You are on page 1of 7

Name

RNA and Protein Synthesis

13
Multiple Choice
Write the letter that best answers the question or completes the statement on the line provided.
1. Which of the following are found in both DNA and RNA?
a. ribose, phosphate groups, and adenine
b. deoxyribose, phosphate groups, and guanine
c. phosphate groups, guanine, and cytosine
d. phosphate groups, guanine, and thymine

Figure 131

1
2
1
2
1

2. Which nucleotide in Figure 131 indicates the nucleic acid above is RNA?
a. uracil
c. cytosine
b. guanine

d. adenine

3. What is produced during transcription?


a. RNA molecules
c. RNA polymerase
b. DNA molecules

d. proteins

4. During eukaryotic transcription, the molecule that is formed is


a. complementary to both strands of DNA.

b. identical to an entire single strand of DNA.

c. double-stranded and inside the nucleus.

d. complementary to part of one strand of DNA.

5. There are 64 codons and 20 amino acids. Which of the following is true?
a. Several different codons can specify the same amino acid.

b. Each codon specifies a different amino acid.

c. Some amino acids have no link to a codon.

d. Each amino acid is specified by only one codon.

7. During translation, the type of amino acid that is added to the growing polypeptide
depends on the
a. codon on the mRNA and the anticodon on the rRNA.

b. anticodon on the mRNA and the anticodon on the tRNA.

c. anticodon on the rRNA and the codon on the mRNA.

d. codon on the mRNA and the anticodon on the tRNA.

9. In eukaryotes
a. Transcription takes place in the cytoplasm, and translation takes place in the nucleus.

b. Transcription takes place in the nucleus, and translation takes place in the cytoplasm.

c. Transcription and translation both take place in the nucleus.

d. Transcription and translation both take place in the cytoplasm.

1
2

10. Which of the following is the name of a type of chromosomal mutation AND a type of
gene mutation?
a. substitution
c. deletion
b. insertion

d. inversion

_____ 11. Unlike DNA, RNA contains


a. adenine.
c. phosphate groups.
b. uracil.
d. thymine.
_____ 1 2. Which type of RNA brings the information in the genetic code from the nucleus to
other parts of the cell?
a. rRNA
b. tRNA
c. mRNA
d. RNA polymerase
_____ 13. From which molecules are mRNA molecules transcribed?
a. tRNA
b. rRNA
c. DNA
d. proteins
_____ 14. How many nucleotides are needed to specify three amino acids?
a. 3
b. 6
c. 9
d. 12
_____ 1 5. What happens during translation?
a. Messenger RNA is made from a DNA code.
b. The cell uses a messenger RNA code to make proteins.
c. Transfer RNA is made from a messenger RNA code.
d. Copies of DNA molecules are made.
_____ 16. Which is the correct sequence of the transfer of information in most organisms?
a. protein to DNA to RNA
c. DNA to RNA to protein
b. RNA to DNA to protein
d. RNA to protein to DNA
_____ 17. A mutation that involves one or a few nucleotides is called
a. a mutagen.
b. an inversion.
c. a point mutation.
d. a translocation.
227

_____

18. Which of the following is a chromosomal mutation?


a. inversion
b. insertion
c. point mutation
d. substitution

_____ 19. When a chromosome undergoes a deletion mutation, information is


a. repeated.
b. lost.
c. reversed.
d. transferred.
_____ 20. Most mutations
a. have no effect on an organism.
b. are fatal to an organism.
c. are helpful to an organism.
d. are harmful to an organism.
Completion
Complete each statement on the line provided.
21. In RNA,
is the sugar in the nucleotide.
22. During transcription,
binds to DNA and assembles nucleotides into a strand
that is complementary to the DNA template.
23. The order of nitrogenous bases in DNA determines the order of
in proteins.
24. The tRNA bases called the
are complementary to three consecutive
nucleotides on an mRNA molecule.
25. Insertions and deletions that change the entire genetic message that comes after the
mutation are called ____________________.
Normal
Chromosome
Mutant 1

Figure 132

Mutant 2

26. Mutant 1 in Figure 132 is the result of a(n) ________________ because part of the chromosome
reverses direction.
27. The element bromine can cause a genetic change, so bromine is called a _____________.
28. A mutation in a series of genes called ____________________ can change the organs that
develop in specific parts of an embryo.

Short Answer
In complete sentences, write the answers to the questions on the lines provided.

Figure 131

29. What is molecule B in Figure 131, and what is its function?


_________________

____________
____________

30. What are the three main parts of an RNA nucleotide?


_________________

____________
____________

31. What must happen to a DNA molecule before nucleotides can begin to be assembled into a
new RNA strand?
_________________

____________
____________

32. What is the central dogma of molecular biology?


_________________

____________
____________

33. What might be the effect of a mutation in the promoter


sequence of a gene?

34. According to Figure 133, what codons specify glycine?

Figure 133

Protein Synthesis

Figure 134

35. Describe the functions of the three kinds of RNA illustrated in Figure 134.
_________________

____________
____________

Using Science Skills


Use the diagram below to answer the following questions on the lines provided.

Figure 135

36. Interpret Visuals What is structure E in Figure 135? What does it specify?
_________________

____________
____________

37. Predict What would happen to structure F in Figure 135 if structure C were deleted?
_________________

____________

____________
38. Predict In Figure 135, what effect would the deletion of structure C have on the process
that occurs during step Y?
_________________

____________
____________

39. Why do some kinds of point mutations generally result in greater changes in proteins than
others?
_________________

____________
____________

Using Science Skills


Use the diagram below to answer the following questions on the lines provided.

Figure 132

40. Classify What term describes the general type of mutation occurring in A, B, C, and D in
Figure 132?
_________________

____________
____________

41. Interpret Visuals In Figure 132, which process or processes involve two chromosomes?
_________________

____________
____________

42. Interpret Visuals During which process in Figure 132 does a segment of a chromosome
become oriented in the reverse direction?
_________________

____________
____________

43. Interpret Visuals In Figure 132, which process is a translocation?


_________________

____________
____________