mniSvnelovani Semadgeneli nawili eqspresionizmi (daaxl.
1910-1920 w.w., upiratesad germaniaSi) Tavis Tavs urbanistul
fenomenad, urbanizmis produqtad da urbanizmisadmi dapirispirebad ganixilavs, vinaidan modernizmi apriori swored qalaqur
sivrceSi isaxeba da am sivrcesTan konfliqtSi aviTarebs Tavis
eTikas, poetikasa da esTetikas. modernizmis yvela adepti swo-

konstantine gamsaxurdias urbanistuli lirika

17

red am garemoebas usvamda xazs, maT Soris qarTveli modernistebic. 1


cxadia, eqspresionistul lirikaSic umTavresi toposi swored qalaquri sivrcea. aq qalaqisadmi damokidebuleba ambivalenturia: qalaqi (am SemTxvevaSi, berlini), erTi mxriv, aris
usulo, desakralizebuli, dehumanizebuli modernuli teqnikuri
civilizaciis kulminirebuli toposi, am sivrceSi adamiani imTaviTvea ganwiruli sakuTari subieqturobis dakargvis, sakuTar
TavTan, samyarosTan gaucxoebisa da TviTidentobis vermopovebisaTvis (e. w. me-s disociacia):
Wie Aderwerk gehn Straen durch die Stadt,
Unzhlig Menschen schwemmen aus und ein
Und ewig stumpfer Ton von stumpfem Sein
Eintnig kommt heraus in Stille matt.
(G. Heym, Die Stadt, 1911) [www.gutenberg... (a)] 2
magram, meore mxriv, didi qalaqi, amavdroulad, SesaZloa,
mesianisturi aRtyinebisa an vitalizmis, sicocxlis toposic
iyos, rac eqspresionisti poetisaTvis umTavresi esTetikuri Rirebulebaa. am ganwyobiTa da msoflgancdiT ki germanuli eqspresionizmi italiur futurizmTan amJRavnebs mcire siaxloves:
Wie schn ist diese stolze Stadt der Gierde!
Ihr Elend und geschmhter berfluss
Und schwere Straen sehr verzerrte Zierde.
Schamloser Tag entdeckt dir die Konturen,

Sdr.: modernuli xelovneba RviZli Svilia qalaqis. bunebas ar


uwovebia misTvis ZuZu, Savi qalaqis nisliT da mkrTomare gaziT izrdeboda. qalaqis eleqtronis farnebze warmoudgenelia nanatri warsuli (t. tabiZe, cisferi yanwebiT~) [Jurnalebi... 2011(a): 121-122];
aseve, Sdr.: axali kultura SeuZlebelia sofluri elferiT, axali
kultura didi qalaqiTaa mudam daStampuli (k. gamsaxurdia,
Declaratia Pro Mea) [gamsaxurdia 1983: 400].
2

quCebma ZarRvebiviT daseres qalaqi, uricxv adamianTa massa qreba da


Cndeba, marad yru xma gamodis yru yofisagan da erTferovan xmad
vrceldeba mdumarebaSi (georg haimis leqsis qalaqi citatis pwkareduli Targmani Cemia k. b.).

18

konstantine bregaZe

Die Huser stehen befleckt mit Staub und


Ru
(J. van Hoddis, Stadt, 1909) [www.
gutenberg (b)] 3
Tuki gaviTvaliswinebT eqspresionizmis im arsebiT Tvisebas,
romelsac antinomiuroba qvia da romelic fundamentur msoflmxedvelobriv sibrtyeze eqspresionizmSi vlindeba e. w. mesianisturi da apokalifsuri diskursebis formiT, gasakviri ara,
rom didi qalaqis mimarTac gamovlenilia es ambivalenturoba.
magram eqspresionizmi, pirobiTad apokalifsuria Tu mesianisturi, orive SemTxvevaSi gamocxadebiTia Tavis Sinagan fundamentur arsSi.
k. gamsaxurdias eqspresionistuli urbanistuli lirikac,
upirveles yovlisa, gamocxadebiTi bunebisaa da es gamocxadebiToba aq aseve orive mimarTulebiT vlindeba _ misi urbanistuli
lirikuli teqstebi Seicaven rogorc apokalifsur, ise mesianistur diskursebs, romelTa antinomiuroba sabolood kairosul
paTosSi erTiandeba da neitraldeba. Sesabamisad, k. gamsaxurdias
urbanistul lirikaSi gadmocemuli da gacxadebulia (gamocxadebulia) e. w. axali adamianis, ganaxlebuli adamianisa da sakralurad gardasaxuli yofierebis profetuli vizionebi.
swored ioane naTlismcemliseuli da ioane oqropiriseuli
mesianisturi eTikiTa da mamxilebeli paTosiTaa aRvsili leqsebis _ qriste parizSi 1999 wels4 da berlini _ liriku-

ra mSvenieria es mwyurvali qalaqi! ra mSvenieria misi siRatake da


fufuneba, gadatvirTul quCebis ornamentebi. ubiwo dRe giCvenebs monasmebs saxlebi Camdgaran mtversa da nacarSi (iakob van hodisis
leqsis qalaqi citatis pwkareduli Targmani Cemia k. b.).
4 sabWoTa periodis oficialur gamocemebSi, rogorc Cans cenzuris
gamo (mag., ix. "qarTuli poezia", t. 12, gv. 616-620, 1982, gam.-oba "nakaduli"), konstantines am leqss hqvia "parizi 1919 wels", rac arasworia, vinaidan Tavdapirvelad Jurnal "kavkasionis " #3-4-Si (1924)
leqss erqva swored ase - "qriste parizSi 1999 wels" (Jurnalebi...
2011(c): 327). garda amisa, TariRs 1999 konceptualuri datvirTva
aqvs: Tuki gaviTvaliswinebT eqspresionizmis msoflmxedvelobas da im
faqtors, rom am leqs eqspresionisti k. gamsaxurdia swored eqspresionistuli msoflmxedvelobis konteqstSi qmnis, maSi TariRiT

konstantine gamsaxurdias urbanistuli lirika

19

li gmiri. Ees poza ki imTaviTve damaxasiaTebelia mesianisturi


da gamocxadebiTi eqspresionizmisa da misi lirikuli gmirisaTvis. aqve SevniSnavT, rom parizi da berlini aRniSnul lirikul
teqstebSi fuZndebian modernuli desakralizebuli epoqis ikonur toposebad. amasTan, aRniSnul teqstebSi gamovlenilia qalaquri vitalizmis, qalaquri sicocxlis esTetikur fenomenad
gzneba da mis axal esTetikur sagnad qceva (didi qalaqis avxorcobis wiTeli raSi), warmoCenilia qalaqur sivrceSi adamianis subieqturobis disociaciis, totaluri dehumanizaciisa da
desakralizaciis problematika, aseve miniSnebulia pirvelyofili bunebisa (rogorc sakraluri, miTosur-bibliuri toposis)
da manqanur-teqnikuri civilizaciis (qalaqi-moloxi, qalaqisodomi) aprioruli dapirispireba. amis paralelurad ki gadmocemulia Tavad lirikuli gmiris profetizmi, rac ukavSirdeba
sakraluri cnobierebiTa da dionisuri gznebiT aRvsili momavali kacobriobisa da axali RvTaebrivi sulierebiT aRvsili samyaros vizionebs:
oh, rarig miyvars feeris uxvi wuTebi,
qSena, zanzari, TqaraTquri, rbena, gangaSi,
am qedmoxrilTa ofliani mklavis kunTebi,
didi qalaqis avxorcobis wiTeli raSi!
................................................................................................
didia Seni garyvnileba, Seni cTuneba,
fersa hkargaven Sens sxivebTan mnaTobni cisa,
me Sens wiaRSi maviwydeba deda-buneba,
Sens qarxnebs asdiT oxSivarad oxvra miwisa.
................................................................................................
aq uflis nacvlad eleqtrobas evedrebian,
yviTel liTonsa Seucvlia macxovris xati,
milionebi Tvalis fSvnetiT fexze dgebian,

1999 miniSnebulia, erTi mxriv, konkretuli epoqis, garkveuli istoriuli ciklis dasasruli, kerZod, desakralizebuli da dehumanizebuli modernuli epoqis, rogorc ciklis, wris, aRsasruli/dasasruli
da, meore mxriv, axali spiritualuri da miTosuri, anu pirvelsawyisebTan dabrunebuli epoqis/ciklis dasawyisi da e. w. axali adamianis,
anu axali spiritualuri codniTa da suliskveTebiT moqceuli da ganaTlebuli adamianis movlineba.

20

konstantine bregaZe

aq isaria mbrZanebeli da ciferblati.


(berlini) [Jurnalebi... 2011(b): 251-252].
krTodeT,
maRalo,
TvalSeudgomo
sasaxleebo,
otelebo,
Ramis barebo.
Tqven:
moednebo senJermenis,
konkord da kliSi.
ar geridebaT
Tqven uflis enis?
nuTu ara gaqvT
macxovris SiSi?
Senc,
eifelo,
babilono Cven saukunis,
modis grigali, ver giSvelis Sen mexamridi.
eg ar gegonos arc maroko, alJir an tunis,
arc germania,
albioni cru da pirflidi.
rogorc lanqeri,
vagramis gziT da etualiT,
brbo gaeqana notrdamisken
mirabos xidiT.
molandebaa sinamdvile naxuli TvaliT,
ismis Zaxili pozauenis kididan kidiT.
modis
ufali
fexSiSvela, gaukiTxavi
da gekiTxebaT:
~eg Tqvena xarT, suls fulze yiddiT?~
modis
ufali,
mokrZalebiT daxareT Tavi,
epifaniis saswauli dRe aris didi.

konstantine gamsaxurdias urbanistuli lirika

21

(qriste parizSi 1999 wels) [Jurnalebi...


2011(c): 328].
amgvarad, marTalia k. gamsaxurdias urbanistuli lirika araa
mravalricxovani, Tumca urbanistuli lirikis is ramdenime nimuSi (berlini, qriste parizSi 1999 wels, noembris qari),
albaT, unda gaviazroT rogorc cda, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom warmatebuli cda, qarTuli lirikis modernistuli poetikiT ganaxlebisa da evropuli radiusiT gamarTvis TvalsazrisiT, unda
gaviazroT, rogorc erT-erTi pirveli cda urbanistuli lirikis Janris qarTul poeziaSi dafuZnebisa da momavali qarTveli
lirikosebis am axal Janrze orientaciis TvalsazrisiT.

literatura
andreoti 2009: M. Andreotti, Die Struktur der modernen
Literatur, Bern: Haupt Verlag, 2009.
gamsaxurdia 1983: k. gamsaxurdia, Txzulebani 10 tomad, gam.-oba
sabW. saqarTvelo,
Tbilisi, 1983.
Jurnalebi... 2011(a): t. tabiZe, cisferi yanwebiT; krebulSi: li-

teraturuli Jurnalebi,
1910-1920-iani wlebi, wigni pirveli, literaturis muzeumis gamocema, Tbilisi, 2011.
Jurnalebi... 2011(b): k. gamsaxurdia, berlini; krebulSi: litera-

turuli Jurnalebi, 19101920-iani wlebi, wigni pirveli, literaturis muzeumis gamocema, Tbilisi, 2011.
Jurnalebi... 2011(c): k. gamsaxurdia, qriste parizSi 1999 wels;
krebulSi: literaturuli
Jurnalebi, 1910-1920-iani wlebi, wigni mesame, literaturis muzeumis gamocema, Tbilisi, 2011.
www.gutenberg... (a): http://gutenberg.spiegel.de/autor/georg-heym273
www.gutenberg... (b): http://gutenberg.spiegel.de/autor/autor/jakobvan-hoddis-1396

Tamaz gabisonia
qarTuli qalaquri
xalxuri musikis
semiotikuri aspeqtebi
qalaquri musika _ iseve, rogorc
kulturis sxva dargebi, civilizaciasTan igivdeba, magram, amave dros, qalaqs
aqvs sxva mniSvnelobac _ esaa qaosi, socialur Tu eTnikur jgufTa, stilTa
aRreva. Sedegad ki _ am maxasiaTebelTa
originalobis kargva, gauferuleba. qalaqi _ esaa farTo arCevani da, amasTan,
reglamentis Tavisufali gadaazreba, rac
gansakuTrebiT Tavs iCens mosaxleobis
Semadgenlobis mkveTri Secvlisas, da
yovelive es ki qmnis qalaquri musikis
erTgvar eqstramusikalur konteqsts.
Cveni interesis sagani qarTuli qalaquri musikaa, misi xalxuri Ziris
winwamoweviT, magram cneba `xalxuris~
Cveneuli interpretacia yuradRebis miRma tovebs eTnikur komponents. es mimarTeba qarTuli eTnomusikis Seswavlisas
yovelTvis wina planzea wamoweuli. am
SemTxvevaSi cneba xalxuris koleqtiuri Semoqmedebis mniSvnelobaa prioritetuli, rac qalaqisTvis gansakuTrebiT
aqtualuria. aseve, naklebad motivirebulia cneba qarTuli qalaquri musika,
romelic SeiZleba mianiSnebdes rogorc
saqarTvelos qalaqebis, ise _ qarTuli
eTnikuri dominantiT gansazRvrul xalxur musikas. Cven aqac ganze gadavdebT

qarTuli qalaquri xalxuri musikis semiotikuri aspeqtebi

23

eTnikur komponents, radgan, zogadad, qalaqisTvisac igi naklebadaa aqtualuri, vidre soflisTvis. eTnikuri faqtoris primati
damaxasiaTebelia qarTuli eTnomusikologiisTvis. Cven jer kidev qarTveli musikis folkloristebi varT da ara eTnomusikologebi, rogorc vuwodebT Tavs sabWoTa samecniero paradigmidan
gamoqceulebi. Cven jer kidev pirvel nabijebs vdgamT tradiciuli musikis fenomenis sociumSi funqcionirebis aspeqtebze dakvirvebis mxriv. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom tradiciuli musikis kvlevis veqtoris amgvari Semotrialeba yovelTvis ar iwvevs samecniero interesis adekvatur gadanawilebas am fenomenis sxvadasxva Semadgenelze. am mxriv, qalaquri musika, rogorc adre, nawilobriv _ dResac, glexur musikalur folklorTan SedarebiT,
geris rolSi rCeba. Tundac qarTuli eTnomusikalur sivrceSi
yvelaze aqtualuri diskursi, romelic xalxuri musikis avTentikuri da akademiuri Sesrulebis problemas ganixilavs, kvlav
da kvlav soflur simReraze fokusirdeba, xolo qalaquri mravalxmiani simRera da aRmosavluri vokalur-instrumentuli nimuSebi (ra mimarTulebac kvlav qalaqis sivrceSi iRebs saTaves)
ganixileba, rogorc mxatvrul Rirsebas moklebuli da qarTuli
erovnuli kulturisTvis ucxo plastebi (mesxi, 2003:493).
msgavsi Sefaseba miecema e.w. parafolklorsac (gabisonia 2014:
39) _ glexuri folkloris stilisturi elementebis gadamRerebiT funqcionirebad mimarTulebas, magram mas mainc sakmao yuradReba eTmoba, radgan igi erTgvarad ebmis tradiciul musikas,
rogorc xSirad misi opoziti.
gavixsenoT, Tu ra tradicia gvaqvs dResdReobiT qalaquri xalxuri
musikis
sxvadasxva
saxeTa
ganxilvis
mxriv.
grigol CxikvaZe 1961 wels gamocemul broSuraSi (CxikvaZe,
1961) Tanamedrove qarTul folklorad mxolod sabWoTa Tematikis simRerebs moiazrebs. sakuTriv qalaquri musikis sakiTxs
ki yvelaze safuZvliani kvleva miuZRvna arCil mSveliZem _ rogorc winasityvaoba sanoto krebulisa _ qarTuli xalxuri qalaquri simRera (mSveliZe, 1957). ZiriTadad, es naSromi ayalibebs qarTul musikismcodneobaSi am mimarTebiT arsebul koncefcias, romlis mixedviTac, aris qalaquri musikis ori Sto: aRmosavluri _ orientalisturi stiliT, ZiriTadad, erTxmianobiT, da dasavluri _ dasavleT saqarTveloSi gavcelebuli evropuli funqcionalobis samxmianobiT. saqme isaa, rom aq cnebebi
`aRmosavluri~ da `dasavluri~ moculobaTa da SinaarsTa Seusa-

24

Tamaz gabisonia

bamobas amJRavnebs. ufro zusti viqnebiT, Tu aRmosavleT-dasavleTSi lokalizaciis punqts mkacri kriteriumis funqcias movaSorebT. saqme isaa, rom evropuli harmonia gvxvdeba rogorc
TbilisSi, ise _ aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi. stilisturad dasavluri Stos qalaquri simReris erTi mTavari wyaro _ opera xom
TbilisSi dafuZnda da ara _ quTaisSi. aseve sacnauria isic,
rom Tavad quTaisSic bolo dromde sakmaod popularuli iyo
aRmosavluri `dastis~ musicireba. amitom, vfiqrob, rom dasavluri stili, rogorc evropuli harmoniiT motivirebuli, da
aRmosavluri stili, rogorc orientaluri monodiiT motivirebuli, qalaqisa da soflis konceptebTan erTad paradigmatikul
WrilSic unda ganixilebodes, da ara mxolod _ rogorc SemosazRvruli sintagmebi: dasavluri _ ZvelquTaisuri da aRmosavluri _ ZvelTbilisuri. es mosazreba garkveulwilad exmaureba
m. qavTaraZis Sexedulebas Tbilisuri kulturis qarTuli da
araqarTuli plastebis `polifoniur~ xasiaTze, `rac niSnavs
kulturebisa da subkulturebis ara ubralo Tanaarsebobas, aramed maT difuziasa da dialogs~ (qavTaraZe, 2011:84). ra kriteriumiT SeiZleba, gaimijnos dRes qalaquri musikis koncepti
araqalaqurisgan? gamovyofdi Semdeg argumentebs:
1. arareglamentirebulobiT _ Tavisufali interpretaciiT;
2. eTnikuri elementis naklebi xvedriTi wiliT;
3. poligenurobiT;
4. hibridulobiT;
5. artikulaciis unifikaciiT;
cxadia, gansxvavdeba qalaquri xalxuri da, zogadad, qalaquri musika. Tumca am or movlenas Soris zRvari dRiTidRe
bundovani xdeba.
qalaqur musikad moviazrebT, zogadad, qalaquri cxovrebis wesiT ganpirobebul musikas, maT Soris _ rogorc profesiul-saavtoros, ise spontanurad Camoyalibebul mimdinareobebs;
xolo qalaqur xalxurSi _ mis qvesimravles _ tradiciuli
koleqtiuri Semoqmedebis masivs.
zogadad, qalaqur musikaSi gamovyofdiT:
1. postfolklors;
2. akademiur musikas;
3. saeklesio musikas;
4. kinosa da Teatris musikas;
5. sasule orkestris musikas;

qarTuli qalaquri xalxuri musikis semiotikuri aspeqtebi

25

6. Tanamedrove popularul mimarTulebebs (maT Soris _


eTnoroks, eTnojazs, folkjazs);
7. parafolklors;
8. qalaqur xalxur (ara mxolod qarTul) musikas.
da ra plastebi SeiZleba moviazroT qarTul qalaqur xalxur
musikaSi?
1. evropuli harmoniis hibriduli 3-4-xmiani simRera;
2. xalxur sakravTa orkestrebis repertuari;
3. sabWoTa Tematikis simRerebi;
4. aRmosavluri vokalur-instrumentuli ansambli (fanoRebi);
5. calkeuli qarTuli vias kompoziciebi;
6. qarTvel lotbar-kompozitorTa Txzulebebi.
unda aRniSnos, rom es ukanaskneli fenomeni Znelia, mxolod qalaquri warmoSobiT moiniSnos. aqcents soflur tradiciul intonaciaze akeTebdnen, magram Tavad araxalxuri, saavtoro midgoma, rac, ZiriTadad, melodiis moculobis gazrdaSi gamoixata, maT qalaquri meTodisadmi erTgulebaze metyvelebs. amgvar kompozitorebs r. wurwumia eTnomusikis sferoSi folkloris aqtiur momxmareblebs uwodebs (wurwumia, 2009:627).
qalaqis Svilia postfolkloric. esaa cxovrebis Tanamedrove
meTodebiTa da pirobebiT ganpirobebuli intonireba; sagitaro
TviTmoqmedeba, blatnoi simRerebi (rusuli da qarTuli), stadionis folklori, quCis musika, restornis musika, romelic
yvelaze metadaa publikis moTxovnis amsaxveli, pop-rokis koleqtiuri reproduqcia, sareklamo musikaluri sloganebi, hefi
berTdei da sxva;
samwuxarod, CvenTvis jer kidev daxurul fardas iqiTaa
xelosanTa amqrebis musikaluri tradiciebi. yaraCoRelebis intonireba CvenSi mxolod gind meZinos-Tan da cekvebTan asocirdeba.
tradicia/qalaqi _ es opozicia ara mxolod saero, aramed
sasuliero musikaSicaa gamoxatuli. 1990-ian wlebSi erovnuli
moZraobis paralelurad axladdanergili tradiciuli galobis
mier gamodevnili evropuli funqcionaluri harmoniis galoba
(e.w. sionuri) dResac eklesiisTvis Seufereblad iTvleba. Tavad aratradiciuli sagaloblis sabWoTa periodSi funqcionirebis istoria ki, ramdenime audioCanaweris garda, mTlianad burusiTaa moculi.

26

Tamaz gabisonia

zogadad, tradiciis apologia xSirad swored religiuri


da eTnikuri faqtorebiT sazrdoobs da avTentikurobas eswrafvis. rogor SesabamisobaSia cneba `avTentikuri _~ da `meoradi
musikaluri folklori~ qalaqur da soflur StoebTan?
cneba `avTentikurs~ xalxuri musikiT dainteresebuli piri
dRes sxvadasxva mniSvnelobas sZens: aq SesaZlebelia igulisxmebodes: eTnikuri, Zveli, tradiciul-stiluri, funqciuri, zepirad gadacemadi, avtoritetuli da arc Tu ise xSirad _ sofluri, qalaquris sapirispirod (gabisonia 2014:27-28). e. garayaniZis TqmiT, namdvili xalxuri musika glexuri musikaa (garayaniZe, 2007:41). da Cvenc xSirad kvers vukravT mas da folklors mxolod glexs da ritualSi mis intonirebas vukavSirebT, rac, cxadia, cneba `avTentikuris~ moculobis xelovnurad
Seviwroebas warmoadgens.
zemoT CamoTvlili konotatebidan gamovyofdiT avTentikurobis araTu moyvarulTaTvis, aramed specialistTaTvis mniSvnelovan argumentebs, rogorebicaa tradiciuli stili da funqciuroba. unda aRiniSnos, rom qalaquri simRera dRes ufro metadaa funqciuri, vidre _ sofluri. qalaquri musika ufro advili Sesasrulebelia, ZiriTadad, salaRobo Janrisaa, amitom igi
ufro xSirad da ufro gatacebiT sruldeba sufrasTan, vidre _
sxvadasxva Janris sofluri simRerebi (maT Soris _ Tavad sofluri simReris SesrulebelTa mier). da saerTod, tradiciuli
stilis kuTxiT, mxatvruli Rirebulebis mqone sofluri avTentika dRes mxolod erTeulebis saxiTaa SemorCenili. man dakarga
konteqsti da konsituacia da, faqtobrivad, folklorulobac
(aleqseevi, 1988:60). igi, ZiriTadad, mxolod mogonebebSia da
eTnoforTa mier intervius dros gadmoicema.
rac Seexeba meorad folklors anu _ sasceno da zogad salaRobo Janrad transformirebul nimuSebs, am mxriv swored
sofluri folkloria wina planze, rogorc reprezentaciuli
folklori (gabisonia, 2014:30). aq sakmaod didi mniSvneloba
aqvs Cveni am saamayo tradiciis komodifikaciis process, romelic, zogadad, ufro da ufro met eTnomusikalur movlenas axarisxebs fasis mixedviT, rac globalizaciis bunebrivad Tanamdevi movlenaa (raisi, 2014:53).
qalaquri musika sxva mxrivac amJRavnebs ambivalenturobas:
erTi mxriv, reglamentis Sesustebisa da mravalplasturobis gamo am sivrceSi nayofieri niadagi eqmneba qarTuli xalxuri sti-

qarTuli qalaquri xalxuri musikis semiotikuri aspeqtebi

27

lis aRmosavlurTan da evropulTan hibridizacias. meore mxriv


ki, dRes stilTa siWreliT gamorCeul qalaqur musikas am stilebis ganviTarebis damoukidebeli, individualuri meTodi axasiaTebs.
marTlac, swored ara homogenur sofelSi, aramed heterogenul qalaqSia gamovlenili calkeuli mimdinareobebisadmi erTguleba sxvaTa mimarT cinikuri an sulac Seuwynarebeli damokidebulebis wil. mavans ar mowons baiaTebi, mavans _ `popsa~,
mavans _ sulac klasikuri musika. da aqve arian am movlenaTa
muStrebic. amgvar simpaTia-antipaTias ki zogjer kvlav politikuri sarCuli aqvs.
imis gamo, rom dampyroblebTan, aseve, kulturuli eqspansiis wyarosTan mWidro urTierToba swored qalaqSi yalibdeba,
swored qalaquri saTave aqvs dominanti xalxis musikis rogorc
mowonebas, aseve _ moZulebas. erTi mxriv esaa erTgvari avtoritetuli musikis faqtori, xolo meore mxriv _ dampyrobelTa musikisa (Semdegi qronologiiT sparsuli-Turquli, rusuli, evropuli) (qavTaraZe, 2003:511). msgavsi situacia cnobilia
sxva xalxebSic, magaliTad, Turquli musika ungreTisa da balkaneTis qalaqebSi. gavixsenoT aleqsandre jambakur-orbeliani:
rostom mefes sparseTis Cveuleba Semoutania saqarTveloSi da
is Cveuleba ise egrgina mTels saqarTvelos ersa, saerTod izaxdnen Turme yizilbaSebma wagvpilwes da gagvryvneso (baxtaZe,
1986:99).
ufro tolerantulia rafiel erisTavi: marTlia, bevri
simRerebi moipoveba, romelTa kilo da xasiaTi TaTrebisagan, yizilbaSTa da osmalebisgan aris miRebuli, magram isini rogorRac SeTvisebian Cvens xalxs da stumrad aRar iracxebian. da
Semdeg qoriZes sTavazobs qarTveli sazandrebi Caweros notebze
(baxtaZe 1986:100). Cans, zogi aprotestebda am movlenas, xolo
zogs ki moswonda da nergavda.
SeiZleba, musika msmenelis politikuri Sexedulebis indeqsadac iqces, magaliTad _ sazogadoebriv transportSi aJRerebuli rusuli estrada imave transportSi msxdom axalgazrdaTa
portatul aparatebSi mJRer inglisurenovani musikis wil, anu
evraziis kavSiri evrokavSiris pirispir.
SesaZlebelia, aseve, visaubroT saeklesio piris mier galobaSi krimanWulis dagmobis, an asakovnis mier axalgazduli
jagi-jugis dagmobis fsiqologiur determinantebze, magram am-

28

Tamaz gabisonia

Jamad ufro aqtualurad gveCveneba aRmosavluri elferis qalaquri musikis Suq-Crdilebi am mimarTebiT.
erT-erT mizezad aRmosavluri intonaciis moZulebisa davasaxelebdi winaaRmdegobas, gamowveuls konkurenciis qveSecneuli
SiSiT.
faqtia, rom baiaTis stilis simRerebi, klarneti-doli-garmoni-momRerlis ansamblebi, marTalia, TaobaTa cvlas ewireba,
magram soflad dRemde aqtualuria. maT sabolood daCagres mestvireTa da meWiboneTa tradicia. es SeiZleba davukavSiroT fanoRuri musikis erT saintereso Taviseburebas _ Tavisi melodiis saSualebiT igi metad eqspresiulad gamoxatavs emocias.
Tavad gadidebuli sekundac xom erTgvari emociurad utrirebuli intonaciaa!
konkurenciis aspeqtSi aseve mniSvnelovan faqtorad unda
miviCnioT aqcenti melodiur ganviTarebaze, romelic aRmosavluri musikis (aseve _ rusulisac) mZlavri argumentia. qarTul
simReraSi melodiuri ganviTarebis veqtori iCrdileba harmoniuli da mravalxmianuri ganviTarebis tendenciiT.
aRmosavluri musikis aqtualobis erT-erTi faqtoria pleneruli garemosTan misi iRbliani adaptacia. es musika umetesad
xmamaRla JRers, rasac xels uwyobs sakravTa xmovaneba. aseve
mniSvnelovania mkafio, sacekvao ritmis xazgasma.
aRmosavluri musikis aTvalwunebas saqarTveloSi SesaZloa,
xeli Seuwyo xalxuri Semoqmedebis komunisturma koncefciam,
romelic cneba `xalxurSi~ mianiSnebda rogorc socialur aspeqts (demosi), ise _ eTnikursac _ Tanabari Rirsebis erebis
Zmobis xazgasasmelad. am mxriv, unda iTqvas, rom sabWoTa propaganda ambivalentur damokidebulebas iCenda ararusi eTnosebis
mimarT _ erTi mxriv, es ukanasknelebi eqceodnen didi rusi
xalxis CrdilqveS, xolo, meore mxriv, xdeboda eTnikuri faqtoris wina planze gamotana da amgvari tuSirebisas win swored
xalxurma Semoqmedebam wamoiwia.
SeiZleba iTqvas, dRes qalaquri musikis koncepts momxmareblebi sxvadasxvagvarad iazreben:
qalaquri musika _ orientalisturi stilis Zveli Tbilisis musika _ ZiriTadad, dabadebiT Tbiliseli ufrosasakovani
msmenelis TvalTaxedviT;

qarTuli qalaquri xalxuri musikis semiotikuri aspeqtebi

29

qalaquri simRera _ Zveli xalxuri simRerebis qalaquri


Sto _ debi iSxnelebis simRerebis CaTvliT, magram ara Semdgomi
_ musikis folkloristebisTvis;
qalaquri simRera _ evropuli funqcionalobiT, sagitaro
akompanementiT da xmebis gaSliT warmodgenili stili _ lirikuli da salaRobo simReris moyvaruli saSualo asakisa da
axalgazrda momRerlebi;
qalaquri musika _ Tanamedrove popularuli mimdinareobebi _ soflis mcxovrebis moZveleburi warmodgeniT;
qalaquri musika _ stilisturi TvalsazrisiT araxalxuri (ara- eTnikuri, tradiciul-stilisturi), magram socialuri
TvalsazrisiT, swored xalxuri _ arasaavtoro musika _ profesional musikosTa gadmosaxedidan;
amgvarad, qarTuli qalaquri musikis koncepti mravaliarusiania da rTuli pragmatikiTaa gamorCeuli. SeiZleba isic iTqvas, rom qalaquri musika aris metonimi tradiciebisagan SeuzRudavad ganviTarebadi da funqcionirebadi musikisa.
literatura
aleqseevi,

1988: , .
,
. . .
baxtaZe, 1986: inga baxtaZe, qarTuli musikalur-esTetikuri azris istoriidan (XIX saukunis meore naxevari), saqarTvelos ssr mecnierebaTa akademia, SoTa rusTavelis saxelobis qarTuli literaturis instituti,
Tbilisi, mecniereba.
gabisonia, 2014: ,
,
, .
garayaniZe, 2007: ediSer garayaniZe. rCeuli werilebi. Semdgeneli nato zumbaZe, redaqtori manana axmeteli. saqarTvelos musikaluri sazogadoeba, Tbilisi.
mesxi, 2003: Tamar mesxi, sabWoTa periodis qarTuli samusiko
folkloris Sesaxeb; tradiciuli mravalxmianobis
pirveli saerTaSoriso simpoziumis moxsenebebi; Tbilisis saxelmwifo konservatoriis tradiciuli mra-

30

Tamaz gabisonia

valxmianobis kvlevis saerTaSoriso centri, Tbilisi,


`Coxi~.
raisi, 2014: Timothy Rice, Ethnomusicology: A Very Short
Introduction, Oxford University Press.
qavTaraZe, 2003: marine qavTaraZe, tradiciul musikalur kulturaTa urTierTobada transformacia tipologiurad
ucxo kulturul garemoSi; tradiciuli mravalxmianobis pirveli saerTaSoriso simpoziumis moxsenebebi;
Tbilisis saxelmwifo konservatoriis tradiciuli
mravalxmianobis kvlevis saerTaSoriso centri, Tbilisi, `Coxi~.
qavTaraZe, baCukuri, 2011: marina qavTaraZe, ekaterine buCukuri,
polifoniisa da monofoniis urTierTmimarTebis problema qarTuli qalaquri folkloris magaliTze; tradiciuli mravalxmianobis pirveli saerTaSoriso simpoziumis moxsenebebi; Tbilisis saxelmwifo konservatoriis tradiciuli mravalxmianobis kvlevis saerTaSoriso centri, Tbilisi, `Coxi~.
mSveliZe, 1970: qarTuli xalxuri qalaquri simRerebi. mSveliZe,
arCil (Semdgeneli). Tbilisi: ssr kavSiris musikaluri fondis saqarTvelos ganyofileba (qarTul da rusul enebze).
CxikvaZe, 1961: grigol, CxikvaZe, Tanamedrove musikaluri folklori. Tbilisi: politikuri da samecniero codnis
gavrcelebis sazogadoeba.
wurwumia, 2009: rusudan wurwumia, qarTuli mravalxmianoba Tanamedrove socio-kulturul konteqstSi; tradiciuli mravalxmianobis pirveli saerTaSoriso simpoziumis moxsenebebi; Tbilisis saxelmwifo konservatoriis
tradiciuli mravalxmianobis kvlevis saerTaSoriso
centri, Tbilisi, `Coxi~.

nino gogiaSvili
wylidan amozrdili
qalaqis semiotika
anu niRbebis, xidebis, wmindanebisa da
vnebebis veneciuri karnavali

arxebis qalaqi, igive xidebis qalaqi, wylis qalaqi, niRbebis qalaqi


an adriatikis zRvis dedofali - ulamazesi venecia - Waobiani veneciis lagunaSi mdebareobs da gadaWimulia mdinareebis - posa da piaves SesarTavebs Soris.
venecia 118 patara kunZulzea ganlagebuli, romlebic erTmaneTTan xidebiTaa dakavSirebuli. rogorc amboben, es xidebi
Zvelma meTevzeebma aages. uamravi patara
xidia gadebuli veneciis arxebze, mTavar
- did arxze ki, romelic Grand Canal-is
saxelwodebiTaa cnobili, uzarmazari
TeTri rialtos xidia (Rialto bridge) gadaWimuli, romelzec ganTavsebulia veneciis yvelaze prestiJuli maRaziaTa qseli. 1854 wlamde is Grand Canal-ze gadebuli erTaderTi xidi iyo, XII saukuneSi ki mas Ponte della Moneta- s uwodebdnen anu fulis xids. rialtos xidi
erTaderTia, romelic turistebSi konkurencias Piazza San Marco -s anu wminda
markozis moedans uwevs. Piazza San Marco
veneciis umTavresi RirsSesaniSnavi adgilia da misi saxelwodeba qristes sa-

32

nino gogiaSvili

mocdaaT mociqulTagan erT-erTs - maxarebel markozs ukavSirdeba, romlis wminda nawilebi 829 wels aleqsandriidan veneciaSi gadaabrZanes da zustad am adgilas daiwyes San Marco-s taZris mSenebloba. Tanamedrove bazilikas ki 1063 wels Caeyara safuZveli da Semdgom mTeli Tavisi didebulebiT wamoimarTa.
gadmocemis Tanaxmad, qristes wminda mociquli markozi veneciis lagunis teritoriebze qadagebda da swored amitom gadmoasvenes misi wminda nawilebi veneciaSi. is am qalaqis mfarvel
wmindanadac iTvleba. frTiani lomi ki, romelic wminda markozis simboloa, veneciis bevr nagebobazea aRbeWdili da veneciis
respublikis gerbad iyo aRiarebuli. veneciaSi uamrav dawesebulebas wminda markozis saxelwodeba aqvs - yvelaze merkantiluri Banco San marco - dan (wminda markozis saxelobis banki)
dawyebuli, kvebisa da garToba-dasvenebis obieqtebiT damTavrebuli. am qalaqSi TiTqmis yvela TavSeyris adgilis saxelwodeba
wmindanebTanaa dakavSirebuli - wminda margarita, wminda elena
da kidev uamravi sxva. midixar mwvaned molivlive arxebis piras,
odesRac, Raribi venetoeli meTevzeebis mier gadebul xis Zelebze aSenebul saocar arqiteqturas akvirdebi, sadac barokosa da
goTikasTan Serwymuli aRmosavluri elementebi Wris Tvals feradSuSiani, mijriT Cawyobili vitraJebiT dawyebuli, aRmosavluri TaRebiTa da ornamentebiT dasrulebuli, rialtos xidTan
didi abra gxvdeba: Stop mafia, Venezia e sacra! (SeCerdi mafia, venecia wmindaa!), da ggonia, rom sadacaa, darabebidan, koSkurebidan, xidebidan angelozebi afrindebian...
es mcire istoriuli eqskursi dagvWirda imis dasamtkiceblad,
rom venecia wmindanebis qalaqia - mis Zireul semiotikur fundamentSi wminda markozis qristesTvis Sewiruli suli da sxeuli devs, am mocemulobisgan damoukideblad, mis garSemo ki sul
sxva ambebi trialebs. venecia, rogorc Tomas mani ityoda, yvelaze arnaxuli qalaqi qalaqebs Soris, ambivalenturi vnebebisa
da metafizikuri Zvrebis qalaqia - aq SeiZleba, giyvardes da aq
SeiZleba, mokvde. manis sikvdili veneciaSi swored biurgerul
yofas gamoridebuli, amoxeTqili qvecnobieris Tavisufali boginis himnia, himni, romelic tragikulia, didebuli da tragikuli.
iqneb swored aseT TviTgamorkvevas gvTavazobs religia, postulatiT: Seican Tavi Seni. an, - vinc ufrTxildeba suls, is da-

wylidan amozrdili qalaqis semiotika

33

kargavs mas... didi mwerlis mizanmimarTuli pasaJia, nawarmoebis


dasawyisSi taZarSi ganviTarebuli ucnauri movlena; ucnobis saxe, romelic aaforiaqebs aSenbaxs da ganawyobs mogzaurobisaTvis, aqezebs gamoucnobi emociis saZieblad da oTxmagi egzistencialuri saltosTvis amzadebs. aq Cndeba mTavari semiotikuri
niSani - taZari, Tavisi wmindanebisa da swavlebebis paradigmuli
jaWviT, romlebic, SesaZlebelia, sulac araa sworad gaSifruli
da sul sxva faseulobebs itevs. swored amitom miemgzavreba
gustav fon aSenbaxi aucileblad veneciaSi, da ara - sxva qalaqSi, romelsac Cven wmindanebis qalaqic davarqviT. is miemarTeba
kunZul lidoze, sadac iwyeba misi sulieri metamorfoza da
mzadeba sikvdilisaTvis. aRsaniSnavia, rom 13 wlis ulamazesi biWi - taZio, Tavisi saucxoo, aramiwieri garegnuli monacemebiT,
ipyrobs xanSiSesuli mwerlis arsebas. taZio - rogorc gansxeulebuli mSveniereba da xelovnebis cocxali nimuSi, erTianad
moicavs mwerlis gulsa da gonebas. vfiqrobT, es ukve WeSmarit
xelovnebasTan ziarebis xdomilebaa, romelsac mTeli arsebiT
SeigrZnobs biurgeruli yofis tyve mwerali. taZio simboloa
xelovnebisa, romlis winaSec uZluria xelovani. rodesac veneciaSi cxovrob da rodesac wakiTxuli gaqvs Tomas manis sikvdili veneciaSi, xvdebi, Tu rogor SeiZleba dakargo Tavi, daikargo am auracxel silamazeSi, da gondoliT, rogorc kuboTi,
gaemgzavro samudamo gansasveneblis kunZulze - lidoze. wyali,
rogorc qvecnobieris ipostasi, rogorc informaciis Semnaxveli
saukeTeso stiqia, rogorc saSiSi, boroti Zalebis sauflo, apelirebs adamianis gancdebze da, anareklis efeqtis Tanaxmad, aormagebs vnebebs. amasTan, cnobierSi amoativtivebs rig ucnaur
survilebsa da miswrafebebs, romlebic aqamde mSvidad ganisvenebdnen qvecnobieris ukidegano fskerze da iotisodena diskomfortsac ki ar uqmnidnen mflobels.
niRabi, romelic veneciis ucilobeli semiotikuri niSania, dakavSirebulia cnobil veneciur karnavalTan. karnavali ianvris
bolodan 12 Tebervlamde grZeldeba da mTeli msofliodan izidavs turistebis nakads. karnavali aRdgomis dResaswaulTanaa
dakavSirebuli, didmarxvis dawyebamde, yvelieris kviraSi imarTeba da misi laTinuri saxelwodebac xorcis akrZalvas niSnavs. is
1094 wels doJma vitale falierma SemoiRo, mogvianebiT ki veneciis respublikis senatma oficialur dResaswaulad scno. ve-

34

nino gogiaSvili

neciis karnavalic religias ukavSirdeba, zemoT moyvanili mizezebis gamo. karnavalis erT-erTi siuJetic religiuria, rodesac
muslimebisa da qristianebis pirobiTi brZolis sanaxaoba imarTeba. cxadia, am sanaxaobaSi gamarjvebulebi qristianebi rCebian.
karnavalis monawileebi sxvadasxvagvari niRbebiTa da sakarnavalo kostiumebiT modian, yvela maTgani raRac ambis, legendis,
miTis personaJia. yvelaze popularulia mistikuri veneciuri samosi - bauta, romlis qveSac imaleba ara marto personis saxe,
aramed sqesic. is saukeTeso variantia anonimuri sasiyvarulo
TamaSisas, damalvisaTvis. venecia sasiyvarulo TamaSebis, vnebaTaRelvebis da orgiebis qalaqicaa. SegviZlia, jakomo kazanovac
gavixsenoT. niRbebiTa da kostiumebiT SefuTuli qalbatonebi
gondolebiT gadahyavdaT da maTi vinaobis Secnoba TiTqmis SuZlebeli iyo. es Sua saukuneebis karnavali, romelic veneciis
Tanmdevi fenomenia, cxadia, inspiraciis wyaroa baxtinis karnavalis da karnavalizaciisa. rogorc veneciuri, ise _ postmodernistuli karnavali destruqciuli xasiaTisaa da masSi irRveva yvela aqamde arsebuli dogma, wesi Tu sistema, Tumca aseTi totaluri rRvevis Sedegi mainc axali - sakarnavalo sistemis Camoyalibebaa, romelic gaiZulebs misi wesebiT TamaSsa da
qmedebas. Suasaukuneobriv karnavals religiuri da sicocxlis
ganaxlebis Zveli ritualebi udevs safuZvlad, baxtinis karnavali ki ufro mizanmimarTuli TamaSia, sadac niRbebis oromtrialSi ikargeba individebis SemoqmedebiTi stili da mTeli es
karnavalizacia parodiis usasrulo sivrced yalibdeba.
veneciuri niRabi, vfiqrobT, ufro gaxsnilobis, vidre SeniRbulobis simboloa. radgan yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi aTasgvari garegnuli niRbiT aRWurvili adamiani veneciur karnavalze sruliad gulwrfeli da namdvilia, - niRabi, romelic masSia, realurad ukeTia saxeze. niRbebisa da rolebis SerCeva cxovrebiseuli ambebis proeqciaa da semiotikur niSnebad Tavsdeba adamianur yofaSi. SesaZlebelia, xdeba maTi personificirebac da raRac drois monakveTSi esa Tu is kostiumi garkveul Tvisebebsa
da SegrZnebebs sZens mis mflobels. niRbis qveSidan momzirali
adamiani, ra paradoqsulic unda iyos, ufro namdvili da avTentikuria, radgan realuri niRabi ararealuri, Sinagani, uricxvi
mentaluri niRbebis dafarvis saSualebas iZleva.

wylidan amozrdili qalaqis semiotika

35

rodesac veneciaze vfiqrob, pirvel rigSi, xidebi maxsendeba,


arxebze gadebuli myari nawilebi, substancia, sadac SegiZlia,
rom sul mcire moWideba igrZno, ganicado miwasTan Sexebis imitacia da SvebiTac ki amoisunTqo. yvelaze xSirad mainc Ponte
delle Tette-ze vfiqrob, patara, arafriT gamorCeul xidze, romlis saxelwodebac iTargmneba, rogorc ZuZuebis xidi. es xidi
prostituciis adgili iyo da Silifad Cacmuli meZavebi momsaxurebas sTavazobdnen gamvlel mamakacebs. am faqtis saWiroeba
warmoiqmna gaxSirebuli da ukve epidemiasaviT modebuli homoseqsualizmis gamo, romelic realur safrTxes uqmnida qalaqis
demografias. am droisaTvis veneciaSi 11 565 kurtizani muSaobda, 1519 wels ki prostituciidan Semosuli Tanxa Zalian daexmara italias arsenales gaTxrebisTvis gaRebul xarjebSi.
am qalaqSi mSvidad da Sewyobilad cxovroben wmindanebi da meZavebi. venecia TiTqos ucnauri gansxeulebaa specifikuri emanaciisa da wmindanebis Zvlebze da saxelebze umtkivneulod fuZndebian bordelebi da kazinoebi. umdidresi, pompezuri eklesiebi
TiTqmis carielia, kantikuntad Tu Seivlis ramdenime morwmune,
Tumca, maTi ricxvi imdenad mcirea, rom SegviZlia, vTqvaT - masis intencia sulisken naklebad miemarTeba. amis sapirispirod,
savsea barebi, restornebi, ubralod, TavSeyris adgilebi, gasarTobi centrebi, sportuli klubebi, gacxovelebulia vaWroba,
yvavis turizmi.
veneciis mTavari semiotikuri niSani mainc wyalia, kosmogoniuri warmodgenebiT bunebriv oTx elementTagan yvelaze metad gaigivebuli sicocxlis cnebasTan: zeciurma sunTqvam pirvelwylebi orad dahyo - zewylebad da qvewylebad. wylis simbolika
qalur sawyisTanac asocirdeba da siwmindes, sisufTaves, janmrTelobas, simravles da RvTis madls moicavs. meore mxriv,
wylis metaforuli konteqsti itevs bibliiseuli warRvniT
mogvril SiSs, sikvdils, ganadgurebas. qristianul simbolikaSi
wyali ganwmendis, naTlisRebis simboloa, antikur filosofiaSi
ki wyals dinamikis, mudmivi ganaxlebis datvirTva aqvs.
dabadeba, Soba wylidan xdeba - Cvili Txevad garemoSia dedis
mucelSi da, aqedan gamomdinare, wyali am qveynad movlenamdel
etapTanac gvakavSirebs. wylidan amozrdili qalaqi dabadebis macocxlebeli ZaliTac brwyinavs da, amave dros, ukurnebel sev-

36

nino gogiaSvili

das gvgvris - es yvelaferi swrafwarmavalia, moZravia, gaivlis...


veneciaSi wylis done wlidanwlamde ramdenime milimetriT iwevs
da panikuri SiSi geufleba - odesme CaiZireba es mSveniereba, CaiZireba Tavisi vnebebiT, wmindanebiT, niRbebiT, xidebiT, da wyali waiRebs yvelafers, - es qarTuli frazeologizmi zusti
Sesatyvisia am gancdisa.
wyali qvecnobieris ipostasicaa, wyalSi dafvla naTlisRebisas, wmindanTa yofnis adgilebSi amosul wyalSi samjer CayvinTva, nakurTxi wylis sxureba qristianul dogmatikasTan asocirdeba da magiur datvirTavs atarebs. vfiqrobT, es qvecnobierSi
yvinTvaa, gaucnobiereblis nawilobriv gacnobierebis mcdeloba,
jojoxeTis karibWesTan mikakuneba da ukan gamobruneba - sulieri simdidriT, axali gamocdilebiT, sxva mentaluri dimensiiT.
swored es gancdaa, roca cxovrob veneciaSi an stumrob mas.
wyalSi areklili arqiteqtura da misi xibli xandaxan ver Svelis gancdas, rom guli gagiwyalda da amden moxetiale turistSi, amxela xmaursa da moZraobaSi mainc erTi wyalwaRebuli adamiani xar, Seni adamianuri sasrulobiT, da arxebSi molivlive gondolebic marTlac ufro kuboebs mogagoneben, romlebSic Cveni nebiT vsxdebiT, raTa wynari lagunis talRebze
narnarad vilivlivoT, - sruli svliT, sikvdilisken. am gancdas
mxolod gondolierebis simRera anelebs - O, sole mio! (o, Cemo
mzeo!) - romelic wylis qalaqSi mzis cxoveli sxiviviT airekleba.

Tengiz verulava
italo kalvinos
`uxilavi qalaqebi ~
samyaro, Tavis sxvadasxva
gamovlinebaSi,
yovelTvis gamoiyureba ufro
fragmentuli, vidre uwyveti."

italo kalvino
literaturaSi bevria nawarmoebi,
sadac mTavari gmiri tovebs mSobliur qalaqs da midis samogzaurod,
mraval
adamianTan
urTierTobisas
xvdeba, Tu ra aris megobroba, siyvaruli, sikeTe, boroteba, da bolos
brundeba iq, saidanac daiwyo svla.
homerosis odiseaSi 20 wliani,
xangrZlivi xetialis Semdeg odisevsi Tavis kunZuls, mSobliur iTakas
ubrundeba. raindul nawarmoebTa kiTxviT STagonebuli don kixoti gadawyvets, TviTon gaxdes moxetiale raindi da sneuli brundeba Sin. guram
doCanaSvilis samosel pirvelSi samogzaurod wasuli domeniko, romelmac qveyniereba moiara da Tavis sofelze umjobesi vera hpova, brundeba
Sin, brundeba mamasTan, raTa dro

38

Tengiz verulava

rom mova, Tavad gaxdes mama (canava 2010).


italieli mogzauri da vaWari marko polo (12541324) 17 wliani mogzaurobis Semdeg brundeba mSobliur
veneciaSi da wers marko polos wigns, sadac mogviTxrobs ucnobi civilizaciebis Sesaxeb. 1972 wels italielma mweralma italo kalvinom marko polos wignis gavleniT dawera uxilavi qalaqebi ("Le citt invisibili"), sadac polo monRolTa xans, iuanis saxelmwifos mmarTvels
yubilais (1215-1294) mouTxrobs misi imperiis qalaqebze.
uxilavi qalaqebi TiTqos sizmrisa da sicxadis, irealurisa da realuris zRvarzea. Tavad yubilai xani asocirdeba ingliseli poetis samuel kolrijis (1772-1834)
poemasTan yubilai xani. weris dros poeti iyenebda opiums da erTxel, poemis siuJetze ocnebisas, wignis kiTxvis
dros CaeZina. poetma sizmarSi im poemis siuJeti ixila,
romlis dawerazec mTeli sicocxle ocnebobda. poets personaJebi imdenad cxadad edgnen Tvalwin, rom sawolidan
wamomdgari maSinve magidas miujda da sizmris poemad gadaqceva daiwyo. ase sulmouTqmelad, sanam opiumi jer kidev moqmedebda, dawera "yubilai xanis" pirveli 50 striqoni. moulodnelad stumari ewvia da poetma wera Sewyvita. roca stumari gaistumra, sizmari mexsierebidan gauqra.
kolriji cdilobda dabruneboda poemas, magram sabolood
uari Tqva mis dasrulebaze. miuxedavad amisa, yubilai xani miCneulia mis erT-erT yvelaze cnobil nawarmoebad.
kalvinos romani uxilavi qalaqebi 55 Tavisagan Sedgeba. TiToeuli Tavi calke moTxrobaa da dayofilia TerTmet "Tematur jgufad", romelTa saxelebi SerCeulia aRwerili qalaqis romeliRac erTi upiratesi niSnis mixedviT:
1. qalaqebi da mexsiereba (Le citt e la memoria);
2. qalaqebi da survilebi (Le citt e il desiderio)
3. qalaqebi da niSnebi (Le citt e i segni)
4. daxvewili qalaqebi (Le citt sottili)
5. qalaqebi da gacvlebi (Le citt e gli scambi)
6. qalaqebi da Tvalebi (Le citt e gli occhi)

italo kalvinos uxilavi qalaqebi

39

7. qalaqebi da saxelebi (Le citt e il nome)


8. qalaqebi da mkvdrebi (Le citt e i morti)
9. qalaqebi da ca (Le citt e il cielo)
10. gagrZelebuli qalaqebi (Le citt continue)
11. damaluli qalaqebi (Le citt nascoste)
moTxrobebi mcire zomisaa: naxevari gverdidan or
gverdamde. TiToeul moTxrobaSi aRwerilia qalaqis an misi
mcxovreblebis yvelaze damaxasiaTebeli Tavisebureba. romani erTgvari TamaSia, sadac wesebs Tavad mkiTxveli irCevs.
TiToeuli Tavi-moTxroba mkiTxvels SeuZlia waikiTxos
ara Tanmimdevrulad, aramed SemTxveviTi rigis mixedviT,
riTac iqmneba Tanamedrove qalaqebis absurduli, moCvenebiTi suraTi.
uxilavi qalaqebis dro da sivrce absoluturad pirobiTia. wignSi aRwerili qalaqebi TiTqos droisa da sivrcis miRma arseboben. masSi ar gvxvdeba arc erTi cnobili
qalaqi. isini ar arseboben rukebze, arc istorias axsovs
maTi saxelebi. TiToeuli qalaqi gamogonilia. wignis kiTxvisas mkiTxveli mogzaurobs warmosaxviT, irealur samyaroSi, sadac simarTle da gamonagoni erTmaneTSia gadaxlarTuli da qmnis gasaocar fantasmagoriul suraTs.
romanSi aRwerili zogierTi qalaqi mxolod sizmrebSi
arsebobs, zogi Cndeba wynari tbebis anareklSi, zogi miwis
qveS Rrmadaa Camaluli, zogi haerSi dafrinavs, an ufskrulzea dakiduli. zmeraldina idumali qalaqia, izaura
- aTasi Wis qalaqi, armila dausrulebeli qalaqi, sakanalizacio milebiTa da onkanebiT gadaxergili... qalaq doroTeas oTxi aluminis koSki aqvs, romlis qalwulebi Tavad
irCeven saqmroebs... qalaqi bavkidas mobinadreebs sZulT dedamiwa da yovelnairad cdiloben Tavidan aicilon masTan
raime Sexeba. qalaq xloaSi adamianebi quCaSi erTmaneTs ar
esalmebian da warmosaxviT warmoidginen erTmaneTs Soris
SesaZlo saubars.
uxilav qalaqebSi saerTod ar igr dro. igi
gayinulia. istoria umoZraoa. wigni iwyeba da mTavrdeba
imiT, rom yubilai xani da marko polo sxedan baRSi da sa-

40

Tengiz verulava

ubroben ambebze, romlebic fragmentebadaa qaoturad mimobneuli da erTmaneTs ar ukavSirdeba.


iseve, rogorc meoce saukunis modernistul literaturaSi, uxilav qalaqebSi uaryofilia siuJeturi sisrule, tradiciuli fabula, kulminacia, kvanZis gaxsna anu
qronologiuri drois formis nacvlad upiratesoba eniWeba
sivrcobriv formas (franki 1945).
faqtobrivad, nawarmoebi arsad ar wydeba, Txroba dausrulebelia. avtori mkiTxvels aZlevs SesaZleblobas
wignSi Tavad moZebnos dafaruli Sinagani kavSirebi, gaanalizos, Tu ra aerTianebs am moTxrobebs? mkiTxveli TiTqmis Tanaavtorad iqceva.
qalaqi berenice mogvagonebs hegelis Teza-antiTezas,
samarTlianobisa da usamarTlobis monacvleobas. polo ambobs, rom Cven ukve vcxovrobT usamarTlo samyaroSi, "jojoxeTSi." igi gvTavazobs jojoxeTidan gaqcevis or meTods: pirveli advilia mravalTaTvis: miiRo jojoxeTi
da iqce mis nawilad, ise, rom, SesaZloa verasodes ixilo
Tavad jojoxeTi. meore meTodi moiTxovs mudmiv Zalisxmevas: eZebo, iswavlo gamocnoba, Tu romel jojoxeTis cecxlSi ar aris jojoxeTi, xolo Semdeg iqonio moTmineba.
amiT, avtoris azriT, uxilavi qalaqebi ar aris jojoxeTi da xangrZlivad SeiZleba misi moTmena.
wignis erT-erT TavSi yubilai xansa da markos Soris
Semdegi dialogi gaimarTeba:
- darCa erTi qalaqi, romelzec araferi giTqvams.
marko polom Tavi daxara.
- venecia, - Tqva xanma.
markom gaiRima:
- da sxva raze vsaubrobdi, Seni fiqriT?
imperators warbic ar Seuxria:
- magram me Sengan erTxelac ar momismenia misi saxeli.
polom upasuxa:
- yovelTvis, rodesac me aRvwer ama Tu im qalaqs, me
raRacas viReb veneciisagan... saxeebi sityvebiT gamoxatvis
Semdeg mexsierebidan iSleba. iqneb, veneciaze saubris dawye-

italo kalvinos uxilavi qalaqebi

41

biT meSinia, saerTod davkargo igi. da, SesaZloa, sxva qalaqebze saubrisas, me cotaTi ukve davkarge igi (XIII, 88).
am dialogis Semdeg iwyeba qalaqis aRwera, romelic
Zalian hgavs venecias:
zmeraldinaSi, qalaqSi wyalze, arxebis da quCebis qseli erTmaneTs kveTen... aseTi geografiuli momenti SemTxveviTi ar aris. venecia - yvelaze saocari qalaqia msoflioSi, romelic sxva realobis" gancdas tovebs da arasworxazovnobis principis geografiuli, sivrciTi gansaxierebaa.
imisaTvis, rom erTi adgilidan meoreze moxvdeT,
Tqven yovelTvis SegiZliaT, airCioT saxmeleTo da sanaosno gzebs Soris; da radganac zmeraldinaSi umoklesi xazi
or punqts Soris aris ara swori, aramed zigzagobrivi,
romelic sxvadasxva variantebad itoteba, TiToeul
mgzavrs exsneba ara ori, aramed bevri gzea da maTi ricxvi
kidev izrdeba maTTvis, vinc naviT gadasasvlelebs xmeleTze gadasasvlelebiT cvlis. (XIII, 89).
samSoblos moSorebuli marko polo Tavis xangrZliv
mogzaurobaze saubrisas ucxo qveynis qalaqebs ki ar aRwers, aramed Tavis mSobliur qalaqze veneciaze gviambobs. mSobliuri qalaqis mitoveba, eubneba marko yubilai xans, warmosaxvaSi mSobliur qalaqTan dabrunebaa.
rac ufro bevrs xedav, miT ufro Seicnob im mcires, rac
Senia, Seni sakuTrebaa.
dabadebisas axalSobili tovebs dedis mucels da mogzaurobas iwyebs misTvis sruliad ucnob samyaroSi. am mogzaurobis arc dasawyisi icis da arc dasasruli. wuTisoflis moulodnelobebiT savse, qaosur gzaze, sadac yvelaferi burusiTaa moculi, arsebobs erTaderTi adgili Tu
dro, romelsac yovelTvis ubrundebi. es aris mucladyofnis periodSi gavlili sanukvari xana. adamians mxolod
sizmarSi SeuZlia ganicados masTan dabrunebis siaxlove.
amitomac Rebulobs Zilis dros, gaucnobiereblad, mucladyofnis pozas, radgan igia misi yvelaze
sanatreli
mdebareobac da mdgomareobac.

Tengiz verulava

42

TiToeul qalaqs avtorma misca qalis saxeli. mogzauri marko polosaTvis, romelsac enatreba Tavisi samSoblo, TiToeuli qalaqi qalia da survilis obieqti. TavSi
qalaqebi da survili qalaq zobeidaSi quCebi isea dagegmili, rom emTxveva kacis ocnebas - ltolvas warmosaxviTi
qalisadmi.
miuxedavad imisa, rom wignSi dro gayinulia, ar aris
kulminacia, kvanZis gaxsna, da sxvadasxva qalaqebSi mogzaurobac usasrulod gveCveneba, romanSi aris centri, sadac
yvela xazi ikveTeba - es centria mSobliuri qalaqi, venecia. iseve, rogorc odisevsi brundeba mravalwliani xetialidan sakuTar qalaqSi, marko polosTvis samyaros ukidegano siSoreze mogzaurobisas yovelTvis arsebobs erTi adgili, romelsac yovelTvis ubrundeba, sadac ar unda iyos
igi. da es adgilia sakuTari samSoblo, mSobliuri venecia.
literatura
kalvino 1980: Calvino, Italo. Una pietra sopra. Torino, Einaudi.
kalvino 1993: Calvino, Itallo. Le citt invisibili. Milano, Arnoldo
Mondadori Editore.
franki 1945: Frank J. Spatial Form in Modern Literature: An
Essay in Three Parts. The Sewanee Review. Johns
Hopkins University Press. Vol. 53, No. 4 (Autumn,
1945), pp. 643-653
canava rusudan 2010: Tanaxetiali. Jurnali arili. marti, 2010 w.

xaTuna TavdgiriZe
qalaqi da gamoqvabuli
miTopolitikuri
narativis dasawyisi
ab urbe condita

/,,mas Semdeg, rac qalaqi daarsda romaeli istorikosebi


am sityvebiT aRniSnaven dros,
saidanac maTi istoria iwyeba.

miTosur paradigmaTa TamaSi


,,In Illo Tempore / ,,mas Jamsa Sina
am fraziT laTineebma miTosuri samyaro, misi dro da sivrce SemosazRvres,
rogorc winareistoriuli, zedrouli
movlena. igive laTinelebma istoriis
dasabamic moniSnes, is aTvlis wertili,
saidanac istoria iwyebs Tavis linearul, usasrulo mdinarebas: ab urbe
condita /,,mas Semdeg, rac qalaqi daarsda, - romaeli istorikosebi am sityvebiT aRniSnaven dros, saidanac maTi
istoria iwyeba. aq cxadad ikveTeba umTavresi sazrisi: miTosi da istoria erTmaneTs qalaquri urbanuli civilizaciis mijnaze kveTs. cxadia, miTosi aq ar
asrulebs Tavis cxovrebas, igi axal fazaSi qalaqis paradigmaSi ganagrZobs

xaTuna TavdgiriZe

44

arsebobas, axali morfologiiTa da TamaSis(paradigmaTa TamaSi)


axali wesebiT.
sami damo(u)kidebuli cneba qalaqi, saxelmwifo(qalaq-saxelmwifo) da politika erTi saerTo ZvelberZnuli sityvidan ,,polisidan() momdinareobs. amiT enam TavisTavad moniSna
qalaqisa da masSi(Tu misiT) gansxeulebuli politikis mTeli
konotaciur-semantikuri sivrce, ,,polisis areali, romelmac
dasabami daudo politikuri narativis, sazogadoebrivi diskursis tradicias. ,,polisi aris sazogadoebrivi, samoqalaqo naratiuli sivrce, romelic daupirispirda winare saojaxo-gvarovnul, arasamoqalaqo diskurss - ,,oikoss, saxls. ,,qalaqi es
ze-saxlia, es saxlis gadalaxvaa, axali da ufro rTuli
struqturis Seqmnaa vidre ojaxuri ,,oikosi(saxli) (gaseti
1993) wers gaseti ,,masebis amboxSi.
urbanuli civilizaciebis daarsebis epoqa klasikuri, ganviTarebuli miTologiebis xanaze modis. miuxedavad arqauli msoflmxedvelobis gadalaxvisa da azrovnebis maRal safexurze gadasvlisa, urbanul civilizaciebSic miTologia Zlieri warmmarTveli Zalaa da jer kidev mniSvnelovnad gansazRvravs socialuri da politikuri sferoebis funqcionirebis forma-Sinaarss. es
imas niSnavs, rom Zveli ganviTarebuli civilizaciebis urbanuli msoflmxedvelobac, arsebiTad, miTologiur paradigmas agrZelebs.
rogoria qalaqis miTosuri paradigma?
mivyveT miTosur qronologias, romelic dagvanaxebs, rom

qalaqis miToxati, misi daarsebis miTosuri paradigma, miTosSi


bunebis(qaosi, udabno) an ,,bunebrivi saxlis - gamoqvabulis
miToxatis antipodad Semodis. amasTan, qalaqi-polisisa da misi
antipodebis dapirispireba aris miTopolitikur paradigmaTa TamaSis ganumeorebeli asparezi, sadac miTosi, miToritualuri
sistema mis monawileebs umal gadaaqcevs funqciur figurebad
da moqmedebaTa wreebad, romelTa konfiguracia(gadaadgileba,
rolebis Secvla), interpretaciaTa ganusazRvreli SesaZleblobis miuxedavad, sabolood lagdeba samjerad klasifikaciad.

pirveli: sawyisi paradigma - udabnodan qalaqamde

qalaqi da gamoqvabuli miTopolitikuri narativis dasawyisi

45

ori enqidu, ori gilgameSi


kulturis dafuZneba bunebisa da adamianis(/kulturis) dapirispirebis miTosuri paradigmiT iwyeba. bunebasTan participaciis(totemizmis) gadalaxvis Semdeg, bunebasTan gaCaRebuli konfliqti - uecari adamianuri amboxi, aris pirveli nabiji, romelic adamianma gadadga garesamyaroSi sakuTari adgilis(teritoriis) dasamkvidreblad(mosapoveblad). adamianma samudamod miatova buneba, udabno da moZebna gamoqvabuli - pirveli bunebrivi
saxli, romelSic Tavad gabatonda.
bunebisa da kulturis konfliqti miTosSi sxvadasxvagvarad
aris gaformebuli, Tumca sazrisi yvelgan erTia: qaosi unda ailagmos, igi unda gardaiqmnas kosmosad da socialur-politikur
wesrigad polisad. es gardauvalia, radgan, rogorc karl Smiti ambobs, ,,ar arsebobs aranairi norma, romelic qaoss miesadageba. wesrigi unda damyardes, rom samarTlebriv wesrigs azri
hqondes.(Smiti 2000:9).
qalaqi da udabno aseTia dapirispirebulTa ori mxare
Suamdinarul eposSi ,,gilgameSiani. erT mxares aris uruqi, didi polisi da misi miTiuri mmarTveli gilgameSi. xolo, meore
mxares, - udabno, veluri buneba da misi miTiuri arseba, veluri, faCvnieri enqidu, romelsac ,,rZe velur cxovelTa uwovia,
qurcikis jogTan balaxi uZovia.(gilgameSiani 2009, II-10). er-

TaderTi mizezi/motivi, ris gamoc iqmneba enqidu, miTopolitikuria: man gilgameSis, rogorc qalaqis mmarTvelis gadagvarebuli
buneba, qaosuri Zalmomreoba - ,,gulis grigali(rogorc amas
mxatvrulad ambobs eposi) unda SeaCeros. mxolod gilgameSis
oreuls, gilgameSis qaosuri Zalis prototips - enqidus SeuZlia amis gakeTeba: amitom eposi enqidusa da gilgameSs, am heterogenul wyvils, fizikur da sulier oreulebad saxavs. swored aq warmoCndeba mTeli sicxadiT sawyisi paradigmis arsi:

udabno(qaosi) qalaqis erTaderi sworupovari, fardi antipodia(da ara saxli-oikosi):


,,aruru, Seni Seqmnilia mamaci mamri,
Seqmeni axla misi oreuli,

xaTuna TavdgiriZe

46
mis gulis grigals gautoldes !

dawyvildnen, uruqs Sveba moeces(gilgameSiani 2009: I-70).


enqidu, marTalia faCvnieria, veluria, magram igi adamianad
aris dasaxuli da misi adgili polisSia, Tavisi tyupiscalis gilgameSis gverdiT, amitom Zalian male enqidu zurgs Seaqcevs
bunebas, zoomorful samyaros da uruqisaken - didi polisisasaken aiRebs gezs. aseT dros SeiZleboda mas warmoeTqva sityvebi,
romlebic sul sxva civilizaciaSi iTqva: - ,,me araferi maqvs
saerTo mindvris balaxebTan da xeebTan, aramed Cemi saerTo aris
adamianebTan qalaqSi.(sokrate). aq iwyeba enqidus didi migracia
polisisaken, misi gadaqceva WeSmarit poliselad. eposSi ori enqidu udabnoeli da qalaqeli gadaiqca or gilgameSad or
qalaqelad: udabno transformirda qalaqad. Tumca, veluri bunebis metamorfoza polisad martivi da umtkivneulo procesi ar
aris. igi did kosmogoniur orTabrZolze gadis. amis Sesaxeb ukve sxva Suamdinaruli eposi, - ,,enuma eliSi gvamcnobs. polisi
kosmosia, romelic qaosis daZlevis Semdeg, misi stiqiebis alagmviT iqmneba. amitomac, drenaJisa da irigaciis sistemaze dafuZnebuli(Suamdinaruli civilizaciis qvakuTxedi), Waobian miwawyalze nayofieri kulturis, urbanuli civilizaciis aRmoceneba, ,,enuma eliSis miTosma Sesaqmis kosmogoniuri aqtiT wylis qaosis urCxulis TiamaTisa da kosmosis RmerTis
marduqis samkvdro-sasicocxlo SerkinebiT gaaforma. polisi
rom warmoiSvas, Sedges rogorc qalaq-saxelmwifo, amisaTvis qaosi, uwesrigoba unda daiTrgunos nebismieri gziT, Tundac Zaladobrivi, agresiuli meTodebiT, Tundac didi msxverplis fasad.
qalaq-saxelmwifo rom Sedges, mas Wirdeba msxverpli da es
msxverpli uciloblad misi antipodis, zoomorfuli samyaros
niSniT unda iyos aRbeWdili. amitomac imarjvebs marduqi da
ara TiamaTi, amitomac kvdeba enqidu da ara gilgameSi, amitomac
STanTqavs ufskruli(sakuTari nebiT rom gadaeSveba) qalaq Tebes
SesasvlelTan dabudebul urCxul sfinqss da ara oidiposs polisis(Tebes) jer gaucxadebel mefes, romelic gamoicnobs
sfinqsis miTosur gamocanas adamianze, moqalaqaze, polisis ,,politikur arsebaze. swored am opoziciaSi(buneba - qalaqi) ibadeba qalaqis Tavdapirveli miTopolitikuri paradigma, romlis
wiRSic sicocxlis, kosmosis pirveli borcviviT(rogorc xela-

qalaqi da gamoqvabuli miTopolitikuri narativis dasawyisi

47

xali Sesaqme) amoimarTeba urbanuli civilizaciis pirveli kera


bunebaSi gauqmebuli bunebis miToxati.
qalaq-saxelmwifos kedlebis SigniT moqceuli bunebis/miwis
nawilze ,,uqmdeba buneba, es ,,patara meamboxe miwa da ,,gauqmebuli bunebaa, - rogorc gaseti ambobs, es patara ,,meamboxe miwa
bunebrivad gadadis adamianuri kulturis kategoriaSi. qalaq-saxelmwifos SemosazRvruli kedlebi auqmebs zoomorfuli samyaros organizacias - instiqtebiT marTvis meqanizms da afuZnebs
gonebiT, saxelmwifoebriv-samoqalaqo Segnebis marTvis principebs, romelic adamians Tavis bunebriv adgils qalaqis SigniT
miuCens. amieridan, zoomorful samyaros gamijnuli da poliss
qalaq-saxelmwifos Sefarebuli adamiani gadaiqceva ,,politikur
cxovelad(,,Zoon politikon). adamiani, miuxedavad imisa, rom
veluri bunebis nawils cxovelur niSnebsac atarebs, igi polisis kuTvnilebaa, igi ,,polisis cxovelia, igi gakulturulebuli da polisis sazRvrebSi Semoyvanili enqidua, Tavdapirvelad cxovelTa Soris mZoveli da SemdegSi maTgan zurgSeqceuli uruqis diadi moqalaqe.

meore: mediaciuri paradigma qalaqsa da qalaqs Soris

uruqsa da araTas Soris. lugalbandas gamosvla gamoqva-

bulidan
SiSveli bunebidan, udabnodan pirdapir qalaqSi ver moxvdebi. jer gamoqvabulis - ,,bunebrivi saxlis stadia unda gaiaro.
meore paradigma auqmebs dualur radikalizms(udabno - qalaqi)
da Semohyavs Sua, mediaciuri rgoli - gamoqvabulis miToxati.
Suamdinarul eposSi pirdapiri saxiT ar Cans gamoqvabuli,
magram igi ivaraudeba. enqidu pirdapir udabnodan da zoomorfuli samyarodan, Suamavlis gareSe veraviTar SemTxvevaSi moxvdeboda uruqSi. igi polisSi Sesvlamde bunebrivi oikosis mkvidri
gaxda. misi gamoqvabuli iyo SamxaTi da SamxaTis mwife sxeuli.
iSTaris taZris saRvTo roskipma veluri kaci sakuTari sxeulis
gavliT adamianur kulturas aziara:

xaTuna TavdgiriZe

48
,,samosi dafina, daawva enqidu,

diacis saqme aCvena velurs(gilgameSiani 2009: I-170).


SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom saxlis, bunebrivi gamoqvabulis
funqcia mdedris sxeulma itvirTa, sxeulic bunebrivi saxlia,
gamoqvabulia da upirispirdeba adamianis xeliT Seqmnil saxls.
amasTan, mdedruli sawyisi kulturaSi xTonuri gamoqvabulis,
bneli samyaros arqetipia. amgvarad, enqidu vidre uruqeli, qalaqeli gaxdeboda, igi uwinaresad, SamxaTis Tanamecxedre - gamoqvabulis mkvidri gaxda. magram amiT arsebiTad araferi icvleba: qalis, iseve rogorc gveleSapis xTonuri wiaRi qaosis ekvivalenturia. SamxaTis epizodSic qaosisa da qalaqis opozicia
meordeba. es Qqaosis gamoqvabulia - TviTCaketili, Seuval-gauvali sivrce. aq jer kidev ar dabadebula axali paradigma.
axali paradigma ibadeba qalaqsa da qalaqs Soris arsebuli
gamoqvabulis kvaldakval. am axal paradigmaSi sawyisi qaosi
sruliad amovardnilia, gamoqvabulic transformirebulia - igi
qalaqisken pirmiqceuli gaxsnili sivrcea, rac mTlianad cvlis
Tavdapirveli paradigmis arss: es is gamoqvabuli aRaraa, romelsac bunebidan, udabnodan gaqceulma adamianma Seafara Tavi, aramed, is sivrcea, sadac qalaqidan gaqceuli, gariyuli, Tu sxva
idumal garemoebaTa wyalobiT moxvedrili moqalaqe afarebs
Tavs. igi anaTemisa da gariyulobis metafizikuri miToxatia(amitom enqidusa da SamxaTis epizodi am paradigmas aRar Seesabameba).
mediaciuri paradigma gamoCnda Zvel, enqidumdeli uruqis
istoriaSi, gilgameSis miTiuri da istoriuli winamorbedis,
uruqis mesame dinastiis mefis lugalbandas miTosur TavgadasavalSi.1 Sumer mefeTa enmerqarisa da lugalbandas mefobis periodi qalaq uruqis daarsebisa(enmerqari uruqis damaarsebelia)
da TviTdamkvidrebis(/hegemonobis) sakralur xanas moicavs. lugalbandas eposi mogviTxrobs ori didi qalaqis realuri
uruqisa da miTosuri araTas metoqeobisa da maT Soris gaCaRebuli samxedro dapirispirebebis Sesaxeb. ukacriel mTebSi miabijebs uruqis mefis enmerqaris didZali laSqari, romelsac win
miuZRvis misi vaJi - lugalbanda, rva Zmas Soris umrwemesi(momavali mefe). mas gzad gansacdeli Sexvdeba Zlier avad xdeba

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49

da momakvdavs or qalaqs - uruqsa da araTas Soris moqceul,


udaburi mTebis gamoqvabulSi toveben. am epizodSi mTeli Tavisi
sisavsiT ifeTqebs qalaqis axali miToparadigma, roca eposi lugalbandas qalaqisagan fataluri mokveTilobisa da mSobliur
uruqSi(igive qulabaSi) dabrunebis SeuZleblobis suraTs daxatavs: ,,netav uruqSi waiyvandnen, magram ar ician rogor waiyvanon. netav qulabaSi waiyvandnen, magram ar ician rogor waiyvanon...(Suamdinaruli 2009).
sxva epizodi(eposSi sul oria aseTi adgili) kidev ufro
amZafrebs qalaqSi paradigmuli dabrunebis aucileblobis dramatizms. lugalbanda gamoqvabulSi ver darCeba, isev qalaqSi unda
dabrundes - an cocxali, an mkvdari. aq arsebiTi paradigmuli
marSrutis gavlaa, misi misteriis aRsruleba: qalaqi-gamoqvabuli-qalaqi, romlis triqotomiuri sakraluri samkuTxedis ukanasknel fazaSi, gmiric fernacvalia(masze gadmosulia samefo
RvTaebrivi davlaTi, Sumerulad ,,melami) da qalaqic. Sumeruli eposi lugalbandas Zmebsa da megobrebs daakisrebs paradigmis aRsrulebaze zrunvas, amitomac bWoben isini erTmaneTSi amgvarad: ,,Tu Cveni Zma uTusaviT sawolidan wamodgeba . . . . misi
fexi miwaze myarad dadgeba, mTebidan agurnaSen qulabamde miiyvans. Tu uTu Cven Zmas wminda adgilas, Zvirfas adgilas mouxmobs, sicocxlis Zala datovebs mis sxeuls, maSin Cven araTadan
mobrunebisas Cveni Zmis gvams agurnaSen qulabasaken waviRebT(Suamdinaruli 2009). aq erTi garemoebac iqcevs yuradRebas mravali RvTaebidan, romlebic lugalbandas Tavs dastrialeben(sizmrad) lugalbandas beds, mis gamojansaRebasa da gamoqvabulidan gamosvlas mzis RvTaeba uTu ganagebs. es ukve paradigmis ontologiuri nawilia: mzis naTelisa da misi uSualo
antipodis, gamoqvabulis bneli wiaRis dapirispireba. gamoqvabulSi moxvedrili gmirebi(ara mxolod lugalbanda) iqidan
mzis Suqs gamohyavs. am opoziis metafizikas Cven platonis gamoqvabulis miTidan vicnobT da es metafizika ar gulisxmobs
qaosisa da kosmosis dapirispirebas, am paradigmaSi gamoqvabuli
urbanuli civilizaciis saxlis(oikosis) miTosuri prototipia.
gavyveT am xazs.
gamoqvabuli udabur bunebas, udabnos agrZelebs(oRondac ar
imeorebs)- igi bunebrivi saxlia(bunebis mier Seqmnili), mis Seq-

xaTuna TavdgiriZe

50

mnaSi adamians monawileba ar miuRia. amitom gamoqvabulSi moxvedrili lugalbanda garkveuli droiT velur enqidus emsgavseba, enqidusaviT zoomorfuli niSnebiT aRibeWdeba. gamoqvabulidan gamosuli aRarafriT hgavs uruqel gmirs, Cliqosani gareuli nadiriviT moZraobs. miuxedavad imisa, rom am eposisaTvis
zogadad damaxasiaTebelia zoomorfuli metaforika, rac miTosur teqstebSi imTaviTve arqetipuli sazrisis matarebelia, am
epizodSi gamokveTilad xazgasmuli metaforizeba sakralur metaformozamde midis(aseT gancdas gvitovebs):
,,netari lugalbanda gamoqvabulidan gamovida. . .
man erTi Cliqi miwaze Camodga,
im adgilidan Cqarobda kanjariviT,
mTebze gadavida SaqaniviT,
datvirTuli, didi, Zlieri, saxedariviT,
sirbili wyuroda, garSemo xtoda, moxdenili saxedariviT(eposebi 2009:69).
lugalbandas ,,gaCliqosneba epizoduri, wamieri gaelvebaa
da rogorc preistoriuli warmavali xilva maleve qreba. magram
am epizodis CarTva, rogorc raRac axlis dasawyisis mijna, aucilebeli iyo. lugalbandas xanmokle gatyiurebis motivi gamiznulad Segvaxsenebs Tavdapirvel paradigmas, rom amis Semdgom,
axali paradigma misi uaryofis gziT ganviTardes.
ganviTarebis es xazi bunebis, udabnos, qaosis uaryofamde,
srul gauqmebamde midis: marTalia gamoqvabuli udabur bunebas
agrZelebs, magram igi bunebaSi gamoyofili SemosazRvruli sivrcea da rac mTavaria(axali paradigmis narativisTvis), gamoqva-

buli zurgiT udgas udabnos da piri qalaqisken aqvs miqceuli.


axali paradigma gamoqvabuls gamoaclis qaosis, xTonuri sivrcis sazriss da mas gadaaqcevs saxli-oikosis miTosur oreulad, rac ,,iniciaciis saxls(//,,tyis qoxs) gulisxmobs da rac
e.w. ,,gardamavali miToritualebis aRsrulebis adgilia. amas
sagangebod xazs usvams Sumeruli eposi, roca gamoqvabulis qvaur, bunebriv sixistes, mis udaburobas urbanuli civilizaciis

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niSnebiT - saojaxo-yofiTi inventariT gadafaravs. am epizodSi


eposi pirdapir miuTiTebs gamoqvabulSi saxlis mowyobaze:
,,Tbil adgilas waiyvanes, Cvrebisagan Citis budesaviT gaukeTes,
finiki, leRvi, yveli, puri da tkbileuli, rasac sneuli kaci
SeWams, dauwyves. palmis rtoebisagan saxli auSenes. . .(Suamdinaruli 2009). amis Semdeg zedmiwevniTi sizustiT aris aRwerili, Tu rogor aavseben aucilebeli sursaT-sanovagiTa da saWiro nivTebiT gamoqvabuls lugalbandas, jerac gaucxadebeli
mefis droebiT TavSesafars uruqeli TanamebrZolebi.

amgvarad, axal paradigmaSi, gamoqvabuli qalaqsa da qalaqs


Soris Cndeba, ara rogorc qaosis, udabnos fragmenti, aramed
rogorc ,,struqturirebuli bunebis miToxati. qalaqs, rogorc
adamianis xeliT struqturirebul sivrces gauCnda Sesaferisi
antipodi - ,,struqturirebuli buneba. amitom, gamoqvabuli

aris antipodic, dabrkoleba qalaqisken mimaval gzaze da qalaqis mediaciuri oreulic, rogorc struqturirebuli sivrce,
romelic qalaqTan gvaaxlovebs. igi Tavis sakralur wiaRSi, iniciaciisa da gardamavali ritualis aRsrulebis saxlSi, qalaqisTvis, moqalaqeobisTvis, mmarTvelobisTvis amzadebs iniciaciis
gmirs. swored am gaormagebis unariT, gamoqvabuli fizikuridan
sxva, metafizikur arsebobaSi gadadis. metafizikur ganzomilebaSi gadasvla sizmris gziT isxams xorcs: qalRmerT inanasagan
Zilmogvril lugalbandas sxvadasxva RvTaebebi ecxadebian, isini
mis gamojansaRebaSi, rogorc ritualSi, ise arian CarTulni,
oRondac ritualis ukanasknel gadamwyvet aqts - lugalbandas
gamojansaRebas da gamoqvabulidan gamoyvanas mzis RvTaeba uTu
ganasrulebs, rogorc es Tavidanve, Zmebis bWobaSi iyo gamoTqmuli. isev solaruli miTosis metafizika: ,,Wabukma uTum Tavisi
brwyinvale sxivi cidan moafina, mTis gamoqvabuli Tavisi Tavisi
melamiT gaunaTa; brwyinvale lugalbandas mTis gamoqvabulSi
uboZa, misi keTili udugi cidan mouvlina; misi keTili lama
ukan gaayola.(Suamdinaruli 2009).
metafizikuri sizmari uxilavi bewvis xidia gamoqvabulsa
da qalaqs Soris, romelmac paradigma ukanasknel, gadamwyvet fazaSi unda gadaiyvanos saboloo mizani gamoqvabuls Sefarebuli mefis gacxadeba, misi qalaqSi Seyvana da intronizaciaa.

52

xaTuna TavdgiriZe

Sumerul eposSi gamoqvabulidan TavdaRweuli lugalbanda


isev qalaqsa da qalaqs - uruqsa da araTas Soris moZraobs da
sabolood, gamarjvebac moaqvs Tavisi qalaqisTvis, rac mis uzenaes politikur momavals uyris safuZvels mas momavali mefis
legitimur statuss sZens.

farnavazis gamosvla gamoqvabulidan


qarTuli miTopolitikuri narativis dasawyisi
gamoqvabulSi, rogorc iniciaciis saxlSi moxvedrili lugalbandas miTiuri Tavgadasavali, misi metafizikuri sizmari,
sizmrad movlenili mnaTobi, romelic gamoqvabulidan gamosvlis,
qalaqSi dabrunebisa da intronizaciis momaswavebelia, mTeli Tavisi miToparadigmuli sisavsiT ganmeordeba pirveli qarTveli
mefis farnavazis politikur miTosSi. leonti mrovelis(me-11
s.-is moRvawe) istoriuli miTonarativis mTavari gmiri farnavazi, uruqeli mefis lugalbandas gzas gaivlis(paradigmis doneze
da ara teqtobrivi sizustiT): esaa mistiuri gza da saxelmwifoebriv-samefo misteria sataxto qalaqidan - mcxeTidan gamoqvabulamde da gamoqvabulidan ukan mcxeTamde.
pirveli qarTuli miTopolitikuri narativi metafizikuri
gamoqvabulis paradigmas mihyveba kvaldakval: ,,farnavazis cxovrebis miTosSi ori gamoqvabulia fizikuri da metafizikuri.
es ukanaskneli win uswrebs, niadags umzadebs fizikur gamoqvabuls. sanam RvTaebriv irems adevnebuli farnavazi gamoqvabulsa
da masSi daflul ganZs ipovis(miTosi), igi, Tavdapirvelad, metafizikur gamoqvabulSi, iniciaciis saxlSi moxvdeba. es aris
sizmris epizodi miTosi miTosSi. mxolod amgvarad SeiZleboda yofiliyo gadmocemuli fizikuri miTosidan metafizikur miTosSi gadasvla(Tumc ki, es cnebebi miTosSi erTmaneTs emTxveva):
,,maSin ixila farnavaz sizmari, re-ca iyo igi saxlsa Sina ukacursa, da eguleboda gansvla da ver ganvida. maSin Semovida
sarkumelsa missa Suqi mzisa da moertya welTa misTa, da ganizida da ganiyvana sarkumelsa mas. da viTar ganvida velad, ixila
mze que-mdablad, mihyo xeli misi, mohxoca cuari pirsa mzisasa
da icxo pirsa missa(mroveli 2008).

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farnavazis politikuri miTosi zedmiwevniTi terminologiuri sizustiT gaacxadebs axali paradigmis gamoqvabuls metafizikur sazriss - ,,ukacuri saxli gamoqvabuli-oikosia, urbanuli civilizaciis saxli-oikosis miTosuri prototipi.
cxadia, farnavazisTvisac, uruqeli lugalbandas msgavsad,
gamoqvabuli, rogorc polisidan mokveTili gaucxadebeli mefisa
da moqalaqisTvis, droebiTi TavSesafaria, qalaqis nostalgiis
adgilia da rac mTavaria iniciaciis saxlia, swored amitomac,
ukan qalaqSi dasabrunebeli erTaderTi metafizikuri(da fizikuric) saSualeba. mcxeTidan iZulebiT gaxiznuli farnavazi(am
droisTvis igi ukve meored, mcxeTidan gaqcevasa da sparseTSi
deduleTSi Tavis Sefarebas gegmavs), aq, gamoqvabulSi gaivlis
mefisTvis(mefe-RvTaebisTvis) aucilebel iniciaciis or fazas:
pirveli - numinozuri gamocdileba modis metafizikur gamoqvabulSi, mzis SuqTan Sexvedrisas da meore, - fizikur gamoqvabulSi(esec metafizikuris nawilia, rogorc miTiuri Tavgadasavali) igi, rogorc qarTlosiani, mcxeTosis gvaridan wamosuli,
iZens/ibrunebs Tavis kuTvnil samefo davlaTsa da Zalauflebas.
mxolod gamoqvabulis iniciaciaSi ganicdis farnavazi mefisTvis
aucilebel metamorfozas da mxolod gamoqvabulis ,,ganZi(xorcSesxmuli fizikur da metafizikur aspeqtSi) aZlevs mas saSualebas ukan poliss daubrundes
legitimuri mefe-mmarTvelis
statusiT. am gziT, gamoqvabuli da misi ,,ganZi - fizikurad
gacxadebuli saxelmwifo saunje(mefe-RvTaebis samefo regaliebis
miToxati), safuZvels uyris qarTul monarqiul institucionalizmsa da qarTul saxelmwifoebriobas.
vin aris pirveli qarTuli politikuri miTosis mTavari
gmiri - farnavazi?
farnavazma, gacxadebulma mefem, gaucxadebeli mefis RvTaebriv irems adevnebuli miTiuri amiranis gamoqvabulisken mimavali gza gaiara: ,,xolo mas dResa Sina ganvida farnavaz da nadirobda marto, da devna uyo iremTa velsa diRomisasa. da ivltodes iremni RirRalTa Sina tfilisisaTa. misdevda farnavaz,
styorca isari da hkra iremsa. da mcires warvlo iremman da daeca Zirsa kldisasa(mroveli 2008).
,,farnavazis cxovrebis es pasaJi, windawin gamyarebuli
sizmris miTosemantikiT(ukacuri saxli da mzis Suqi) uZvelesi

xaTuna TavdgiriZe

54

miTologiuri eposis ,,amiranianis cnobil saleqso epizods imeorebs:


,,sanadirod wamovidnen amiran da Zmani misni. . ..
mTas iremi wamouxtaT, oqro iyo rqani misni. . .
ucxo mTaze koSki naxes, anagebi brolis qvisi
sadac rom mzem piri mohkra, amiranma muxli mglisi,
koSkma piri iq gaaRo, iq Seeba kari misi.(,,amiraniani 1947).
ra moxda gamoqvabulSi Sesvlis Semdeg?

farnavazi gamoqvabulidan gamodis rogorc gacxadebuli mefe, gamodis samefo davladiT(ganZiT), amirani ki, gaucxadebeli
mefe, gaucxadebelive rCeba gamoqvabulSi mijaWvuli.
amiranic mefea da saxelmwifos mmarTveli(Tundac gaucxadebeli). es eposis ukanaskneli epizodidan Cans. mijaWvuli gmiris
gaTavisuflebis amao mcdelobisas, erTi Zalzed mniSvnelovani
dialogi Sedgeba massa da vinme mwyemss(an monadires) Soris.
swored es epizodi gaacxadebs amiranis mijaWvis namdvil mizezs,
Tu ratom aujanyda, daupirispirda gmiri RvTaebas, sakuTar naTlias(saidanc warmoiSva amiranis ,,RmerTmebrZoleobis cru miTi), romelic sinamdvileSi mefe-RvTaeba da mmarTveli politikuri Zalaa.
gamoqvabuls, romelSic amirania mijaWvuli, kari weliwadSi
mxolod erTxel exsneba. swored am dros aRmoCnda viRac mecxvare amiranis pirispir. CvenTvis sainteresoa maTi dialogi:
,,amirani etyvis, rom me sawylis da Raribis mokeTe var, ras meridebi, modi axloo. Turme im kacs zurgze puris guda hkidebia. axlo misula, amirans amouRia gudidan puri, mouWeria xeli. ,,em purs rogor sWamT, Tqve sawylebo, aseT Sav oflSi
aris mozelilio. Sen maS rogor pursRa Wamo? ekiTxna Tavisi mxriT glexsac. ai rogorsao, eTqo amirans da meeWirebina xeli, rZe ki gasloda wurwuriT. ,,me rom aveSo qveyanazed sisxlis puris Wama aRar iqnebao eTqva amirans daRonebiT. me
giSvelio, daeZaxa glexs(amiraniani 1947:296-297). swored es
epizodi gaacxadebs mTliani eposis miTopolitikur paTossa da
sazriss amirani arsebul politikur reJimTan dapirispirebuli da gamoqvabulSi gamoketili gmiria. pirveli qarTuli miTopolitikuri narativic gamoqvabulSi mijaWvul amiranTan erTad Caisaxa, magram veRar ganviTarda. am miTopolitikuri narativis gangrZobas ukve leonti mrovelTan ,,qarTlis cxovrebaSi

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vkiTxulobT. ,,farnavazis cxovrebis politikuri miTosi uSualod agrZelebs amiranis eposis politikur miToss, mis miTopolitikur ideas asxams xorcs:
mijaWvuli amirani Tavisufldeba da gamoqvabulidan gamodis, oRondac gamodis farnavazis saxiT, rogorc gacxadebuli
mefe, rogorc pirveli qarTuli saxelmwifos fuZemdebeli. arsebiTad, aq iwyeba qarTuli miTopolitikuri narativi.

amdenad, gamoqvabuli qaosisa da polisis niSnebiT aRbeWdili, mediaciuri kanonzomierebiT struqturirebuli metafizikuri sivrcea, iniciaciis adgilia, droebiTi TavSesafaria, romelmac Tavisive gansacdelSi/iniciaciaSi unda amyofos/Seifaros momavali mefe. gamoqvabuli mefes gaacxadebs. gacxadebuli mefe gamoqvabulidan metafizikur Zalas sizmrad movlenil mnaTobs(RvTaebis korelati), mzis Suqs, mis naTels gamohyavs da
gzas uxsnis sataxto qalaqisaken, misi intronizaciis sakraluri
adgilisaken.
aseTia qalaqis mediaciuri paradigmis miToxati, misi funqcionirebis miTosuri qarga.

mesame: spiraluri paradigma qalaqi-gamoqvabuli

,,idealuri qalaqidan ,,gamoqvabulamde


farnavazis sizmar-cxadi, Tavisi metafizikur-miTosuri motivebiT(,,ukacuri saxli da masSi mzis Suqis Semosvla da farnavazis gasvla; gamoqvabulSi moxvedra da ganZi povna), aris metafizikuri gamoqvabulis miTi, romlis detalur aRwerasa da
ontologiur interpretacias platonis ,,saxelmwifos meSvide
wignSi vkiTxulobT. esaa ,,gamoqvabulis miTis saxeliT cnobili vrceli epizodi.
platoni gamoqvabulis ontologiur sazrisTan zogadad miTosis gziT mivida da miuxedavad imisa, rom mas gars exvia miTebis mTeli arsenali(elinuric da araelinuric), es gza Tavad,
sakuTari miTografuli moRvaweobiT gakvala. ,,saxelmwifos mesame wignSi, platonma, ,,idealuri qalaqis sayovelTao sikeTis

56

xaTuna TavdgiriZe

uzrunvelsayofad, dauSva saxelmwifoebrivi, legitimuri, ,,keTilSobili tyuili rogorc miTosi: ,,sicrue RmerTebisTvis
usargebloa, adamianebisTvis ki sargebloba moaqvs, rogorc erTgvar wamals(platoni 2003:389b). iqve gviyveba socialur-politikuri kontrolis miToiaraRad, politikur miTosad gardaqmnil finikiur anTropologiur miTs, romelmac idealuri saxelmwifos samwaxnagovan ierarqiaSi simSvide da wesrigi unda
uzrunvelyos:
,,vecdebi davarwmuno jer mmarTvelebi da mcvelebi, Semdeg
ki danarCeni moqalaqeebic, rom yvelaferi, rac maTTvis gadagvicia da gviswavlebia, sxva ara aris ra, Tu ar sizmari, sinamdvileSi ki isini miwis wiaRSi Caisaxnen, iqve izardnen da Camoyalibdnen, - TviTonac, maTi saWurvelic da mTeli maTi akazmulobac, - ris Semdegac dedamiwam, maTma mSobelma, am qveynad moavlina isini. amitomac marTebT, ise zrunavdnen TavianT samSobloze, rogorc dedasa Tu ZiZaze, - momxvdurTagan icavdnen mas
da ise epyrobodnen danarCen moqalaqeebs, rogorc miwisganve Sobil RviZl Zmebs. . . Tqven, Cveni saxelmwifos moqalaqeno, erTmaneTis Zmebi xarT, ase vityodiT am arakis Tanaxmad, - magram
RmerTma, romelmac gamogZerwaT, zogierT Tqvengans, visac mmarTvelobis unari Seswevs oqro Seuria dabadebisas, amitomac maTi
fasi aravinaa amqveynad; mcvelebs vercxli, xolo miwis muSebsa da xelosnebs spilenZi da rkina. dabadebiTve erTmaneTis
Tvistomni xarT, magram upiratesad Tqvensave msgavsTa badebT,
Tumca, zogjer isedac xdeba, rom oqros modgma vercxlis naSierT aZlevs dasabams, vercxlisa ki oqrosas; igive iTqmis danarCenTa mimarTac . . . (platoni 2003).
aq gamoCnda pirvelad platonis gataceba liTonuri, rogorc kosmosisa da sxvadasxva kacobriuli modgmis substanciur
pirvelelementTa miToklasifikaciiT, rac ara mxolod elinurberZnuli(aq platonis uSualo wyaro berZnuli miTebis erT-erTi sistematizatori hesiode iyo), aramed aRmosavluri miTosuri tradiciiTac iyo gamyarebuli(mag.induri klasifiacia xuT
kosmiur droze). ,,saxelmwifos merve wignSi platonma oTxi miTokosmiuri ciklidan/epoqidan Tavis ,,idealur qalaqs ,,oqros
xanis paradigmaSi miuCina adgili, Tumca iqve misi harmoniis
rRvevac iwinaswarmetyvela: ,,verc hesiodeseul sxvadasxva mod-

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57

gmas ganasxvaveben erTmaneTisagan da verc oqros, vercxlis, spilenZisa Tu rkinis Tqveneul modgmas. roca rkina vercxli hgoniaT, spilenZi ki oqro, amas Sedegad mosdevs Tanasworobis, samarTlianobisa da harmoniis rRveva.(platoni 2003:VIII-577a562a.). platoni Tavisi idealuri qalaqis ,,oqros xanis aRsasruls gardauvali ontologiuri kanonzomierebiT xsnis: ,,Znelia
Searyio amnairi wyobilebis mqone saxelmwifo, magram raki yvelaferi, rac ibadeba, sasikvdilod ganwirulia, verc es saxelmwifo gaZlebs samaradisod. amdenad, idealuri qalaq-saxelmwifo, rogorc ,,oqros xana, ganuxorcielebelia(myifea) Tavad
miTosSi da mis kvalze, platonis ,,idealuri qalaqis koncefciaSic(rasac, nebiT Tu uneblieT, yuradRebis miRma tovebdnen
cnobili utopistebi)2. oqros xana sawyisi, bednieri epoqaa, magram misi srulyofileba(gadametebis gziT) gadagvarebadia da TandaTan sxva, dabali rangis liTonebis - vercxli, spilenZi, rkina, kategoriebSi gadadis, sabolood ki sruli kraxiT - eqatologiiT sruldeba. aq niSandoblivia ,,saxelmwifos qronologia(,,saxelmwifos Tavebis/wignebis qronologias vgulisxmob),
romelSic garkveul kanonzomierebas vWvretT: platonis ori miTi qronologiuri kanonzomierebiT lagdeba, sadac ,,idealuri
qalaqis miTi(wigni mesame) win uswrebs ,,gamoqvabulis
miTs(wigni meSvide). merve wigni ki idealuri qalaqis kraxs
gvamcnobs. merve wigni aris mxolod Semajamebeli aqti, ganaCenis
gaformeba, is rac imTaviTve nagulisxmevi iyo gamoqvabulis miTSi.
platoni or, erTmaneTisagan gansxvavebul miTs gviyveba. Tavdapirvelad qmnis ,,oqros xanis qalaq-saxelmwifos miToxats,
gvarwmunebs mis universalurobaSi, magram iqve, sul raRac oTxi
Tavis(wignis) Semdeg iwyebs TviTmxilebas:
patimrebi TavianT win gamoqvabulis kedelze mocimcime landebis garda verafers xedaven, radgan gaCenis dRidan Tavis ukan
mibrunebac ar SeuZliaT. kedlis am landebs isini namdvil sagnebad miiCneven. xolo gamoqvabuli romelic eqosaviT imeorebs
mgzavrebis sityvebs, es eqo patimrebs mocimcime landebis saubari hgoniaT. amdenad, isini namdvil sagnebad aRiqvamen nadvili
sagnebis Crdilebs. ra moxdeba maSin, Tu patimrebs borkilebs ahyrian da gaaTavisufleben, daixsnian aseTi umecrebisagan? . .
.(platoni 2003).

58

xaTuna TavdgiriZe

mxolod miTs SeuZlia miTisagan ganjadoeba, amitomac platons ,,saxelmwifos meSvide wignSi Semoaqvs ,,idealuri qalaqisagan ganjadoebis ,,gamoqvabulis miTi. meSvide wigni aris is
zRvari, saidanac iwyeba miTosisa da misi fantazmebis mxileba,
,,idealuri qalaqisa da misi miTosis uaryofa. amgvarad, uxilavi Zafebi gaibmeba qalaqsa da gamoqvabuls Soris, sadac qronologia Tavis sityvas ambobs: platoni, Tavdapirvelad, qmnis

,,idealur qalaqs, qalaqis sakelTildReod Semoaqvs da amkvidrebs oqros xanis politikur miToss da Sedegad iRebs ,,idealuri qalaqis metafizikur oreuls - ,,gamoqvabuls, Tavisi
moqalaqe-tusaRebiTa da kedlis miTo-CrdilebiT. platoni gviCvenebs, rom qalaq-saxelmwifos politikuri miTosi gamoqvabulis
kedlebiT SemosazRvravs polisis sivrces, romelsac gadaaqcevs
diadi fantazmis ,,idealur qalaqad, elinuri xanis ,,disneilendad.3 qalaqSic da gamoqvabulSic WeSmaritebas faravs miTosuri ,,Crdilebi, utopiuri fantazmi. ,,idealur qalaqSic da
,,gamoqvabulSic sicrue(metafizikuri) mefobs, gabatonebulia
platoniseuli ,,keTilSobili tyuili, rogorc miTosi, rogorc axali socialur-politikuri xilva. idealuri qalaqis viTom Tavisufal moqalaqes gamoqvabulSi xelborkilebi adevs.
swored xelborkilebi da gamoqvabulis bneli, daxuruli sivrce
uCvenebs idealuri qalaqis moqalaqes Tavis realur mdgomareobas: is mijaWvulia miTze(erTsa da imave dros, politikur da
metafizikur miTze), igi tusaRia da mxolod erTi mimarTulebiT SeuZlia cqera miTiuri fantazmis mimarTulebiT.

amdenad, platonis ,,saxelmwifo garkveul miToparadigmul


sistemas gaacxadebs, romelsac aRaraferi akavSirebs tradiciul
miTosTan, aramed, misi miTografosi Tavad platonia. igi Tavad
amkvidrebs aratradiciul politikur-ontologiur miToss da
,,idealuri qalaqi metafizikuri gamoqvabulis CixSi Sehyavs: aq
platoni ,,qalaq-gamoqvabulis - sruliad axali ontologiuri
paradigmis fuZemdeblad gvevlineba. es aris ori sawinaaRmdego
mimarTulebiT moZravi qalaq-gamoqvabulis spiraluri paradigma,
romelSic qalaqi da gamoqvabuli erTmaneTs kveTs, erTmaneTs emTxveva; romelSic qalaqi gamoqvabulSi iTqvifeba, iseve rogorc
realuri sagnebi qarwyldeba Tavissave SuqCrdilebSi(gamoqvabulis miTi).

qalaqi da gamoqvabuli miTopolitikuri narativis dasawyisi

59

TiTqos es ori miTi Tavisi paTosiT erTmaneTis sapirispiroa: Tuki ,,idealuri qalaqis miTi ,,keTilSobil sicrueSi
arsebobisaken gvibiZgebs, gamoqvabulis miTi, amis sapirispirod,
cdilobs gagvaTavisuflos miTosuri fantazmisagan. magram orive
miTi, sabolood, mainc erTsa da imave SemosazRvrul sivrceSi
gvabrunebs, qalaq-gamoqvabulSi, diadi fantazmebis, miTosuri
xilvebis polisSi da mis ontologiur politikaSi. orive miTi
erTad(da ara cal-calke) erT saerTo spiralur paradigmas gamoxatavs: qalaqisa da gamoqvabulis spiraluri gadakveTis, Tanxvedris, Serwymis paradigmas. amitomac wers leo Strausi, platonis interpretaciisas: ,,gamoqvabulis datovebiT qalaqis mTeli xedi da politikuri sferoebi qreba Tvalsawieridan. Tuki
filosofosma politikuri mmarTveloba unda ganaxorcielos, mas
gamoqvabulSi dabruneba mouwevs; anu mzis sinaTlidan Crdilebis
samyaroSi dabruneba.. . (Strausi 2011:56).
gamoqvabuli politikuri bunagia, mxolod aq, amgvarad modelirebul sivrceSia SesaZlebeli polisis, anu ,,politikis
ganxorcieleba. aq aris adamianebis, moqalaqeebis da maTi filosofosi mmarTvelebis(mefe-filosofosi) adgili. amitomac abrunebs ukan, gamoqvabulSi iqidan TavdaRweul ukve filosofosad
qceul ,,yofil patimars Tavad platoni, saxelmwifo interesebisa da uzenaesi samarTlianobis saxeliT. swored am epizodSi
gaacxada platonma, rom mesame wignis ,,idealuri qalaqi da meSvide wignis ,,gamoqvabuli da erTi da igivea:
,,... magram roca am simaRles miaRweven da guls ijereben
misi WvretiT, imis nebas ki aRar mivcemT, rac dRes nebadarTulia maTTvis. . . . am simaRleze darCenisas, Tuki aRar isurveben

kvlav daubrundnen Cvens patimrebs, raTa, avad Tu kargad, maTi


Wiri da lxini gaiziaron. . . . kanoni erTi romelime fenis keTildReobas ki ar isaxavs miznad, aramed mTeli sazogadoebisas.
SegonebiT Tu iZulebiT, is uzrunvelyofs yvela moqalaqis erTianobas, raTa isini erTmaneTisaTvis sasargebloni iyvnen imdenad, ramdenadac SeuZliaT amiT argon mTel saxelmwifos. . . . .
Cven usamarTloni ki ar viqnebiT Cvenive aRzrdil filosofosTa
mimarT, aramed samarTlian moTxovnebs wavuyenebT da vaiZulebT
maT, rogorc mcvelebs, sxvebze izrunon(platoni 2003).

60

xaTuna TavdgiriZe

magram platoni mefe-filosofoss qalaq-gamoqvabulSi ,,diadi fantazmebis, politikuri miTis gansaxorcieleblad


aRar abrunebs, aramed piriqiT gamoqvabulis miTisagan gansajadoeblad: platonis qalaq-gamoqvabulis paradigma romelic spiralurad moZraobs ori sapirispiro mimarTulebiT - qalaqidan
gamoqvabulisken da gamoqvabulidan qalaqisken, - maTi saboloo
fataluri Seerwymis miznisken, qalaq-gamoqvabuli unda ganajadovos Tavisive miTosisagan. platoni iqve gviCvenebs, rom amaoa
miTosisagan gaTavisuflebis mcdeloba - politikuri miTosi spi-

raluri paradigmis fundamenturi nawilia, igi mTlianad gansazRvravs platoniseuli paradigmis arss: adamianebs(gamoqvabulis
tusaRebs, moqalaqeebs) ar surT irwmunon WeSmariteba miTiuri
fantazmis miRma. gamoqvabulSi mibrunebul gonebaganaTebul yofil patimars ,,Tu mRvimeSi samudamod gamomwyvdeul patimrebTan
kvlav mouwevda paeqroba ama Tu im landisa da misi mniSvnelobis gamo, gana masxrad ar aigdebdnen am sityvebiT: ras miexeteboda im simaRleze, sul tyuilad dakarga Tvalis Cinio? ase
rom, Tu vinme Seecdeboda tyveobidan daexsna da maRla aeyvana
isini, gana imwamsve sul ar gaafrTxobinebdnen, xelSi rom CavardnodaT?(platoni 2003).

gamoqvabulis fantazmi aris idealuri politikuri miTosi


gamoqvabulis moqalaqeebisaTvis. isini arCeven ,,Crdilebis samyaros tyveobaSi - polis-gamoqvabulSi, politikur bunagSi darCenas. am ,,politikuri bunagis Taviseburi eqo gaismis aristotelesTan, romelic polisis moqalaqes gamoqvabulis zoomorfuli niSniT aRbeWdavs. aristotelec platonis msgavsad, qalaq-sa-

xelmwifoSi, rogorc erTgvar ,,politikur bunagSi abrunebs


iqidan wasul ,,politikur cxovels: ,,qalaq-saxelmwifo bunebrivi movlenaa da adamiani aris politikuri cxoveli. xolo
adamians, romelsac arseboba saxelmwifos gareT unda, an cxovelia an RmerTi. rogorc homerosic ambobs gankicxviT: ,,is iyo
bogano, kanongareSe da usaxlkaro . . .(aristotele 1983: I-1).
aristotele sxva mxrivac agrZelebs platonis dawyebul
miTopolitikur narativs. misTvisac, saxelmwifos marTvis, politikuri da socialuri kontrolis, kanonTa ganxorcielebis
instrumentad miTosi gvevlineba. ,,metafizikis meToTxmete wignis merve TavSi aristotele wers: ,,miTis formaSi Zvel da uZ-

qalaqi da gamoqvabuli miTopolitikuri narativis dasawyisi

61

veles moazrovneTa mier gaziarebuli SexedulebiT, RmerTebi


aseTni arian da isini moicaven mTel bunebas. danarCeni miTiuri

ki damateba iqneba masis dasarwmuneblad, kanonebis gansamtkiceblad da sargeblobis mizniT. aristotele 1964:249.107-4b)).
oRondac, aristotele gverds uvlis ,,keTilSobil tyuils.
rogorc karlo ginZburgi wers, aristotelesTvis ,,mravalTa
asalagmavi iaraRi WeSmaritebis uaryofa da sicruis SemoReba ki
ara, misi anTropomorfuli SeniRbvacaa. sadac ,,pirveladi Sinaarsi narCundeba miTosis saxiT. . . platonma bevrad ufro sastiki suraTi daxata(ginZburgi 2011:351).
marTlac, platoni sastik miTosuraTs xatavs: igi Seqmnisa
da Seqmnilis uaryofis gziT midis, ,,oqros xanisa da esqatologiis radikalizms misdevs. arsebiTad aseTia spiraluri miToparadigma, ,,maradiuli brunvis miTi, sadac sawyisi yovelTvis
aRsasrulTanaa da mas kveTs.
rogorc Cans, platoni mainc tradiciuli miTosis paradigmaSi moZraobs.

SeniSvnebi
1.Cveulebriv miTosSi istoriuli qronologia darRveulia
da igi miTosur qrologias Seesabameba. amitomac Cven paradigmebs
miTosuri msoflmxedvelobis qronologiiT valagebT. kacobriobis kulturisa da azrovnebis(msoflmxedvelobis) istoriam
icis, rom dualuri msoflmxedveloba da movlenaTa binaruli
dayofa-aRqma azrovnebis pirveladi formaa, amitomac paradigmulad gilgameSisa da enqidus filosofiur-ontologiuri miTosi
win uswrebs Sumer mefeTa enmerqarisa da lugalbandas eposebis eTno-politikur msoflmxedvelobas, sadac umTavresi miTopolitikuri paTosi uruqis, rogorc upirvelesi qalaq-polisis
hegemonobaa. Sumerul-aqaduri teqstis mTargmneli prof. z.kiknaZe Zalian zustad gansazRvravs am eposis Janrs: ,,enmerqarisa da
lugalbandas epikuri ciklebi nacionaluri xasiaTisaa, SegviZlia maT nacionaluri eposebi vuwodoT, ramdenadac maTSi aSkarad Cans uruqis interesebi, misi swrafva dasaxlebul samyaroze
hegemoniisken(Suamdinaruli 2009).

xaTuna TavdgiriZe

62

2. platoni pirveli filosofosi iyo, romelmac Tavisi


drois sami wamyvani dargi filosofia, miTologia da politika erTmaneTs Seusabama. es iyo sistemuri da struqturuli dakavSireba, miTosuri modelebis politikis filosofiaSi gadataniT. platoni pirveli filosofosi iyo, romelmac kacobriobis
modgmaTa miTologiuri liTonuri klasifikacia politikur ideologiad aqcia da dasabami daudo utopistur Teoriebs. platonis idealuri saxelmwifo wyobis ,,oqros xanis utopisturi
miTosistema sul sxvadasxva epoqebsa da ideologiebSi cocxldeboda, kacobriobis mTeli arsebobis manZilze.
3. Jan bodriarsa(wigni ,,simulakrebi da simulacia1981w.)
da umberto ekos(ese - ,,mogzauroba hiperrealobaSi 1975w.)
postmodernuli samyaros hiperrealobis TvalsaCino simbolod/nimuSad ,,disneilendi miaCniaT.

literatura
amiraniani 1947: m.Ciqovani, mijaWvuli amirani, Tb.1947.
aristotele 1983: . . .
: 4 . . 4. .: ,1983.
aristotele 1964:
aristotele, metafizika, mTargmneli
T.kukava, Tb.1964.
gaseti 1993: xose ortega i. gaseti, ,,masebis amboxi, Tb.1993.
gilgameSiani 2009: ,,gilgameSiani, Zveli Suamdinaruli eposi,
aqaduridan da Sumerulidan Targmna zurab kiknaZem,
Tb.2009w.
ginZburgi 2011: karlo ginZburgi, nakvalevebi, miTebi, mikroistoria. essebi evropis istoriisa da kulturis Sesaxeb, Tb.2011.
mroveli: leonti mroveli, farnavazis cxovreba. wignSi: qarTlis cxovreba, redaqtori roin metreveli, Tb.2008.
platoni 2003: platoni, ,,saxelmwifo, Targmani baCana bregvaZisa, ,,nekeri, Tb.2003.

qalaqi da gamoqvabuli miTopolitikuri narativis dasawyisi

63

Smiti: , .
, 2000.
Strausi 2011: leo Strausi, ra aris politikuri filosofia?
,,saunje, Tb.2011.
Suamdinaruli 2009: Suamdinaruli poezia, Targmna da winasityvaoba daurTo zurab kiknaZem, Tb.2009.
eposebi 2009: Sumer mefeTa eposebi, Targmna da winasityvaoba
daurTo nino samsoniam, Tb.2009.

nestan kutivaZe
bednieri qalaqi, rogorc
sabWoTa totalitaruli
saxelmwifos metafora
levan bolqvaZis zRaparSi moxvedrili biWis ambis mixedviT
Tanamedrove qarTul mwerlobaSi
literaturuli zRapari, rogorc Janri,
sakmaod popularulia. qarTul literaturul zRapars SesaZlebelia Tvali gavadevnoT XIX saukunis meore naxevridan.
bunebrivia, mas araerTi saukeTeso warmomadgeneli hyavs. imis dasadastureblad, rom qveynis umniSvnelovanesi problemebis warmosaCenad, sociumisaTvis,
zogadad adamianuri yofisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli mravali Temis kultivireba
mxatvruli TvalsazriT warmatebulad
moxerxda am JanriT, sakmarisia akaki wereTlisa da vaJa-fSavelas dasaxelebac.
miuxedavad imisa, rom XX saukunis dasawyisi am kuTxiT ar gamoirCeva didi
mravalferovnebiT (n. lorTqifaniZe, s.
cirekiZe, S. aragvispireli, al. abaSeli,
s. kldiaSvili ...), mainc Seiqmna ramdenime sagulisxmo teqsti. XX saukunis II
naxevarSi mimdinare mxatvruli literaturis Tvisebrivi ganaxlebis procesi
Seexo literaturuli zRapris ganviTarebasac. am periodSi da mogvianebiT samoRvaweo asparezze gamosulma araerTma
mweralma gamoaqveyna sayuradRebo nawar-

bednieri qalaqi, rogorc...

65

moebebi (a. sulakauri, o. ioseliani, l. bolqvaZe, j. qarCxaZe, g.


petriaSvili, n. gelaSvili, z. abzianiZe ....), romelTac sagangebo
Sesawavla da analizi sWirdebaT.
literaturuli zRapris mxatvruli qsovili ar Sedgeba
mxolod xalxuri zRapris relevanturi elementebisagan. masSi
sul ufro did adgils iWers arafolkloruli Sreebi da
mwerlis individualuri xelwera. iTvleba, rom, Tu koleqtiuri
aspeqti folkloristul zRaparSi dominantia, naklebia misi wili sakuTriv literaturul zRaparSi, xolo saavtoro zRaparSi minimalisturia an calkeuli detalebisa Tu epizodebis saxiT aris SenarCunebuli (Skuratova 2015). literaturul zRaparSi erTdroulad arsebuli realuri da irealuri samyaros
gamaerTianeblad miiCneulia jadosnuri motivi (lupanova
2015), romelic moicavs jadosnuri qveynis arsebobas, gmiris
moxvedras araCveulebriv qveyanaSi, magiuri TvisebebiT dajildoebul an jadosnuri sagnis mflobel gmirs, droSi mogzaurobasa
da sxva mxatvrul detalebs.
cnobilia, rom literaturuli zRapari yovel epoqaSi adaptirdeba droisa da sazogadoebrivi viTarebis Sesabamisad, rac
misi erT-erTi umTavresi maxasiaTebelia. Janris specifika avtors mdidar saSualebas aZlevs Seqmnas mravalplaniani teqsti,
sxvadasxva rakursiT wakiTxvis saSualebas rom iZleva. zogadad,
es aspeqti farTod gamoiyenes sabWoTa periodSi moRvawe qarTvelma da aramxolod qarTvelma Semoqmedebma.
am WrilSi mniSvnelovania levan bolqvaZis Txzuleba `zRaparSi moxvedrili biWi~. nawarmoebi sayuradReboa rogorc
poetikis (siuJetur-kompoziciuri modeli, parodireba-ironizireba, jadosnuri zRapris kliSeebTan mimarTeba da a. S.), ise
mwerlisdroindeli epoqis mxatvruli interpretaciiT. teqstSi
arsebuli bednieri qalaqi, bednieri qveyana sabWoTa totalitaruli saxelmwifos metaforuli saxea, romelSic parodirdeba
mTeli sistema Tavisi araerTi komponentiT (sikeTis begara, oqros galia, daCagrulTa walkoti, sikeTologiis laboratoria,
xalxis mtrebi, ZaRli-policielebi...). avtorma, mxatvruli
TvalsazrisiT, Zalze damajereblad moaxerxa totalitaruli
saxelmwifos arsis mxatvruli interpretireba ise, rom mTlianad SeinarCuna zRapris struqturisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli araerTi relevanturi elementi da, rac mTavaria, cru gmiris gamoaSkaraveba da damarcxeba, riTac gabedulad da warmatebulad peda-

66

nestan kutivaZe

lirebda zogadad totalitaruli sistemis ngrevaze. swored am


planis gamo zRapari scdeba garkveuli asakisaTvis gankuTvnil
literaturas da sul sxva datvirTvas iZens.
Txzulebis mTavari gmiri - Wabuka cxra mTas iqiT arsebul
bednier qveyanaSi xvdeba. sagulisxmoa, rom biWi daZinebulia da
eSmakma tinitom mis gasaRviZeblad unda Tqvas iseTi locva, romelic 200 wlis ganmavlobaSi aRar warmouTqvams. es SeiZleba
pirvel miniSnebadac CaiTvalos. wignis gamoqveynebisas TiTqmis
200 weli iyo gasuli saqarTvelos imperiis nawilad qcevidan.
sakmarisia, ufro maxvili TvaliT SevxedoT bevr sagans, rom mis
dafarul arsSi totalitaruli qveynisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli
araerTi niSani amovicnoT.
niSandoblivia bednieri qveynis umTavresi lozungebi: ifxizle; daicavi samarTliani da gulmowyale mefe Cigidis qveyana!
qvriv-oblebis samoTxe! daCagrulTa walkoti (bolqvaZe 1978:
15). zRapruli qalaqis Rirebulebebi, moqmedebis Semdgomi ganviTareba kargad dagvanaxebs am deklarirebuli frazebis iqiT
arsebul sapirispiro Sinaarss, maTs ironiul xasiaTs. is faqti,
rom gulmowyale mefe Cigidi tipuri tirania, xolo daCagrulTa walkotis araerTi mkvidri cdilobs samarTlis povnas,
amas naTlad aCvenebs. erT-erTi maTgania patara gogona - ini
xazs qvemoT, romelsac evlineba Semwed Wabuka - borotebisa da
farsis (crugmiris) mamxilebeli gmiri.
erT-erTi sagulisxmo niSani bednieri qalaqisa isicaa, rom
aq adamianebs anbanis asoebi hqviaT da maTi diferenciacia xazs
zemoTa da xazs qvemoTa mdebareobiT ganisazRvreba. mwerlis replika winaT yvelas adamianuri saxeli erqva (bolqvaZe 1978:
18). kargad aCvenebs am sivrceSi rogor nivelirdeba samyaro.
amasTan, rogorc teqstidan irkveva, bednier qalaqSi anbanis asoebis mixedviT, nawils sakuTari saxlic aqvs da gaZRomac yoveldRe SeuZlia, nawils - dRegamoSvebiT, nawili ki sanaxevrod
mSieria. Cveulebrivi saxelebi ki mxolod mdidrebsa da didgvarovnebs aqvT da rac ufro metia damsaxureba mefis winaSe, miT
ufro grZelia saxelic.
Tavisi droisaTvis sakmaod gamWirvale da gabedul metaforizirebas mimarTa avtorma, rodesac yuradReba gaamaxvila
iseT detalebze, sabWoTa sistemisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli movlenebis pirdapir asociacias rom iwvevda. ase magaliTad: bednier
qalaqis cixes oqros galia hqvia da iq adamianebi SeiZleba

bednieri qalaqi, rogorc...

67

simReris gamoc moxvdnen an imis gamo, rom yvavilebi daWkna, an


imis gamo, rom tortis biskviti ar amovida, rac mwerlis SefasebiT da profesor kompotinis ganmartebiT, usikeTobiTaa gamowveuli. sasaxles ar hyofnis sikeTe, amitom ar amodis tortis biskviti da ar xarobs yvavilebi. Sesabamisad, biskvitis
amosvla imis mimaniSnebeli unda iyos, rom sasaxleSi dasrulda
sibnelis periodi, rac ar aris ioli saqme Tundac imitom, rom
adamianebi amgvar yofas eCvevian. xalxi ise SeeCvia borotebis
wyvdiadSi jdomas, rom sikeTis Suqs misi Tvali veRar uZlebs,askvnis keTili moxuci, nawarmoebis erT-erTi mTavari gmiri
(bolqvaZe 1978: 25). es udavod mwerlis poziciaa, romelic kargad aris SeniRbuli zRapris realobiT.
mravlismTqmelia isic, rom bednieri qveyana or tipis kanoniT imarTeba - urRveviT da meoreTi. kanonebs mefe arRvevs
an ar arRvevs sakuTari Sexedulebisa da survilis mixedviT. TavisTavad cxadia, rom bednieri qveyana Zalin Sorsaa humanizmis
minimaluri gamovlinebisagan. aq SesaZlebelia martod darCenil
moxuc mSoblebs, 6 Svili rom Seswires samSoblos, gadasaxadebisagan gaTavisuflebaze uTxran uari, radgan urRvevi kanonebis
wigni SeRavaTebs me-5 an me-7 Svilze iTvaliswinebs. situaciam
SesaZloa iseTi absurdis saxec miiRos, rogoricaa romelime
omis usamarTlod gamocxadeba da daxocilebis wodebaze uaris
Tqma, Sesabamisad, maT col-Svilsac qvriv-oblebad aRaravin moixseniebs. rac ar unda paradoqsulad JRerdes, bednier qalaqSi
uamravi maTxovari, davrdomili, qvriv-oboli da upovari iyris
Tavs. maT xelketebiT arbeven da ase aZleven gzas mefes, romelsac didi gulmodginebiT adideben. teqstis am epizodebSic zRaprisaTvis damaxasiaTebel utrirebasTan erTad aSkaraa erTpirovnul mmarTvelobaze damyarebuli qveynis araerTi niSani.
TxzulebaSi tiraniis, totalitarizmis erT-erTi simboloa
gaCerebuli dro (saaTi wikwikebs, magram isrebi ar icvleba).
mwerali iwyebs saubars mefe Cigidis ganusazRvrel wyalobaze,
rac imaSi gamoixateba, rom maisi dekembrad SeiZleba gamocxaddes da, Sesabamisad, bavSvebic sagundaod unda gamoiyvanon. levan bolqvaZe kargad icnobda Zalauflebis borotad gamoyenebis
pirvel niSans: xelisufali dgas da gimtkicebs, rom sagani TeTria, sagani ki Sens cxvirwin sakuTari melnisferi siSaviT ipyrobs yuradRebas,- konkretulad am niunsis gamo SeniSnavs g.

68

nestan kutivaZe

zedania (zedania 2015), Tumca misi gavrcoba teqstis araerT monakveTsa da detalzea SesaZlebeli.
saswaulebis kaskadi, romelic marTebuli mxolod zRaprisaTvis relevantur sivrceSi aris, amiT ar mTavrdeba. rac ufro met uzrobas sTxoven xalxs, miT ufro meti xalisiT da gatacebiT asrulebs yvela moZaladeebis survils (bolqvaZe 1978:
36),- esec profesor kompotinis kidev erTi Sefasebaa bednieri
qalaqis yofisa da igi Tavis TavSi moicavs brbod gardaqmnili
masis qcevis Taviseburebasac.
gmiris winaSe mdgari erT-erTi rTuli davaleba saaTze jados axsnaa, raTa dro Cveul mdinarebas daubrundes da mefe Cigidi mokvdavi gaxdes. Wabuka, ra Tqma unda, funqciurad gmiria,
WeSmariti ufliswulia, romelmac princesa unda gamoixsnas da
realur droSi daabrunos bednieri qveyana. igi amisaTvis dajildoebulia araCveulebrivi unariT. garda amisa, mis gverdiT aRmoCndebian Semweebic, rom maTTan erTad SeZlos inis mamis gamoxsna da boroti, sikeTisagan daclili drois dasruleba.
sayuradRebo mxatvruli saxea profesori kompotini - gonieri swavluli, romelic amasTanave wesierebiTac gamoirCeva. kompotinis iseve, rogorc gogonas papis mxatvrul saxeebs mwerali
ostaturad iyenebs mis mier gamogonili samyarosa Tu sxva gmirebis refleqsiisaTvis. profesoris moxsenebebiT mefem kargad
icis sinamdvile. bunebrivia, swavluli kargad acnobierebs, rom
qveyanas daRupva elodeba. aqac erTi ostaturad mignebuli niuansis wyalobiT, iolad aluzirdeba totalitaruli epoqis, aseve, erT-erTi arsebiTi niSani - mefe mixvda, rom kompotini yvela mis ministrze Wkviani iyo da swored amitom brZana giJad
gamoacxadeTo,- sabWoTa sistemaSi sakmaod aprobirebul xerxs
mimarTavs avtori (bolqvaZe 1978: 71). mwerals eWvi ar epareba
imaSi, rom yvela tirani axerxebs saTavisod Seqmnil situaciis
met-naklebad marTebulad Sefasebas: yvelaze ufro ki imisi eSinoda, am frinvel-yvavilebis urCobas xalxis urCoba ar mohyveso, - wers bolqvaZe (bolqvaZe 1978: 72). aseTi sistemebi realuradac da zRapris Zalze tradiciuli kliSeTic yovelTvis
wyvets arsebobas. SeuZlebelia misi transformacia. adre Tu
gvian is aucileblad ingreva. amdenad TiTqmis SeuZlebelia gadarCenis gzis povnac. am teqstSi moZebnili gamosavali - sikeTologiis laboratoria mikrosamyaroa, romelSic ironizirdeba,
parodirdeba realuri Sinaarsisasagan daclili da xelovnuri

bednieri qalaqi, rogorc...

69

gadawyvetilebebi, amasTanave kargad rom migvaniSnebs ganwirulad


dasaRupi qveynis gamouval mdgomareobas. sikeTis begris daweseba, sikeTismcodneobis kursebi, yvela moqalaqem 6-dan 70 wlamde
aucileblad rom unda gaiaros, sikeTis sayovelTao-savaldebulo samsaxuris SemoReba da misTvis Tavis aridebis mefisa da
qveynis Ralatad gamocxadeba, CixSi moqceuli bednieri qveynis
svebednieri mefis epoqis ganwirulobas usvams xazs da dasasruls moaswavebs aSkarad. iseTi detalebi ki, rogorebicaa yalbi
cnobebi da samefo komisiis mier sapatio mizeziT samsaxurisagan
gaTavisufleba mxolod niuansobrivad avsebs zemoT aRniSnul viTarebas da mkiTxvels exmareba iolad gaxsnas mwerlis miniSneba.
amasTan, kedlebze gaCenili teqstebi (sabWoTa periodSi aprobirebul kedlis gazeTTanac rom asocirdeba), romelTa calkeuli
frazebi aseTia - ici Tu ara, rom Raribic adamiania? sikeTe sasrgebloa, xolo mefis brZanebiT akrZaluli - kacis kvla, bavSvebisa da cxovelebis wameba, moxucebis cema, aseve mefis brZanebiT
SemoRebuli moyvasis siyvaruli, erTmaneTis gatana, sindis-namusi
da a.S. (bolqvaZe 1978: 77-78) sxva araferia Tu ara zRapris
(realisturi poziciidan ki absurdis) saSualebiT mwerlisdroindeli epoqis mxatvruli asaxva. tirania yvela Rirebulebis devalvacias axdens, maT Soris sikeTisac, romelsac uZlurebis
niSnad miiCneven. ase xdeba bolqvaZis mxatvrul samyaroSic. bednieri qveyana uars ambobs ganviTarebis bunebriv gzaze da gonier
profesorsac, rogorc mosalodneli iyo, apatimreben.
nawarmoebSi bednieri qalaqis alternativadaa gaazrebuli
mSvidi qalaqi, sadac galoben Citebi, hyvavian yvavilebi da erTnair bavSvebs erTnairi bebiebi hyavT. es arabunebrivi harmonia
arsebiTad arafriT gansxvavdeba bednieri qalaqis gaCerebuli
droisagan. Tu bednier qalaqSi sikeTologiis kursebi daarses,
aq yofaqcevis erTkviriani kursebi arsebobs, rom kargad auxsnan
am qalaqSi cxovrebis wesebi uweso biWs. mweralic sabolood
uars aTqmevinebs Tavis gmirs im samyaroze, sadac SesaZlebelia
lomebi ionjiT gamokvebo.
ra Tqma unda, nawarmoebis mTavari gmiri - Wabuka axerxebs
sabolood auSvas dro da mis mdinarebas dauqvemdebaros yovelive, xolo is faqti, rom am zRapris dasasruls biWi princi aRmoCndeba da princesaze qorwindeba naTlad migvaniSnebs jadosnuri zRapris esqatologiur mniSvnelobaze. unda vifiqroT, rom
zRapris saidumlo mis dasasrulSi aris gacxadebuli. mTavari

nestan kutivaZe

70

gmiris xasiaTi, misi Ziebis sagani, zRapris funqciaTa arsi da


Tanamimdevroba mTeli eTosi zRaprisa gvafiqrebinebs, rom
zRapari Tavisi bunebiT esqatologiuria, rac imas niSnavs, rom
misi droJami saboloo dasasrulisken aris mimarTuli (kiknaZe
2001: 260),- aRniSnavs zurab kiknaZe. ra Tqma unda, sakuTriv
mwerlis mier Seqmnil zRaparSi aRniSnuli kanonzmiereba ar icvleba, Tumca mTel teqstSi es aspeqti aRiqmeba, rogorc sikeTis
gamarjveba da igi im ideologiur da moralur sayrdenad iqceva,
aucileblad rom unda hqondes, am tipis Txzulebas, miT ufro,
Tu is gankuTvnilia garkveuli asakis admianebisaTvis. erTicaa,
zRapris amgvari dasasruli kargad aCvenebs Tu harmoniul samyaroSi ara, bunebriv viTarebaSi dabrunebis gardauvalobas, rac
dRes erTgvar winaswarmetyvelebadac SesaZlebelia Candes.
zRaparSi moxvedrili biWis ambavs zogadad rogorc mxatvrul nawarmoebs da rogorc literaturul zRapars araerTi
sxva maxasiaTeberli aqvs, magram Cven SevecadeT Txzuleba wagvekiTxa, rogorc erTgvari daSifruli teqsti, romelSic parodirdeba realuri dro-sivrce. amgvarad reprezentirdeba avtoris msoflmxedveloba da Sexedulebebi, rac gacilebiT sagulisxmo maSinaa, rodesac literaturuli zRapris Janri gamoyenebulia garkveul socialur Tu sazogadoebriv problemaze apelirebisaTvis, am SemTxvevaSi ki, sabWoTa periodSi mcxovrebi mwerali Zalze ostaturad asaxavs yofili sabWoTa kavSiris, rogorc totalitaruli saxelmwifos, arssa da umTavres konceptebs.

literatura

bolqvaZe 1978: levan bolqvaZe, zRaparSi moxvedrili biWis ambavi; Tbilisi.


zedania 2015: giga zedania, levan bolqvaZis zRaparSi moxvedrili biWis ambavi;
https://burusi.wordpress.com/2010/05/20/giga-zedania-7/;,
moZiebulia 10.10.2015.
kiknaZe 2001: zurab kiknaZe, avTandilis anderZi; Tbilisi.

bednieri qalaqi, rogorc...

71

lupanova 2015: . .
.
http://smalt.karelia.ru/~filolog/pdf/lupanov2.pdf; moZiebulia 27.10.2015.
Skuratova 2015: ..
-I .
http://pglu.ru/upload/iblock/143/uch_2011_iv_00032.pdf;
moZiebulia 27.10.2015.

irine maniJaSvili
Tbilisi terenti granelis
poeziaSi
Tbilisi araerTi Semoqmedis STagonebis wyaro gamxdara. Tu gadavxedavT
mis istorias, vnaxavT, rom aramarto
qarTveli xelovanebi, poetebi iyvnen
TbilisiT
aRfrTovanebulni, aramed-bevri ucxoeli mogzauri Tu mweralic.
Tbilisis kolorituloba da misi Sarmis saidumlo, albaT, ganpirobebuli iyo
misi geografiuli mdebareobiTac, radgan
is warmoadgenda aRmosavlur-dasavlur
kulturaTa sinTezs. Tbilisis mimzidvelobas gansazRvravda mainc is Rirebulebebi da tradiciebi, erTgvari Tbilisuri
esTetika, rac uSualod misTvis iyo damaxasiaTebeli.
me-20 saukunis dasawyisi, kerZod,
20-iani wlebi, TbilisisTvis metad
progresuli aRmoCnda. am periodSi dedaqalaqis kulturuli cxovreba piks aRwevs. ukve 10-iani wlebidan Tbiliss aqtiuri mxatvrul-literaturuli cxovreba hqonda. grigol robaqiZe ase aRwers maSindel Tbiliss: tfilisi ucnauri qalaqia, xolo 1919-20 wlebSi kidev ufro aucnaurda. gamorekili Tu gamoqceuli rusebi Tavs aq afarebdnen. vin
ar iyo maSin tfilisSi?.. tfilisi gaxda
poetebis qalaqi. kafe internacional-

Tbilisi terenti granelis poeziaSi

73

Si kidec gamoacxades poetebis qalaqad. kidev meti: gaiZaxodnen,


poezia marto tfilisSiao... qveyana marTlac iqceoda da mxolod
tfilisi iyo erTaderTi qalaqi, romelic aseT qcevas poeturi mReriT xvdeboda. aseTi iyo tfilisis fantastika... (robaqiZe 1988:337-338).
paolo iaSvilma xmamaRla ganacxada kafe internacionalSi,
rom ara parizi, aramed Tbilisi aris msoflio kulturis centrio. samwuxarod, 1921 wlis TebervalSi ruseTis revoluciis
qariSxalma saqarTvelosac gadauara. im adamianebis didi umravlesoba, vinc Tbilisi poetebis qalaqad da saqarTvelo oazisad aqcia, gadasaxlebebsa da sakoncentracio banakebSi aRmoCnda.
bevric Seewira 30-iani wlebis totalur reJims; qarTuli inteligenciis nawili ucxoeTSi gadaixvewa.
es mokle istoriuli eqskursi imisTvis dagvWirda, rom gagveTvaliswinebina is mSvenieri atmosfero,
romelic terenti
granels daxvda TbilisSi. is 1918 wels Camovida walenjixidan
dedaqalaqSi. terenti kvirkvelias TbilisSi Camosvlis mizani
iyo ganaTlebis miReba, magram , samwuxarod, amave wels gardaecvala mama da usaxsrod darCa ojaxi. terenti iZulebuli gaxda
Tbilisis rkinigzis sadgurze daewyo muSaoba. Semdeg muSaobas
iwyebs gazeT saxalxo saqmis redaqciaSi Sikrikad. aqve daibeWda misi pirveli leqsi.
rogorc aRvniSneT TbilisSi am dros saukeTeso kulturuli
atmosfero sufevda da terentic gaitaca simbolisturma poeziam, modurma literaturulma mimdinareobebma...
TbilisSi Casvlidan erTi wlis Semdeg is ukve adgils imkvidrebs dedaqalaqSi da 1919 wels gamoscems samxatvro-saliteraturo gazeTs
ia da Jurnals kronosis saxe. 1920-21 wlebSi gamosca leqsebis ori patara wignaki, xolo 1922 wels--leqsebis mozrdili
wigni sulidan saflavebi. 1924-26 wlebSi miaRwia popularobis zenits...
Tbilisi iqca misi poeziis STagonebis wyarod. dedaqalaqi
zogadad yvelaze didi asparezia Semoqmedi adamianisTvis---Tavisi
siWreliT, aqtiuri ritmiT, socialur-kulturuli garemoTi da
sxv. gansakuTrebiT Tbiliss aqvs erTgvari Sinauruli atmosfero. is binac aris da TavSesafaric bevrisTvis.

74

irine maniJaSvili

terenti granelis poeziaSi Tbilisi araerTgvarovani semiotikuri niSniT vlindeba. miuxedavad amisa, yvelgan igrZnoba poetis gansakuTrebuli damokidebuleba Tbilisisadmi, dedaqalaqisadmi. granelis mborgavi sulisTvis, romelic martosulobisTvis iyo ganwiruli Tavisi miraJuli xilvebiT, qalaqi, Tbilisi
aRmoCnda navsayudeli, Sina... Tumca, is arc aq grZnobda Tavs
mSvidad da bednierad. terenti granelis portretisTvis es erTi frazac sakmarisia: ara sicocxle, ara sikvdili, aramed-raRac sxva... (graneli 1991:6) poeti mwvaved ganicdis TbilisTan ganSorebas: vSordebi Tbiliss, mgoni didi xniT.(graneli
1991:21) am patara leqsSi samjer meordeba es striqoni, romelic ufro amZafrebs ganSorebis tkivils. dedaqalaqi misTvis
wminda TavSesafaric aris da amave dros saflavic unda rom
iyos... cnobilia granelis damokidebuleba zogadad sikvdilTan,
sasaflaosTan. es Tema mistikuri saburveliT aris moculi; sikvdilis gza midis caTa sasufevlisken, sulis ukvdavebis Ziebisken.
rogorc aRvniSneT, poetis gamoTxoveba TbilisTan yovelTvis
emociuria. sul iCqaris, rom daubrundes qalaqis xmaurian
ritms. albaT, am xmauriT unda CaaxSos Tavisi martosuloba da
ganwirulobis Zaxili:
me guSin Tbiliss gamoveTxove
da dRes TbilisSi msurs dabruneba.(graneli 1991: 62)
aseTive ganwyobaa leqsSi gamgzavreba Tbilisidan. dasawyisSive
lurji feri ukve mwuxarebis maniSnebelia:
iyo silurje Cemi mxlebeli
da mwuxareba dumils isvrida...
mihqris matarebliT terenti graneli da mas eCveneba, rom samudamoa es ganSoreba dedaqalaqTan:
ganSorebisTvis guli mtkioda
da ar velodi me dabrunebas.(graneli 1991:66)

75

Tbilisi terenti granelis poeziaSi

Tbilisis quCebSi xetiali misi cxovrebis wesia... soflis Cumi,


mSvidi garemo kidev ufro umZimebs guls.
isev Tbilisi momagondeba,
me vadidebdi quCas, xetials.
ar SemiZlia, guli Rondeba,
guli Rondeba da Tormetia. (graneli 1991:72)
an kidev:
Tbilisis quCa sul daviare,
guSin cixidan rom gamovedi.(graneli 1991:126)
aseve:
modis garindeba dilis
da male davivli Tbiliss.(graneli 1991: 145)
t. granelisTvis qalaqi yvelaze axlobeli, nugeSiani TavSesafaria. misi poeturi aRqmiT is cocxali arsebaa da iseve ganicdis,
rogorc TviTon:
qalaqsac Zval-rbilSi uvlis
sicive--Tebervlis suli.(graneli 1991:74)
aRsaniSnavia, rom granelis leqsebSi Tbilisis semiotikuri gaazreba mravalferovania. araerT leqsSi is xazgasmiT aRniSnavs
Tbilisis siwmindes:
Tbilisi darCa wminda
me wamovedi guSin.
isev Tbilisi minda,
Tbilisi darCa gulSi.(graneli 1991: 91)

irine maniJaSvili

76

granels Zalian individualuri, sulismieri damokidebuleba aqvs


dedaqalaqTan. erTi dRec ver tovebs Tbiliss... maSinve Tavs
iCens masTan ganSorebis dardi (isev Tbilisze vdardob). TiTqos mistikurad aris mijaWvuli TbilisTan sxeuliT, mTeli misi arsebiT.
eZvirfaseba Tbilisi im urTierTobebisTvisac, romelic akavSirebs did galaktionTan da sxva poetebTan.
erTad vxetialobdiT Tbilisis bulvarebSi,
restornebSi, baRebSi,--me arsad ar gtovebdi.(graneli 1991:
105)
leqsSi Tbilisis gareT is mZime ganwyobaa gadmotanili, rac
eufleba poets siCumeTa savaneSi. iq, sadac saocnebo velebia
da Cumi mindvrebi, Zlierdeba misi Sinagani wameba. am leqsSi ikveTeba Tbilisis kidev erTi Strixi:
iq samrekloa maRali,
aq siCumeTa savane. (graneli 1991:114)
imdroindel TbilisSic mravlad iyo maRali samrekloebi, rac
simbolurad rwmenas da ufalTan siaxloves gamoxatavs. Tbilisi--wminda qalaqi-bevrgan gvxvdeba es metafora.
erT-erT leqsSi pirdapir aRsarebasaviT gvamcnobs poeti:
soflis meSinia, Tbiliss vefarebi...(isev siSoreze, graneli
1991:122)
soflis siCumis eSinoda, radgan iq ufro umZafrdeboda simartovisa da uimedobis gancda. granelisTvis TbilisSi dabruneba
Sin, mSobliur saxlSi dabrunebis tolfasia:
dRes Tbilisisken mival me isev,
da matarebels xvdeba meisre,
---------------------------------------daZonZilia TovliT totebi,

Tbilisi terenti granelis poeziaSi

77

da isev Tbiliss vuaxlovdebi. (graneli 1991: 123)


mkiTxvelic avtorTan erTad grZnobs kaxeTidan momavali poetis TbilisTan miaxlovebis sixaruls.
cnobilia, terenti granelis damokidebuleba bolSevikebis mimarT. is mwvaved ganicdida saqarTvelos gasabWoebas, damoukideblobis dakargvas. mZafri protesti ufro kargad Cans mis werilebSi. grZnobda mowyenili Tbilisis sevdas, Tumca ar kargavda
imeds momavali simSvidisa da aRtacebisa:
mowyenilia exla Tbilisi,
male dadgeba dro damSvidebis.
----------------------------------------albaT gamafren zecisken, qaro,
roca dadgeba dro aRtacebis.
nela Ramdeba da axla garmons
ukraven rusi jariskacebi.(graneli 1991: 127)
aseTive ganwyobaa da qalaqis tragikulad aRqma sxva leqsSi:
qalaqi ise gaCumebula,
TiTqo qalaqi daRupvis win dgas.(graneli 1991:141)
poets TbilisSi aqvs gansakuTrebulad sayvareli adgilebi. erTerTi aseTia muStaidis baRi, sadac ismens foTlebis kvnesas da
misi fiqrebi mifrinaven zecisken:
me guli ar minaxia,
mesmis foTlebis kvnesa.
es muStaidis baRia
da me vseirnob dResac.(graneli 1991:131)

irine maniJaSvili

78

poetis mgrZnobiare suls ufro metad awuxebda da stkioda,


vidre uxaroda rame. mziani Tbilisis xilva ki marTla aZlevs
sixaruliT aRtacebis mizezs:
Cans dRea Tbili,
Tanac qaria.
davyureb Tbiliss
da mixaria.(graneli 1991:134)
ufro metic, t. granelis guli mTel Tbiliss itevda da ealerseboda:
droa ZilisTvis, dReni iwvian.
mTeli Tbilisi gulSi miwyvia.(graneli 1991: 157)
t.granelis verlibri guli TbilisisaTvis 1922 wels dabeWdila. originaluri da verlibrisaTvis aucilebeli emociuri
muxtiT aris daRdasmuli finaluri taepi:
Cemi guli, romelic Camovarda wuxel,
dRes qalebma ipoves baRSi.
me axla aRara var.
Cemi guli gadaeciT Tbiliss
Tu aRmoCnda sadme. (graneli 1979:283-284)
Tbilisi iyo mowme misi fericvalebis, TandaTan ukusvlis da
ufskrulamde misvlis. TviTonve aRniSnavda:
da Tbilisis winaSe sanTeliviT vilevi.(graneli 1991:163)
terenti granelis damokidebuleba TbilisTan scildeba ubralod dedaqalaqisadmi siyvaruls da ufro farTo semiotikuri
niSniT itvirTeba. Tbilisi mistikur elfers iZens. misTvis erTaderTi nugeSi da Tilismaa.

Tbilisi terenti granelis poeziaSi

79

frinveliviT vzivar Ramis ubeSi,


Tbilisia erTaderTi nugeSi.
------------------------------------------Tbilisia da wamebas avitan,
dRevandeli mziani dRe wavida.(graneli 1991:165)
bolo periodis leqsebSi dananebiT
aRniSnavs, rom Zal-Rone
aRar Seswevs Tbilisis quCebSi xetialisTvis da gulistkiviliT
emSvidobeba Tbiliss:
Tbilisis naxva kidev msurs erTxel,
minda dilamde mTvares vumzerde.
mesmis quCaSi rogor midian,
me siaruli ar SemiZlia.
ara maqvs Rone, ara maqvs Zili,
vemSvidobebi Cems Zvirfas Tbiliss.(graneli 1991:172)
sofelSi myofsa da dasneulebuls Tbilisis monatreba klavs,
misi Suqi izidavs, Tbilisis ca enatreba. poetis saboloo survilic es iyo, rom Tbilisis miwaSi hqonoda samudamo gansasvenebeli.
ra vqna, dRes minda vnaxo Tbilisi,
vnaxo Tbilisi da meucxovos.
----------------------------------------male movkvdebi da vici gulze
rom damayrian Tbilisis miwas.(iqve, 173)
poeti imdenad Sesisxlxorcebulia qalaqTan, rom Tbilisidan
Sorsmyofi darwmunebulia, mis gareSe Tbilisi gadasxvaferebulia: aRar eqneba saxe axla uCemo Tbiliss.(iqve, gv.201)

irine maniJaSvili

80

t.granelis poeziaSi zogjer igrZnoba soflisadmi nostalgiac,


magram aseTi ganwyoba iSviaTia. soflis dumili da simyudrove
ufro amZafrebs mis sulier kriziss. leqsi qalaqidan sofeli
Zalze xelSesaxebad agrZnobinebs mkiTxvels soflis simSvides,
sisadavesa da ubraloebas. qalaqidan danaxuli sofeli idumalebiT aris moculi.
danamulia ezo, yanebi,
iqve dgas Zroxa, iqve ZaRlia.
albaT bavSvebi dedis brZanebiT,
viRac mezobel qals uZaxian.(iqve, 210)
kontrasti xmaurian qalaqsa da soflis simyudroves Soris ufro aRrmavebs poetis nostalgias:
movardnil qarSi Srialebs alva,
tye ar minaxavs didi xania,
dadga maisi, sofelSi, albaT,
ufro dumili da simwvanea.(iqve, 210)
terentisTvis gansakuTrebulad mSvenieria maRlobidan danaxuli
Tbilisi:
da botanikur baRis mTebidan
xelis guliviT Tbiliss davyureb.(iqve, 211)
an kidev:
uceb maxlobel mTaze avedi
da Tvalwin medga mTeli Tbilisi.(iqve, 212)
erTi leqsis saTauri ki aseTia--- Tbilisi maRlidan, sadac
Tbilisis Zvel ubnebs saTiTaod efereba poeti.
es dila elavs, rogorc lampari,

Tbilisi terenti granelis poeziaSi

81

qarma fiqrebi isev daSala.


daxavsebuli dgas avlabari
da Zirs baRebiT wevs orTaWala.(iqve, 227)
misTvis erTnairad Zvirfasia didube, saburTalo, veris xidi,
muxranis xidi Tu naZaladevi.
miuxedavad imisa, rom Tbilisis datoveba yvelaze metad eZneleboda (movSordi yvelas, ver vtoveb Tbiliss...gv..212), mainc
mouwia masTan ganSoreba: ase awewili bediT, minda gavSorde
Tbiliss(gv.219).
wuxs roiali, me raRac mtkiva,
davtoveb Tbiliss da waval dasTan.
vnaxoT, es fiqri sanamde wava,
vnaxoT, es tanjva sanamde gastans.(iqve, gv.236)
didxans aRarc gastana am tanjvam da koSmarulma xilvebma da
suramis fsiqiatriul saavadmyofoSi dasrulda misi amqveyniuri
wvaleba. TbilisSi, petre-pavles sasaflaos miabares misi nawamebi sxeuli(1934). suliT xorcamde TbilisTan dakavSirebulma
poetma Tbilisis miwaSi hpova samudamo gansasvenebeli.

literatura
alimonaki 1990: alimonaki l. kviris wirvebi anu cxovreba terenti granelisa, merani, Tb.
graneli 1991: graneli t. or tomad, aieti, Tb.
graneli 1990: graneli t. leqsebi, xelovneba, Tb.
graneli 1979: graneli t.rCeuli. Tbilisi: sabWoTa saqarTvelo

82
robaqiZe

irine maniJaSvili

1988: robaqiZe gr. gvelis perangi, falestra, Tb.


merani

siraZe 2008: siraZe r. kultura da saxismetyveleba, inteleqti, Tb.

irakli mWedliSvili
polisuri sivrce socialuri kosmosi da
kosmopolitizmi
dakargul dialogSi, `filosofiis
Sesaxeb~, rig Zvel avtorTa gadmocemiT,
aristotele acxadebda, rom polisis
warmoSoba sruliad garkveul siaxleTa,
kanonTa SemoRebisa da qalaqis yvela nawilis erTianobaSi momyvan pirobaTa gamogonebis Sedegad moxda. sibrZne, rogorc aristotele Tvlida, swored amgvar siaxleTa momtan gamogonebas ewoda,
rameTu misi Semqmnelebis, polisis moqalaqis yvela Rirsebis aRmomCeni `Svidi
brZenis~ damfuZnebel-gardamqmneli SemarTeba, maTi saqmianoba, maTsave gonismier madls, azrTa mwvdom da momkreb Zalisxmevas daefuZna.
umetes
Tanamedrove
swavlulTa,
TiTqmis sayovelTaod miRebuli azriT,
qalaqur dasaxlebaTa warmoSoba `pirvelad dafuZnebas~, anu momTabare da monadire-momgrovebluridan, erT adgilze,
SezRudul arealSi cxovrebis wesze gadasvlis process ukavSirdeba. `neoliTur revolucias~, agrikulturis Semosvlas, aseT, upiratesad ekonomikuri safuZvelidan momdinare SexedulebaTa Tanaxmad, dasaxlebaTa warmoSoba, anu adamianTa adgilebze damagreba da mosaxleobis simWidrovis zrda mohyva. Sesabamisad, urbanul areTa warmoSobis, anda qa-

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laqTa aRmocenebis mTavar winapirobad, maxasiaTeblad Tu ganmsazRvrel niSnad, aRniSnuli SexedulebiT, swored empiriulekonomikur garemoebaTa Sedegad warmoqmnili mWidrod gansaxlebis SesaZleblobaTa arseboba miiCneva. am movlenas, anu qalaquri
Tanacxovrebis arealTa aRmocenebas, wina, miwis SezRudul areze
damagrebis wminda agraruli periodisagan gansxvavebis mizniTa da
imis gamoc, rom pirvel saxelmwifo warmonaqmnTa, adreul civilizaciaTa Seqmna, swored marTvis sadaveTa, Zalaufleba-gavlenis veqtorTa momkreb qalaqur infrastruqturaTa warmoSobas
ukavSirdeba, zogjer, `dafuZnebis~ Tu `SemWidroebis~ meoreul
etapsac uwodeben.
polisis, anu `qalaqi-saxelmwifo~ saxis civilizaciis warmoSobis winapirobaca da misi qmnadoba-arsebobis xasiaTic, socialuri mowesrigebis istoriul tendencias, `SemWidroebis~ aRniSnul miswrafebas srulad esadageba. ekonomikuri da mmarTvelobiT-politikuri saxis mamoZravebel ZalTa, TiTqosda TavisTavad, `bunebrivad~ moqmedi meqanizmis mixedviT Sedgenil da JamTasvlis Tanmimdevrul, qronologiur rigs SeTanadebul, civilizaciaTa aRmasvla-ganviTarebis sworxazovan warmodgenas, anda
erTian suraTs Tu sqemas, polisuri anawyobis aRmocenebisa da
Semdgomi arsebobis faqti, sulac ar ewinaaRmdegeba. amgvari,
ekonomikur mizanSewonilobas calsaxad midevnebuli, pragmatuli
xedviT, polisuri warmonaqmni, adreul, e. w., `mdinarisa~ da
`sasaxlis~ civilizaciebs, swored gardamavloba-monacvleobis
principis, intensifikaciisa da mosaxleobis simWidrovis zrdis
niSnis mixedviT Tu Sesabamisad eTanadeba. maS, romel siaxleze
Tu gamogonebaze saubrobs aristotele? iqneb polisis warmomSob mTavar faqtorad miCneul `sibrZnes~, aristotele, swored
sazogadoebrivi Tanacxovrebis istoriul Tu obieqtur kanonzomierebaTa gacnobierebis, misi ganviTarebis TavisTavadi meqanizmis,
anu `bunebrivi svlis~ procesis Wvretis, codniTi wvdomis Tu
moxilvis unars uwodebda?
sibrZne, anu `sofia~ (), romlis gamogonebasac aristotele Zvel berZen, `Svid brZens~ miawers, swored rom wina,
adreuli periodis miTosuri cnobierebis msoflgancdidan gamosvlas gulisxmobda da is, imavdroulad, samyaros aRqmis sruliad axal, iqamde ar arsebul xedvaTa Semosvlasac moaswavebda.
mistikur-sakraluri codnisgan gamijnuli logosuri saxis azrovneba, zeadamianur ZalTagan damoukidebel da warmomavlobiT-

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genezisuri rigidan gamocalkevebul, gamaerTianebel sawyisTa Tu


principTa moZiebis mcdelobas warmoadgenda. metoqeobis (isa) da siyvarulis (-s) dapirispirebul RvTiur ZalTa polusebs Soris, berZenTa warmodgeniT moqceul, mraval calkeul
elementTagan, erTiani, gawonasworebuli da sayovelTao mowesrigebis miRwevis SesaZleblobas, anda, rogorc orfikosebi (Tu
piTagorelebi) ambobdnen, erTianidan mravalis da mravlisgan erTianis warmoSobis pirobaTa erTobliobas, Zieba-moazreba, axsna
da sibrZniTi, anu sistemuri codnis saxiT dafuZneba sWirdeboda.
`sibrZnis~ Semqmnelma pirvelma brZenebma, swored aseTi, polisis yvela gansxvavebul, lokaciur, socialur da pirovnul
nawilTa erTian da gawonasworebul mTlianobaSi moqcevis pirobaTa racionaluri anawyobis Camoyalibebis, misi moazrebisa da
danergvis pirveli mcdeloba ganaxorcieles. ZiriTadi kategoriebi, an azrovnebis is tipi, romelsac sakacobrio civilizacia
dResac efuZneba, pirvelad, Zv. w. a.-is VII saukuneSi, mcire aziis berZnul qalaq mileTSi warmoCnda. axali azrovnebis aRZvris,
axal xedvaTa gamovlenis mTavari pativi, `Svid brZenTagan~ upirvelesad miCneul, mileTis mkvidr, Taless miewereba. yvela avtori, Zvelic da axalic, mis saxels win sityva `pirvels~ umZRvarebs. `astronomiis Seswavla, pirvelma, man daiwyo... sulis ukvdaveba, pirvelma, man ganacsada... saubrebi bunebaze, pirvelma, man wamoiwyo~ (1, I.1 24-28). Zvel avtorTa damowmebiT, Talesi Tavis mimdevrebs pirdapir eubneboda: `kosmosi erTiania!~. kosmiuri erTianobis principidan momdinare Talesuri hipoTeza, romlis mixedviTac, samyaroSi wesrigis arsebobaca da
adamianis mier misi Secnobis SesaZleblobac daiSva, mTel rig
swavlulTa
azriT, `dasavluri saazrovno tradiciis~ sawyiss
warmoadgens.
Talesma da mis Semdgomma, aristoteles mier `fizikosebad~
wodebulma filosofosebma, samyaros wesrigi, kosmiuri harmonia,
vrceuli principis Tanadi xedvis Tu midgomis Tanaxmad, geometriul sqemaTa saxiT warmoaCines. Talesis mowafe, anaqsimandre,
naSromSi, `bunebis Sesaxeb~ (anda, ufro zustad,
- `istoria bunebis Sesaxeb~) acxadebda, rom kosmiur wesrigs, ara `monarqiuli~, anu erTi zebunebrivi Zalmosilebis arsebidan momdinare, ierarqiulad daqvemdebarebuli wyobis, aramed
tol-swori ganlagebis, geometriuli saxe aqgs. `bunebis isto-

86

irakli mWedliSvili

ria~, anaqsimandresTan, swored codnis erTdroul, anu vrceul


mocvas, mokrebas Tu aRqmas gulisxmobda (`istoria~ _ aq, am gamoTqmaSi, ara qronologiuri mimarTebiT, aramed sityva -s
pirveladi, gamorkvevis, gamokvlevis Tu mcodneobis mniSvnelobiT figurirebs).
anaqsimandres kosmologiuri
Teoria,
upiratesad vizualur, samyaros `damnaxav~ midgomas, moxilva-Wvretis sivrcul
princips
efuZneba
(termin
`Teoriis~
Zireuli
sityva , swored danaxvas, dakvirvebas, moxilvas Tu Wvretas
niSnavs). xolo genezisuri mniSvnelobis, sawyisis, wyaros da
fesvis aRmniSvneli sityva, `arxe~ (), anaqsimandres naazrevSi, droiTTan erTad struqturul-vrceul datvirTvasac iZens.
Tanabrad da mwyobrad ganlagebis, wonasworobis sawyiss Tu
`sayrdens~, anu `arxes~, anaqsimandres mixedviT, samyaros centrSi uZrav da gawonasworebul mdgomareobaSi moazrebuli dedamiwis msgavsad, polisis SuagulSi, yvelasa da yovlisagan Tanabrad daSorebuli `agora~ warmoadgens.
geometrias, piTagora, doqsografTa gadmocemiT, `maradiulad arsebulis codnad~ miiCnevda. Tavisi Tavis `sibrZnis moyvarulad~, anu filosofosad mwodebel moazrovnes, Zvel avtorTagan, zogi Talesisa da zogic anaqsimandres mowafeobas, sagulisxmoa, rom msgavs Tu ziar geometriul SexedulebaTa gamo
miawerdnen. piTagorasa da mis mimdevarTa mixedviT, `samyaros
ricxvi marTavs~ da igive ricxvi, anu `yofierebis elementi~,
maTsave azriT, formaTa da ideaTa, anu geometriul wesrigTa
mmarTvelic aris. xolo sawyisi amgvar, formaTa, ideaTa da saganTa simravles, anu samyaros, piTagorelTa warmodgeniT, TviTkmari `monadadan~, TviTWvretisa da ganmeorebadobis Sedegad warmoSobili `diaduri~ gadasvlis (1:2) Sedegad eZleva.
`diada~, romelsac piTagorelebi, erTsa da mravals Soris
gaWril, erTgvar karad miiCnevdnen, swored gardamavli bunebis
gamo, maTive warmodgeniT, ormag funqcias iTavsebs. is _ yofs
da aerTebs, ganizidavs da izidavs, ancalkevebs da aerTianebs.
diaduri gadasvlisas, piTagorelTa geometriuli xedviT,
ori
monaduri sferos centrTa gaziareba xdeba da sferul zedapirTa TanakveTis Sedegad, `Tevzis buStad~ wodebuli figura warmoiSveba. dedobriv wiaRs mimsgavsebuli `Tevzis buSti~, piTagorelebma nayofierebis cnebasTan daakavSires da is, Sobis procesis analogiiT, sulieri ziarebis sibmolur gasasvlelad miiCni-

polisuri sivrce socialuri kosmosi da kosmopolitizmi

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es. swor geometriul figurebad warmodgenili `vizualuri


ricxvebi~, piTagorelTa mixedviT, swored diaduri TanakveTis
wiaRidan unda vlindebodnen.
piTagoras mimdevari da sokrates Tanamedrove maTematikosis, filolaosis azriT, samyaros wyobis, kosmosisa da yoveeli
masSi arsebulis Sedgena, ori ZiriTadi principis, `damsazRvravisa~ da `dausazRvravis~ saSualebiT xorcieldeba. dausazRvravni, filolaosis warmodgeniT, iseT, struqturulad da raodenebrivad ganusazRvrel erTianobebs warmoadgenen, romelTac
tradiciul, miwis, wylis, haerisa da cecxlis materialur elementTa garda, sivrcec da droc miekuTvneba. sazRvars aseT warmonaqmnebs, anu dausazRvravebs, formisa da sxva struqturul
principTa momcveli damsazRvravebi udeben. maTi, dausazRvravisa
da damsazRvravis SeTanadeba-SeTavseba, anda mosaxsvra, spontanurad, SemTxveviTi gziT ki ara, `urTierT morgebiT~, anu maTematikurad aRweradi `harmoniis~ saSualebiT xorcieldeba. samyaros harmoniuli wyoba, filolaosis azriT, swored ricxviT an
ricxvTa TanafardobiT, racioTi Tu proporciiT aRinusxeba.
`da namdvilad asea, ricxvi yovel Secnobil sagans aqvs. mis
gareSe, nebismieri raimes gaazreba an gageba SeuZlebeli iqneboda~ (2, Fr. 4). ricxvi, filolaosis am gamonaTqvamis mixedviT,
epistemologiur, SemecnebiT funqcias atarebs. is, rogorc filolaosis kidev erTi fragmenti (Fr. 5) gvamcnobs, uamrav, Tavad
yoveli sagnis mier miniSnebul an `niSnis mimcem~ formas iRebs.
miniSnebis Tu miTiTebis nimuSad, filolaosi, `musikaluri harmoniis~ magaliTs mouxmobs. musikalur-akustikur rigSi, xmaTa
erToblioba, maTi harmoniuli Tanawyoba Tu Tanaxmianoba, filolaosis mixedviT, mTel ricxvTa TanafardobiT (1 : 4/3 : 3/2 :
2), anu racioTi gadmoicema.
platonma, rogorc diogene laerteli gadmogvcems, filolaosis wigni (`bunebis Sesaxeb~) samxreT italiaSi yofnisas SeiZina da Tavisi `timeosi~, zogierT mweralTa monaWoriT, `...TiTqosda iqidan gadawera~ (1, VIII 7.85). racios, proporcias, anda
berZnuli sityviT, analogias (), platoni `timeossa~ da
sxva naSomebSi, marTlacda xSirad mimarTavs. msgavsad piTagorelebisa, diadur gadasvlas (1:2), platoni, universalur, mravaelmxriv datvirTvas aniWebs, yovelgvari _ alogikuri, Tvisobrivi Tu arsobrivi gardasvla, anda qmnadoba, platonis naazrevSi, swored misi saSualebiT gamoisaxeba. filolaosis mier aRwe-

88

irakli mWedliSvili

rili, `oqtavad~ ukve Semdgom, gacilebiT gvian wodebuli, harmoniuli Tanafardoba ki, platonTan, akustikuris garda, fizikur elementTa (miwis, wylis, haeris, ceclis) da swor geometriul sxeulTa (kubis, ikosaedris, oqtaedris, piramidas) Tanawyobasac esadageba.
proporciuli mimarTebani, platons, gnoseologiur Tu
epistemologiur sferoSic gadaaqvs. codnis, gonierebis (an gagebis), rwmenisa da mimsgavsebis saxiT dayofili SemecnebiTi unarebidan, platonis mixedviT, bolo ori, erToblivad, warmodgenas, anda Sexedulebas (), xolo pirveli ori ki _ azrovnebas () Seadgenen. amaTgan, rogorc platoni `saxelmwifoSi~ ambobs, `...warmodgena, qmnadobasa da azrovneba ki, arss eTanadeba da es mimarTeba proporciiT gamoisaxeba~ (3, 534a). aqve
albaT, isic unda iTqvas, rom msgavsi saxis mimarTebebs, platoni
socialur-eTikuri saxis datvirTvasac aZlevs. dialogSi, `gorgiasi~, sokrate oponentTan kamaTisas (508a ff.) acxadebs, rom
casa da miwas, RmerTebsa da adamianebs, iseTi urTierToba da megobroba aerTianebs, romelic wesierebis, zomierebisa da samarTlianobis formiT vlindeba da rom udidesi Zalmosileba, RmerTebsa da adamianebs Soris, swored `geometriul Tanasworobas~
(anu, igulisxme, analogias) eniWeba...
aristotele `metafizikaSi~ aRniSnavda, rom platonis swavleba, piTagorelebisas, namdvilad waagavs. is srulad Tanxvdeba
maT imaSi, rom ricxvebi yovlis yofierebis mizezs warmoadgenen,
`...magram erTeuli dausazRvravis nacvlad diadis SemoReba da
misi `didisa da mcires~ momcvelis saxiT dafuZneba, damaxasiaTebeli mxolod misTvis aris~ (4, 987 b2327). ase rom, aristoteles damowmebiT, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom platonma filolaosis metafizikuri sistemis ara srulad gadmoReba, aramed misi gadaazreba da gadasworeba moaxdina. aseTi gadaazrebis Tu interpretaciis Sedegad, dausazRvravi imgvar dapirispirebul wyvilad gardaisaxa, romelsac racios, anda analogias damsazRvravi uwesebs.
ufro farTo da zogadi mniSvnelobiT ki, ricxvTa TanafardobiT
warmodgenilma diaduri gadasvlisa da analogiuri mimarTebis
SemoRebam, codnis platonur koncepcias, anda moZRvrebas formaTa (`eidosTa~) Sesaxeb maTematikuri xasiaTi SesZina.
imave klasikur epoqasa da ufro adreul periodSic, racios, anda proporciul mimarTebas, maRali mniSvneloba da saTanado daniSnuleba, filosofiur, metafizikur ganazrebaTa Tu Teo-

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riul warmodgenaTa ganzomilebis gareTac, pragmatul, praqtikul saqmianobaTa da gamoyenebiT-saxelovnebo sferoebSic eniWeboda. filolaosis umcrosi Tanamedrove da gadmocemiT, piTagorelTa mimdevari, moqandake polikletosi, `klasikuri stilis~
brinjaos qandakebebs swored racios Tanaxmad qmnida. misi, `kanonad~ saxeldebuli Teoriuli naSromi (da igive saxelwodebis
qandakeba) adamianis sxeulis srulyofil models, sxeulis nawilTa Tanazomadi wyobis Sesabamisad, `harmoniuli proporciis~
mixedviT adgenda. simetriuli, gawonasworebuli da ritmulad
mwyobri aRnagoba, polikletosis `kanonis~ Tanaxmad, adamianis
neka TiTis umciresi, ganapira falangis zomis proporciulad
ganmeoradobis, anu `geometriuli progresiis~ mixedviT igeba
(racio an Tanafardoba, 1 : 2).
Senobebsa da nagebobebs, adamiani dasabamidan, rogorc C. w.
a.-mde I saukunis, romaeli arqiteqtori, vitruviusi, Tavis aTi
wignisgan Semdgar waSromSi, De architectura aRniSnavs, frinvelTa
da futkarTa msgavsad, bunebrivi masaliT, bunebisave sqtiqiaTagan Tavdacvis mizniT qmnida. Senebis xelovnebis srulyofisaTvis, berZnebma arqiteqturaSi, rogorc vitruviusi gadmogvcems,
proporcia ( _ analogia) da misganve momdinare, simetria
SemoiRes. nebismieri taZris an Senobis proeqtSi, rogorc vitriviusi acxadebs, `...nakveTTa Soris, iseT zust mimarTebas, rogoric kargad aRnagi adamianis SemTxvevaSi gveZleva, simetriisa
da proporciis garda, veraviTari sxva principi ver SemoiRebs~ (5, III-1). da iqve, am nawyvetis Semdeg, vitruviusi, `bunebis umSvenieresi qmnilebis~, adamianis sxeulis sxvadasxva nawilTa zomebis idealur TanafardobaTa CamoTvlas axdens...
samyaroSi arsebuli kosmiuri mowesrigebis Secnobis SesaZleblobis daSveba, anu Teoriul moxilvas, Wvretas Tu kontemplaciasa da garemomcveli sinamdvilis grZnobad aRqmas Soris,
Semecnebis klasikur-berZnuli modelis mixedviT SemoRebuli
analogiuri Sesabamisoba, adamianis sxeuls, gansakuTrebul, sasazRvro Tu gardamaval mdgomareobasa da adgils uwesebda.
aseT, Sesabamisebel Tu SemaTavsebel pirobaTa erTobliobis SemoRebis Sedegad da misganve ganpirobebuli azrobrivi konstruqciis mixedviT, antikuri msoflxedvis Teoriul warmodgenaTa
aqtualur saqmianobaTa sferoSi asaxva-gadasvlaca da praqtikul
unar-CvevaTa gamovlenac, swored sxeulis gavliT, misi saSualebiT unda xorcieldebodes. amitomac, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom im

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drois saazrovno sivrcesa da pragmatul mimarTebaTa velSi,


sxeulisa da sazogadod ki, mentalur-somaturi eerTeulis, adamianis, protagoras sityvebiT rom iTqvas, `yovlis sazomad~ dasaxva, swored rom kanonzomierad xdeboda.
horizontze mdgomi, sasazRvro mdgomareobaSi myofi, yovlis momxilavi adamianis aRorZinebiseuli, `antropocentruli~
modeli, didwilad, `adamiani sazomis~, anda Homo mensura-s antikuri warmodgenidan amodioda. humanistur msoflxedvaze dafuZnebuli renesansuli azrovneba, antikur warmodgenaTa geometriuli xedvis, samyaros mwyobri, analogiur-proporciulad
dasaxsruli modelis aRorZinebas Tu kvlavSeqmnas iswrafoda.
vitruviusis naSromSi mocemuli, adamianis sxeulTan dakavSirebuli, harmoniul TanafardobaTa CamonaTvali, leonardo da vinCis mier, `vitruviuli adamianis~ cnobil naxat-diagramad gardaisaxa. platonTan asocirebul, `oqros kveTis~ Tanafardobas, evklides `sawyisebSi~ Tu `optikaSi~ moxseniebul da kidev sxva,
antikurobidan momdinare proporciebs, aRorZinebis moRvaweTa
ganazrebebSi, gansakuTrebuli adgili mieniWa.
antikur xedvaTa safuZvelze aRZruli renesansis moRvaweTa
inteleqtualuri Ziebani, kulturis, xelovnebisa da mecnierebis
mraval ganxraTa momcvel, maTsave SemoqmedebaSi aisaxa. Senebis
xelovnebasa da arqiteqturas miZRvnili, didi humanistis, leon
batista albertis, 1452 wels gamoqveynebuli wigni, vitruviusis naSromis safuZvelze Seiqmna. xolo arqiteqtor filipo bruneleskis, imave, leon batista albertisa da sagulisxmod, leonardo da vinCis mier, renesansuli xedvisaTvis da evropuli kulturis Semdgomi ganviTarebisaTvis gansakuTrebiT
mniSvnelovani, `centraluri perspeqtivis meTodis~ kvlav an Tavidan Seqmna, vitruviusis wignSi motanil, berZnuli Teatris
`skenografiis~ aRmwer cnobaTa safuZvelze moxda...
yovelive es, mogvianebiT, ukve antikur-klasikuri periodis
Semdgom ganxorcielda. Zveli saberZneTis ufro adreul, winaklasikur periodSi ki, racios, anda geometriul analogias, umeteswilad, `socialuri kosmosis~ momwesrigebeli daniSnuleba
eZleoda. miTosuri msoflxedvis Canacvleba, axali azrovnebis,
anda rogorc aristotele uwodebda, `sibrZnis~ warmoCena, maSin
moxda, roca berZenni, sazogadoebrivi mowyobis sakiTxTa gamo,
zrunvasa da fiqrs miecen. socialur urTierTobaTa arsis amocnobas, mis axsnas, isini imgvarad, iseTi formulis saSualebiT

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Seecadnen, romelic adamianur gagebas eqvemdebareboda. ricxvisa


da zomis raodenobriv warmodgenebs, maT, swored amis gamo mimarTes.
frangi filosofosi, Jan-pier vernani, naSromSi, `ZvelberZnuli azrovnebis warmoSoba~ aRniSnavs, rom mileTelebma gonierebis erTerTi da erTgvari saxeoba, racionalurobis pirveladi
forma Seqmnes. `da Tu homo sapiens _ gonieri adamiani berZenTa xedviT, homo politicus-s _ politikur adamians warmoadgenda,
es niSnavs, rom goni TavisTavad, Tavisi arsiT, politikuri saxiT vlindeboda~ (6, 156). anu, geometriuli xedva, im wina Tu
adreul klasikur etapze, rogorc vernani miiCnevs, fizikuri
samyaros sakvlev miswrafebaTa nacvlad, politikur, polisuri
sivrcis mowesrigebis daniSnulebas miesadaga. Tumca, `sibrZnes~,
gonierebas, anda saazrovno tradicias, rogorc vernani SeniSnavs, aRniSnuli xasiaTi did xans ar gayolia. parmenidedan dawyebuli, berZnuli azrovneba, filosofia, wesrigis arsis, misi
warmoSobisa da SenarCunebis pirobaTa Ziebidan, yofierebisa da
cnobierebis bunebis, maTi urTierTmimarTebis kvlevis sakiTxebze
gadaerTo...
polisuri civilizaciis adreul etapze ki, `sibrZnis~, anu
mowesrigebis axladSeqmnili koncepciis ZiriTad princips, Tanasworoba warmoadgenda. socialuri erToba polisSi, swored am
principis, anu, rogorc berZnebi uwodebdnen, `geometriuli Tanasworobis~ Sesabamisad, proporciul mimarTebaTa mixedviT yalibdeboda. sazogadoebrivi Tanacxovrebis qsovili berZnul polisSi, racionalurad mowesrigebul, sagnobrivi mimocvlis zomad-Tvlad garemosaca da gvarovnul-warmomavlobiT mimarTebaTa
Tanmimdevrulad Camnacvelebel, adamianur urTierTobaTa racionaluradve gawonasworebul anawyobs, moqalaqeTa erTobasac moicavda. kosmiuri harmoniis Tanadi polisuri mowesrigeba, adreuli warmodgeniT, `damfuZnebel mamaTa~ azriT, swored samyaros
mwyobr mimarTebaTa Sesabamis kanonTa ZaliT miiRweoda.
kanons, im drois `naturfilosofiur~ ganazrebaTa Tanaxmad,
yoveli moqalaqis mimarT erTnairi Zalmosileba unda qonoda.
Sesabamisad, yvela moqalaqes, anu urTierTSemnacvlebel yovel
`hoplits~ Tu `polisur atoms~ Tanabar movaleobasTan erTad,
Tanaswori uflebanic unda miniWeboda (rogorc soloni ambobda
_ `Tanasworuflebianoba omebs ar warmoSobs~). amgvarad moazrebul da dadgenil kanonmdeblobas, socialur urTierTobaTa wi-

92

irakli mWedliSvili

aRSi, pirvel brZenTa Tu filosofosTa xedviT, moqalaqeTa Soris analogiuri (proporciuli) mimarTeba unda daemyarebina. wonasworobis, wesrigisa da harmoniis pirobas, aseT socialur
sivrceSi, rogorc platoni ambobda, `uaresisa da ukeTesis Tanaxmianoba~ qmnida.
despotizmis moZule berZeni reformatorebi calsaxad acnobierebdnen, rom polisis moqalaqeTa mier kanonis miReba, misi
aRiareba, daZalebis gziT, morCilebis Tu movaleobis grZnobis
TavsmoxveviT ar unda miRweuliyo. soloni Tvlida, rom sityva
saqmis winaxatia (`sityvebi kanonebsac ki cvlian~) da rom, polisis SuagulSi, sajaro ganxilvisTvis gamofenil marTal sityvas, xalxis neba, adre Tu gvian, kidevac aRiarebda da kidevac
daTanxmdeboda. oTxkuTxa xis svetebze amokveTili kanonebi, solonma agoraze, amitomac gamofina.
pirveli reformatorebi imasac xvdebodnen, rom Zveli, gvarovnuli wes-Cveulebebis, anu `eTosis~ Secvla, sruliad axali
cnobierebis Camoyalibebas saWiroebda. amisaTvis ki, adamianTa miTosuri cnobierebis amorful velSi, anu gasulierebuli samyaros eqstensiurad momcvel warmodgenaTa wiaRSi, maTi azriT,
moqalaqeobrivi xedvis, racionaluri da intensiuri azrovnebis
unaris Canergvac unda momxdariyo. miTosis logosiT Canacvleba
ki, saTanado pirovnul ZalisxmevaTa, imgvar aqtTa aRZvras saWiroebda, romlis aRmocenebac gare, maiZulebeli Tu Tavsmomxvevi
zemoqmedebiT ver moxerxdeboda. aseTi ram, mxolod Sida, sulieri Zalisxmevis, anda mentaluri Zvra-wanacvlebis, saTanado aRzrda-wvrTnisa da ganswavlis Sedegad miiRweoda...
plutarqes gadmocemiT, Savi zRvis Crdilo sanapirodan
aTenSi Camosuli saxelganTqmuli skviTi brZeni, anaxarsisi, aTeneli reformatoris, solonis kanonTa krebuls, erTob undoblad da ironiulad moekida. warmodgena, TiTqosda daweril kanons usamarTlo qmedebaTa, momxveWelobis Jinis Sekaveba SeuZlia, mcdari da warmosaxviTia, radgan, rogorc anaxarsisi ambobda, kanoni obobas qsels gavs _ Raribebi da sustebi SeiZleba
kidevac Seeguon, magram mdidrebi da Zalmosilebi, mas advilad
gaarRveveno. sapasuxod, solons ganucxadebia _ `adamianebi Sepirebebs maSin asruleben, roca maTi darRveva arc erT mxares awyobs. uaryofasa da rRvevaze metad, kanonTa samarTlianad aRiareba ufro xelsayreli rom unda iyos, yvela moqalaqes Tavad
SeuZlia mixvdes da gaigoso~ (7, 5.3).

polisuri sivrce socialuri kosmosi da kosmopolitizmi

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mixvedra da gageba, rogorc aRmoCnda, axal socialur mimarTebaTa, `politesis~, polisuri adamianis Camoyalibebis erTaderT da sakmaris pirobas ar warmoadgenda. grZnobad-gancdiTi
(anu miTosuri) aRqmidan gamocalkevebuli Tu gamonTavisuflebuli, abstraqtuli da racionaluri saxis azrovnebis principi,
marTalia patriarqalur, brZaneblobisa da morCilebis tradicias aRar efuZneboda, magram, arc moqalaqeebs Soris, gvarovnul
Tu ojaxur mimarTebaTa wiaRSi damyarebad, TanacxovrebiTi simyudrovis, urTierTndobisa da siaxlovis emociur bmaTa msgavs
kavSirebs warmoSobda. amitomac iyo, rom pirvelive brZenni, `polisis mamebi~, tradiciuli, sisxlismier naTesaobaze dafuZnebuli cxovrebis wesis ara uaryofas, aramed mis gardasaxvas, gasulierebuli kosmosis analogiuri, emociur-gancdiTi paTosiT gajerebuli polisuri garemos Seqmnas cdilobdnen.
epimenide knososeli (kreteli), rogorc aristotele aRniSnavs, ojaxs `erTi bagadan mWamelebs~ uwodebda. spartaSi, adreve SemoRebuli tradicia, `erToblivi trapezis~ instituti,
rogorc Cans, polisis `erT ojaxad Sekvris~ miswrafebis erTerT gamovlenas warmoadgenda. saerTo keraze momzadebul da
saerTo magidaze gaziarebul sakvebs, kanonmdebelTa warmodgeniT,
moqalaqeTa Soris Tanasworobisa da urTierT ndobis, swored
rom ojaxuris msgavsi mimarTeba unda daemkvidrebina. amgvar RonisZiebaTa Sedegad miRweul, erTgvarovnebisa da Tanasworobis
SegrZnebiT, siaxlovis gancdiTi muxtiT gajerebul polisur
erTianobaSi, moqalaqes, maTi CanafiqriT, `moZmeTa~ mofrTxilebisa da `polisuri ojaxis~ dacvis, maRali da ziari pasuxismgeblobis SegrZnebac unda gaviTareboda...
polisuri saxelmwifos arsis sisxlismier-naTesaur Tu
ojaxur mimarTebaTa principTan Sejereba ufro gviandel, klasikur epoqaSic grZeldeboda. `politikaSi~, aristotele, poliss
dasaxlebaTa gaerTianebis Sedegad warmoqmnil, erTgvar, gansakuTrebuli saxis `did ojaxs~ uwodebs. Tumca, Cveulebriv
ojaxsa da polisur, ijaxismagvar erTianobas, is iqve, mkveTrad
da xazgasmiT ganasxvavebs. erT saxlad mcxovreb ojaxs Tu
komls, aristotele adamianur urTierTobaTa iseT bunebriv warmonaqmnad Tvlis, romelic `...yoveldRiur moTxovnilebaTa dakmayofilebis mizniT warmoiSveba~ (8, 1252b 10-15). xolo saxelmwifo, imave naSromSi gamoTqmuli mosazrebis mixedviT, Tumca ki
sasicocxlo moTxovnilebaTa Ziridan momdinareobs, magram, ara

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mxolod sayofacxovrebo, aramed da upiratesad, `...bednieri da


mSvenieri cxovrebis miRwevis mizniT arsebobs~ (8, 1252b 30).
platonis gadmocemiT, polisuri saxelmwifos srulfasovan
da myar erTianobad Camoyalibebas, sokrate, kanonis ZaliT SemoRebul, naTesauri siaxlovis msgavs gancdaTa saSualebiT imedovnebda. platonis `saxelmwifoSi~ gamoTqmuli, saerTo colebisa
da saerTo Svilebis institutis dafuZnebis sokrateseuli winadadeba Tu proeqti, CanafiqriT, moqalaqeobriv mimarTebaTa gaTanabrebisa da gaerTgvarovnebis pirobaTa Seqmnas unda wadgomoda.
aseTi instituciis dakanonebis SemTxvevaSi, polisur sivrceSi,
sokrates warmodgeniT, yvelasaTvis misaRebi, Tanasworuli da
Zmuri urTierToba unda damyarebuliyo.
iqve, platonis `saxelmwifos~ III wignSi, sokrate kidev
ufro sagulisxmo, sruliad fantastikur da daujerebel winadadebas gmoTqvams. saxelmwifosaTvis yovelgvari siyalbis, gansakuTrebiT ki, poeturi gamonagonisa da Tavad poetebis mavneblad
mimCnevi sokrate, am SemTxvevaSi, polisis mmarTvelebs sruliad
gacnobierebuli da gaazrebuli ideologiuri fiqciis Tu gamonagonis danergvas (da ara dakanonebas) urCevs. Tumca, aseTi ram,
gasakviri da moulodneli arc unda yofiliyo, radgan, cota kidev zemoT (389b ff.), sokrate acxadebda _ mmarTvelebs, mterTan
da sakuTar moqalaqeebTan urTierTobisas, saxelmwifos keTildReobis mizniT, zogjer tyuilis Tqmac marTebTo.
sokrate, am SemTxvevaSi, iseT `keTilSobilur~ Tu `didebul~ sicrueze, anu gamonagonze saubrobs, romelic, misi azriT,
idealuri saxelmwifos mmarTvelTa, mcvelTa da sazogadod, moqalaqeTa saTanado aRzrdis aucilebel pirobas unda warmoadgendes. ukve ganswavlul aRsazrdelebs, rogorc sokrate Tvlis,
unda Caegonos, rom yvelaferi, rac maT swavlebisa da wvrTnis
Sedegad miiRes, TiTqosda dabadebamde, miwis wiaRSi erToblivad
yofnisas SeiTvises. maT, amas garda, isic unda daijeron, rom,
gamozrdisa da wvrTnis Semdeg, yvelani dedamiwisgan iSvnen. amitomac, qveyanas, sadac cxovroben, dedasaviT unda moufrTxilnen
da `...igive miwidan dabadebul TanamoqalaqeebTan _ Zmuri urTierToba unda qondeT~ (3, 414e).
aristotele sokrates am bolo mosazrebas arc pirdapir da arc iribad exeba, Tumca, Zmur-moqalaqeobrivi sazogadoebrivi wyobis mimarT misi uaryofiTi damokidebuleba, am, `keTili ganazraxis~ Tu saxelmwifoebrivi mizanSewonilebis mixedviT

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Seqmnil fiqcia-miTszec, ueWvelia, rom aseve vrceldeba. saerTo


colebisa da saerTo Svilebis sokrateseul sakanonmdeblo proeqts ki, aristotele kritikulTan erTad, ironiiTa da gakvirvebiT moekida _ gana SeiZleba yvela, yvelas Zma, mama an biZaSvili
iyoso?! mxolod kanoniT dadgenili sayovelTao siyvarulis Tu
erTgulebis Zmuri gancda, sabolood, aristoteles azriT, aucileblad mineldeba da gaufasurdeba. amasTan, iqve gamoTqmuli
mokle fraziT, zemo libiis zogierT tomSi saerTo colebi
hyavTo, aristotele, sokrateseuli mosazrebis barbarosuli
wes-Cveulebebisken midrekas Tu maTTan Sesatyvisobasac mianiSnebs...
aristotele platonis geometriul xedvas Tu warmodgenas
Tumca ki ar iziarebda, magram harmoniuli erTianobis damsaxsrav, analogiur-proporciul mimarTebas polisuri mowesrigebis
mTavar da ZiriTad principad, mainc miiCnevda. proporciuli Tanafardoba, aristoteles warmodgeniT, msgavs-Tanaswor moqalaqeTa saqmian urTierTobaTa velsaca da ufleba-movaleobiT mimarTebaTa samarTlebriv sivrcesac awesrigebs (`nikomaxes eTika~).
amas garda, adamianis sulis wyobisa da cnobierebis grZnobad
aRqmasTan kavSiris axsnisas (`sulis Sesaxeb~), aristotele
kvlav analogiur-TanafardobiTi saxis, saxsrul (arTronul) metaforas mimarTavs.
marTalia `adamianuri bunebis~ sammagi (fizikuri, emociuri
da racionaluri) gagebidan yvelaze mniSvnelovnad, aristotele, racionalur-konceptualurs miiCnevs, magram saxelmwifo Tu
socialuri mowesrigebis sakiTxTa ganxilvisas, sakmaod did yuradRebas, is gancdiT mimarTebebs Tu emociur swrafvebsac uTmobs. amitomac aris, rom polisuri saxelmwifos moqalaqeTa Soris, aristotele, ZiriTadi, racionaluri analogiis garda, emociur kavSirTa arsebobis aucilblobasac aRiarebs. emociuri
mimzidvelobis muxti, msgavssa da Tanaswor individTa Soris, megobrul urTierTobas unda warmoSobdes, radgan megobari, ara
gaurkvevel zraxvaTa mqone ucnobi an `ucxo~, aramed, rogorc
aristotele Tvlis, `sxva me~ aris (alter ego-a). amitomac, misi
warmodgeniT, udidesi madli saxelmwifosaTvis, moqalaqeTa Soris damyarebul Zmur urToerTobas ki ara, megobrul damokidebulebas (-s) moaqvs. sokrates mier agrerigad qebuli saxelmwifo erToba ki, `...swored keTilmegobruli urTierTobis
Sedegad miiRweva~ (8, 1262b 5-10).

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Tanasworul-megobruli kavSiri, marTalia, jer mxolod nawilobriv, mcire raodenobis adamianTa, moqalaqeTa Soris myardeboda da amasTan erTad, polisuri wyoba monobis institutsac
inarCunebda, magram samarTliani socialuri wesrigis saocrad maRali SesaZleblobani klasikuri epoqis saberZneTis, swored amgvarma sazogadoebam gamoavlina. polisuri, erTiani da gawonasworebuli samoqalaqo sivrce, idealur wesrigze orientirebul, racionaluri saxis TanafardobaTa Tanaxmadaca da eTikur principTa,
adamianur vnebaTa, fsiqikur Tu gancdiT swrafvaTa gaTvaliswinebiTac igeboda. amasTan, meore, sulieri mimarTeba, emociuri saxis
kavSiri, imave periodis warmodgenaTa mixedviT, ze-wesrigis, harmoniis struqturwarmomqmnel kanonebs uSualod an pirdapir, namdvilad ar eqvemdebareboda. ase rom, antikuri samoqalaqo sivrce
or, goniT da grZnobad sawyisTagan momdinare principTa Tu mimarTebaTa sakmaod myifed morgebul Tanaarsebobas efuZneboda.
erTxel aRqZruli, jer mxolod SezRudul, polisur sivrcesa da mcire raodenobis adamianTa gamwvdomi, Tavisuflebisa
da Tanasworobis moqalaqeobrivi miswrafeba SezRudul areals
didxans ver iguebda... zRvarTa momSleli mosazreba iqve, klasikur epoqaSi gamoiTqva _ `me arc aTeneli da arc berZeni, aramed
msoflios moqalaqe var~. sokrates es fraza, cota mogvianebiT,
cnobilma kinikosma, diogene sinopelma aitaca. SekiTxvas, saidan
xar? _ sabazro moedanze, kasrSi mobinadre diogene, ase pasuxobda _ me samyaros moqalaqe, anu kosmopoliti varo (berZ. +
). dRis sinaTleze, anTebuli farniT, umwikvlo adaminis Ziebis diogeneseuli mcdeloba, SeiZleba unayofodac dasrulda, magram, sokratedan wamosulma, `samyaros moqalaqeobis~ novatorulma azrma Rirseuli memkvidre Tavadve ipova.
aTenis biblioTekaSi, gemis daRupvis Semdeg moxvedrili, finikiuri warmomavlobis vaWari, sokrates cxovrebis Sesaxeb wignidan amokiTxuli ambiT imdenad aRfrTovanda, rom filosofiuri xiblis talRam, misi gancda-goneba, iqve, erTbaSad da
srulad waritaca. ukve Semdeg, kinikos damrigebelTa SemweobiT, filosofiur gansjaTa okeaneSi Rrmad Sesuli es pirovneba,
Turme ikvirvebda _ uiRblo SemTxveviTobam, gemis daRupvam, raoden bednier naosnobas maziarao?! misi saxeli, Zenoni kitionidan,
aTenSi sayovelTaod cnobili, mas mere gaxda, rac mis mierve daarsebulma `stoicizmis~ filosofiurma skolam didi gavlena
moipova.

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polisuri civilizaciis adreul etapze, aTenSi Camosul


skviT brZens, anaxarsiss megobruli urTierTobis damyareba, anu
berZenTa mier misi, ucxoelis, Tanasworad miCnevis Tu aRiarebis
miRweva Zalzed gauWirda. igive diogene laertelis (aseve, plutarqes) gadmocemiT, solonma, damegobrebis winadadebiT karze
momdgar anaxarsiss SeuTvala _ Cveulebriv, megobrebs sakuTar
samSobloSi iZeneno. hoda, samSobloSi myofma solonma megobari
ratom ar unda SeiZinoso?! _ anaxaarsis am, moswrebuli pasuxiT
moxiblulma solonma, mTxovneli saxlSic SeuSva da kidevac daimegobra.
ufro gviandel, elinizmis epoqaSi ki, ukve saxelganTqmulma da sakmao pativiT mosilma Zenonma, aTenelTa Tanaswor wodebaze, moqalaqeobis miRebaze uari ganacxada, radgan, rogorc ambobda _ finikieli Tanamemamuleebi ar minda gavanawyenianoo. safiqrebelia, rom aTenis moqalaqeoba, man ufro Tavisi kosmopolituri kredos gamo uaryo. skviTi brZenis, anaxarsisgan gansxvavebiT, Zenoni Tavs, arc finikielad da arc araaTenelad, anu ucxoelad miiCnevda. sajaro sivrceSi, agoras mimdebare stoas svetebqveS moqadage Zenons, `samyaros moqalaqeobis~ mrwamsuli koncepcia, sityvebTan erTad, qmedebiTac unda
daedasturebina. stoikosebisaTvis xom nebismieri, polisuri Tu
sxva saxis warmonaqmni, ufro maRali da yovlisgamwvdomi erTobis, `RmerTTa da adamianTa didi qalaqis~, universumis arasrul
asls warmoadgenda...
elinur garemoSi, finikielTa kviprosul diasporaSi aRzrdili, aTenSi mcxovrebi da iqve moRvawe Zenonis cnobierebas,
Tundac mxolod biografiul winapiroba-garemoebaTa gamo, sakuTari `me~, swored rom, polisurze ufro farTo erTobisaTvis
unda miekuTvnebina. aleqsandre makedonelis imperiis memkvidre
saxelmwifoTa sivrceSi, berZnul da aRmosavlur kulturaTa
sinkretuli SeTanadebis arealSi, msgavsi ganwyoba Tu xedva, rogorc Cans, mraval moazrovne adamians Camouyalibda. amitomac
iyo, rom stoikosTa msoflxedvas, elinizmis epoqis TiTqmis yvela saxelmwifos mmarTveli elita iziarebda.
mraval xalxTa da kulturaTa momkreb romaul meboZirzec
igive xdeboda _ stoicizmi aqac elitur wreTa kuTvnilebas
warmoadgenda (seneka, katon umcrosi, markus avreliusi...). mankier vnebaTa ugulvelmyofi goniTi ZalisxmeviT, srulyofili da
uSfoTveli arsebobis miRwevis eTikuri gza, stoikosuri cxov-

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rebis wesi, sayovelTao aRiarebas verc sakuTari, baZvis aRmZvreli mimzidvelobiTa da verc Zalmosilebis, anu `imperiumis~ ganmavrcob, komunikaciaTa romauli qselis saSualebiT miaRwevda.
axali, rogorc Semdgom warmoCnda, masiurad mimzidveli da misaRebi religiuri saxis msoflxedva, ianusur RiobTa, ormxrivad
gamWol gzaTa Semyrel qalaqSi, swored periferiidan aRZrulma
ukudinebam miitana.
romis Soreul da ganapira provinciaSi, iudeaSi, axali religiuri gancdis Sesabamisi, marTlac rom gasaocari msoflxedva
aRmocenda. iudevelTa Soris im dros gamefebuli aSlilobis daZlevas, aRreul gonTa orive saxis, kolaboracionistur da meamboxur ganwyobaTa Secvlasa da adamianTa Soris sruliad gansxvavebuli gancdis damkvidrebas, ieso nazareTeli Seecada. amqveyniuris
miRma arsebuli absoluturi sawyisisken momiznuli, xsnisa da gadarCenis gzis damdgeni Zalisxmeva, qristes qadagebaTa mixedviT,
aqtualur qmedebaTa sinamdvileSi ki ara, pirovnul, sulier ganzomilebaSi unda xorcieldebodes. WeSmariti Tavisuflebisken
svlis gezs, rogorc qristem Tanamemamuleebi da kacobrioba damoZRvra, RmerTis madlis mimRebi yoveli adamiani, Tavisufali nebis swori arCevanis mixedviT unda miyvebodes. magram qristes mowodeba, maSin, im dros, mimdevarTa mcire jgufis garda, arc Tanamemamuleebma da arc ucxotomelebma Seismines...
sruliad avtonomiur adamianur nebasa da masTanve dakavSirebul arCevanis princips, qristianul msoflxedvaze adre stoikosebic aRiarebdnen. Rirseuli cxovrebis wesi, zneobrivi da
inteleqtualuri srulyofileba, maTi warmodgeniT, mtanjvel
da damTrgunav pirovnul vnebaTa uarmyofeli, goniTi gansjis
wyalobiT miiRweva. siyvarulisa da Tanalmobis gamomvleni, `TavSi Cadebul da gulze daweril~ RmerTis mcnebaTa matarebeli
adamianis qristianuli modelisgan gansxvavebiT, pirovnuli arsebobis Rirebuleba, adamianuri Rirseba da siqvele, stoikosTa
SexedulebiT, mxolod goniT SesaZleblobaTa Sesabamisad, nebis
Zalmosilebisa da swori cxovrebis wesis arCevis unaris mixedviT fasdeba.
goniT sferos ki, stoicizmi logikuri gansjis SesaZleblobasTan erTad, bunebriv procesTa gagebis, `logosis~ wvdomis
unarsac miakuTvnebda. `logosi~ anu universaluri goni, stoelTa mixedviT, yoveli arsebulis, sulierisa da usulos gamWoli
da ganuyreli Semadgenelia. faqizi logosuri substancia, indi-

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vidualuri da zogad-kosmiuri mowesrigebis aqtiuri da qmnadi


principis matarebeli Zalis Tu sxeulovani warmonaqmnis, `cecxlovani airis~, `pneumas~ (-s) saSualebiT ganivrcoba. inertuli materiis momwesrigebeli Zalis, pneumas umaRlesi
forma, stoelTa mixedviT, RvTaebrivi sulis nawils Tu fragments, adamianur sulsac warmoSobs...
logosuri ganvrcobis principidan momdinare stoikosuri
warmodgena, klasikur-antikur koncepciebs ormxrivad dascilda.
logosuri mowesrigebis qveS, geometriul formaTa swor wyobas, stoikosebi SeiZleba kidevac gulisxmobdnen, magram proporciul mimarTebas, maTi msoflxedva, sruliad ganze tovebda. analogia, anda racio, stoelTa xedviT, arc warmaval sinamdvilesa
da wesrigis transcendentur ganzomilebas Soris moiazreboda
da arc socialur garemos, adamianTa erTobas esadageboda. goniT
Wvretadi dasaxsvris nacvlad, samyaros stoikosur warmodgenaSi, `pneumas~ sxeulovani ganvrcoba-gamWola da logosuri bediswera batonobda. meore mxriv ki, damTrgunav vnebaTa Tu paTosTa
ugulvelmyofi stoikosuri miswrafeba, moqalaqeTa Soris emociur-gancdiTi siaxlovis mniSvnelobas, SeiZleba uneburadac, magram mainc akninebda.
Tu erTiani da sayovelTao sulis gamovlena, rogorc stoelebi Tvlidnen, yvela adamianSi xdeba, maSin Zmuri siyvaruli Tu megobruli damokidebuleba sazogadoebrivi Tanacxovrebis
zneobriv safuZvels, swored bunebis kanonTa Tanaxmad da Sesabamisad unda qmnides. logosis, anu bediswerisa da erTiani universumis nawilis, `adamianuri bunebis~ ganazrebiTi wvdoma, stoikosTa CanafiqriT, yovelgvar, gvarovnul, eTnikur Tu sxva saxis erTobaTa, pirobiT da viwro farglebs gamcden, kosmiuri
gaqanebis pirovnebaTaSoris mimarTebas unda ayalibebdes. magram destruqciul, damangrevel da mtanjvel vnebaTa uarmyofeli, cxovrebiseul siameTa mimarT indiferentuli, maTi aradmimCnevi stoikosuri ganwyoba, adamianTa Sorisul, gancdiT kavSirTa warmoSobis SesaZleblobas arsobrivad gamoricxavda. amitomac, stoicizmis kosmopolituri miswrafeba, sayovelTao siaxlovisa da urTierSemweobis damkvidrebis misive mcdeloba, sinamdvileSi, ganuxorcielebel, vnebagamoclil, cariel da formalur mowodebad rCeboda.
`kosmopolitizmi mxolod Wkuis nayofia, adamianis keTilgonierebisa, mas adamianis gulTan saqme ar aqvs...~. vaJas es gamo-

100

irakli mWedliSvili

naTqvami sruliad sxva konteqsts, sxva drosa da sxva socialur sinamdviles esadageboda, Tumca ki, cnebis zogad arsobrivi da rogorc sakacobrio gamocdileba cxadyofs, marad Tanamdevi Tvisobriobis gamovlenas, sworedac rom zustad axdenda. keTili ganazraxiT Tu keTilgonierebiT nakarnaxebi `Wkuis nayofi~, misi Tvalsawieri, uxilav, gonis TvaliT danaxul, sakacobrio gaqanebis erTianobas, TiTqosda moicavs kidevac, magram iqve,
gverdiT mdgar `sxvas~, uaxloes moyvass, Zalze xSirad, mxedvelobis aredan kargavs...1
axalevropul saazrovno sivrceSi, stoikosur msofxedvasTan Zalze daaxloebul koncepciaTa, ukve saukuneTa Semdgomi
kvlavaRmoceneba, `adamianuri bunebis~ fizikur samyarosTan mimarTebis ormag gagebaTa aRrevas SeiZleba mieweros. bunebis mowesrigebuli suraTi, romelic evropeli adamianis cnobierebaSi
axali samecniero aRmoCenebis Sedegad
Camoyalibda, stoikosTa
erTiani universumis warmodgenas, marTlacda emsgavseboda. xolo, geografiul aRmoCenaTa Sedegad gamovlenil, mravalferovan
da eTno-kulturulad gansxvavebul adamianur modgmaTa, erTian
kacobriobad moazrebis axalevropul miswrafebas, sakmao siaxlove stoelTa kosmopolitizmTan, namdvilad qonda.
klasikur-antikuri warmodgenebidan gamoxmobili da axalevropul `mecnierul meTodTan~ SeTanadebuli, racionalisturi, maTematikurad mwyobri saazrovno hipoTeza, XVIII saukunis
gamnanaTlebluri suliskveTebis msoflxedvam, fizikuri samyaros
garda, adamianur, sazogadoebriv mimarTebaTa sferos gamwdomadac
miiCnia. fenebad Tu klasebad racionalurad danawevrebuli sazogadoebrivi anawyobis, misi matriculi modelis sayovelTao marTebulobis Tu vargisianobis, XIX-XX saukuneebis mecnieruli
ier-saxis socialur moZRvrebebSi damkvidrebul rwmenas, anu
globaluri, kosmopolituri gaqanebis miswrafebas, `erTaderTad
WeSmariti da swori xedvis mflobeli~, TiTqmis yvela ideologia iziarebda.
zogadsakacobrio momcvelobis socialur moZRvrebaTa yoveli, mecnierulad mwyobri saxis ideologia, klasikuri antikurobidan momdinare, polisuri erTianobis pirobaTa, anu civilizaciis ganmapirobebel principTa SenarCunebas, swored sayovelTao, `kosmopolituri solidarobis~ virtualuri ganzomilebis
SemoRebis xarjze cdilobda. polisis namdvili da konkretulqmediTi infrastruqturisa da misive, garkveulad da uSualod

polisuri sivrce socialuri kosmosi da kosmopolitizmi

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`xelSesaxeb~ moqalaqeTa krebulis erTianad damsaxsravi analogiuri principis nacvlad, ideologiur konstruqciaTa rwmunebiTi Zalmosileba, ufleba-movaleobaTa Tanasworuli ganfenis,
TiTqosda `bunebriv~, TavisTavad, magram arsobrivad fuye, mimdinare qmnadobidan cTomil, sruliad ganyenebul koncepcia-simulakrums efuZneboda.
iseve rogorc yoveli simulakrumis damajerebloba, ideologiaTa zeobis xana, maTi Zalmosileba, efemeruli, dRemokle
aRmoCnda. `ideologiaTa dasrulebas~, anda maTsave post-modernul daqucmacebas Tu dispersias, im, `dausazRvrav~, bunebrivstiqiur da adamianur-paTosur destruqciul ZalTa borgva da
SfoTi moyva, romelTa polisur kalapotSi moqcevas, anda `dasazrRvras~ Tanamedrove civilizaciis sawyisTa Semqmneli, antikuri periodis moazrovneni `sibrZnis~ saSualebiT cdilobdnen.
Tumca, aqve isic unda iTqvas, rom mimdinare, globaluri ganzomilebis problemaTa wnulis Tu xlarTis gamogeba, mxolod kosmiuri harmoniis Tanadi `sibrZnis~, polisuri analogiis saSualebiT veRar moxerxdeba.
sinaTlis siCqareze amoqmedebulma Tanamedrove teqnologiebma, bolo dromde Cveuli da sarwmuno warmodgenis, dro-sivrceSi ganfenili samyaros aRnagoba, imdenad Sekveca, imdenad SeamWidrova, rom zogi moazrovne, `sivrcis gaqrobaze~, anu yvelafris manZilTa gareSe, mxolod axla, `cocxal droSi~ mimdinareobaze alaparakda. aseTi, myisieri ganvrcoba-wvdomis sasicocxlo garemo, aqtualur movlenaTa moZalebiT uaRresad wnexili sinamdvile, SeiZleba `SemWidroebis~ mesame etapadac iqnas
miCneuli. Tu asea, maSin urbanul arealTa SemWidroebis gziT
ganviTarebadi, axal fazaSi Sesuli civilizacia, rogorc Cans,
momwesrigebeli `sibrZnis~ axlidan gadaazrebas saWiroebs. marTalia sinamdvilem, garemomcvelma samyarom gardasaxva ganicada,
magram marad cvalebad garemo-pirobaTa da gamowvevaTa pirispir,
erTi-erTze niadag mdgomi, mxolod Tavisi Tavis imedze myofi
adamianis mdgomareoba, sakuTari adgilis Ziebis, misive egzistenciuri miswrafebis xasiaTi, kvlav ucvleli rCeba. ase rom, momwesrigebel pirobaTa ganWvretis, `sibrZnis~ maZieblobis movaleoba da pasuxismgebeloba, misi simZime da tvirTi, isev da kvlav,
samyaros gumbaTs titaniviT Sebjenil adamians, mis yovlisgamwdom goniT unars awveba.

irakli mWedliSvili

102

Tuki kosmiuri harmoniis Tanadi antikuri modeli, moqalaqeze, rogorc qvakuTxedze damyarebul mowesrigebas, zomadTvlad dasaxsvrasa da sulier, emociur-gancdiT morgebasac iTvaliswinebda, xolo momdevno, qristianuli paradigma, `RvTis
qalaqis~ WeSmaritebisken goniTa da guliT mswrafi adamianis
warmodgenas amkvidrebda, Semdgomi, klasikuri humanizmi ki, gare,
varskvlavovani zecisa da Sida zneobriv kanonTa gasaocar erTianobaSi mWer adamians moixilavda, axal xedvaTa anawyobic, darwmunebiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom kvlav imave RerZis, anu adamianuri arsebis, misi mentalur-somaturi nawevaris gaswvriv Camoyalibdeba. kerZod, SeiZleba gamoiTqvas varaudi, rom dasasaxsr mimarTebebs, albaT, fenomenTa axali, `antropuli faqtoris~ gamTvaliswinebeli ganzomilebac Seemateba...
Lliteratura
1. Diogenes
Laertius.
Lives
of
Eminent
Philosophers.
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3atext%3
a1999.01.0258
2. Philolaus of Croton. Fragments.
http://www.philosophy.gr/presocratics/philolaus.htm
3. Plato.Republic.
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3atext%3a19
99.01.0168
4. Aristotle. Metaphysics.
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3atext%3a19
99.01.0052
5. Vitruvius. The Ten Books on Architecture.
http://www.gutenberg.org/files/20239/20239-h/29239h.htm#Page_69
6. .-. .
http://sno.pro1.ru/lib/ver/index.htm
7. Plutarch. Solon.
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3atext%3a20
08.01.0063
8. Aristotle. Politics.
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3atext%3a19
99.01.0058

maka saxuria
`vefxistyaosnis ~xuTi
qalaqis semiotika
mxatvruli
teqstis
qronotopi
erT-erTi umTavresi esTetikuri kategoriaa, romelic teqstis dekodirebaSi
gvexmareba. "vefxistyaosanSi", rogorc
alegoriul, mistificirebul, ezoTeruli sulierebis matarebel poemaSi, dro
da sivrce mTlianad miTologizebulia.
poemis siuJeti da koliziebi, zedrouli da zesivrculia, qalaqebi simboluralegoriuli sivrceebia, romelTa semiotika poemis ideuri da saxeobrivi qsovilis bevr saidumlos gvimxels.
mravalferovan sivrceebs Soris aq
umTavresi xuTi qalaqia: tarielis da
avTandilis samefo qalaqebi, romlebic
erTmaneTis msgavsia yovelmxriv, saidumloebebiT moculia da maT saxelebsac
ar arqmevs rusTveli. iqidan iwyeba samyaros
gakeTilSobileba,
kacobriobis
xsna, renesansul fazaSi gadasvla, adamianuri unarebis da sulierebis umaRles
registrSi ayvana.
aseve gamorCeulia sami qalaqi:
mulRazanzari, gulanSaro da qajTa qalaqi. es xuTi qalaqi erTi gzaa, erTi,
uwyveti siuJeturi xazia, romelTan erTadac poemis umTavres ideas esxmis
xorci.
mulRazanzari centria, saidanac poemis mTavari siuJeturi xazis kvanZis

104

maka saxuria

gaxsna iwyeba da am gzas gulanSaromde, fatmanis qalaqamde mivyavarT. es ferad-feradi vaWarTa qalaqi nestanis - anu kosmiuri
sikeTis mxsneli da mfarvelia. xolo qajTa qalaqi ganasaxierebs
kacobriobis bneli, dafaruli, boroti Zalebis sauflos.
"vefxistyaosnis" mistika am xuT qalaqSi iSleba mTeli sisavsiT. avtorma umniSvnelovanesi datvirTva SesZina im simboloebs, romlebic am qalaqebis samyaros maxasiaTebelia. poemis miTopoeturi samyaros yvela gasaRebi am qalaqebis karebTan unda
veZioT.
imisTvis, rom poemis qalaqebis semiotikur maxasiaTeblebze
da maT mxatvrul funqciaze visaubroT, SesavalSive unda gaviazroT poemis miTopoeturi samyaros ZiriTadi plastebi. rusTvelis mizani iyo renesansuli azrovnebis miwodeba mkiTxvelisTvis, idealebisa da modelebis Seqmna, adamianuri SesaZleblobebis srulqmnilebis zRvris Cveneba. am mizniT man daxata zRapruli qveynebi da personaJebi. rogorc wesi, mxatvruli teqstis
ideebis realizacia xdeba gmirebsa da dro-sivrcul modelebSi.
arabi da indoeli wyvilebi asaxiereben kacobriobis inovaciur
xedvas, koleqtiuri azrovnebidan gamosvlas da pirovnebis individualizmisken swrafvas. nestani-tarielis wyvili amaRlebulis
esTetikur ideals ganasaxierebs. nestanis gza indoeTidan qajeTis sibnelemde gvaCvenebs models imisas, Tu ra elis keTil
arss, mesianur substancias, xolo tarielis gza nestanis saZieblad mSobliuri qalaqidan qajTa Semusvramde, misi zRva-zRva
xetiali, devTa gamoqvabulis dapyroba da iq TviTCaRrmaveba, meditacia, nagleji TmebiT xevis amovseba (gavixsenoT bibliuri
glovis Rele, igive patmosis Walaki), sakuTari Tavis Secnoba
glovasa da TviTgvemaSi da ezoTeruli sibrZnis dagroveba, rasac metaforulad ganasaxierebs ormoci oTaxis Tval-margaliti,
romelsac nestanis gamoxsnis mere tarieli yvelas urigebs, magram am ganZeuls araferi akldeba, vinaidan is ara materialuri,
aramed tarielis mier dagrovili sulieri saunjea, gvaCvenebs
adamianuri arsis srulyofil wrebrunvas amaRlebidan dacemamde
da sakuTari Tavis ZiebiT, uflis SecnobiT aRdgoma-amaRlebamde.
avTandilis da tarielis qalaqebi is idealuri kosmosia,
romelmac civilizebul kacobriobas megzuroba unda gauwios. maT
saxelebic ki ar hqviaT, isini mistiur saidumlos da filosofiuri WeSmaritebis Ziebas ganasaxiereben. arabeTi Zlevamosili da
laRi samefoa, mefe rostevani ganasaxierebs mefur Rirsebas da

vefxistyaosnis xuTi qalaqis semiotika

105

samarTlianobas, magram gamefda TinaTini, romelsac mamis mier


miRweuli ar akmayofilebs, icis, rom progresis gza ucxo moymis
saidumloze gadis. amitom piraduls satrfosTan erTad nestanis
Ziebis samsxverploze debs. es gza iwyeba avTandilis qalaqidan,
romelic mxolod erTi strofiT ixateba vrceltanian poemaSi:
qalaqi hqonda magari sazarod sanapirosa, / gare klde iyo, giambob zRudesa uqviTkirosa... (rusTveli 2014; 48)
es kldovani zRude qalaqis forpostia, klde metaforaa
uflis WeSmaritebis da sulieri energiis. avTandils arabeTis
dedaqalaqidan Tavis qalaqamde 20 dRe unda evlo. ocs vefxistyaosanSi gansakuTrebuli okulturi datvirTva aqvs. am ricxvidan modis qarTuli zmna ga-oc-eba, rac saidumlos, sakvirvelis, idumalis mniSvnelobas atarebs. 20 dRis savali mfrinavi
raindisTvis imas mianiSnebs, rom arabeTi uzarmazari samefoa, gasaocari. davakvirdeT am epizods: oc dRe iara, Rameca dRes zeda wahrTo mravali, / igia lxini soflisa, igia nivTi da vali...
(rusTveli 2014; 48)
tarielis qalaqi vefxistyaosani Wabukis sulieri simSvidis,
xsnis, Tavdajerebulobis, meditaciis alagia. es qalaqi mistiuri
saufloa, mas saxeli ar hqvia, is rusTvelis is mikrokosmosia,
romelic simbolurad makrokosmoss ganasaxierebs. is tarielis
mamis, saridanis, umaRlesi patriotuli TviTSegnebis simboloc
aris. saridanma erovnuli mTlianobis ideis samsxverploze dado
piradi ambiciebi da indoeTi gaamTliana. es qalaq-saxelmwifo indoeTis simtkicis zRude iyo. es iyo keTildReobis, sinaTlis da
silaRis qalaqi. aq Tvalmargalits oqros jamebiT awvdian saCuqrad, rogorc tarielma miarTva asmaTs. nestanis siyvaruliT dabnedil tariels satrfos sasaxleSi wola Trgunavda da natrobda sakuTar saxls... gaxelebuli mijnuri xSirad imeorebs aseT
frazebs: Cemsa mive, Cemsa davje, Seve, davje taxtsa zeda,
dResa erTsa sawols move, sawols Semove, Sina move, saxlsa Cemsa mimawvine... Seve, davje nadimadve... tarieli Sav-wiTel
droSas aRmarTavs... Sav-TeTr-wiTeli feris sknelebis da cxenebis
miTosuri simbolika gvaCvenebs, rom Sav-wiTeli droSa ganasaxierebs Suasknelis da qvesknelis flobas indoeTis mier, xolo
zesknelis naTlis mopoveba dakavSirebulia nestanis saxelTan...
tarielis narativebSi uamravjer gameorebuli Sina move miuTiTebs imaze, rom tarielis qalaqi ar aris ubralo alagi, aramed
SemecnebisaTvis miuRweveli anu transcendenturi centria. tarie-

106

maka saxuria

li gansakuTrebul yuradRebas aqcevs qalaqebis da sasaxleebis


aRweras. magaliTad, nestanis koSks is ase zRaprul ferebSi xatavs: mefeman koSki aago, Sigan sayofi qalisa, / qvad fazari
sxda, kubo dga iagundisa, lalisa, / pirsa baRCa da sabanlad saraji vardis wyalisa... an kidev: sra edga mofardaguli oqsinoTa da SardiTa... anac: dRe da Rame mujamriTa ekmeodis alva
Tlili... (rusTveli 2014; 335) amgvari hiperbolebiT daxatuli
sasaxle, rasakvirvelia, aris samoTxe, qalRmerTis sacxovrebeli,
alva samoTxis xea da misi nelsurneleba yvelgan aris uflis metafora... tarieli nestanze ambobs: mun izrdebodis taniTa, gabaons ganazardiTao... gabaoni samoTxea, palestinis erT-erTi adgili, sadac lamazi naZvi icoda, savaraudod, libanis naZvi, romelic bibliaSi simboloa samarTlianobisa (marTali, viTarca finiki aRyvavdes da viTarca naZvi libanisa ganmravldes - fsal.
91,13) ... nestani xom RvTaebriv samarTlianobas ganasaxierebs?! qajeTis cixidan gamogzavnil werilSi is satrfos swored am samarTlianobaze eubneba: can, samarTali marTali gulisa gulsa
miva rad (rusTveli 2014; 372) an xvarazmSas Zis Tavidan moSorebaze nestani ambobs: qmna marTlisa samarTlisa xesa Seiqms
xmelsa nedlad... (rusTveli 2014; 104)
or rainds nestanis Ziebis gzaze aTvlis wertilad mulRazanzari eguleba. am qalaqs tarieli maSin ewvia, roca ukve nestanis povnis yvela imedi gadaewura. Tu tarielis da avTandilis qalaqebi zesknelis sivrceebia, mulRazanzari Suasknelis,
simbolurad wiTeli feris, miwieri sikeTis da mSvenierebis gansaxierebaa. nuradin-fridoni, marTalia, Zalian momxibvleli raindia, magram avTandilTan da tarielTan is ver miva. roca sami
raindi erTad midis, rusTveli maTze ambobs - orni mzeni, erTi
mTvare... nuradini Tavis qalaqs ase acnobs tariels: mulRazanzaris qalaqi, axlos me maqvso romeli... / ese sazRvari Cemia,
sada xar gardamxdomeli, / cota maqvs, magra yovelgniT sikeTemiuwvdomeli... (rusTveli 2014; 178)
simbolur-alegoriuli poemis toposi Tavadac am xasiaTisaa
da is
poetis Tavisufali SemoqmedebiTi fantaziis nayofia.
fridoni ki ambobs, rom misi qalaqi cotaa, magram tarieli
moxiblulia am qalaqis siturfiT, xalxis temperamentiT, humanizmiT, rac rusTveluri hiperboliT Zalze sainteresod ixateba. tarielis danaxvaze mulRazanzarelebi pirsa ixokdes, gahyrides naxoksa, viT nafotasa, / exveodian, hkocnian xrmalsa da

vefxistyaosnis xuTi qalaqis semiotika

107

salte-kotasa, (rusTveli 2014; 179) xolo am turfa da mdidari qalaqis macxovrebelTa sakvirvel simdidreze mianiSnebs
tarielis fraza: yvelasa tansa emosa zarqaSi ganazidari, anu
oqromkediT naqargi oqrocurvili farCeuloba. oqrosferi xom
vefxistyaosnis ferTa simbolikaSi mefuri didebis da keTildReobis gamomsaxvelia?! am didebis kulminaciaa tarielis da
fridonis erToblivi ZalisxmeviT fridonis mosisxle biZa-ZeTa
damarcxeba da dabeWdil saWurWleTa mopoveba. msgavsi saWurWleni mudam metaforulia vefxistyaosanSi da sulier sikeTeebs da samyaros filosofiur gaazrebas ganasaxierebs. omidan gamarjvebiT mobrunebul raindebs qalaqSi ajabis mqmnelni anu mefokuseebi xvdebian, magram xalxis yuradRebas isini mxolod raindebis dabrunebamde ipyroben, xolo tarielis da fridonis gamoCenis Semdgom moqalaqeTa zari Cnda, rome zmidian, anu mulRazanzari zanzarebs. fonetikur-evfoniur planSi es toponimi
mudam amgvar asociacias iwvevda CemSi: mulRazanzari azanzarebs
qajeTs. am qalaqSi moipoveba yvelaferi qajTa Sesamusravad.
gza mulRazanzaridan gulanSarosken, vardebis qalaqisken, midis. fridonma zustad icis, rom Tu sadme nestanis saidumlo
ecodinebaT, es vardebis qalaqia, zRvaTa samefos, anu kunZulovani
saxelmwifos dedaqalaqi. marTalia, ar vemxrobi poemis tiponimTa
realur geografiul sivrceebSi Ziebas, magram zRvaTa samefos
prototipuli xati Tanamedrove seiSelis kunZulebs magonebs. seiSelis kunZulebis realoba acocxlebs fatman-xaTunis feradi da
umdidresi qalaqis Sveba-siameT. am mosazrebas ar aqvs aranairi
mecnieruli mignebis pretenzia. wminda subieqturi emocia da asociaciaa. aTi Tvis savalze gadaWimuli qveyana uzarmazari da uzrunvelia. vaWarTa qalaqi aris savse turfiTa mravliTa. xolo
1075-e strofSi aRwerili gulanSaro TiTqos Tanamedrove seiSelis dedaqalaqi viqtoriaa: aqa mosvliTa gaymdebis, kacica iyos
berebi, / sma, gaxareba, TamaSi, niadag ars simRerebi, / zamTar da
zafxul sworad gvaqvs yvavili ferad-ferebi... (rusTveli 2014;
310) samyaros yvelaze turfa nivTebi da ambebi Tavs fatman-xaTunTan iyrian. fatmani, nestanisTvis dedisa mjobi deda, am qalaqSi sulier sazrdos ver poulobs. aseTi simdidre da vaWruli cxovrebis wesi, sulmokleoba da miwierebasTan mijaWvuloba
mas saSinlad Trgunavs da depresiaSi agdebs. fatmani zizRiT ixseniebs Tavis qmars, vaWarTuxuces usens, romelic, rogorc sxva
vaWrebi, aris cqafi, uwrfeli, mstromeli.

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maka saxuria

fatmani jer nestanis da mogvianebiT avTandilis danaxvisTanave mixvda, ras eZebda, amitom maTi uSurveli mxevali gaxda. WaSnagirTan mxolod imitom sayvarlobda, rom is garegnulad lamazi
iyo, magram, vinaidan am WabukisTvis ucxo iyo rainduli Rirseba,
fatmanma iolad gaimeta. semiotikuri niSan-simboloebi uaRresad
sainteresoa gulanSaros daZabul koliziebSi: magaliTad, WaSnagiris saxli. erTi SexedviT umniSvnelo detalebSi Rrma ideaa Caqsovili. umdidresi saxli ugemovnod iyo nagebi, razec migviTiTebs ferTa simbolika, Seuxamebeli, ugemovno, dauxvewavi. wiTelmwvane
qviT nagebi saxli patronis mdabiur bunebas amxelda:
zRvis pirsa saxli nagebi dga qviTa wiTel-mwvaniTa, / qveSeTke
sriTa turfiTa, kvla zedaT banis-baniTa, / didrovaniTa turfiTa,
mravliTa TanisTaniTa... (rusTveli 2014; 322)
vfiqrob, fatman-xaTunma vaWarTa qveynis gakeTilSobilebis
gzaze umniSvnelovanesi misia Seasrula. tarielic amas eubneba
meliq-surxavs, rom qajeTi maT unda gadaeceT im rolisa da
damsaxurebisTvis, romelic fatman-xaTunma Seasrula nestanis
xsnisTvis. fatmanma misca nestans oqros qamari Tval-margalitebiT, romelTa Soris TiTo TiTo qalaqs iyidda. welze Sertymuli qamari simtkicis da rwmenis simboloa, xolo margalitebi filosofiuri Ziebis. nestani swored am qamarma da margalitebma
ixsna xadumebisgan.
qajTa buneba fatmanma dauxata avTandils wvrilad, xolo
qajTa qalaqi samyaros yvelaze amaRelvebel satrfialo baraTSi,
nestanis mier qajeTis cixidan tarielisadmi gamogzavnil werilSia aRwerili:
cixes vzi ezom maRalsa, Tvalni Zliv gardaswvdebian,
gza gvirabiTa Semova, mcvelni mun zeda dgebian,
dRisiT da RamiT moymeni nobaTsa ar dascdebian,
maTTa SembmelTa dahxocen, marT cecxlad moedebian.(rusTveli 2014; 371)
cixis galavani da gvirabi qajTa qalaqs miuvals da auRebels xdis. gvirabs bevri, anu aTi aTasi, mcveli icavs. cixis
kldovan galavans ki, romelsac sami kari hqonda, sam-sami aTasi,
anu sul 9 aTasi moyme icavda. sul qalaqis Sesasvlels 19 aTasi mcveli hyavda. qajebi, marTalia, borotebis msaxurni iyvnen,
magram maT hqondaT unikaluri codna, iyvnen jadoqrebi, alqimikosebi, yovlisSemmecnebelni. vfiqrob, es codna da suliereba
simbolurad gamoixateba qajeTis damxobis Semdeg raindebis mier

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iqidan gamotanili ganZeuliT. sami aTasi jorkidebuli margaliti da Tvalebi, Tvali yvelai daTlili, iagundi da lalebi. es
yovlad warmoudgeneli simdidre metaforulad gamoxatavs qajTa
codnas samyaros Semecnebis Sesaxeb da raindebma boroteba am
codnisgan ganaiaraRes, aarTves maT es uZleveli Zala da samoci
meomari datoves damarcxebuli qajeTis mcvelad. sami oci sakraluri ricxvia. tariels da mis megobrebs sul samasi meomari
hyavdaT. samasi meomris simbolika farTod aris gavrcelebuli
msoflio mwerlobaSi. samasidan as ormoci daiRupa cixis aRebisas da as samoci gadarCa. as samocidan samoci datoves qajTa
qalaqSi da asi anu srulqmnileba, gamTlianeba isev wamoiyoles
ukan. Tval-margaliti fatmans gadasca tarielma, xolo qalaqi meliq-surxavs anu qajTa mistiuri codna gadaeca maT, visac es
yvelaze metad sWirdeboda - vaWrebs, sulierebisgan daclil,
msubuqi cxovrebis wess da gancxromas SeCveul sazogadoebas.
raindebis mier Selewili sami kari, daxocili mcvelebis
gorebi, xvrelSi gaZroma iyo nestanis gamoxsnis da mTvaris gvelisgan gaTavisuflebis miTosuri plastebiT nasazrdoebi narativi. es ambavi poemis umTavresi - borotebis damarcxebis ideis
realizaciaa. nestanis ZiebaSi gavlili gza avTandilis da tarielis qalaqebidan mulRazanzaris da gulanSaros gavliT qajTa
qalaqisken, iq triumfiT mopovebuli gamarjveba ganasaxierebs
vefxistyaosanSi adamianur srbas sam sknelSi, rogorc amas giorgi merCule uwodebs, ltolvas sulieri gamTlianebisgen, gakeTilSobilebisken, amaRlebisken, uflis Ziebisken.
poemis xuTi qalaqis semiotikuri xatebi aris rusTveluri
Sifr-kodebi, romelTa dekodireba poemis miTopoeturi samyaros
umniSvnelovanes saidumlobebs naTelyofs.
literatura
rusTveli 2014: nodar naTaZis redaqciiT, vefxistyaosnis saskolo gamocema; Tbilisi.
gamsaxurdia 1991: zviad gamsaxurdia, vefxistyaosnis saxismetyveleba, Tbilisi.
nozaZe 1953: viqtor nozaZe, vefxistyaosnis ferTametyveleba,
buenos-airesi.

bela CekuriSvili
didi qalaqi, rogorc
pirovnebis `gaqrobis~
adgili
rainer maria rilkes romanSi malte
laurids briges Canawerebi
Cveni statiis Temas warmoadgens parizis, rogorc didi qalaqis fenomeni,
romelic pirovnebis ganadgurebas iwvevs.
kvlevis wyaroa rainer maria rilkes modernistuli romani malte laurids
briges Canawerebi, romlis mixedviTac
didi qalaqi is adgilia, sadac adamiani
sakuTar indivudualurobas kargavs da
masis nawilad iqceva.
malte laurids briges Canawerebi
1910 wels gamoqveynda da pirvel modernistul romanad miiCneva. modernistul literaturaSi centraluri adgili ukavia qalaqis Temas, romelic mxolod moqmedebis ganviTarebis adgils ki
aRar warmoadgens, sadac urTierTobis
axali formebi yalibdeba. modernistuli
qalaqi, e.w. didi qalaqia, romelic alegoriulad Tavad xdeba literaturis
obieqti, moqmedebis personaJi. aqve aRvniSnavT, rom didi qalaqis motivi evropul literaturaSi soflis motivis
sapirispirod ganviTarda da TandaTan or
gansxvavebul Temad Camoyalibda. soflis
motivisTvis niSneul Tavisuflebas, sijansaRes da individualurobas moder-

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111

nistuli qalaqis SemTxvevaSi masobrioba da Zalaufleba daupirispirda. Seicvala landSaftic - qalaqi progresisa da SekumSuli realobis adgili gaxda, sadac dRis wesrigSi dadga adamianTa mier Seqmnili instituciebis ambivalenturoba, xolo industrializebulma sazogadoebam daarRvia urTierTobaTa is idealuri suraTebi, riTac soflis garemo gamoirCeva. Sesabamisad,
qalaquri Tematika, miT ufro, roca literatura did qalaqebs
exeboda, negatiur asociaciebs aRZravda.
didi qalaqi es ar aris mxolod ricxobrivad gazrdili
dasaxleba, igi didia Tavisi saarsebo sivrciT, romelsac garkveuli Taviseburebebi gaaCnia. 1902 wels, roca rilke parizs ewvia, qalaqi sam milionamde macxovrebels itevda. me-20 saukunis
dasawyisidan qalaqma TandaTan dakarga adamianuri masStabi da
gaxda TvalSeuvlebi, misi calkeuli ubnebi TiTqmis qalaqebia,
adamiani ki marto darCa am uzarmazar sivrceSi sacdurTa pirispir da erTaderTi, rac SeuZlia, isRaa, rom SeiniRbos. socialuri kavSirebi Znelad gasabmeli xdeba da xSirad Zalian xanmoklea, rac mis mcxovrebT martoobisa da izolaciisTvis swiravs.
literaturam gamoZebna gamosaxvis forma didi qalaqisaTvis
man industrialuri safrTxobela SesaniSnav mxatvrul saxed
aqcia. rogorc literaturis kritikosi lotar miuleri ambobs:
Tuki modernizmis miTologia arsebobs, arsebobs adgilic, romlzec is mogviTxrobs da romelTanac is dakavSirebulia. es
aris didi qalaqi. (miuleri, 1988, 14)
germaneli sociologi da filosofosi georg zimeli 1903
wels aqveynebs statias didi qalaqebi da sulieri cxovreba,
sadac cdilobs, egreT wodebuli didqalaqelis tipaJis gaazrebas. misi TqmiT, fsiqologiuri safuZveli, razec didqalaqelis
tipi yalibdeba, aris gamZafrebuli nervuli cxovreba, romelic
mimdinareobs gare da Sinagani STabeWdilebebis mudmivi da swrafi cvliT. adamiani ganmasxvavebeli arsebaa, rac niSnavs, rom misi cnobieri stimulirdeba im sxvaobiT, rasac momentaluri da
Cavlili STabeWdilebebiT iRebs. damaxsovrebuli STabeWdilebebi, maTi diferencirebis arasaWirooba, maTi Cveuli gegmazomieri
dineba da kontrastebi nakleb aRqmas iTxovs, vidre swrafad SemoWrili cvladi suraTebi, romlebic didadaa daSorebuli imisgan, rasac adamiani erTi Tvalis SevlebiT iRebs. imiT, rom did
qalaqSi sworedac msgavsi situaciebi iqmneba quCis yoveli ga-

112

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dakveTsas, qalaqis tempiT da mravalmxrivi ekonomikuri, profesiuli, sazogadoebrivi cxovrebiT, es Cveni fsiqikis sensorul
safuZvlebSi, Cvens cnobierSi, rogorc ganmasxvavebel arsebebSi,
iwvevs Rrma dapirispirebas patara qalaqebisa da sofluri
cxovrebis mimarT, maTi wynari, Tanabari ritmiT mimdinare emociur-sulieri cxovrebis mimarT. (zimeli, 2006, 185)
rilkes romanic swored erTgvari dapirispirebaa didi qalaqis anonimuri, masobrivi, indivudualurobadakarguli cxovrebisa da sikvdilisa, soflur, Tavisufal cxovrebasTan da sikvdilTan. miuxedavad imisa, rom rilkes drois parizi elegantur
da progresul qalaqs warmoadgenda, romanis protagonistis aRqmaSi igi martoobas, siRatakesa da avadmyofobas ukavSireba, rasac Tavisi mizezebi aqvs. modernistuli qalaqi gaucxoebis, miusafrobis, avadmyofobis, sikvdilis, sigiJis adgilia, sadac adamianis suls Sveba arsaidan ar elis.
romanze rilke 1904-10 wlebSi muSaobda. Canawerebs malte
mxolod erT, dawyebis TariRs usvams - 11 seqtembers, iqve uTiTebs parizuli sastumros misamarTs - tulies quCa da pirvelive winadadebiT gvamcnobs im ganwyobas, rac mas safrangeTis dedaqalaqSi dauflebia: am qalaqs yoveli mxridan awydeba xalxi,
raTa aq icxovros. me ki mgonia: aq sikvdili ufro advilia, vidre sicocxle. magram ras gulisxmobs rilke sikvdilSi?
miuxedavad imisa, rom malte bevrs saubrobs sikvdilze, maT
Soris ojaxis wevrebisa da istoriuli pirebis sikvdilze, parizis SemTxvevaSi es ara mxolod fizikuri sikvdilia, aramed individualurobis gaqrobis yovlismomcveli procesi, rac didi
qalaqisTvis gamxdara niSneuli. romanis parizul nawilSi rilke
adamianTa fizikur sikvdils iyenebs rogorc alegorias pirovnebis individualurobis ganadgurebis saCveneblad.
pirveli, rasac parizSi Casuli malte axsenebs, es hospitlebia: vnaxe hospitlebi. malte axsenebs or hospitals. esenia
Val-de-Grce - samxedro hospitali da Hotel Dieu 621 wels daarsebuli TavSesafari da saavadmyofo, sadac 559 sawolSi erTad kvdebian. rasakvirvelia, qarxnuli wesiT. aseTi Warbi produqciisas, cxadia, calkeuli sikvdili cudad sruldeba, Tumca
amis dardi viRasa aqvs. aq xom mTavari raodenobaa. (rilke
2015, 11)
sikvdils process parizSi farda axdia, is aRar aris saidumlo rituali, Hotel-Dieu - Si momakvdavi avadmyofebi patara

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omnibusebs mihyavs, da es xdeba mTeli qalaqis dasanaxad, da yvelam icis, rom maTi awyvetili srbolis winaSe unda SeCerdnen,
xolo adamianTa fantazias SeuZlia warmoidginos is agoniebi,
maTi rZisferi fanjrebis miRma rom mimdinareobs. ufro metic,
parizSi Ria, saxuravgadaxdili etlebic ki arsebobs, romelTac
sasikvdilod ganwirulni ori frankis fasad mihyavT. aq sikvdils daukargavs sakraluri saxe da is vulgarul ambad qceula.
sagulisxmoa, rom Tuki rilke Tavisi winaprebis Tu istoriuli figurebis sikvdilis aRwerisas maT gamorCeulobaze,
Rirsebasa Tu siamayeze saubrobs, parizis hospitlis SemTxvevaSi
mas adarebs qarxnul produqcias, sadac warmoebuli nivTebiviT
yvela sikvdili erTmaneTs hgavs. amave dros, terminebi qarxnuli da Warbi produqcia industrializaciis mier motanili
cnebebia, romelTac Secvales qalaqis saxe da adamianTa cxovreba. qarxnuli sikvdilis metaforas rilke upirispirebs sicocxlisa da siyvarulis metaforas guls, romelic asevea matarebeli sikvdilis, magram ara upirovnebo, uxeSi sikvdilis, aramed sicocxlis sapirwonis, gamzrdelis da dambadeblis. adre
icodnen (an SeiZleba gumaniT grZnobdnen), rom sikvdili sakuTar wiaRSi hqondaT, rogorc nayofs Tesli aqvs gulSi. (rilke
2015, 12)
aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom rilkes dakvirvebiT, amgvari qarxnuli, individualobas moklebuli sikvdili ara mxolod RaribTa da umweoTa xvedria, mdidrebisTvisac sul erTi gamxdara,
rogor, ra viTarebSi gardaicvlebian: TviT mdidarnic ki, romelTac diaxac, xeli miuwvdebaT, rudunebiTa da gulisyuriT
gardaicvalon, daudevarni da gulgrilni xdebian. adamians sul
ufro iSviaTad uCndeba sirvili, mokvdes sakuTari sikvdiliT.
(rilke 2015, 11-12)
da ras niSnavs es sakuTari sikvdili? amis axsnaSi ukeTesad dagvexmareba rilkes reqviemi (reqviemi megobari qalisaTvis), sadac sikvdils poeti ganmartavs, rogorc namdvili cxovrebis nayofs, sakuTar TavSi CaRrmavebiT Seqmnils: samagaliTo
TviTCaRrmavebis rudunebiT qmnili sikvdili. is sakuTari sikvdili, Cven rom ase vWirdebiT, radgan swored Cven vacxovrebT
am sikvdils, vapurebT CveniT da arsada varT masTan ufrore axlos, vidre Cvens sicocxleSi. (rilke, 2015, 285)

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rogorc maltes da reqviemebis qarTulad mTargmneli


naira gelaSvili aRniSnavs, adamiani, romelic Tavis sulier SesaZleblobebs, pirovnebis TviTdadgenas axorcielebs, saxesa da
azrs aZlevs Tavis cxovrebas, kvdeba sakuTari, namdvili, @didi sikvdiliT, radgan qmnida da amwifebda ra Tavis cxovrebas,
qmnida, zrdida da amuSavebda Tavis sikvdilsac. (gelaSvili,
2015, 428)
sikvdilze dakvirvebas mihyavs mwerali meore daskvnamde:
adamianebs did qalaqSi dakarguli aqvT sakuTari sicocxle.
RmerTo, RmerTo, amqveynad yvelaferi mzamzareuli xvdebaT. ibadebian, pouloben mza sicocxles da morCa. mxolod CacmaRa
sWirdeba. (rilke, 2015, 10)
mza sicocxles, romelic adamianebs mieca, araferi aqvs
saerTo individualur gancdebTan, tkivilTan Tu siyvarulTan,
samyaros aRqmasTan da bolos - sikvdilTan. did qalaqSi TiTqos
sicocxlec mzaa, winaswar gansazRvruuli, garemoebiT ganpirobebuli da adamiani aRar aris misi Semoqmedi da mmarTveli. aq sicocxlec qarxnuli gamxdara, isic produqtia, romelic adamianebma tansacmeliviT Semoicves da erTmaneTs daemsgavsnen, sakuTri individualuri saxe ki dakarges.
saxe an ufro zustad, dakarguli saxe kidev erTi metaforaa, romelic romanSi gvxvdeba. urbanistul garemoSi TiTqos
yvelaferi qaoss moucavs da masSi inTqmeba. aseT qaosSi adamianebi icvlian da kargaven saxeebs. malte TiTqos erT konkretul SemTxvevas ixsenebs, rogor darCa qals saxe xelebSi da
usaxo TaviT gaswia Tavis gzaze, magram aseTebi parizSi mTel
fenas warmoadgenen. da maT erTiani, avadmyofuri ieri aerTianebs.
maSinac ki, roca gacinebul saxeebs aRwers, mwerali ar axasiaTebs maT sicils arc romelime emociiT, arc JReradobiT, rac
individualurobas SesZenda maT sixaruls, aramed sicili Sedarebulia CirqTan, xolo am asociacias iwvevs didi qalaqis ganaTeba: saxeebze vitrinebidan gamosuli sinaTle efinaT da sicili ise sdioda maT pirebs, rogorc Cirqi Ria Wrilobas. (rilke, 2015, 45)
da rom adamianTa amgvari avadobis mizezi didi qalaqia,
avtori amaze migvaniSnebs romanis dasawyisSive, roca maltes
mzera etlSi mZinare bavSvze Cerdeba, romelic quCaSi datrialebul SiSisa da iodoformis suns isunTqavs: momwvano feri
edo da Sublze mkveTrad emCneoda gamonayari. (rilke, 2015, 7)

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unda iTqvas, rom malte parizul suraTebs mudam agebebs


mogonebebs rogorc Tavisi bavSvobidan, aseve literaturidan Tu
istoriidan, romelic savsea gamokveTili saxeebiT da maTi saxelebiT. nacionalur biblioTekaSi is kiTxulobs verlens, romelmac icis im gogonaTa ambavi, mTeli asi wlis win rom cxovrobdnen da romelic gamoTqvams maT saxelebs, am Cumsa da natifad moyvanil saxelebs mogrZo asoebis Zvelmoduri CuqurTmebiT da mozrdil saxelebs maTi ufrosi dobilebisa. (rilke,
2015, 39).
amis sapirispirod ki parizi usaxelo adamianTa samyofeli
gamxdara, romelic mxolod masaa da meti araferi, quCaSi rom
Sededebuli niaRvariviT miedineba. kidev erTi maxasiaTebeli,
romelic mkiTxvels TvalSi xvdeba da romelic aseve kontrastulad mijnavs parizsa da im samyaros, romelsac malte Tavis
CanawerebSi ixsenebs, saxelebis ararsebobaa. parizSi arcerT adamians ar aqvs saxeli, aq mxolod quCebis da adgilebis dasaxelebebs vxvdebiT da ara personaJebis, maSin, roca maltes bavSvobisdroindeli mogonebebidan arc erTi personaJis saxels
mtveri ar wahyria da daviwyebas ar miscemia. amis sapirispirod
malte mxolod aRwers parizsa da parizelebs, is aravisTan Sedis kontaqtSi, ar ecnoba, ar elaparakeba da arc saxeliT moixseniebs. kombostos beberi gamyidveli misTvis aris kaci, romelic yviroda, xolo maTxovari qali kafeebis terasebis win dagrexili, gamxmarmklaviani qali.
saxelebisa da gvarebis nacvlad parizelTa mimarT malte
iyenebs ganusazRvrelobiT nacvalsaxels viRac: viRac kibeze
amodis. modis, moiwevs SeuCerebliv. ukve aq aris. didi xania ukve aq aris. gamiswordeba da Caivlis. da Semdeg isev quCa. iq viRaca gogo gahkivis : Ah, tais-toi. Je ne veux plus, elmavali moeqaneba gaafTrebuli, gadauvlis am xmebs, CaaxSobs da mere gascdeba, gascdeba yvelafers. isev xma. viRac iZaxis. viRacebi erTmaneTs uswreben. (rilke, 2015, 8) (xazgasma Cvenia).
rodesac malte dangreul saxls aRwers, romelsac mouCanda Sida mxare da iq sxvadasxva sarTulis oTaxebis narCenebi,
mkiTxvels asociacia uCndeba bodleris leqsTan leSi, miT ufro, rom malte Tavadac ixsenebs Tavis CanawerebSi am leqss da
amiT Cndeba logikuri aluzia masTan. aqa-iq Camokonwialebuli
Spaleris nafleTebi da iatakisa Tu Weris narCenebi. kedels
mTel simaRleze, kideSi viwro, WuWyiani, moTeTro zoli dahyve-

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bela CekuriSvili

boda da iq yovelad sazizRari, rbili moZraobebiT, rogoriTac


matli saWmels inelebs, miiklakneboda, JangiT SeWmuli, fexsadgilis milebis Rari... (rilke, 2015, 43).
angelika korbino-hofmanis azriT, miuxedavad imisa, rom
rilke Tavis yuradRebas Raribebze, avadmyofebze da moxucebze
aCerebs, mas bodleriseuli solidaroba aklia, aseve ar iCens Zalisxmevas, simaxinjis ukan silamazec SeamCnioso. ufro metic,
igi maT sruliad clis individualobisgan da maT siaxinjeTa
rigebSi ricxavs, romelTa mimarT nebismieri yuradReba gamoricxulia. bebrebs da Raribebs igi ixseniebs, rogorc gaZevebulebs. (korbino-hofmani, 2003, 89)
marTlac maltes SiSi ipyrobs, rodesac mas moxuci qali
aedevneba, ar icis, ra undaT am adamianebs misgan, roca yuradRebas miapyroben, magram es amave dros signalia, niSania imisa, rogor qreba sazogadoebaSi TanagrZnoba, rogorc irRveva komunikacia da iwyeba izolacia. bodleridan maltemde xom TiTqmis naxevari saukunea gasuli.
urbanistuli garemosTvis niSneulia pirovnebis gaucxoebis
problema, erTgvari dakargulobisa da martoobis gancda, rac
sociologiuri kvlevis sagania, da aseve aqtualuri literaturuli Tema modernizmidan dRemde. rilkes parizi savsea sakvirveli cdunebebiT, romelic cvlis adamianTa xasiaTs, maT msoflmxedvelobas, cvlis saganTa aRqmis unars. parizSi maltec
iZens didqalaqelis Tvisebebs, razec georg zimeli Tavis statiaSi miuTiTebda: igi kargavs ara mxolod empaTiis unars, megobrebisganac izolirdeba, werilebis werac aRar surs: garkveuli
Taviseburebani gamiCnda, axla adamianTagan ufro Zlier rom maSoreben, vidre yvelaferi, rac dRemde iyo. saxecvlili samyaro,
axali cxovreba, savse axali mniSvnelobebiT. (rilke, 2015, 65).
dasasrul, gvinda aRvniSnoT, rom malte laurids briges
Canawerebis mixedviT parizi is adgilia, sadac veRar vxedavT
adamianebs sakuTari saxeliT; ver vxdavT wyvilebs, ojaxebs, adamianuri sinazis gamovlinebebs; mwerali ar aRwers arcerT dialogs, romelic ama Tu im pirovnebas gamokveTda. aq TiTqos yvelaferi gaobieqtebulia, subiqtebs ki erTiani jamuri saxeli
aqvT: didqalaqelebi. es ki swored is masalaa, riTac mwerali
Tavis teqsts aSenebs.

didi qalaqi, rogorc pirovnebos gaqrobis adgili

117

literatura
gelaSvili 2015: gelaSvili naira, erTi Zveli wigni, anu malte
laurids briges Canawerebi; Tbilisi.
zimeli 2006: Simmel Georg, Die Grostdte und das Geistesleben;
Berlin.
hofmani 2003: Corbineau-Hoffmann Angelika, Kleine Literaturgeschichte der Grostadt; Darmstadt.
miuleri 1988: Mller Lothar, Die Grostadt als Ort der Moderne. ber
Georg Simmel; Reinbek bei Hamburg.
rilke 2015: rilke rainer maria, malte laurids briges Canawerebi; Tbilisi.
rilke 2015: rilke rainer maria, reqviemi megobari qalisaTvis;
Tbilisi.

mindia cecxlaZe
qalaqis mistikuri
alegoria
Salva bakuraZis poema `Tevzaoba~
religiur-mistikuri diskursi msoflio literaturuli tradiciis erTerTi mniSvnelovani aspeqtia. qarTuli
literatura, rogorc uZvelesi qristianuli literatura, am TvalsazrisiT
mniSvnelovan saazrovno da saxeobriv gamocdilebas qmnis vefxistyaosnidan moyolebuli Tanamedrove avtorebis CaTvliT.
misticizmis ZiriTadi ideaa mistikuri gamocdileba, rac ewodeba gaerTianebis zegrZnobad gamocdilebas, romlis
meSveobiTac xdeba gacnoba realobisa
(RmerTis),
romelic
miuwvdomelia
grZnobis
organoebisTvis
(ueinraiti
2007:141), ris gamoc mistikosebi mas
axasiaTeben rogorc sibneles, araras,
TviTdakargvas (anderhili 1911:171).
mistikuri gamocdilebis winapirobaa intencionaluri obieqtebis eliminacia (formani 1999:131), saidanac xSir
SemTxvevaSi
gamomdinareobs
samyaros
uaryofa, eskapizmi da mkacri asketizmi
religiur-mistikur
soteriologiaSi.
amis sapirispirod, Tanamedrove mistikur
azrovnebaSi ikveTeba samyaros dasturyofis diskursi da es ukavSirdeba panenTeizms (kuperi 2006:298), rac gulis-

qalaqis mistikuri alegoria

119

xmobs, rom RmerTi aris yvelaferi yvelaferSi, rogorc pavle


mociquli imeorebs ramdenjerme (stengi 2012:126) da rasac
fsevdodionise areopageli citirebs katafatikis dasabuTebisas
(stengi 2012:126): RmerTi Seicavs yvelafers, swored amitom
adideben mas yoveli saxeliT (areopageli 2015:I.5).
Salva bakuraZis poemis Tevzaobis lirikuli gmiri ambobs,
rom misi saxelia SimSili, sevda, sixaruli, gareuli mtredebis Crdili, veluri xilis gemo da a.S. (bakuraZe 2013:11-12) anu
xdeba saxeldeba, katafazisi, romlis gareSe SeuZlebelia apofazisi. fsevdodionise areopageli, romlis motivebic xSiria am
avtorTan, moqmedebs imave neoplatonuri emanaciisa da dabrunebis logikis farglebSi, romelic netari avgustinesTan gvxvdeba.
katafazisi anu RvTis saxeldeba Seesatyviseba RmerTis emanacias,
xolo apofazisi gvawvdis RmerTTan dabrunebis gzas (holivudi...
2012:12).
poemaSi veduri om marcvlis miniSnebiT (omin) da zRvis,
rogorc RmerTis metaforiT SemotaniT, xdeba miniSneba vedanturi mistikis panenTeizmze, sadac adamiani da RmerTi iseTive mimarTebaSia erTmaneTTan, rogorc mdinare da zRva; xdeba ara gaerTianeba, aramed erTianobis Secnoba (meTiuzi 1999:86). budizmis gavleniT advaita vedantaSi Cndeba materialuri sagnebis
identobanaklulobis da moCvenebiTobis idea (qari... 2005:165),
pirovnuloba, ego mcdari TviTgansazRvrebaa, gansxvaveba adamians
da RmerTs Soris moCvenebiTia (qari... 2005:192-193); Sesabamisad,
zemoxsenebuli TviTdakargva, romelzec mistikosebi saubroben,
egos sikvdilsac unda mianiSnebdes (uaiti 2013:7).
poemis personaJi, meTevze eliozi, brmavdeba zRvis xilvis
Sedegad, Semdeg ki damaskoSi aixels Tvals (bakuraZe 2013:9-10),
iseve rogorc pavle, Sesabamisad zRva aq RmerTs mianiSnebs; Semdeg eliozi dgas gamWvirvale jebirTan (bakuraZe 2013:9), rac
mianiSnebs, rom sazRvari RmerTTan anu ego, pirovneba iluzorulia da arasubstanciuri. am avtorTan zRva RmerTis metaforaa
aseve leqsSi jnana (bakuraZe 2013:26).
veduri diskursis Semotana motivirebulia imiTac, rom dasavlurisgan gansxvavebiT, aRmosavlur misticizmSi samyaros
dasturyofis diskursi gamokveTilia (goldeni 2008:46), tantristul mistikaSi ar xdeba survilebis uaryofa
(harperi
2002: 20); budizmi gmobs ukidures asketizms (qari... 2005:248)
da codnis wyarod sakuTar gamocdilebas miiCnevs (qari...

120

mindia cecxlaZe

2005:290), rac, rogorc plotinis SemTxvevaSi vnaxavT, aseve


ukavSirdeba dasturyofis diskurss. survilebis ara daTrgunva,
aramed transformacia aseve soteriologiis nawilia tantristul budizmSi.
areopagelis inspiratori plotini, miuxedavad imisa, rom
saubrobs vnebebis zomier, magram mainc daTrgunvaze (plotini
2015:II,5), Tvlis, rom samyaro RvTaebrivi realobis mkafio,
mSvenierebiT mosili xatia (plotini 2015:II,8), RmerTi yvelaferSia (plotini 2015:VI,4-5), dacemul sulsac aqvs raRac
transcendenturi (plotini 2015: IV,4). materialur samyaroSi
aris boroteba, radgan igi RvTaebrivi emanaciis bolo safexuria
(plotini 2015:I,8.6-7), Tumca sulis daSveba sxeulSi aucilebelia, raTa man miiRos borotebis uSualo gamocdileba, riTac
ukeT Seicnobs uzenaes sikeTes anu RmerTs (plotini
2015:IV,8.7).
aseve plotinis mixedviT sxeuli borotebis mizezia mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, roca suli ejaWveba mas da eTiSeba miRmier
realobas (plotini 2015:I,8.4), sxva SemTxvevaSi ki sxeulze
zrunva misaRebia (plotini 2015:IV,8.2). neoplatonur praqtikaSi
pirveli safexuri materialuri samyaros Semecnebaa Tavis mravalferovnebasa da harmoniaSi (harnaki 1997:350-351), am etapze
xdeba ganwmenda, romelic unda dasruldes grZnobadi aRqmis
obieqtebis amaoebis gacxadebiT (ado 1993:122). aseve saxarebis
mixedviT cdunebebi unda movides (maTe 18,7) anu aucilebelia
borotebis uSualo gamocdileba, am pasaJis uSualo gagrZelebaa
gzaabneuli cxvris igavi, sadac mwyemsi SesaZloa swored xsenebuli gamocdilebis gamo, gzaabneul cxvars ufro Sehxaris, vidre danarCenebs (maTe 18,10-13); esaa erTgvari eTikur-soteriologiuri empirizmi.
intencionaluri obieqtebis eliminacias, samyarosadmi cxoveli interesis dakargvas TavisTavad aadvilebs amqveyniurobis
amaoebaSi sakuTari gamocdilebiT darwmuneba, rom araferi
vTqvaT survilebis da vnebebis daTrgunvis, CaxSobis problemurobaze, vinaidan, rogorc qristiani mistikosi xuan de lakrusi
aRniSnavs, TviTiZulebiTi asketizmi aZlierebs egos, Tumca dasawyisSi, oRond xanmokle droiT, esec saWiroa, radgan ego unda aigos, sanam ganadgurdeba (terneri 1995:233-236). aseve budizmSic, imisaTvis, rom moviSoroT ego, jer unda gavaZlieroT

qalaqis mistikuri alegoria

121

igi (jounzi 1993:180), amgvarad represia SeiZleba iyos mistikuri praqtikis mxolod mcire komponenti.
poemis saTauri dakavSirebulia RmerTis ZiebasTan, poemis
personaJi, meTevze eliozi oqros Tevzs ufals uwodebs (bakuraZe 2013:6), Tevzi uflis qristianuli simboloa da Sesabamisad, meTevze RvTismaZiebelia. samyaros dasturyofis diskurss
gamoxatavs is faqtic, rom oqros Tevzi survilebs asrulebs.
am poemiT iwyeba krebuli dasdebelni wmindisa aRdgomisani; poemaSi, sxva leqsebis msgavsad, ikveTeba ori plani: konkretul-istoriuli da mistikuri; pirveli plani, omisa da sikvdilis Tematikis gamo, unda ukavSirdebodes soxumis dakargvas, Tavad avtori soxumelia da sruliad axalgazrda iyo, rodesac
omSi mouxda yofna; poemas epigrafad aqvs endriu rentonis fraza "Sin gagzavnili werili yovelTvis xedis aRweriT iwyeba"
(bakuraZe 2013:3), rac aseve dasturyofazea maniSneba, upirvelesad unda moxdes xiluli samyaros, xedis Secnoba, raTa davukavSirdeT Sin, anu davbrundeT mamasTan, samSobloSi, rogorc
plotini ambobs metaforulad emanaciis sawyisTan dabrunebaze
(magili... 2009:28). poemac qalaqis xedis aRweriT iwyeba.
es qalaqi TevziT da rZiT savsea (bakuraZe 2013:3), am qalaqSi ar daileva Tevzi, Tafli, Rvino da puri (bakuraZe
2013:10), rac aluziaa aRTqmuli miwis, sadac moedineba rZe da
Tafli (gamosvl. 3,17); xdeba qalaqis, rogorc amqveyniuri siuxvis da tkbobis adgilis simbolizeba, qalaqi aris simbolo
materialuri samyarosi, romelic mocemulia rogorc RvTis saCuqari, aRTqmuli miwa, sadac amqveyniuri sikeTeebiT tkboba
RvTis mier aris nebadarTuli da mowodebuli. amave dros Tevzi
am teqstSi, rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, RmerTis simboloa, aseve
rZe siwmindis, ucodvelobis simbolocaa (malaguci 2006:181),
Sesabamisad, qalaqi, igive materialuri samyaro savsea siwmindiT,
RmerTiT, Tumca aq aseve saubaria maxeSi gabmul Tevzebze - sxeulSi daSvebuli suli ejaWveba sxeulis siamovnebas, rac warmoSobs borotebas plotinis Tanaxmad.
mSobliuri qalaqis siyvaruli ZiriTadi motivia aseve krebulis bolo poemaSi gangebuleba xorcT, sadac aseve ikveTeba
erotizmis diskursi (bakuraZe 2013:99-107), rac, iseve rogorc
seqsualobis, qalis gaRvTaebriveba Tavad am poemaSi, samyaros
dasturyofas ukavSirdeba; aseve fraza nu daviviwyebT, rom sxeulic Cvena varT jerac, pativi vceT, leqsidan saqorwino

122

mindia cecxlaZe

locva (bakuraZe 2013:48), eqspliciturad gamoxatavs avtoris


SemoqmedebaSi alegorizebul diskurss.
meTevze eliozi ilia WavWavaZis gazafxulis alternativad saxavs Tavis leqss - gazafxuls (bakuraZe 2013:9), es SesaZloa pasuxia ilias leqsSi dasmul kiTxvaze da xsnis poemaSi
konkretul-istoriuli da mistikur-alegoriuli planebis gaerTianebis funqcias: samSoblos gazafxuli iqneba mxolod individebis mistikuri gazafxulis, gamoRviZebis, maTi individualuri
transformaciis Sedegi. ilia WavWavaZesTan gadaZaxili sayuradReboa imiTac, rom gandegilic swored samyaros uaryofas
emijneba. eliozis gazafxuli ase iwyeba:
me is kaci var zRva rom ixila da ver eleva mainc xetials
da ai vdgavar karTan, romelic mSvid dinebaSi unda SemiZRves
da romlis miRmac jer aravis gaduxedia. (bakuraZe 2013:9)
zRvis xilva aq niSnavs mistikuri erTianobis droebiT gancdas, radgan xetiali grZeldeba, tantristul teqstSi mahamudras simRera mdinaris mSvidi dineba gasxivosnebis erT-erTi
bolo stadiis metaforaa (tilopa 2015:3), simSvide niSnavs, rom
axlosaa SesarTavi zRvasTan. bolo striqonSi transcendenturobazea miniSneba.
eliozs jibeebi miwiT aqvs gamotenili, anu mas aqvs miwieri
cxovrebis gamocdileba; panenTeizms gamoxatavs eliozis leqsSi
ucxo moxuci, romlis sxeulSi qalaqebi da varskvlavebia (bakuraZe 2013:9-10), rac bhagavad-gitas aluziaa, sadac arjunas
kriSna ecxadeba rogorc RmerTi, romlis sxeulSic samyaroebi
da planetebia (bhagavad-gita 1983:75); msgavsi aluzia aseve
gvxvdeba am avtoris leqsSi - jnana (bakuraZe 2013:27). eliozis leqsi ase grZeldeba:
Tixis surneli sdis Sens nakvalevs.
am nakvalevSi zRva gubdeba
da napirebze Seni Svilebi aSeneben keTil qalaqebs
da zRvis yoveli amosunTqva qalaqelebs xeTa enaze alaparakebs,
rom yovel Rame TevzTan wevxar
da Sens pirSi Tevzis wyliani ena Srialebs,
rom arcerT suldgmuls gazafxuli ise ar tanjavs,
rogorc xeebs da adamianebs
pasaJis pirveli nawili imanentizms mianiSnebs; xe RmerTis
simboloa, poemaSi RmerTis simbolos, Tevzis saflavze dasmuli
jvari foTlebs gamoisxams da iqceva xed (bakuraZe 2013:4), rac

qalaqis mistikuri alegoria

123

RmerTis, regeneraciis, maradiulobis gavrcelebuli simboloa


TavisTavad (sirloti 1971:347). poemaSi RvTis simboloebis simravlec areopageliseul katafatikaze mianiSnebs erTgvarad. gazafxuli anu bunebis gamoRviZeba mtanjvelia, radgan esaa mistikuri gamoRviZeba da Sesabamisad egos mokvdinebis dasawyisi, sakuTari Tavis RmerTTan igiveobis Secnoba klavs gancalkevebuli arsebobis iluzias, mcdar TviTgansazRvrebas anu egos.
rom es qalaqic patara zRvaa da yvela kaci am qalaqSi aris
napiri,
maTi zRvispira saxlebisken gagiZRveba
quCa keTili da pirdapiri,
rom im saxlebSi ar daileva Tevzi, Tafli, Rvino da puri,
rom ueWvelad mzes aixels imaT WerqveS
RamenaTevi yoveli mdgmuri,
rom
mxolod da mxolod damaskodan dabrunebuli SeigrZnobs
marilsa da laJvards ama zRvis
da RuRuns mtredebisas taZris gumbaTze (bakuraZe 2013:10)
qalaqi patara zRvaa, radgan materialuri samyaro RvTaebrivi emanaciis bolo safexuria, magram mainc RvTaebrivia. yvela kaci aris napiri anu esazRvreba zRvas, RmerTs gamWvirvale jebiriT. aq aris aluzia quCaze, romlis saxelia pirdapiri, sadac
pavle Tvals aixels (saqmeebi 9, 3-18). mxolod damaskodan dabrunebuli Seicnobs RmerTs, radgan samyaros Secnoba, dasturyofa pirveli, aucilebeli safexuria.
lirikuli gmiri mistikuri transformaciiT gadalaxavs
mSobliuri qalaqis dakargviT gamowveul tragizms, poemis finalSi lirikul gmirs aRar adardebs rom is qalaqi ar arsebobs, arc arsebobda, arc iarsebebs:
rom erTaderTi sicocxlea rac macocxlebs
rom erTaderTi siyvarulia rac macocxlebs (bakuraZe
2013:13)
man gaacnobiera siyvarulis gamaTavisuflebeli Zala (sicocxlis tyve xar da Seni xsna mxolod siyvaruls xelewifeba
(bakuraZe 2013:10)) da sicocxlis RvTaebrioba, misi TavisTavadi,
TviTkmari Rirebuleba anu moxda yvela sxva konkretuli miznis,
obieqtebze mijaWvulobis, zogadad intencionaluri obieqtebis
eliminacia.

mindia cecxlaZe

124

amgvarad, poemaSi qalaqis, rogorc RvTaebriobiT gajerebuli samyaros simbolizebiT xdeba samyaros dasturyofa, eTikursoteriologiuri empirizmis gacxadeba mistikuri gzis konteqstSi; miwieri cxovrebis dasturyofiT lirikuli gmiri RvTis
Secnobis pirvel safexurs gaivlis, risi Sedegicaa mistikuri
transformacia da konkretul-istoriul warmavlobaze mijaWvulobis daZleva.

literatura
ado 1993: Hadot, Pierre; Plotinus Or the Simplicity of Vision;
University of Chicago Press; Chicago and London.
anderhili 1911: Underhill, Evelyn; Mysticism: A Study in Nature and
Development of Spiritual Consciousness; Christian Classics
Ethereal Library; Grand Rapids.
areopageli 2000: The Areopagite, Dionysius; On the Divine Names
and the Mystical
Theology; Christian Classics Ethereal Library; Grand Rapids.
bakuraZe 2013: bakuraZe, Salva; dasdebelni wmindisa aRdgomisani; saunje, Tbilisi.
bhagavad-gita 1983: bhagavad-gita; ganaTleba, Tbilisi.
goldeni 2008: Golden, Kenneth L.; Uses of Comparative Mythology
(RLE Myth): Essays on the Work of Joseph Campbell;
Routledge; London and New York.
kuperi 2006: Cooper, John W.; Panentheism - The Other God of the
Philosophers: From Plato to the Present; Baker Academic:
Grand Rapids.
magili... 2009: Magill, Kevin; Nelstrop, Louise; Onishi Bradley B;
Christian Mysticism: An Introduction to Contemporary
Theoretical Approaches; Ashgate Publishing Limited;
Farnham.
malaguci 2006: Malaguzzi, Silvia; Food and Feasting in Art; J. Paul
Getty Museum; Los Angeles.
meTiuzi 1999: Matthews, Alfred Warren; World Religions; Wadswort
Cengage Learning; Belmont.
plotini 2015: Plotinus, Enneads;
http://www.documentacatholicaomnia.eu/
sirloti 1971: Cirlot, Juan Eduardo; A Dictionary of Symbols;
Routledge; London.

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125

stengi 2012: Stang, Charles M.; Apophasis and Pseudonymity in


Dionysius the Areopagite: "No Longer I"; Oxford Univerity
Press; Oxford.
terneri 1995: Turner, Denys; The Darkness of God: Negativity in
Christian Mysticism; Cambridge Univerity Press;
Cambridge.
tilopa 2015: Tilopa, Ganga-Mahamudra-Upadesa of Sri Tilopa;
http://www.wayoflight.net/
uaiti 2013: White, Richard J.; The Heart of Wisdom: A Philosophy of
Spiritual Life; Rowman and Littlefield Publishing Groups,
Inc.; Plymouth.
ueinraiti 2007: Wainwright, William J.; The Oxford Handbook of
Philosophy of Religion, Oxford Univerity Press; Oxford.
formani 1999: Forman, Robert K. C.; Mysticism, Mind,
Consciousness; State University of New York Press; New
York.
qari... 2005: Carr, Brian. Mahalingam, Indira; Companion
Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy; Routledge; London and
New York.
jounzi 1993: Jones, Richard H.; Mysticism Examined : Philosophical
Inquiries Into Mysticism; State University of New York
Press; New York.
harnaki 1997: Harnack, Adolf; History of Dogma, 7 Volumes; Wipf and
Stock Pulishers; Eugene.
harperi 2002: Harper, 2002: Harper, Katherine Anne (ed.); Robert L.
Brown (ed.), The Roots of Tantra, State University of New
York Press; New York.
holivudi... 2012: Hollywood, Amy; Beckman, Patricia Z.; The
Cambridge Companion to Christian Mysticism; Cambridge
Univerity Press; Cambridge.

maia jaliaSvili
Tbilisuri ekleqtika
kote jandieris moTxroba
`dapatiJeba kinoSi~
qarTul literaturaSi Tbilisis saxe araerTgzis aris daxatuli. piter akroidis `londoniviT~, an orhan famuqis
`stamboliviT~ isic cocxlobs da saukuneebs nTqavs, feniqsiviT iferfleba da
kvlav ganaxldeba. kote jandieris moTxrobaSic Tbilisi personaJebTan erTad
monawileobs im tragikulul ambebSi,
romlebic mis xmauriansa Tu myudro quCebSi, didsa Tu patara saxlebSi viTardeba.
Tbilisi am moTxrobaSi warmoCenilia, rogorc ekleqtikuri fenomeni,
aRosavlurisa da dasavluri esTetikis
nazavi. Tavis ekleqturobas Tbilisi
personaJebsac gadasdebs da iqmneba fantasmagoriul sivrce, romelSic awmyo,
warsuli da momavali raRac magiiT erTdroulad Tanaarseboben.
moTxrobis gmirebi sabWour TbilisSi cxovroben, meoce saukunis 70-iani
wlebis Svilebi arian, amitomac mniSvnelovania, rogor axerxebs mwerali drois konteqstis Seqmnas. Tumca, aq epoqaze
mniSvnelovani adamiania, romelic nebismier droul konteqstSi ebrZvis sakuTar Tavs, vnebebs da am `gulis WidilSi~, rogorc folkneri ityoda, gamoav-

Tbilisuri ekleqtika

127

lens, ramdenad `axloa RmerTTan~ (vaJa-fSavela).


kote jandieris prozisTvis, sazogadod, damaxasiaTebelia interteqstualoba, rac niSandoblivia yoveli Rirebuli mxatvruli nawarmoebisTvis. mwerali eyrdnoba ZvelTa tradiciul gamocdilebas, iyenebs aRiarebul religiur, miTologiursa Tu
sxadasxva tipis kulturul simboloebs azris gamoxatvis feradovnebisa da siRrmisaTvis, mkiTxvelze zemoqmedebisTvis. magaliTad, erTgan TxrobaSi, sikvdilze fiqrisas, bunebrivad SemoiWreba qaronis saxe, romelic amZafrebs gmiris Sinagani mRelvarebisa
da sasowarkveTilebis gadmocemas.
am nawarmoebis mTxrobeli, weris niWiT dajildoebuli,
axalgazrda kacia, magram cotas wers, radgan `puri arsobisa~
mosapovebeli aqvs sxva gziT _ muSaobs prozaul `saqsaxmTavSaxtmSenSi~. es kontrastulad warmoaCens mis Sejaxebas realobasTan. es kontrastuloba _ cxovreba da xelovneba _ Tavidanve
warmoCndeba. adamiani TiTqos ixliCeba realobasa da ocnebas Soris, rac tkivils iwvevs: `mTeli cxovreba megona, rom ukeTesi
wignis daweras SevZlebdi da aseTi ampartavnobisaTvis davisaje
sicarieliT, ufulobiTa da SaxtmSeniT~. aq yofis `tragikulobas~ amsubuqebs TviTironia, rac ase damaxasiaTebeli jandieris
prozisTvis.
moTxrobaSi Cans, rom personaJs tradiciuli Rirebulebebi
sayrdenad aRar gamoadgeba. Sefarulad es asea gamJRavnebuli:
`mtkvari mZimea da CaSavebuli. mis mdore wyalSi araferi ar
irekleba. arc dRe, arc Rame~. qveteqstad igulisxmeba baraTaSvilis cnobili striqonebi: `nelad moRelavs modudune mtkvari
ankara/ da mis zvirTebSi krTis laJvardi, cisa kamara~ (`fiqrni
mtkvris pirzed~). Tu baraTaSvili sulier oblobas, sasowarkveTilebas gadalaxavda, erTi mxriv, bunebasTan erTobiT (`warved
wyalis pirs sevdiani fiqrT gasarTvelad~), meore mxriv, bunebis
manugeSebeli `megobrobidan~ dabadebuli RvTis rwmeniT (wyalSi
cas (zeciurs, aramiwiurs, amaRlebuls, RvTaebrivs) Wvretda,
arsebobis gamamarTlebel azrs urigdeboda: `magram, radganac
kacni gvqvian.... unda kideca mivdioT mas, gvesmas mSoblisa~),
Tanamedrove gmirs zecidan mxolod risxvis molodini aqvs da
ara wyalobisa: `elvarebs daisis viwro zoli. es kaSkaSa zoli
hgavs moqneul cels, romelic sadacaa mosxeps ufoTlo Wadrebis kenweroebs, qarTuli da somxuri eklesiebis gumbaTebs, saxlebis saxuravebze awowil uazro teleantenebs da abanoTubanSi

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maia jaliaSvili

SemorCenil erTaderTi meCeTis cisfer minareTs~ _ TiTqos meored mosvlis winaTgrZnobaa. mkiTxveli grZnobs moqneuli celi
mxolod peizaJis xatovani aRqma rodia, aramed gmiris sulSi
gaCenili risxvis gamoZaxili. Sinaganad is ujanydeba yofis sicarieles da aqvs misi Secvlis wadili. es gvaxsenebs ioane naTlismcemlis qadagebas: `culi ZirTa Tana xeTasa Zes. yovelman
xeman romelman ara gamoiRos nayofi keTili, moekueTos da cecxlsa daedvas (maTe, 3,10).
gmiris gaucxoebas mSobliur qalaqTan kargad gamoxatavs sakuTari Tavis molaplape veSapTan Sedareba _ `es qalaqi nervebs miSlis. me is veSapi var, romelsac yelSi amosvlia okeanis
mlaSe wylebi da xteba maRla haerSi, sveli da molaplape, raTa
meore wams sxeulis simZimem kvlav daabrunos autaneli, magram
mSobliuri stiqionis wiaRSi~. personaJi absurduli garemos
tyvea. mas gamosavali ver upovia da TviTmkvlelobaze fiqri
stanjavs, Tumca gabeduleba aklia ganzraxulis Sesasruleblad.
es gaubedaoba ki kidev ufro metad Trgunavs.
moTxrobaSi Tanamedroveoba kargad ixateba, romlis erTgvar
simbolodac warmoCndeba `myrali kolmeurneobis moedani _ erTgvari nagavsayreli~. Tanve aqve ixateba yvavilebis bazari. WuWyisa da silamazis nazavi kargad warmoaCens sinaTlisa da sibnelis, borotebisa da sikeTis Tanaarsebobas, rogorc adamianuri
cxovrebis tragediis mizezs. `mTavaria, rom adamians, Homo sapiens-s, SerCa Zala SeebrZolos masSive warmoSobil axal adamians,
Homo Faber-s (maqs friSis amave saxelwodebis romanSi kargad
Cans es brZola), da sanagveze ar moisrolos kultura. Tumca
besik xaranaulis axal romanSi (`samoci jorze amxedrebuli raindi anu wigni hiperbolebisa da metaforebisa~) es saSiSroebac
ikveTeba. avtori Tavs grZnobs `civilizaciisagan gandevnil kulturis Svilad~. romanis personaJi Sio fiqrobda, rom `wignebi
unda dafrinavdnen~ da ixateba fantasmagoriuli suraTi: fanjridan wignebi Tavdaxsnili frinvelebiviT mifrinaven, magram
`nagavsayarze iyo finiSi~ (xaranauli 2010: 115).
besik xaranaulis romanis erTi sagulisxmo Senakadia, Tu
rogor daikarga mTxrobeli `bavSvobaSi~ da `nagavsayaris qveyanaSi~ aRmoCnda tyved. bavSvoba samoTxea, xolo didoba _ tyveoba, Tanac nagavsayrelze, romelic cxovrebis simboloa. misi azriT, civilizaciam qveyniereba nagavsayrelad aqcia. es exmianeba
Jan bodriaris Tvalsazriss: `yvelaze uaresi is ki ar aris,

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rom Cven irgvliv sul nagavia, aramed is, rom Tavad Cvenc am
nagvad viqeciT~... (`qalaqi da siZulvili~) (bodriari 2010: 3).
unda gavixsenoT, rom cxovreba rogorc nagavsayreli, warmoCenilia zura mesxis romanSi `spazmebi~, romelSic mTavari gmiris
cxovrebis `damaxinjeba~
gamoiwvia TavSi moxvedrilma nagvis
parkma: ~me maqvs spazmebi. xuTi wlis rom viyavi, maSin damewyo.
maSin daviwye nagvis danaxva da mTeli sidampleebis~ (mesxi
2009: 15).
kote jandieris moTxrobaSi daxatuli gasayidad gamotanili
yvavilebi TiTqos adamianTa sulebis anareklebia. qaosi mTxrobelis Sinagan samyaros emuqreba: `me yvelaferze erTad vfiqrob
da Cemi Tavi savsea aTasi xaraxuriT, frazebis da mogonebebis
naglejebiT, erotikuli scenebiT, qvanaxSiriT, Saxtis WrilebiT,
sentimentaluri melodiebiT,
naxevrad daviwyebuli saxeebiT,
ucxouri koniakis boTlebiT, sevdiani peizaJebiT...~ Tbilisis ekleqturi arqiteqturac, simbolurad, sazogadoebis gaurkvevlobas, usayrdenobas, zneobriv RirebulebaTa dakargvas warmoaCens:
`leninis moedanze varT. aq yvelaferi galokilia da erTmaneTSi
areuli: fsevdomavritanuli stili, somxuriu fsevdo ampiri,
fsevdoklasicizmi, fsevdokonstruqtivizmi, stalizmi da a.S.
yvelaferi fsevdo~.
moTxrobis kidev erTi sagulisxmo gmiria ninco _ `myral
sazogadoebaSi~ sisufTavisa da siwmindis erTgvari simbolo.
masac realobasTan konfliqti aqvs _ `misi yvelaze didi ocneba
is iyo, rom mamamisi pavle ingoroyva, geronti qiqoZe an vinme
egeTi yofiliyo~. `didi saxelebi~ didi TavSesafris iluzias
qmnis, sxvadyofna TiTqos gaqcevis SesaZleblobas aCens.
nincos simbolur aRqmas xels uwyobs isic, rom mTxrobelisTvis ninco realobas ar Seesabameba _ `ra unda aseT qals
(Tanac TeTr kabaSi gamowyobils) am simyraleSi~ (jandieri
2010: 69). moTxrobis erTi mTavari safiqralia, rogor SeiZleba
sayrdeni moipovo am absurdul garemoSi, sadac aranairi kanonzomiereba araa? `ra ufro mTavaria _ gqondes mizani Tu iyo
kmayofili?~ Cndeba dapirispireba klasikuri literaturis warmodgenasTan, romlis mixedviTac, cxovreba Teatria. gmiri ki
fiqrobs: `cxovreba ar aris Teatri... Teatri sainteresoa. iq
yovelTvis raRac xdeba~. `cxovrebas ara aqvs siuJeti, amitom
mosawyenia~ (jandieri 2010: 78). amitomac literatura (xelovneba) iqceva gamosavlad. xelovani realur cxovrebas Caanac-

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vlebs warmosaxuliT, raTa daZlios mowyeniloba, erTferovneba,


rac jojoxeTis tanjvas edareba. ase daZlia `mowyeniloba~ espaneTis erTi miyruebuli soflis erTma Cveulebrivma idalgom,
saxelad don kixotma da cxovrebas `Seuqmna siuJeti~_ `gadaiqca~ raindad, romelsac boroti Zalebi unda daemarcxebina.
sagulisxmoa nincos ocneba: `sulac ar minda gavizardo~,
radgan gazrda, swored ocnebiseul samyarosTan gamoTxovebas
gulisxmobs. es exmianeba giunter grasis romans `Tunuqis doli~, romlis gmirmac es ocneba aisrula, ar gaizarda, magram
cxovrebis tragikuloba mainc ver daZlia. nincos rwmena: `cxovreba mSvenieria, RmerTi samarTliania da samyaros aqvs raRac
CvenTvis dafaruli azri da daniSnuleba. eg aris, xandaxan meCveneba, rom Cem garda aravin icis amis Sesaxeb~ _ eTanxmeba molodins mkiTxvelisa, romelic kiTxvisas imis ZiebaSia, rom wignSi
(wakiTxulSi) mainc miagnos gamosavals da sanam Tavdaxrili
striqonebs nTqavs, gavides sakuTari ubadruki arsebobis sazRvrebidan da wignis gmirTa samyaroTi, maTi imediT isunTqos.
wignis kiTxva personaJebisTvis, marTlac, realobidan TavdaRwevis yvelaze ukeTesi gzaa, TavSesafaria, Tumca warmosaxul
samyaroSi xsnis imedi iluziuria da maleve qreba: `adre wignis
wakiTxva imeds aRmiZravda. Cemi suli niadagi iyo, mwiri, magram
mainc niadagi~(jandieri 2010: 70). mTavari iyo, wignebidan aeRoT Tesli da imedi hqonodaT, rom ixarebda. samwuxarod, `niadagma teni dakarga~, warmosaxul samyaros cxovrebam Seutia da
ferebisagan ganZarcva: `tilos miaxma zeTis saRebavebi, kedlis
baTqaSi gamoSra da veRar iRebs temperas. ramdeni feric ar unda iyos jeimsis romanSi, is ukve veRar Seavsebs naxevrad gamomSral freskas. Cemi freska naxevrad daxatuli darCeba sikvdilamde~ (jandieri 2010: 75).
fiqrebi mwerlobaze, `kamaTi yovel sityvaze... oTar WilaZeze, sartrze... _ personaJebisTvis aris Tavisuflebis SegrZnebis
tolfasi. `frang mwerlebs vbaZavdiT: `iveriis myral saxinkleSi gaqonil sadgom magidaze vwerdiT winaswar mofiqrebul frazebs, gegoneba, saxlSi ar SeiZleboda amis gakeTeba. gegoneba,
sandrariebi da Jakobebi viyaviT, xolo `iveriis~ saxinkle ki
`kafe dez artisti~ yofiliyos `foli-berJeris maxloblad~.
wignebs gahyavs gmirebi Caketili sivrcidan sxva samyaroSi.
XX saukunis 70-80-iani wlebis sabWoeTis Taobis tkivilebs
kargad warmoaCens es swrafva ucxosaken. grigol robaqiZe maT-

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Tvis is mweralia, romelmac Tavi daaRwia totalitaruli reJimis marwuxebs. aRsaniSnavia, rom am dros grigol robaqiZis xseneba jer kidev ikrZaleboda da mis bibliografiul iSviaTobad
qceuli wignebis wakiTxva komunisturi reJimis winaaRmdeg faruli protestis gamoxatuleba iyo. moTxrobaSi personaJad ixateba mxatvari irakli ToiZe, romelic axalgazrdebs uyveba:
`grigol robaqiZes moveswari, ymawvilebo. saocari Tvalebi
hqonda, cecxlovani. dReSi ramdenime saaTs bnel oTaxSi atarebda xolme. Turme am dros gugebi farTovdeba da Tvali gansakuTrebul elvarebas iZens~. esec imedis marcvalia, rom Senc
daaRwev Tavs. Taobis manifestad warmoCndeba italieli mwerlis, jovani papinis sityvebi: `me unda vifiqro Cems sircxvilsa
da martoobaze absolutur martoobaSi. ra gindaT Cemgan? roca
ramis Tqma msurs, me amas vbeWdav, roca ramis gacema minda _ me
viZlevi. Tqveni cnobismoyvareoba guls mirevs. Tqveni komplimentebi Seuracxmyofs, Tqveni Cai mwamlavs! aravis vali ara maqvs,
me pasuxs vageb mxollod RvTis winaSe _ Tuki saerTod arsebobs~ (jandieri 2010: 72). es sityvebi kargad gamoxatavs daeWvebulobas yoveliveSi, es niSnavs usayrdenobas. swored amgvari
Taobis tkivilebi ixateba moTxrobaSi.
sagulisxmoa, rom moTxrobaSi SemoiWreba `TviTmfrinavis biWebis~ ambavi _ 1983 wlis 18 noembers TbilisSi momxdari tragedia _ axalgazrdaTa erTma jgufma samgzavro TviTmfrinavi gaitaca, rasac msxverpli da sazogadoebis araerTgvarovani reaqcia mohyva. es saqarTvelos uaxlesi istoriis erTi sisxliani
furcelia, romlis wakiTxvis gareSe warmoudgenelia qarTveli
eris vinaobis Secnoba. kote jandieris am moTxrobaSi SesaniSnavad warmoCndeba cocxali gancda am movlenisa, amitomac am
mxrivac sainteresoa, ra gavlenas axdens Sokis momgvreli movlenebi adamianebze, rogor afxizlebs maT da ubiZgebs moZraobisken, daWaobebuli sivrcis garRvevisken. sagulisxmoa, rom kote
jandierma mxatvrul samyaroSi erT-erTma pirvelma warmoaCina es
tragikuli istoria. moTxrobaSi kinosTvis damaxasiaTebeli montaJis teqnikiT kargad ixateba erTdroulad mimdinare movlenebi. axalgazrdebi kafeSi eseninis poeziaze saubroben, am dros ki
SemoiWreba frazaTa naglejebi: `gzebi gadaketilia.... aeroportidan micvalebulebi daxuruli manqaniT mohyavT... foniWalaSic isvrian~ (jandieri 2010: 81).

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mTxrobeli uZluria realur sivrceSi `mamebis~ mimarT protestis gamosaxatavad. misTvis mxsneli xelovnebaa da, konkretulad, literatura. is daweriliT gegmavs samomavlo SurisZiebas
usulgulo sazogadoebaze, romelmac gulgrilad, cxoveluri
sisastikiT moikveTa misgan gansxvavebulad moazrovneebi: `gava
wlebi da me amis Sesaxeb davwer wigns, romelsac lope de vegas
sityvebiT daviwyeb, saxelad ki `sisxlian qorwils davarqmev~.
es iqneba wigni, savse tkiviliT, xmauriTa da mware monaniebiT
Cveni uRmerTod Cavlili, WeSmarit mcnebebs mokveTili cxovrebis gamo; is iqneba savse yviriliTa da ucenzuro gamoTqmebiT,
romelTac veraviTari cenzori da redaqtori ver amoSlis, xolo imisaTvis, rom vinmem ar miTxras: `ra dagemarTaT? es ra
stilia? Tqven poziorobT da uxamsobiT iwonebT Tavso~, me win
davurTav aseT Sesavals: `Zvirfaso mkiTxvelo! Sen SeiZleba Seuracxyofili darCe am wignis pirvelive winadadebiT, magram me
sxvanairad ar SemeZlo. rom icode, rogor mombezrda inteleqtualuri farsis TamaSi idioturi sifaTebis win! rogor mombezrda es usasrulo reveransebi da etiketi, romelic mxolod
simarTlis dasamalavadaa mogonili~ (jandieri 2010: 86).
sagulisxmoa, rom mwerals sjera, Tavdaxsna yovelTvis SeiZleba, mTavaria danaSaulisa da codvis SegrZneba ar dakargos
adamianma.
kote jandieri moTxrobaSi iyenebs klasikuri mnsxverplSewirvis models, rac imas niSnavs, rom moTxrobis yvelaze
`ucodveli~ personaJi unda Seewiros mTavari gmiris an sazogadoebis Tvalis axelas. es msxverpli nincoa, romelic avtoavariaSi iRupeba. swored misi sikvdili gaacnobierebinebs gmirs,
rom yovelive `kanonzomierad~ xdeba. mas surs nincos gadarCena,
magram rogor: `me mxolod giJuri azrebisa da da erTmaneTTan
daukavSirebeli sityvebis mflobeli var. ra giyo, ninco? rogor
gaqco sityvad?~ (jandieri 2010: 67).
nincos stanjavs cxovrebis uazroba: `miTxari, vin moawyo
ase saSinlad es cxovreba? am qalaqSi mTeli dRe rom iaro,
cocxal adamians ver naxav. Tbilisi udabnoa, saSineli, carieli
udabno! visi bralia? vin aris am samyaros avtori?~ nincos Tavisi sicocxlis erTaderT gamarTlebad 1978 w. 14 aprils qarTuli enis dasacavad gamarTul saprotesto aqciaSi monawileoba
miaCnia, sxva yvelaferi ki uazrobad. mas aqvs usaSvelobis gancda. moTxrobis gmiri, erTi SexedviT, uxerxemlo da arafris

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maqnisi `Semoqmedis~ gansaxiereba, mkiTxvelis guls sabolood


mainc igebs, radgan ver urigdeba am daWaobebul yofas da amboxis gancda eufleba: `me meTerTmete mcnebas yvelaze msxvili
SriftiT davbeWdavdi da mivakravdi cxvirze kacobriobas: `ar
geSinodes!~ (jandieri 2010: 75).
moTxrobis epigrafad gamotanili tiberius keisris sityvebi:
`yoveldRe vkvdebi~ _ gamoxatvs avtoris mTavar saTqmels
siyvarulis gareSe sicocxle droSi gaxangrZlivebuli sikvdilia. siyvarulis gareSe arc Tavisuflebaa da arc sinaTle. maS,
raRa mniSvneloba aqvs sicocxles? amitomac gaismis gmiris sityvebSi yovelives arsebulis mimarT SurisZiebis wyurvili: es
erTi dRec mokvda. me is mivaxrCve uCumrad. profesionali
mkvlelis auRelveblobiT. es iyo namdvilad erovnuli, WeSmaritad qarTuli mkvleloba, `magiuri Tatrebisa~ da da mocartis
gareSe. herman heses `tramalis mgelTan~ gadaZaxili xels uwyobs imis SegrZnebas, rom cxovreba TavisTavad `ubiZgebs~ adamians TviTganadgurebisken. amgvari cxovreba, codvebiT savse, dasjis Rirsia, amitomac aqvs gmirs gardauvali warRvnis SiSi. am
moTxrobaSic meordeba `ganwmendis~ misteria. mTavaria, rom
gmirs sjera RvTis samarTlisa da imisac, rom ar arsebobs didi
da mcire codva, yovelives aqvs gamoZaxili, amitomac yvelaze
metad sakuTari Tavi ezizReba, aRiarebs ra uZlurebas, raime
Secvalos. moTxrobis es pasaJi mkiTxvelSi AaCens amaRlebulobis gancdas, zeaweuli msjeloba orkestraluri JReradobisaa,
magram ara paTetikuri: `warRvnaSi damnaSaveni Cvena varT da es
warRvna ar aris RvTiuri sasjeli, radgan RmerTi arc milicioneria da arc prokurori. es mRvrie wylebi Cven TviTon varT~
(jandieri 2010: 99).
mwerali mkiTxvels rwmenas uCens, rom siyvaruls SeuZlia
warRvnis mRvrie wylebis SeCereba, raTa sicocxle gadarCes. nincos Svili _ anka _ swored am ToTo, dasaRupavad ganwiruli
sicocxlis simboloa. anka unda gadarCes da amgvarad dausruleblad ganmeordeba sicocxlis misteria da `aRdgeba~ samyaros
kanonzomiereba. sulisSemZvrelia gmiris sityvebi: `Sen gaizrdebi da SeZleb imas, rac Cven ver SevZeliT, da gaxsovdes, rom
qmnili sityva xom RmerTia~ (jandieri 2010: 111). mkiTxvelsac
sjera tanjvaSi axlad dabadebisa.

maia jaliaSvili

134
literatura
bodriari

2010: bodriari Jan, qalaqi da siZulvili,


http://lib.ge/body_text.php?319
mesxi 2009: mesxi zura, http://zigota.wordpress.com/2009/05/17
jandieri 2010: kote jandieri, moTxrobebi, Tbilisi, 2010
xaranauli 2010: xaranauli besik, samoci jorze amxedrebuli
raindi anu wigni hiperbolebisa da metaforebisa, gamomc. `sezani~, Tbilisi, 2010

qeTevan jiSiaSvili
mitingis qronotopi
(80-90-iani wlebis erovnuli moZraobis gamocdileba)
Tanamedrove
TbilisisTvis
dRes
Zalzed mwvaved dgas urbanistuli problemebi. qalaqis saxecvlilebis sakmaod
radikaluri da Cqari procesi uamrav
kiTxvas svams rogorc arqiteqtorTa da
urbanistTa, aseve moqalaqeebis winaSe.
qalaqis ganviTarebis veqtoris ganWvreta
kulturologiur sferoSi iWreba: ama
Tu im mSeneblobisa Tu arqiteqturuli
landSaftis cvlileba scildeba dargis
viwro sazRvrebs da da Cvengan dedaqalqais Rirebulebis, misi raobis Rrma SreebSi Cawvdomas iTxovs. Tbilisis urbanuli qsovilis metamorfozaze dakvirvebisas gansakuTrebul yuradRebas bolo
oc wleulis manZilze ganviTarebuli
socialurpolitikuri movlenebi ipyrobs: yoveli axali istoriulpolitikuri konteqsti warmoqmnis axal socialur realobas, romelic gamudmebiT
zemoqmedebs fizikur garemoze da Sesabamisad, arqiteqturuli sivrcis aRqmisa
da interpretaciisaTvis axal pirobas
badebs.
pirveli TvalSisacemi urbanuli
cvlileba 8090 wlebis erovnul moZraobas ukavSirdeba. mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs
ara mxolod arqiteqturuli qsovilis

136

qeTevan jiSiaSvili

funqciebi da iersaxe, aramed cxovrebis gansakuTrebiT faqizi


Sreebis TandaTanobiTi gadawyobagadalageba, romlis kvaldakval
arsebul fizikur sivrceSi axali drosivrculi ritmebi mkvidrdeba. masobrivi Sekrebebi da demostraciebi, maTSi akumulirebuli Zlieri muxtiT, erTgvari amovardnebi iyo stabiluri (linearuli) yoveldRiurobidan. amgvari rxevebi ukve aSkarad aRemateboda qalaqisTvis Cveul, Tundac yvelaze Zlier sasicocxlo
gamovlinebebs.
am TvalsazrisiT gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa erovnuli moZraobis droindeli mitingis Taviseburebebis siRrmiseuli ganxilva, da misi Tanmxlebi movlenebi, romlebic uSualod gadaejaWvnen urbanul cvlilebebs dedaqalaqSi.
qalaqi am SemTxvevaSi warmogvidgeba adamianis (moqalaqisa)
da samSoblo(saxelmwifos) urTierTobis asparezad, erTgvar gadakveTis wertilad. swored dedaqalaqma gamonaxa da dauTmo
sivrce erovnuli ideis xorcSesxmas, 9 aprilis movnelenebs, sabolood ki Tavadve gaxda msxverpli am wiaRSi warmoSobili mourigebeli konfliqtebisa samoqalaqo dapirispirebis saxiT.
politikuri mitingi Tu demonstracia garkveuli miznis
garSemo gaerTianebuli xalxis mier sivrcis dakavebas gulsxmobs (demonstraciis SemTxvevaSi saqme gvaqvs gegmazomier gadaadgilebasTan dakavebul sivrceSi). aseTi masStabis masobrivi
Sekrebebi or viTarebaSi xdeba: omisa da dResaswaulis dros.
8090 iani wlebis mitingebi aerTanebs erovnulgamanTavisflebeli moZraobis sabrZolo da saxalxo dResaswaulis niSnebs.
dResaswaulis, saxalxo Sekrebebisa Tu religiuri ritualis
istoriulad damkvidrebuli modeli SejibriT, TamaSobiTa da
cekvasimReriT Tbilisis mitingebisa da demonstraciebis drosac sxvadasxva saxiT iCens Tavs, rasac ganapirobebs isic, rom
dResaswauli, rogorc kulturis TviTgamoxatvis forma da amave
dros, sazogadoebrivi integratori, rigi mizezebis gamo sabWoTa periodSi faqtiurad miuwvdomeli rCeboda. ganvmartoT:
Zlier sabWour saxelmwifos sakuTari dResaswaulebi, sakuTari aRsaniSnavi dReebi hqonda, rac misi idologiuri gavlenebis gaZlierebas emsaxureboda da bunebrivia, erovnul dResaswaulebs gamoricxavda. aTwleulebis ganmavlobaSi dResaswaulebis
am tradicias fsevdozeimebi enacvleboda. magaliTad, 1 an 9 maisi, 7 noemberi, 23 Tebervali. miuxedavad imisa, rom zogierTi
maTgani garkveulad gamoxatavda gamarjvebuli Taobis sazeimo

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ganwyobas (magaliTad, 9 maisi). es iyo mxolod sazogadoebis


nawilis, garkveuli istoriuli realobis wiaRSi Seqmnili dResaswauli, romelsac araferi hqondaT saerTo tradiciasTan,
kulturul fesvebTan an Tundac, adamianis Sinagan moTxovnilebasTan, rasac efuZneba nebismieri Camoyalibebuli rituali. xSir
SemTxvevaSi, im aRlumebsa da zeimebSi monawileoba, romlebic
sabWour ideas eZRvneboda da sistemas ganadidebda, protestis,
absurdulobisa da farsis gancdas aRZravda, miT umetes, rom
es monawileoba institucionalurad organizebuli da savaldebulo iyo. saxalxo Sekrebebi, TamaSobebi, romlebic me19 saukunis TbilisSi jer kidev imarTeboda, Tbilisobis fsevdosaxalxo dResaswauliT Canacvlda da mxolod sanaxaobrivmomxmareblur komunikacias gulisxmobda. aranakleb mniSvnelovania religiuri dResaswaulisa da ritualis gaqrobac, ramac kidev ufro Seamcira transcendentulTan ziarebis SesaZlebloba.
ase
rom, faqtobrivad, moiWra yvela gza masobrivi ganmuxtvisa da
TviTgamovlenisaken da adamiani yoveldRiurobis amara darCa. mowesrigebuli socialuri garemosa da mogvarebuli yofiTi problemebis miuxedavad, arxi, romelic adamianis aramaterialur
moTxovnilebebs daakmayofilebda, daxSuli aRmoCnda.
saxalxo dResaswaulebis gaqroba mxolod sabWoTa kavSirisTvis araa damaxasiaTebeli. meoce saukuneSi msgavsi tendencia
SeimCneva dasavlur kulturaSic, sadac gansxvavebuli ganviTarebis xazis miuxedavad, sabolood igive suraTTan gvaqvs saqme
saxalxo zeimebs ,,uiq endebis kultura enacvleba da erTianobis gancda ojaxur, individualur doneze ganTavsdeba. amis Sesaxeb oqtavio pasi wers: ,,mdidar qveynebSi dResaswauls naklebad
aRniSnaven, saamisod arc dro aqvT, arc ganwyoba da arc saWiroeba, isini sxva saqmiT arian dakavebuli da Tu erTobian, mxolod
patarpatara jgufebad.Tanamedrove samyaroSi xalxis masa martosulebis TavSeyraa da sxva araferi. gansakuTrebul SemTxvevebSi, im dros, roca adamianebi Tavs iyrian parizsa Tu niu
iorkis quCebsa da moednebze, aSkarad igrZnoba xalxis ararseboba: vxedavT wyvilebs, jgufebs, magram ar igrZnoba is cocxali
erTianoba, romelSic adamians SeuZlia gaiTqvifos da gaTavisufldes. (pasi 1950: 23).

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138
pirveli garRveva da ganacxadi Zalauflebaze

bunebrivia, erovnuli moZraobis gaZlierebis kvaldakval,


win gamodis ara mxolod politikuri Tavisuflebis sakiTxi,
aramed iwyeba im daviwyebuli kulturuli modelis aRdgena,
romlis meSveobiTac qarTveli identobas SeigrZnobs da umaRles wesrigs sakuTari unikaluri gziT erwymis. izrdeba interesi istoriuli fesvebisa da erovnuli TviTmyofadobis mimarT.
mitingebi gvevlineba im mTavar sivrced, sadac sabWoTa wyobilebis dros akrZaluli erovnuli Rirebulebebi, samomavlo gezi
da warsuli tradicia realur materialur doneze unda ganxorcieldes.
pirveli, radikaluri nabiji riTac adamiani Tavisuflebaze
akeTebs ganacxads, dResaswaulisa da mitingisTvis erTi da igivea da gamyifebuli normisagan Tavis daRwevaSi mdgomareobs.
mkvdari wertili, saidanac dinamiuri moZraoba unda daiwyos,
yoveldRiurobis avtomatizmia. misi Tavsmoxveuli, usicocxlo
wesrigi imorCilebs adamianis nebas da sakuTar moTxovnebs uyenebs mas. mitingebis SemTxvevaSi, normis cnebaSi sabWoTa saxelmwifo sistema da mis mier marTuli sivrce igulisxmeba. es aris
Tavsmoxveuli politikuri kavSiri, Caketili saxelmwifo sazRvrebiT, romelic ar efuZneba Tavisufal arCevans arc saxelmwifoebriv, arc individualur doneze, rac kidev ufro amZafrebs istoriulad formirebuli mtris saxes da Sesabamisad,
sistemis (normis, yoveldRiurobis) garRvevis survils.
yoveldRiurobis marwuxebisgan gaqcevas gulisxmobs dResaswaulic. rutinuli ritmebis darRvevisa da gansxvavebuli sivrcis meSveobiT adamiani cdilobs Tavi daaRwios SezRudvebs
da qaoss ziarebulma, sakuTari Tavi xelaxla aRmoaCinos. rogorc g.seigvorsi ambobs: ,,yoveldRiuroba aris is imanenturi
Zala, romelic energias aclis adamians. amis mizezi arc sxeulia da arc cxovrebis romelime sfero, aramed rutinis banaluri moZraoba(seigvorsi 2000: 13).
saxalxo Sekrebebisa da TamaSobebis dros adamiani Surs
iZiebs yoveldRiurobaze. am gziT avlens cxovrebaze Zalauflebis nebas da am rwmeniT gaJRenTili, Tavs mTeli samyaros baton patronad grZnobs.
saxalxo moZraoba, sazogadoebrivi gaerTianeba, monoliTur
sxeulad Camoyalibebuli, Zlieri da erTiani nebelobiTi mux-

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tiT, gaxevebul yofaSi Semodis da arRvevs qalaqis Tanabar


ritms. mitingi, rogorc politikuri protestis forma, Zalauflebis mopovebis samoqalaqo formaa da upirvelesad, sivrcis dakavebas gulisxmobs. magistralis droebiT gadaketva xels uSlis transportis Tavisufal gadaadgilebas, aferxebs qalaqis
Cveul cxovrebas, rac saSualebas aZlevs adamians, sakuTari Zalebis demonstrirebiT Secvalos mTeli qalaqi. Sesabamisad, irRveva qalaqis funqcionirebis stabiluri ritmi. adamiani tovebs Tavis mowesrigebul rutinas da alternatiuli sivrcis
Zebnas iwyebs. kanonmorCili uwyinari moqalaqe am dRes meamboxed
grZnobs Tavs. swored am amboxis sistematiur praqtikas warmoadgenda Sekrebebi mTavrobis sasaxlis win ,,dapyrobil teritoriaze 8090 iani wlebis mitingze.
sivrcis moniSvna da dakaveba
saxes icvlis materialur garemoc, romelsac momitingeTa
masa ikavebs. pirvel rigSi, icvleba quCebis funqcia. isini masaTa Sexvedris adgilad iqcevian saerTo miznebis, emociebis
maspinZel anonimur sivrced. qalaqis mTavari santrasporto magistrali Tavisi mniSvnelovani administraciuli nagebobebiT
yoveldRiur daniSnulebas iSorebs, gansakuTrebuli simbolikiT datvirTul, sagangebod Seqmnil sivrced yalibdeba da ukve
mTlianad masaTa mimoqcevas emorCileba. es aris erTgvari ,,mosaxmari teritoria, romelic momitingeTa moTxovnebs pasuxobs.
mxedvelobaSi maqvs ara mxolod misi simboluri gamoyeneba, ris
Sesaxebac qvemoT gveqneba saubari, aramed misi fizikuri moxmarebac. arqiteqturis am funqcias aRniSnavs umberto ekoc: ,,arqiteqtura msaxurebaa, magram ara mxolod maRali kulturuli
idealebisa, aramed is miekuTvneba momsaxurebis imgvar sferos,
rogoricaa, magaliTad, wyalmomarageba an gegmiuri moxmareba. am
SemTxvevaSi arqiteqtura arafriT aRar gamodis xelovneba, radgan xelovnebis ganmsazRvreli niSani aris is, rom igi momxmarebels sTavazobs imas, rasac misgan ar elian (eko 1998: 233).
mitingi axali drosivrculi erTeuli
mas Semdeg, rac sivrcis moniSvnis, misi dakavebisa da masze
sakuTari wesrigis gavrcelebis pirveli etapi sruldeba da mi-

140

qeTevan jiSiaSvili

tingebi stabilurad ganmeorebad saxes iZens, rusTavelis prospeqtze yalibdeba samitinge sivrce, romelsac mTlianad ipyrobs
80 iani wlebis erovnuli moZraobis miswrafebebi.
pirveli niSani, rac Tavidanve iqcevs yuradRebas, aris monawileTa Soris gamartviebuli komunikacia. mitingisa da dResaswaulis reJimi adamians aTavisuflebs socialuri kliSeebisagan
da urTierToba pirvelad, uSualo saxes ubrundeba. miznisken
erTnairad Setiralebul adamianTa Soris
ixsneba ,,me /sxva
opozicia. aseve xedavs dResaswauls mixeil baxtini: ,,aq,sakarnavalo moedanze,gabatonebuli iyo Tavisufali, familaruli urTierToba adamianTa Soris, romlebic arakarnavalur cxovrebaSi
daSorebulni arian erTmaneTTan iseTi gadaulaxavi barierebiT,
rogoricaa socialuri Tu qonebrivi gansxvavebebi. sakarnavalo
moedanze adgili hqonda adamianTa Soris ierarqiul urTierTobaTa droebiT idalurrealur gamartivebas, rac SeuZlebeli
iyo Cveulebriv cxovrebaSi(baxtini 1990:3).
80iani wlebis erovnuli moZraobis droidan dawyebuli,
sazogadoebis erTianoba centraluri ideis saqarTvelos damoukideblobis mopovebis irgvliv ikvreba. ideis masStaburoba da
misTvis mikuTvnebulobis gancda angrevs sazogadoebis socialur
ierarqias, rac misi kulminaciis momentSi, 9 aprilis Rames
umaRles xarisxSi adis: procesSi erTveba saxelmwifo muSakTa
is jgufi, romelic manamde uSualo monawileobas ar iRebda mitingebSi: administraciuli moxeleebi, milicia, partiuli frTa.
amasTan, Tbilisis mitingi maspinZlobs da asaxavs saqarTvelos
sxvadasxva kuTxidan Camosul jgufebs, Tumca imavdroulad Sekrebebi imarTeba did qalaqebSic. mitingebSi monawileoben erovnuli umciresobis warmomadgenlebic.
aRniSnul sivrceSi gansakuTrebulad ganicdeba drosivrce,
warsuli, awmyo da momavali mWidro kvanZs qmnian. warsuli SeigrZnoba, rogorc qveynis istoriulkulturuli monapovari,
romelic Cvenamde qarTvel mefeTa da moRvaweTa saxelovani saqmeebi, raindobis, Tavganwirvis, omebisa da gmiruli gamarjvebebis
fonoxatebiT cocxldeba. liderTa emociuri gamosvlebi momaval damoukideblobas da Zlieri qarTuli saxelmwifos Camoyalibebas gvpirdeba. mizani bevrad ufro metia, vidre politikuri
damoukidebloba. TiToeuli monawile CarTulia erT saerTo SemoqmedebiT procesSi, romelic samSblos idealuri xatis gacocxlebagamoZerwvas gulisxmobs.

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aseT dros awmyo ormagi pasuxismgeblobiT datvirTuli monakveTia, sadac erTdroulad Semodis warsuli, romelic unda
SenarCundes da momavali, romelic miRweul unda iqnas. Sesabamisad, indvidualur doneze dro da mitingis sivrce gansakuTrebuli SinaarsiT gajerebuli, intensiuri da mZafria.
dResaswaulisTvis saxasiaTo msubuq, uzrunvel damokidebulebas mitingebis SemTxvevaSi pasuxismgeblobis gancda enacvleba,
Tumca kulminaciis momentebSi sadResaswaulo formiT, cekva
simReris meSveobiT ganitvirTeba.
sazeimo Teatralur ganwyobas exmianeba mitingebis erTgvari
sanaxaobrivi xasiaTic. dResaswaulis SemTxvevaSi lxini dRis
bolos daZabulobis gantvirTvis saSualebaa. mitingebis dros
gamarTuli cekvasimRera, mxiarulebis spontanuri amoxeTqvebi
TiTqos pirdapir gadaizrdeba saxalxo dResaswaulSi. xalxuri
simRerebi kvlav fesvebisken Casvlas, tradiciebis gaRviZebas,
erovnuli gancdis gaRvivebas emsaxureba, amasTan zeaweuli ganwyobis, emociebis ganmuxtvis forma xdeba. adamiani zeddadebuli
kulturuli safarisgan Tavisufleba da mas yofierebis pirvelad SreebTan Sexvedris bedniereba eufleba.
mitingebis ,,adgilis arqiteqturuli sxeuli
sainteresoa, rogor lagdeba qalaqis arqiteqturuli sxeuli axali sinamdvilis fonze. am etapze Tavs iCens arqiteqturuli sivrcis xelaxali kodireba, rac mitingebis konteqstiTaa
gapirobebuli.
centralur nageboba
siganeSi farTod gaSlili mTavrobis sasaxle TaRebiani vertikaluri kompoziciiT im arqiteqturul tips ganekuTvneba, romlis mizanic xelisuflebis dominaturobisa da kontrolis gancdis gaRviZebaa. (gavilovska
2013:52) es aris ,,mtris arqiteqturuli saxe, romlis pirveladi daniSnuleba sistemis mier miRebuli gadawyvetilebebis
gavrceleba da marTvaa. fsevdo fasadis
miRma(niSandoblivia,
rom funqciuri Sesasvleli ukana quCidanaa) gaSlili
Sida
ezoa, romlis ukanac qveynis administraciaa ganTavsebuli. amitom, Cveuli distanciis Semcireba mTavrobis sasaxlesa da mitingis monawileTa Soris kidev erTxel usvams xazs fasadTan
miaxlobis simbolur aqts, rac fizikur doneze mtris gamowvevis, mis pirispir dgomis aqts warmoadgens. xalxi sakuTar

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qeTevan jiSiaSvili

brZolis vels, dislokaciis adgils irCevs da misi dakavebiT


sakuTar Zalauflebaze akeTebs ganacxads.
aRsaniSnavia, rom am momentSi ormag datvirTvas iZens da
Sesabamisad, erTmaneTs erwymis sabrZolo da sadResaswaulo niSnebi. erTi mxriv, saqme gvaqvs brZolis velTan, meore mxriv ki,
mTavrobis sasaxle, mimdebare SemaRlebuli vrceli kibeebiT, Teatraluri scenis daniSnulebas iZens, sadac liderTa tribunaa
ganTavsebuli. frontalurad gaSlili TaRedi Teatralur dekoraciebs mogvagonebs. SemaRlebul kibeebs ukan, qvis TaRebs Soris kidev erTi sivrce Sida ezo ikiTxeba, romelic erTgvari kulisebis arsebobaze migvaniSnebs.
mitingebis konteqsti cvlis danarCen nagebobaTa mnSvnelobas da maTi xelaxali wakiTxvis saSualebas iZleva: qaSueTis eklesia erTaderTi religiuri nagebobaa qlaqis mTavar gamzirze,
misi denotati, pirveladi funqcia ucvlelad narCundeba, radgan
igi kvlav moqmed eklesiad rCeba, metic, swored erovnuli moZraobisas aqtiurdeba
eklesiis funqcia. Tumca amasTan erTad
iwyeba misTvis im axali konotaciebis miniWeba, rac uSualod
epoqisa da sociumis niSnebs atarebs. eklesiurobidan daclil
sabWour sistemaSi qaSueTi rwmenis simbolos asaxierebs, rac
araerTxel ixsenieba gamomsvlelTa sityvebSi. rogorc eko ambobs, ,,swored aseTi ganaxleba amavdroulad warmoadgens Senaxvas, axali mniSvnelobebebis xelaxal aRmoCenas...rac SesaZleblobas gvaZlevs ara mxolod antikvari movaTavsoT axal droSi,
masSi daviWiroT warsulis suli, aramed SevitanoT masSi axali konotaciebi (eko 1998: 223). msgavsi komunikaciiT Semodis
mxatvris saxlic, romelic Tanamedrove qarTuli xelovnebis
niSani xdeba da avsebs erovnuli kulturuli Rirebulebebis
nusxas.
es sami nageboba: mTavrobis sasaxle, qaSueTis eklesia da
mxatvris saxli mitingebis sivrcis centraluri sxeulad iqceva. maT miRma ki sxva qalaqi iSleba. mkafiodaa gamoyofili sazRvrebic. egreTwodebuli ,,oficerTa saxli mitingebis sivrceSi
Sedis da garkveul mijnas, sazRvars, erTgvar buferul zonas
qmnis rusTavelis prospeqtis mxridan da saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi,
centraluri sivrcis nawilad iqceva. es aris bolo wertili,
saidanac iwyeba ,,Tavisufali sivrce qalaqis is nawili, romelic ar ekuTvnis mitingebs da kvlav sakuTar socialur funqcias asrulebs. am wertilebidan sustdeba masaTa simWidrove

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da xmis intensivobac. msgavs sazRvrad Tavisuflebis moednis


mxridan SegviZlia CavTvaloT pionerTa sasaxle da saqarTvelos
erovnuli muzeumi.
kulminacia, gardamtexi etapi
garkveuli periodis Semdeg is emociuri yalibi, rac mitingebis dros Seiqmna, arasakmarisi aRmoCndeba. erTi mxriv, saqme
gvaqvs Zalauflebis mozRvavebul gancdasTan, romelsac erTianoba udevs safuZvlad, meore mxriv, mudmivad xdeba iluzorul mizanTan daaxloeba. warmosaxviTi sivrce iswrafvis ganxorcielebisaken da realur materias moiTxovs sxeulad. procesebis dinamika sul ufro mZafrdeba warsuliT siamayis, awymyoSi miRweuli erTianobis sixarulsa da Zalauflebis gancdasTan erTad.
Sesabamisad, emociuri muxti Zlierdeba da daZabulobis ukidures wertils uaxlovdeba, rac axal, ufro Zlier sabrZolo impulsebs warmoSobs.
adamiani sabrZolod TviT bedisweris Zalebs iwvevs, radgan
mxolod am xarisxis gamarjveba SeiZleba iyos misTvis Rirebuli.
gardauvalTan erTgvari TamaSi, bedisweris winaSe pirispir dgomis survili rusTavelis moedanze 9 aprilis Rames realurad
xorcieldeba. rogorc cnobilia, aSkara safrTxis miuxedavad,
daSlaze uari iyo naTqvami. sikvdilis gadalaxva, masTan SeTamaSebuli damokidebuleba xSirad gvxdeba saxalxo dResaswaulebSi
TamaSobebis dros, roca tkivilis, xSirad sicocxlis fasad
adamiani orTabrZolaSi erTveba da TiTqos iviwyebs yoveldRiurobisTvis Cveul ,,brZolas gadarCenisaTvis da mis sapirispiro
polusze aRmoCndeba: adamianis mizani sikvdilis gamowveva, masTan
gapaeqreba xdeba, radgan swored amgvari amofrqvevebis wams exeba
igi yofierebis umaRles registrs.
am nebelobiTi aqtiT mitingis qronotopi scdeba xalisiani
dResaswaulis, an Tundac politikuri moZraobis sazRvrebs, qalaqis yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi iWreba da igi axal ganzomilebaSi gadahyavs. momxdari qmnis istoriul faqts, rac qveynisa da
sazogadoebis cxovrebaSi axal aTvlis wertilad iqceva. adamianTa tragikuli fizikuri monawileoba 9 aprilis Rames mTlianad
amowuravs, erovnuli moZraobis ideur mxares.

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sivrce, rogorc brZolis veli

am konteqstSi TvalSisacemia arqiteqturuli sxeulis saxecvlileba, 9 aprlis Rames Senobebi Cveul simbolur da socialur funqcias iSoreben da realobaSi gansakuTrebeuli saxiT
erTvebian.
xelaxla icvleba garemos arqiteqturuli aRqma. samitinge
sivrce uTanasworo brZolis veli xdeba. nagebobebi rusTavelis
prospeqtze da mis mimdebare quCebze mxolod erTaderT konteqstSi ganixileba: ramdenad SeiZleba maTTvis Tavis Sefareba da
am gziT sicocxlis gadarCena. arqiteqtura TiTqos pirvelyofil funqcias ibrunebs, roca misi mTavari daniSnuleba TavSesafari iyo. wina planze iwevs nagebobaTa iseTi niSnebi, rogoricaa
iolad SeRwevadoba, samalavis an usafrTxo karis arseboba, rac
iseTi tipis arqiteqturisTvis, rogoricaa mxatvris saxli, qaSueTi, kino rusTaveli, an rusTavelis Teatri sruliad uCveulo funqcias warmoadgens. Cvens Tvalwin kulturuli Tu religiuri daniSnulebis Senobebi safortifikacio nagebobebad iqceva.
es periodi TiTqos gamyofi wertilia, saidanac rusTavelis
prospeqti axal cxovrebas iwyebs. momdevno aTwleulebis ganmavlobaSi ganviTarebuli movlenebi kvlav araerTxel cvlis sivrces da axali konotaciebiT tvirTavs mas. es bunebrivicaa: ,,qalaqi es aris mudmivad cvalebadi nakrebi konceptualuri SesaZleblobebisa, amavdroulad, sakmaod myari imisTvis,rom gafarTovdes da SeikumSos moTxovnis Sesabamisad ise, rom ar dakargos sakuTari arsobrivi gansazRvruloba (amini...2002: 8). mTavrobasTan dapirispireba, karvebis gaCena mTavrobis sasaxlis win,
Semdeg ki samoqalaqo omi Tavis savalalo SedegebiT calke ganxilvis sagania. yvela es saxecvlileba cxadyofs, rom bolo ocdaxuTi wlis ganmavlobaSi qalaqis es konkretuli nawili saxelmwifosTan dapirispirebis, erovnuli ideebis manifestaciisa
da politikuri brZolis ualternativo teritoriad iqca, rac
dRemde grZeldeba da ar kargavs aqtualobas. rac Seexeba am
adgilis arqiteqturul xats, igi SeiWra araerTi Taobis cnobierebasa da biografiaSi, rogorc niSani rusuli imperiis sisastikisa, Zlieri erovnuli gancdisa, TavisuflebisTvis brZolis,
Tavganwirvis da warsulis mtkivneuli Secdomebisa. ,,axorcielebs ra kveTas sxvadasxva nacionalur, socialur, stilur ko-

145

mitingis qronotopi

debsa da teqstebs Soris, qalaqi axorcielebs sxvadasxvagvar


hibridizacias, xelaxal kodifikacias, semiotur gadatanebs, romelic mas informaciis Zlier generatorad aqcevs...qalaqi, es
aris meqanizmi, romelic maradiulad xelaxla Sobs sakuTar
warsuls da saSualebas aZlevs mas Seerwyas awymos TiTqos sinqronulad. am mxriv, qalaqi iseve, rogorc kultura, aris meqanizmi, romelic win aRudgeba dros. (lotmani 1999: 282). L
literatura
... 2002: ., . .
,, 3(24) 2002.
http://www.ruthenia.ru/logos/number/34/14.pdf
1990: .
. ,,. .
1990.
http://krotov.info/libr_min/02_b/ah/00_bahtin.html
2013, Gawlikovska Anna. From semantics to semiotics,
communication of architecture. ,,Architecture et Artibus.
1/2013.
http://www.wa.pb.edu.pl/uploads/downloads/Artykul-4-1---2013.pdf
1998: ko . a.
. ,, 1998
1999: . . --. ,, "
1999
1950: Paz Octavio. El laberinto de la soledad. ,,Ediciones Cuadernos
Americanos, Mxico, 1950.
http://www.ensayistas.org/antologia/XXA/paz/paz2.htm
2000: Sigworth G .J . Banality for cultural studies ,,Cultural
Studies 2000.
http://www.envplan.com/epa/editorials/a39131.pdf

semiotika da sxva
cira barbaqaZe
ena sazRvrebSi da
sazRvrebs miRma

...ena umal zRvars hgavs, romlis gadalaxvamac, SesaZloa, sityvis zebunebrivi


Tvisebebi aRmogaCeninos; ena moedania,
romelic winaswaraa momzadebuli moqmedebisTvis.
is erTdrouladaa SezRudvac da SesaZleblobebis diapazonis aRmoCenac...

rolan barti, weris nulovani done


bartis am citatis azri SegviZlia
metaforulad gadmovitanoT enidan adamianis cnobierebaze... cnobierebac (da mere cxovrebac) xom erTgvari scenaa, winaswar momzadebuli speqtaklisTvis... am
speqtaklebis Semoqmedi isev Cveni cnobierebaa, yvela saWiro SemTxvevisTvis myar
diskze aqvs Senaxuli siuJetebi (gaixseneT frazeologizmi: ra speqtaklebs
dgam?)
emociebi, grZnobebi, gancdebi mTavari
personaJebi arian... winaswarmocemuli
scenaris ganviTareba did interess ar
unda iwvevdes, magram cnobiereba axali
personaJebiT Canacvlebul speqtakls siaxled aRiqvams... da es asecaa. axali

ena sazRvrebSi da sazRvrebs miRma

147

personaJebis TamaSSi aris raRac momxibvleli, radgan gansxvavebuli elementebi arian. erT mSvenier dRes (an saRamos) personaJi scenars (avtors) aRar daemorCileba da iwyebs siuJetis Secvlas... ai, es aris saintereso da aqedan iwyeba bartiseuli SesaZleblobebis diapazonis aRmoCenac... winaswarmocemulobis gadalaxva... koleqtiuri cnobierebidan gasvla, kliSeebis daZleva,
stereotipebis msxvreva... es aris mdgomareoba, rodesac ena (Sesabamisad, cnobiereba) gadis sazRvrebidan da sruliad gansxvavebuli parametrebis ganzomilebaSi xvdeba. es ganzomileba SeiZleba aRiweros, rogorc cnobierebis kvanturoba, Tumca, rogorc
mecnierebi amboben, kvanturobis aRwera klasikuri meTodebiT SeuZlebelia... mxolod metaforulad da arapirdapir... ase rom,
mec metaforulad gamoviyeneb.
vfiqrob, gaseti erTgvarad ganavrcobs bartis azrs, rodesac
metyvelebis aqtze saubrobs: ena gamoTqmis ganusazRvreli SesaZleblobebiTaa savse, amitom metyveleba Sedgeba ara mxolod
imisagan, rasac TavisTavad ambobs, aramed im SesaZleblobebis aqtualizaciisagan, gamoTqvas rame mTeli situaciis mniSvnelobis
gacnobierebiT... (gaseti, adamiani da xalxi).
am SemTxvevaSi gaseti saubrobs zepir metyvelebaze da imaze,
rogor Semodis metyvelebis procesSi mTeli garemo, is konteqsti, romelSic metyveleba mimdinareobs. maT Soris: msmenelebi,
sagnebi, movlenebi... yvelaferi, rac iq da maSin xdeba. amdenad,
aseTi ubnoba unikaluria da misi ganmeoreba SeuZlebeli. gaseti
aseT komunikaciaSi gulisxmobs nebismier detals, magaliTad, saubrob da gareT Tova iwyeba... yvelaferi CarTulia azris am
unikalur interpretaciaSi, ara marto ena... ena xdeba yvelaferi, rac garSemoa da atarebs garkveul da Semavsebel mniSvnelobas mTliani azris gadmosacemad.... amitom is gasulia Cveulebrivi sazRvrebidan da transpersonaluria.
poeziis enis kvanturobas ki kargad xsnis oqtavio pasi: poezia, garda imisa, rom metyvelebis faqtad rCeba, igi, amave
dros, mis sazRvrebs gareTac iWreba enis stiqiis moZraobaSi
Cafluli, misi nawilakebis gadaadgilebiT garTuli poeti an
TviTon irCevs sityvebs, an sityvebi irCeven poets...
rogoria sazRvrebs gareT gaWrili ena...? es is mdgomareobaa, rodesac subieqti da obieqti dakargulia, rodesac Sinagani
da garegani gaxsnilia erTmaneTSi, roca Sin da gareT aRar arsebobs... poeti, romelsac hgonia, rom sityvebs arCevs azris

148

cira barbaqaZe

gadmosacemad, sxva fokusidan ise Cans: rom sityvebi arCeven mas...


aq isev bartis postmodernuli metafora gamogvadgeba avtoris
sikvdilis Sesaxeb. poeti -mediumia... is, ubralod, gamtaria...
romeli ganzomilebis azris gamtari...? amaze Rirs fiqri, radgan
poezia (iseve, rogorc mTlianad, literatira) SeuZlebelia yovelTvis RvTaebrivi azris mimRebi iyos...
cnobierebis transpersonalur mdgomareobaSi poetis pirovnuli me iSleba, ifanteba... xan subieqti obieqtad iqceva... xan
- yvelad da yvelafrad... me Sen var - ambobs novalisi. me - es
sxvaa (lakani), me - aseTi sityva ar arsebobs (prigovi)...
paata Samugias erT leqsSi - lingvistikis wre- swored
aseTi kvanturi gasvlaa aRwerili: rodesac poeti superpoziciaSia (esec metaforulad) xdeba is sityva, rasac wers:
gamudmebiT asea:
vxdebi is sityva, romelic me momemarTeba,
da yvela sityva, romelic me momemarTeba,
da maxsenebs sivrcis simyares,
cdilobs, momces Tavisi saxe,
Tavisi garsi da survilTa myife logika.....
...........
da me - poeti,
me - meZavi,
me - patriarqi,
me - teroristi,
liberali,
avtomrboleli,
me - cirkis muSa,
geniosi da RvTismSobeli...
...................
da Zilis win ukve imdeni var,
yvelafers azri ekargeba,
Tvlas - miTumetes....
poeti im ganzomilebidan gvelaparakeba, sadac simyare ar
aris da amitom ufrTxis sityvebs, rogorc mniSvnelobis da
formis mqone elementebs, romlebic mas sadRac kvantur da
talRur ganzomilebaSi sivrcis simyares axsenebs... amgvar superpoziciaSi myofi ki erTdroulad aris: poeti, meZavi, patriaqi, teroristi, liberali, prezidenti da ase Semdeg....

ena sazRvrebSi da sazRvrebs miRma

149

cnobierebis kvantur mdgomareobas gansxvavebulad aRwers poeti daTo yanCaSvili. misTvis sasruloba da usasruloba matrioSkebis samyaroTia warmodgenili: yvelaferi erTmaneTSia Calagebuli, yvelaferi erTmaneTSi ixsneba da gagadis da, sabolood,
poeti aerTianebs, masSia es yvelaferi:
CemSi Sen,
SenSi bavSvi,
bavSvSi martivi samyaro.
martiv samyaroSi
uSnod daxatuli saxlebi,
saxlebSi adamianebi,
adamianebSi
grZnobebi da SegrZnebebi,
SegrZnebebSi da grZnobebSi
sxva adamianebi.
sxva adamianebSi erTmaneTi da
bavSvebi.
bavSvebSi didebi,
didebSi moxucebi,
moxucebSi mkvdrebi,
mkvdrebSi
moxucebi,
moxucebSi didebi,
didebSi bavSvebi.
bavSvebSi martivi samyaro
da uSnod daxatuli saxlebi (matrioSkebis samyaro).
poeti rati amaRlobeli ki am ganzomilebis droisa da sivrcidan gasvlas ase gamoxatavs:
minda gamosvla wamidan,
veeberTela ca minda.
viwro bilikis magier
aTi aTasi gza minda.
gza minda mnaTobebidan,
Senken mavali gza minda.....
yvela varskvlavSi wva minda,
yvela varskvlavSi svla minda,
yvela varskvlavis cvla minda,
minda gamosvla wamidan,
veeberTela ca minda... (sekvencia)

cira barbaqaZe

150
poeti da zRva

...da miniSnebani odiTgan


enaa RmerTTa
hiolderlini
ena niSanTa sistemaa... da am eniT gamoTqmuli yoveli azric
zogisTvis ubralod teqstia da zogisTvis - miniSneba. metaforebi kidev ufro Rrma da konceptualuri miniSnebebia, maTi axsniT Cven vwvdebiT iseT siRrmeebs, romlebSic ubralo leqsikiT
ver CavaRwevT...
akaki wereTlis erT leqsze minda gesaubroT, leqss hqvia:
zRvao, aReldi, aReldi...
ra kavSiria poetsa da zRvas Soris...? ufro sworad, zRvasa
da poetis guls Soris...?
gulsa da zRvas Soris rom kavSiria, amas advilad davadasturebT qarTuli enis leqsikis safuZvelze, radgan sityva vRelav gulisa da zRvis metaforul kavSirze miuTiTebs da leqsikaSi es leqsema enobrivi metaforaa. ase rom, SeiZleba iTqvas,
zRva -guli universaluricaa da konceptualuric, amave dros.
akaki wereTlis leqsSi zRvao, aReldi, aReldi - poetis
gulis metaforuli kavSiri zRvasTan filosofiur-ezoTeruli
mniSvnelobisaa. leqsis dasawyisSi saubaria imaze, rom poeti
zRvas aRlvebisken mouwodebs da ara simSvidisken. mogexsenebaT,
rom aRelveba, damSvideba, miqceva-moqceva - zRvis xasiaTia. zRva
yovelTvis cvalebadia Tavisi bunebiT, radgan is cocxalia da
tbasaviT damdgari ar aris. sicocxlis Tviseba ki moZraobaa...
zRvao, aReldi, aReldi,
qartexils daemorCile,
aamTagore talRebi,
kideebs gadaacile!
Semdeg striqonSi poeti ganmartavs, ratom ar unda damSviddes da ratom unda iRelvos zRvam: ganZi zRvis gulSi, zRvis
fskerze inaxeba da rodesac zRva damSvidebulia, ganZi dafarulia, SeuZlebelia misi zedapirze amotana... SeiZleba arc icode, rom ganZis mflobeli xar. ra asaCinoebs dafarul ganZs...?
ra Tqma unda, Relva, boboqroba, talRebis kideebs gadacileba...
aseT dros nakadi Seexeba fskersac da amohyris, Tu ram dafarulia...

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151

margalitebis salaro
Seni ufskruli gulia,
myudroebis dros is ganZi
qveynisTvis dafarulia.
mzisa da mTvaris energia zRvas aboboqrebs, swored es aZlevs Zalas talRebs, rom fskeridan amohyaros margalitebi da
uxilavi gaxados xiluli:
mxolod rodesac mrisxaneb,
guls uxsni mzes da mTavresa,
im margalitebs Sestyorcni
Sen Semkvrel aremaresa.
am aRweris Semdeg gadadis poeti metaforis meore elementze: es aris poeti, ufro zustad ki, poetis guli. rezonansi
myardeba aRelvebul zRvasa da poetis guls Soris... poetisaTvis es aRelveba ubralo brazi an SfoTva ki ar aris, aramed erTgvari stiqia, maRali Zabva, maRali sixSire, romlis wyalobiTac poetis guli swvdeba ara yoveldRiur ambebs, aramed momavalSi mogzaurobs da, rogorc winaswarmetyvels, im maRali sixSiridan moaqvs ambebi.
poeto! nurc Sen ekrZalvi
mrisxane gulis Relvasa!..
Zilis dros quxils nu moSli
da sibnelis dros elvasa!
zRva daculia.... rogorc ar unda aReldes da iboboqros,
rogorc ar unda gadaacilos kideebs talRebi, is mainc daubrundeba kalapots... poetis Relvasac TiTqos RmerTi icavs...
naxeT, rogor enaTesaveba akaki wereTlis am leqss hiolderlini Semdeg striqonSi:
... da mihqris suli, rogorc arwivi,
Sesagebeblad Weqa-quxilTa,
da asaxelebs Tavis momaval RmerTebs
winaswar.
poeturi metyveleba Tavisi arsiT metaforaa imis miuxedavad,
teqstSi aris Tu ara metaforebi. es aris erTgvari paraleluri realoba, an gzavnili momavlidan, romlis sworad wakiTxam SeiZleba bevri ram daanaxos adamians, ers, kacobriobas.
poeturi Tqma am miniSnebaTa daWeraa da Semdeg misi xalxSi
ganvrcoba, amgvari daWera aris miReba da, amave dros, xelaxla
gaReba madlisa, radgan poeti ukve pirvelive niSanSi Wvrets

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ukve saboloo sisrules. da es ganWvretili Tavis sityvaSi Seaqvs, raTa iwinaswarmetyvelos jer araRsrulebuli... (hiolderlini).
poeziis amgvari gageba (isev metaforulad) kvanturi cnobierebis proeqciaa, rac niSnavs, rom amgvar teqstebSi darRveulia
drois gageba da erTdroulad arsebobs warsuli-awmyo-momavali.... poeti erTgvarad winaswarmetyvelia, misi sityva afxizlebs, aRviZebs, afrTxilebs, mianiSnebs adamianebs...
poetis Sesaxeb am ideidan gamomdinareobs Semdegi metafora:
poeti _ garemoebis sayviri.
xan ugnuri var, xan brZeni,
xan arc isa var, arc isa!
garemoebis sayviri,
arc miwisa var, arc cisa.
nu mkicxav, mnaxo ugnurad,
nurc gaikvirveb brZnobasa:
sul sxva hyavs xelisufali
am Cvens goneba-grZnobasa...
poeti, romelic arc miwas ekuTvnis da arc cas da, amave
dros, miwisacaa da cisac... da misi grZnoba-gonebis xelisufali
RmerTia.... RmerTic metaforaa, sxva ufro zusti sityva gamoxatvisTvis ar gvaqvs....

Q
Tamar berekaSvili
sisulelis aqtualoba
sibrZne adamianTa arsebobis pirvelive
dRidan didi sikeTe da faseuli Rirsebaa. rac Seexeba sisuleles, is, erTi
mxriv, TiTqos sibrZnes upirispirdeba,
magram, meore mxriv, sibrZnis warmoCenis
fonia anu sibrZnis naklebobis maRali
xarisxi.
am statiaSi Cven naklebad SevexebiT sisulelis gansazRvrebebsa da mis filosofiur analizs, aRvniSnavT mxolod,
rom gageba imisa, Tu ra aris sisulele,
ar aris calsaxa da mudmivi. is icvleboda saukuneebisa da epoqebis ganmavlobaSi, Tumca inarCunebda Sefasebis im
niSnebsac, romlebiTac mas axasiaTebdnen.
sisulele, SesaZloa, sazogadoebis da
kacobriobis erT-erTi yvelaze damaxasiaTebeli niSania da kargad warmoaCens
epoqas, dros.
xSirad sisulele eriTmeba iseT cnebebs,
rogorebicaa sibriyve, umecreba, gonebaSezRuduloba, naivuroba, gamoucdeloba
da sxva. yvela am cnebas aqvs erTmaneTTan erTgvari kavSiri. sxvadasxva dros
misi semantika sxvadasxva termins uaxlovdeboda; Tumca, miuxedavad amisa, mainc inarCunebda Tavis mniSvnelobas.

154

Tamar berekaSvili

Sua saukuneebSi, rodesac moraluri (eTikuri) da esTetikuri


Sefasebis ZiriTad kriteriumebs sazogadoebas eklesia ukarnaxebda bibliaze dayrdnobiT, sisulele codvis erTgvar sinonimadac
aRiqmeboda, romelsac gmobdnen, magram misTvis ar sjidnen (simkacrisa da ulmoblobis miuxedavad, eklesias ar SeeZlo amoexoca an Tundac daesaja adamianTa umravlesoba; suleli xom yovelTvis metia!)
sisulele pirvelad ganxilulia mxatvrul, erasmus roterdamelis cnobil wignSi, (Sesxma sisulelisa), romelic ufro gasarTob literaturad moiazreba, vidre seriozul Txzulebad.
Tavis droze is araerTgvarovnad Seafasa sazogadoebam da srulebiTac ar aRiqmeboda uwyinar Txrobad.
sazogadod, sisuleleze saubari, fiqri, wera gansakuTrebiT aqtualuri gaxda aRorZinebis epoqaSi (aki roterdamelic aRorZinebis epoqis pirmSoa!). es unda ukavSirdebodes esTetikuri da
eTikuri Rirebulebebis gadafasebas, antikuri kulturis da, gansakuTrebiT, filosofiis gavlenas. platonma da aristotelem
udidesi roli Seasrules axali mxatvruli da filosofiuri
saxeebis CamoyalibebaSi, imoqmedes adamianis axlebur warmodgenaze, adamianis mniSvnelobaze. adamianma daibruna antikuri perodisdroindeli dideba da srulyofileba. am viTarebaSi sisulele, romelic Crdils ayenebs adamianis idealur xats, gansakuTrebulad TvalSi sacemi gaxda. cnobilia am periodis araerTi
nawarmoebi, miZRvnili sisulelisadmi,
magram Cven aRvniSnavT
mxolod erT avtors, romelmac Tavisi Semoqmedebis didi nawili
swored am codvas dauTmo. es aris ieronim bosxi. fermweri
ieronim bosxi
gamoirCeva ara marto Tavisi gansakuTrebuli
xatvis stiliT, aramed imiTac, rom mis tiloebze yovelTvis
vxedavT Sefasebas, gansjas, moTxovnas, guliswyromas imis Taobaze, rom adamianebma daiviwyes RmerTi, aRar misdeven moses sibrZnes, rac, ueWvelad sisulelea. aki mis erT-erT nawarmoebsac
ewodeba sulelTa xomaldi (sulelTa xomaldi literaturuli nawarmoebebis Temac iyo im periodSi). misi meore ferweruli triptiqi adamianis cxovrebis gzebic swored sisulelis aRweras emsaxureba. vgulisxmobT triptiqis Sua nawils,
saTauriT - Tivis zvini, romelic gamosaxavs yvela SesaZlo
codvas, uxamsobas, adamianis Rirseul cxovrebasTan Seusabamobas.

sisulelis aqtualoba

155

maRla caSi gamosaxul qristes ara imdenad amaRlebuli da mSvidi ieri aqvs, ramdenadac - dabneuli da Sewuxebuli, sasowarkveTilic ki. yvela adamians, romelsac gamosaxavs bosxi, daukargavs individualuri adamianuri saxe, isini TiTqos uxeSad gamoWrili xis Tojinebia. mxolod qristea gamosaxuli adamianuri
saxiT. adamianebi avxorcoben, iviwyeben TavianT daniSnulebas, movaleobas, etanebian raRac eSmaseul siaxleebs da gamogonebebs,
magram ar axsovT patiosneba, Sroma, siyvaruli, sikeTe, ... isini
dabneulebi arian veeberTela samyaroSi, radgan ar ician namdvili saqme. es is sisulelea, romelic borotebis tolfasia, da
adamianebi am borotebas sCadian kidec - klaven, Zaladoben, muqTaxoroben, mruSoben, iparaven. amasTan, gamonaklisi ar arsebobs.
codvili, suleli da borotmoqmedia rogorc ubralo glexi,
ise - mWedeli, kardinali da papic ki. bosxi naTlad gamxatavs
sisulelis misebur, da, rogorc Cans, misdroindel gansazRvrebas. sisulele codvaa da boroteba. magram sibrZne, Wkua aramecnieruli goni, inteleqtualuri goniereba da niWia, aramed RvTis kanonebis gageba da codna, maTi dacva, svla ara - jojoxeTisken, romelsac adamianebi Tavisi qmedebiT, codvili da suleluri cxovrebiT
aqve, dedamiwaze qmnian, aramed - samoTxisaken.
sisulele centralur adgils iWers samyaros xatis CamoyalibebaSi, is axasiaTebs imas, rac araRvTiuri da amaoa. sisulele
flobs Zalas, romelic ubiZgebs adamians borotebisken. sisulele da boroteba erTmaneTisagan aRar ganirCeva. amasTan, codnis
SeZenis mcdeloba sisulelis pirvelwyaroa - SeuZlebelia, Caswvde imas, rasac RmerTi ar ganiWebs (adamianis gaZeveba samoTxidan, solomonis sibrZne). bosxi, romelic warmoudgenelia aRorZinebis drois farTo azrovnebis da axleburi midgomebis gareSe,
upirispirdeba da gmobs am axal xedvas, azrovnebis Tavisuflebas, SeuzRudav Semoqmedebas.
imis gaazreba, Tu ramdenad ukavSirdeba sisulele codnas, usasruloa da dRemde grZeldeba. sisulele SeiZleba iyos arcodnac
da codnac imisda mixedviT, Tu risi arcodna da codna igulisxmeba. bibliaSiac ufro codvili isaa, vinc scodavs arcodnis,
umecrebis gamo, adamiani ki, romelic Segnebulad scodavs, patiebis kars Rias tovebs.

156

Tamar berekaSvili

codnasTan sibrZnis gaigiveba gansakuTrebiT ganmanaTleblebisTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli: Wkua uxmar ars briyvTaTvis, Wkva codniT
moixmarebis - am sityvebs, albaT, yvela ganmanaTlebeli moazrovne gaiziarebda. mxolod codnas moaqvs sikeTe da bedniereba;
codnis gareSe SeuZlebelia siduxWiris daZleva. yvela, vinc
codnas uaryofs, suleli da miamitia (kandidi _ miamiti - ase
daasaTaura volterma Tavisi wigni), magram miamiti sZlevs Tavis
sisuleles, swavlobs, naTldeba, iZens codnas, suleli ki - vera.
yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi sisulele gonebis gansazRvruli Tviseba an midrekilebaa - uzaroba, gonebis sisuste, saRi azris simwire, naCqarevi msjeloba da daskvnebi da a.S. sisulele araadekvaturobacaa, Seusabamoba qcevis aRiarebul normebsa da SefasebebTan.
droTa ganmavlobaSi icvleba Rirebulebebi da, Sesabamisad, is
cnebebi da ideebi, romlebic sayovelTao gansjis an mecnieruli
analizis samiznea. sibrZne, romelzec werdnen da romelsac iazrebdnen saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi, ganmanaTleblobis periodSi
ukve aRar figurirebs mTavar Rirebulebad: mas enacvleba codna
da ganaTleba. SesaZloa, amis gamoa, rom dResac sibrZne da codna sruliad gamijnuli cnebebia da metic, rogorc ukve SevniSne,
sisulele srulebiTac ar gamoricxavs codnas, ganaTlebas, mwignobrobas, rac mkafiodaa xazgasmuli axal aRTqmaSic. wignierebisa da uazro codnis sisulele gakilulia jonaTan sviftis
guliveris mogzaurobaSi: mecnierebs sruliad daukargavT saRi
azri da yofiTi Cvevebi, isini namdvil sulelebad gvevlinebian.
gavixsenoT molieris tartiufi, griboedovis vai Wkuisagan
da bevri sxva. aRsaniSnavia erTi ram: yvela am ganaTlebul sulels aerTianebs gulgriloba zneobrivi normebisadmi, uaryofa
moralisa, adamianTa Tanacxovrebis wesebisa.
Tanamedroveobam, egreT wodebulma modernma, sisuleles kidev
erTi niSani SesZina - es aris wamyvani paradigmis damkvidreba,
CarTuloba sayovelTao paTosSi, ZiriTadi miznisken svlaSi, umravlesobis daintereseba sakvanZo TemebiT. es tendencia sagrZnobi gaxda ganmanaTleblobisas, rodesac ideali, progresi, civiluroba, etiketi gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens.

sisulelis aqtualoba

157

vin aris suleli? sulelia is, vinc ar icis qceva sazogadoebaSi; sulelia umecari, romelic ar interesdeba gazeTebSi aRwerili TemebiT, ar icis, vis rogor mimarTos, rogor Caicvas, vin
Seaqos da vin gansajos, dagmos...
ganmanaTleblobis Semdeg romantikosebi TiTqosda uaryofen aseT
erTsulovnebas, socialur gadawyvetilebas mTel rig sakiTxebze, magram, amasTan, yvelas sTxoven, xazi gausvan TavianT originalobas, uCveuloobas, sulierebas, rac TavisTavad iqceva
axal wamyvan paradigmad. sulelia umravlesobis wevri - adamiani, romelic ar warmoaCens Tavis unikalurobas da maRal sulierebas, romlisTvisac ucxoa bneli RamiT boboqari, mRvrie sulebis moZaleba (gana gasakviria amis Semdeg froidis gaCena?!).
sazogadoeba Seivso oboli, amaRlebuli sulebiT, romlebic saTiTaod, eulad, magram suyvela, gadahyurebs maRali kldidan
aboboqrebul zRvas an sevdianad mipyrobian xes da leqsebs weren.
me-20 saukune, romelic, bevri niSnis mixedviT, dRevandelobad
unda CaiTvalos, xasiaTdeba masobrivi moxmarebis sazogadoebis
CamoyalibebiT. amasTan, gansakuTrebuli yuradReba eqceva individualurobis aqcentirebas. sisulelec dRes mkvidrdeba, rogorc
masobrivi movlena.
masebze, rogorc umniSvnelovanes fenomenze, bevri daiwera da
iwereba (kaneti, iungeri, ortega, haidegeri da bevri sxva). es
aris civilizaciuri movlena, romelsac aqvs rogorc populaciuri, ise filosofiuri xasiaTi. masobriobis ganviTareba nicSemac SeamCnia, Tumca me-19 saukuneSi es naklebtrivialuri mocemuloba iyo. swored masobriobas daupirispira nicSem individualobis genezisi, razec dRes amdens weren.
masa faris msgavsia, is utyvia. masaze saubrisas froidi yuradRebas amaxvilebs xalxis jgufur aracnobiersa da mis daniSnulebaze. masa ipyrobs individs da adamiani individad aRar ganicdeba.
miuxedavad masis aseTi aqtualobisa, masa modernis produqtia
iseve, rogorc misi derivantebi - masmedia, masobrivi kultura
da a.S. postmoderni, modernisgan gansxvavebiT, individsac masob-

158

Tamar berekaSvili

rivs xdis. postmoderni aRiarebs yvelas uflebasa da Tanasworobas, mravalxmianobasa da multikulturalizms, rac gamomdinareobs misi umTavresi Tezisebidan: sagnis amouwuraoba, nebismieri racionaluri Semecnebisa da praqtikuli gamoyenebisTvis gamouyenebloba da sxv.
Tu ganvixilavT ZiriTad gansxvavebebs modernsa da postmoderns
Soris, davinaxavT, rogor xdeba individi masobrivi da amiT sisulelis xafangis nadavlic. modernis da postmodernis Sedarebas germanel mkvlevars, peter kozlovskis davesesxebiT. kozlovskis mixedviT, sazogadoeba SeiZleba daxasiaTdes am niSnebiT: Tavisufleba, pragmatizmi, racionalizmi, liberalizmi, kreatiuloba, moraluroba da voluntarizmi (kozlovski 1997:29).
Tavisufleba modernSi ganixileba gacnobierebul aucileblobad,
xolo postmodernSi - sakuTari sicocxlis saSualebebis flobad.
pragmatizmi modernSi konstruqciuli wesebis qmediTi praqtikis flobaa. postmodernSi is destruqciulia, damangreveli
praqtikis qaosis gamomwvevi, Tumca SemoqmedebiT formebs aviTarebs.
racionalizmi modernis SemTxvevaSi efuZneba ganaTlebis moTxovnas, codnas. adamianma icis, rogor icxovros da SeuZlia es.
postmodernSi gonis individualoba cxaddeba prioritetulad,
romelic eyrdnoba saR azrs, magram azrovneba aracodniseulia,
is ar efuZneba doqsas, ufro poeturia, mxatvruli...
Tu modernisTvis mniSvnelovania cxovrebis pirobebis floba,
postmoderni ar kmayofildeba amiT da moiTxovs ara marto
flobas, aramed gankargvasac.
modernis dros Semoqmedeba racionalurad konstruqciulia; Semoqmedebis saxiT gamoixateba kultura anu kreatiuloba modernSi atarebs socialur xasiaTs, is emsaxureba sazogadoebas da
mis interesebs. postmodernSi kreatiuloba
anu pirovnuli
TviTgamoxatva Tavisufalia da srulebiT ar iTvaliswinebs socialur moTxovnebs, is gulgrilia Tavisi ragvarobisadmi.

sisulelis aqtualoba

159

moraluroba modernSi niSnavs socialur pasuxismgeblobas, Tavisi qmedebis gamarTlebulobas; postmodernSi nebismieri movaleoba moxsnilia, adamiani TviTneburad moqmedebs.
Tu voluntarizmi modernSi gamoixateba socialurad mniSvnelovani qmedebiT, postmodernSi is mimarTulia iseTi qcevisken, romelsac materialuri da kulturuli sargebeli moaqvs.
ramdenadac, rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, postmoderni uaryofs sagnis srul Secnobadobas da misTvis sicocxle erTgvari SemTxveviTobac kia, sicocxlisadmi damokidebuleba araseriozulia maSin, roca modernizms seriozuli damokidebuleba aqvs sicocxlisadmi; is moiTxovs kanonis pativiscemas da zrunvas saerTo
keTildReobisaTvis.
amrigad, postmodernistuli xedvis gabatonebis pirobebSi pirovnebis kulti, misi unikaluroba da TviTmyofadoba TiTqos
gansakuTrebiT unda warmoCndes. nawilobriv es asec aris, magram
adamianebis ganmxoloebas pirovnebebad, paralelurad, sdevs masebis mozRvaveba. pirovneba masobrivi xdeba anu adamians, romelic
gahyviris Tavis erTaderTobasa da gansakuTrebul meobaze, uxdeba am gansakuTrebulobis damtkiceba masisTvis, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, mis unikalurobas ar aRiareben. aRiarebis gareSe ki
TviToba, identoba naklulia da srulic ki ar aris. masa Tavis
moTxovnebs uyenebs pirovnebas, romelsac es ukanaskneli, nebsiT
Tu uneblieT, emorCileba. Sedegad, pirovneba erTgvarad erwymis
masas da, ukeTes SemTxvevaSi, iqceva masis gamorCeul saxed, mis
gamomxatvelad anu mis ,,erT-erT yvelaze sacnobad. radgan masa yovelTvis yvelaze mdare, yvelaze zedapiruli da iaffasiani
Rirebulebebis matarebelia, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom TviTwarmoCenisTvis, aRiarebisaTvis, identobis damkvidrebisaTvis adamians
sWirdeba erTgvari gasuleleba: sisulele xom, rogorc wesi,
yvelasTvis gasagebia da xSirad misaRebic!
Tanamedrove postmodernSi, rogorc modernis gagrZelebaSi, kidev ufro izrdeba brbos aqtualoba. brbo aris dinamikuri, mravalsaxa, arastabiluri, aramyari, afeTqebadi. misi mTavari niSania moklevadianoba. miuxedavad imisa, rom saxelisuflo institutebi (da aramarto - saxelisuflo) cdiloben brbos marTvas
(dResaswaulebi, sajaro RonisZiebebi da a.S.) droisa da adgilis

Tamar berekaSvili

160

moniSvniT, xSirad brbo damoukideblad ikribeba. brboSi qreba


gansxvavebebi masSi Semaval adamianTa Soris, masSi ar aris individi.
evoluciam ver moxsna brbo, masobrioba erTgvarad upirispirdeba
bneli masis - brbos Camoyalibebas, magram, meore mxriv, damatebiT pirobadac SeiZleba iqces. brbos arsi anTropologiuria da
evolucionisturi. brbo sisulelis fenomenia. is aCqarebs socialur procesebs, ramdenadac aRviraxsnilia. am dros xdeba
cnobierebis erTgvari gaTxevadeba. mas axasiaTebs cnobierebis
meryeoba - xdeba gasuleleba (dobrovski 2007). brbos cnobiereba brmaa da uazro. es misi arsia. amasTan brbos axasiaTebs moswrebuli qmedeba da SeuZleblis rwmena. brboSi adamiani simTvralis msgavs mdgomareobaSia, misi cnobiereba daxSulia. Cveulebriv, brboSi efloba daurwmunebeli adamiani, Camouyalibebeli
pirovneba, vinaidan aq is hpovebs TviTganmtkicebas da misi daurwmunebloba Tavisufalia, gamarTlebulia. sisulele safuZvliani
xdeba. Cveni dro sisulelis masobrivi boginia: Taviseburi, magram ufro masobrivi, vidre - odesme; elitas masa irCevs anu
identurobas masa ganiWebs. aqedan gamosavalic masaSi iazreba da
misi saxelia fentezi.

literatura
kozlovski 1997: , .
.
dobrovski 2007: Dobrowolski Jacek. Filozofia glupoty,
Wydawnictwo naukowe PWNSAWarszawa, 2007

elizbar elizbaraSvili
platonis gamoqvabulis
miTisa da houkingipenrouzis kinodarbazis
metaforebi
wignSi ,,sivrcisa da drois buneba,
romelsac safuZvlad udevs 1994 wels
kembrijis
universitetSi
wakiTxuli
leqciebis cikli, Tanamedroveobis ori
udidesi astrofizikosi stiven houkingi da rojer penrouzi - imaze saubrobs, rom jer kidev eleelebma Semoitanes drois statikuri modeli: ,,is
(dro) daiyvaneba imaze, rom warsulis,
awmyos da momavlis yvela momenti yovelTvis arsebobda da yovelTvis iarsebebs. es mxolod iluziaa, rom momentebi
mihyveba erTimeores... samyaros es suraTi
SeiZleba SevadaroT
kinofirs: yoveli
kadri ukve arsebobs manam, sanam gadidebuli saxiT moxvdeba ekranze, magram mayurebeli mas mxolod da mxolod am momentSi xedavs. movlenebi, xdomilebebi
sinamdvileSi arseboben dasabamidan maradiulad dakavebul adgilebze, Cven ki
mxolod gadavkveTT maT (houkingi, penrouzi 1994. http://www.scientic.ru). avtorebi ganagrZoben: ,,dro da adgili
urTierTdakavSirebulia... ,,dro Tavs avlens, rogorc sxva sivrcobrivi ganzomileba. fizikosebis azriT, samyaros
sawyis etapze oTxive ganzomileba iqceva
ise, rogorc sivrcobrivi ganzomileba.

162

elizbar elizbaraSvili

dro SeiZleba gagebuli iqnas, rogorc sivrcis meoTxe ganzomileba. s. houkingisa da r. penrouzis azriT, es aris samyaros gaazrebis axali alternativa. isini weren (me-6 monakveTSi): ,,gaazreba imisa, rom dro iqceva ise, rogorc adgili, warmoadgens
axal alternativas. magram es axali alternativa sulac ar iqneba axali, Tuki gavixsenebT, rom upaniSadebidan moyolebuli,
bevrma moazrovnem dainaxa da gaiazra is.
SeuZlebelia, kinofirma, ekranma da ekranze moqmedebebma
platonis dialog saxelmwifoSi warmodgenili gamoqvabulis
miTi isev ar gagvaxsenos: warmoidgine adamianebi, romlebic
TiTqos mRvimis msgavs miwisqveSa dilegSi arian gamomwyvdeulni.
dilegs mTel sigrZeze gasdevs Wrili, saidanac Semodis sinaTle. patimrebs kisersa da xel-fexze siyrmidanve borkilebi
adevT, ase rom, arc ganZreva SeuZliaT da arc ukan mixedva. amitomac mxolod win iyurebian da martooden imas xedaven, rac
Tvalwin udevT. borkilebdadebulni zurgSeqceviT sxedan kedlisaken, saidanac Semodis sinaTle, romelsac Sors, maRla, mogizgize cecxli asxivebs. am gzas patimrebisagan dabali kedeli
hyofs, im fardis msgavsad, romlis miRmac TvalTmaqcebi TavianT
TanaSemweebs malaven, maRla aweuli TojinebiT rom arToben
xalxs... kedlis gaswvriv midi-modian mgzavrebi, romlebsac xelSi nair-nairi sagnebi uWiravT, maT Soris, xisa Tu qvisagan gamoTlili adamianebisa da cxovelebis gamosaxulebani, romlebic
im simaRleze auweviaT, rom kedlis miRma Canan.... (platoni.
2013:265). platonis gamoqvabulSi mijaWvuli tusaRi, romelic
kedel/ekranze Suq-Crdilebis monacvleobas Sehyurebs, dinamikuri drois metaforaa, romlisganac unda gavTavisufldeT, unda
amovideT am drois gamoqvabulidan, SevicnoT namdvili yofiereba, romelsac dro ar gaaCnia. platoni am miTiT drois statikuri Teoriis mxolod baziss qmnis da amaze Sors ar midis iseve,
rogorc parmenide. magram am miTSi sxva miniSnebacaa. ras xedaven
platonis gamoqvabulSi mijaWvuli tusaRebi mopirdapire kedelze? Crdilebs, sinaTleTa TamaSs, maT moZraobebs, sxvadasxva gamosaxulebas, maTi monacvleobiT - mudmiv process. amasTanave,
radganac isini mTeli cxovreba sxva rames verc uyureben, ar
ician maT zurgs ukan arc kedlis, arc cecxlis da arc maT Soris sxvadasxva sagniT moZravi adamianebis Sesaxeb, - ekranze mimdinare procesi erTaderTi realoba hgoniaT, ekranze arsebuli

platonis gamoqvabulis miTisa da ...

163

sagnebi - namdvili sagnebi, saidanRac momdinare xma - maTi xma.


maTTvis esaa samyaro, sinamdvile Tavisi cvalebadobiT, istoriuli procesiT. gamoqvabulis kedel-ekranze mimdinare procesi
sinamdvileSi simulirebuli procesia, mowyobili im adamianebis
mier, romlebic tusaRebis zurgs ukan moZraoben. adamiani-tusaRebi sxvebis mier dadgmul simulirebul warmodgenas uyureben
gamudmebiT da am warmodgenaSi cxovroben udardelad.
iqneb teqnologiuri SezRudvebis epoqaSi igive metafora
warmogvidgina maSin platonma, rac TanamedroveobaSi houkingma
da penrouzma? ai, ras vgulisxmobT: houking-penrouzis metaforaSi Cven winaSea mudam cvalebadi ekrani da mayurebeli, romelic saxiT ekranisken aris mudmivad mipyrobili, magram maT
,,miRma kinodarbazis sivrceSi arsebobs iseTi raRac da iseTi
viRac, rogorebicaa kinofiri, kinomanqana, kinomeqanikosebi, gamadidebeli linza, eleqtroganaTeba, romelTa meSveobiTac miiRweva is efeqti, rac ekranze xdeba. maT mayurebeli ver xedavs, Tu
ar dainteresda igi Segnebulad, Tu ar adga, Semobrunda da ar
daiwyo kinodarbazis Seswavla. amis Semdeg ki, igi mixvdeba, rom
is, rac wamierad gaielvebs ekranze, darbazis sivrceSi, konkretulad - kinofirze kadris saxiT, manamdec arsebobs da am gaelvebis Semdgomac rCeba arsebulad da arsad qreba. mayurebeli
mixvdeba, rom, am teqnikuri inventaris gamoyenebis meSveobiT, miiRweva ekranze gamosaxulebebis monacvleobis efeqti, rom TiTqos raRac Cndeba da raRac qreba, magram es mxolod iluziaa,
yvelaferi arsebobs darbazis sivrceSi, babinaze daxveuli kinofiris calkeuli kadrebis saxiT.
platonis gamoqvabulis miTSic, rogorc erT mTlian metaforaSi, Cven winaSea Suq-CrdilebiT mudam cvalebadi kedeli/ekrani da tusaRi, romelic adgilze isea mijaWvuli, rom saxiT
mudmivad am ekranisaken aris mipyrobili, magram mis ,,miRma, gamoqvabulis sivrceSi arsebobs iseTi raRac da iseTi viRac, rogorebicaa zurgs ukan kedeli, sxvadasxva sagani, sagnebiT mosiarule adamianebi, gamoqvabulis centrSi danTebuli koconi, romelTa meSveobiTac miiRweva is efeqti, rac kedel/ekranze xdeba.
maT tusaRi ver xedavs, Tu ar dainteresda Segnebulad, Tu man
ar aiwyvita jaWvebi, ar Semobrunda da ar daiwyo gamoqvabulis
Seswavla. amis Semdeg ki, igi mixvdeba, rom is, rac wamierad gai-

elizbar elizbaraSvili

164

elvebs kedel/ekranze, gamoqvabulis sivrceSi, konkretulad


sxvadasxva sagnis saxiT, manamde arsebobs da am gaelvebis Semdegac rCeba arsebulad ukan mosiarule adamianebis xelSi an romelime adgilas ukve Senaxuli da arsad qreba. tusaRi mixvdeba,
rom, am inventaris gamoyenebis meSveobiT, miiRweva kedel/ekranze
Suq-CrdilebiT Seqmnili gamosaxulebebis monacvleobis efeqti,
rom TiTqos raRac Cndeba da raRac qreba, magram es mxolod
iluziaa, yvelaferi arsebobs gamoqvabulis sivrceSi, sadRac Taroebze dalagebuli sagnebis saxiT.
Cven axla naTlad vxedavT, Tu rogori identuria houkingipenrouzis da platonis metaforebi da rogor erTnairad gadmoscemen drois statikuri Teoriis Sinagan arss aRmqmel cnobierebas eqmneba iluzia ekranze monacvle xdomilebebis saxiT,
radganac igi ,,moZraobs kinofiris an sagnebiT xelSi myofi
adamianebis mimarT. sinamdvileSi ki, rac ekranze gaielvebs, realobaSi manamdec arsebobs da mis Semdgomac iarsebebs.
Cven mivediT im azramde, rom platonis gamoqvabulis miTi
ufro mets gveubneba, vidre es dinamikuri drois ararealurobis
aRiarebaa, berZeni filosofosi am miTSive migvaniSnebs statikuri drois arsebobasa da mis struqturaze, rom dro aris ara
raRacis gaCena da gaqroba, aramed aRmqmeli cnobiereba/,,ekranis
moZraoba raRac sivrcis mimarT (Tu aTvlis wertilad kinofirs
miviCnevT, es kinofiri ucvlelia da Cveni mis mimarT moZraobis
wyalobiT, sul axal-axali kadrebi warmoCndeba erTi-meoris miyolebiT ekranze Cven winaSe ) es sivrce kadrebis rigisagan
Sedgenili firi iqneba Tu xelSi sxvadasxva sagnebis mWeri adamianebisagan Sedgenili rigi.
literatura
platoni 2013 platoni. saxelmwifo. mTargmneli: baCana bregvaZe.
Tbilisi
stiven houkingi. 2014 drois mokle istoria. mTargmneli: irakli maCabeli. Tbilisi
houkingi, penrouzi 1994. , .

http://www.scientic.ru

maia kaWkaWiSvili

hezitacia quCaSi
hezitacia (ing. Hhesitation) qarTulad niSnavs: yoymans, meryeobas, saubris
an moqmedebis Senelebas. hezitaciuri nawilaki ki (ing. hesitation vowel, hesitation
sound) erTmarcvliani araleqsikuri sametyvelo bgera an bgeraTa jgufia, romelic gamoiyeneba zepiri metyvelebisas.
mas winadadebaSi semantikuri datvirTva
ar gaaCnia. samagierod, zepirmetyvelebaSi aqvs pragmatuli funqcia. winadadebaSi hezitaciuri nawilakis mTavari daniSnulebaa drois mogeba dabneulobis,
nerviulobis an yoymanisas.
hezitacia xSirad gamoiyeneba: winadadebis an frazis dasawyisSi, maSin, roca saubris dagegmvaze didi Zalisxmeva
ixarjeba; im cnebebis dasaxelebisas,
romlebsac sWirdeba konkretika da
uzustobis daSvebis albaToba didia (magaliTad, ferebis, ricxvebis an sakuTari
saxelebis dasaxelebisas).
miuxedavad imisa, rom qarTul enaTmecnierebaSi aRniSnul Tematikas mieZRvna ramdenime statia (Turqia 2006,
amiriZe 2010), igi mainc naklebad Seswavlilia da dgas sakiTxis empiriuli
kvlevis problema.

maia kaWkaWiSvili

166

am problemis gadaWris mcdelobas warmoadgenda Cven mier


2014-2015 saswavlo wels Catarebuli enobrivi eqsperimenti. eqsperimentis Sedegad mopovebuli audiobaza Sedgeba akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo universitetis studnetebis zepiri gamocdebisa
da debatebis studneturi Cempionatis spikerebis sityviT gamosvlebis Canawerebisagan. misi saerTo xangrZlivoba, daaxloebiT,
120 wuTia. masalis mixedviT gamovlenili hezitaciuri nawilakebis transkrifcia Sesrulebulia IPA-s - saerTaSorisod gaziarebuli - fonetikuri samkuTxedis gamoyenebiT (ix. suraTi 1.).

suraTi 1.
enobrivi eqsperimentis Sedegad gamovlinda 974 hezitaciuri nawilaki, romlebze dayrdnobiTac, qarTuli enisaTvis SevimuSaveT hezitaciuri nawilakebis klasifikacia. masSi gamovyaviT 5
jgufi. TiToeul maTganSi ki - qvejgufebi (ix. sqema 1.).

hezitacia quCaSi

167

sqema 1.

qarTuli enis hezitaciuri nawilakebis klasifikacia da am


eqsperimentis Sedegad gamovlenili hezitaciis Taviseburebebi
dafuZnebulia stresul garemoSi Cawerili masalis analizze.
Tumca, hezitacia SeiZleba Segvxvdes enis gamoyenebis sxvadasxva
pragmatul doneze. masalaze muSaobisas gaCnda hipoTeza, rom hezitaciis arseboba SesaZlebelia, magaliTad, quCaSi yoveldRiuri gadaadgilebisas. imisaTvis, rom dainteresebul pirs sasurvel adgilamde misasvleli gza avuxsnaT aucilebelia absoluturi sizuste. amisaTvis gvWirdeba: quCis an obieqtis zusti saxelwodeba, quCis nomeri, Sesaxvevis rigiToba, gzis mimarTuleba
(marjvniv, marcxniv, pirdapir). Cveni varaudiT, swored am konkretikaze dafiqrebis momentSi enobriv asistentebs unda gamoeyenebinaT hezitaciuri nawilakebi.

maia kaWkaWiSvili

168

aRniSnuli hipoTezis Sesamowmeblad CavatareT mcire eqsperimenti: turisti gamvlelebs ekiTxeboda, rogor misuliyo
konkretul quCaze Tu SenobasTan. aucilebeli moTxovna iyo,
rom enobriv asistentebs turistisaTvis eswavlebinaT safexmavlo gza.
eqsperimentis Sedegad gamovlinda, rom enobrivi asistentebis 95%-ma turistisaTvis gzis miswavlebisas erTxel mainc
gamoiyena hezitaciuri nawilaki. vvaraudobdiT, rom am procesSi
zemoT dasaxelebuli klasifikaciis xuTive jgufis gamoyeneba
iqneboda SesaZlebeli. magram enobrivma asistentebma mxolod
da jgufis mokle hezitaciuri nawilakebi gamoiyenes. iSviaTad
ki - hezitaciuri jgufebi. Tumca, ar gamovricxavT, rom ufro
didi empiriuli masalis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi quCaSi orientaciisas sxva hezitaciuri nawilakebis gamoyenebis SemTxvevebic
gamovlindes.
Cveni masalis mixedviT, gzis swavlebisas hezitaciis gamoyenebis SemTxvevebi am oTx Tematur jgufSi SeiZleba gaerTiandes:
saubris dasawyisSi;
im marSrutis axsnisas, rasac TviTon iSviaTad iyeneben;
Sesaxvevebis dakonkretebisas (pirveli, meore; marjvena
marcxena);
imave marSrutis mokle gzis axsnisas.
enobriv asistentebs hezitaciuri nawilakebi ar gamouyenebiaT im marSrutebze saubrisas, sadac Tavad yoveldRiurad uwevT
gadaadgileba (magaliTad, studentebs universitetis mimdebare
teritoriaze arsebul obieqtebTan dakavSirebiT).
savaraudod, hezitacia enis moxmarebis sxvadasxva pragmatul donezea SesaZlebeli. amis mecnierulad dadastureba da
hezitaciis gamoyenebis konkretuli apeqtebis dadgena SesaZlebelia im pirobiT, Tu iarsebebs empiriulad soliduri enobrivi
baza.

169

hezitacia quCaSi

literatura

amiriZe 2010: nino amiriZe, Placeholder verbs in Modern Georgian,


Typological Studies in Language, Fillers, Pauses and
Placeholders.
Turqia 2006: TinaTin Turqia, teqstobrivi pauzis Sevsebis saSualebebi, qarTveluri memkvidreoba, X.
kaWkaWiSvili 2015: hezitaciuri nawilakebis klasifikacia da
funqcia stresul zepirmetyvelebaSi; humanitarul
mecnierebaTa magistris xarisxis mosapovleblad Sesrulebuli naSromi, akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo universiteti, quTaisi.
klarki, foqs Tri 2002: Herbert H. Clark, Jean E. Fox Tree, Using uh
and um in spontaneous speaking; Cognition 84.
http://www.journals.elsevier.com/cognition
internetis linkebi:
http://www.macmillandictionary.com/dictionary/british/hes
itate bolos nanaxia: 14.11.2015
http://www.internationalphoneticalphabet.org/ipasounds/ipa-chart-with-sounds/ bolos nanaxia: 14.11.2015

daibeWda gamomcemloba `universalSi~


Tbilisi, 0179, i. WavWavaZis gamz. 19, : 2 22 36 09, 5(99) 17 22 30
E-mail: universal@internet.ge