You are on page 1of 75

SITE LOCATION, MAP

READING AND LOT


PLOTTING
August Babula Agosto, EnP, REA,
REB

Faculty, University of San Carlos

Purpose of the Course


To equip future brokers:
1. Basic understanding in reading
legal descriptions
2.The methods used to describe real
property
3. how to plot a legal description

Site Location
Map Reading
Lot Plotting
Workshop

HOW TO DESCRIBE
REAL PROPERTY
Informal street number and name or the
distance
from a certain landmark; property boundaries
cannot
be determined by these methods and the address
and
physical features may change over the years

LEGAL DESCRIPTION OF
PROPERTY
METES AND BOUNDS

Metes = defined by distances and direction


Bounds = more general boundary description
PLAT SURVEY METHOD Subdivision Survey
RECTANGULAR SURVEYS
MONUMENTS

Metes and Bounds . A common method of land


description that identifies a property by
specifying the shape and boundary dimensions of
the parcel, using terminal points and angles.

Rectangular Survey System also called


as
government survey or geodetic survey
system. To
better understand this concept, think of a
checkerboard. It has an intersecting line that
forms a grid of squares. The first set of
intersecting lines are called principal meridian
which run north and south and base lines
which run east and west.

Plat survey method


sometimes called the lot-block
tract method. This is used in
areas where land is subdivided
into phase, block and lot and
usually recorded in an approved
subdivision plan. Lot 2, Block 4,
Phase 2 of Corona del Mar Talisay City.

DEFINITION OF
TERMS
Points of Beginning - must be either (1) at a known
point (such as a monument) or (2) at a certain course
and distance from such a known point.
o Reference points (Bureau of Lands Location
Monument -BLLM, Bureau of Lands Barrio Monuments
- BLBM, Tie Point or point of beginning)
Bearing - indicate course or direction
Distances - the description of a property line must show
distance (length of line)
Closure - created by erroneous points of beginning,
erroneous courses, and erroneous distances
Monuments- are permanent landmarks that indicate
boundaries. They may be natural (trees, streams, and
lakes) or artificial (fences, walls, stakes, posts, pins,
roads, streets, and railroads).

COMMON TERMS FOR


REAL ESTATE BROKERS

Bearings = Bearings are used to indicate angular


orientation with respect to the earth

Benchmark = A survey mark made on a monument


having a known location and elevation, serving as a
reference point for surveying.

Tie Line = A survey line that connects a point to


other surveyed lines

Property Line = describes the legal boundary of a


parcel of land

BLLM = Bureau of Lands Location Monument

SITE
LOCATION

IMPORTANT DATA NEEDED


FOR SITE LOCATION

Direction (Using internet, example: Google


earth)
Lot Plan / Vicinity Map / Location Map
Means of Transportation
Access Roads/Routes
Reference Point (adjacent properties / land marks)
and Specific Distances, or Time Frame
Land Use
Contact persons

THREE ELEMENTS
IN SURVEYING
DISTANCE = the extent or
amount of space between two
things, points, lines, etc.
DIRECTION = a position on a
line extending from a specific
point toward a point of the
compass. Defined by the
number of degrees, minutes
and seconds.
ELEVATION = height above a
fixed reference point

SOURCES OF DATA FOR SITE


LOCATION

Survey Maps
Vicinity or Location Map
Tax map
Land Title
Sketch Plan
Owner
Owners Agent
Internet (ie Google Map)
Barangay/ Purok Officials
Neighbors

HOW TO IDENTIFY PROPERTY


IN A SITE LOCATION

Technical Approach
o By relocation Survey

Laymans Approach
o Direction of a

knowledgeable person

Semi-Skilled Approach
o Sketching/Plotting with the use of:

Compass and Tape


Angular estimate and Pacing
o Use of a GPS

ROUGH DISTANCE MEASUREMENT


PACING
Distance = Pace factor Number of Paces

Determine your
Pace Factor
Seatwork:

A Real Estate Broker walked along a given straight


line in a horizontal ground that was known to be
60 m long, in order to determine her average unit
pace. She paced the line five times, recording 78,
76.5, 77, 87, and 76 paces, respectively.
a.

Determine her average unit pace, or Pace Factor (PF).

b. If the said broker then counted an average of 123.5


paces while pacing off the line of unknown distance,
what is the distance?
Remarks:
Pace Factor (PF) = Distance Average
Paces

Other Ways to Measure Distances

Taping EquiAMents
clisimeter
Transit, or Level; and stadia
Total Station
EDM
Laser Meter

THE MEASURING
WHEEL
A simple measuring wheel mounted
on a rod can be used to determine
distances, by pushing the rod and
rolling the wheel along the line to be
measured.
An attached device called an
odometer serves to count the
number of turns of the wheels
From the known circumference of the
wheel and the number of revolutions,
distances for reconnaissance can be
determined with relative accuracy of
about 1:200.

COMMON TERMS
FOR REAL ESTATE BROKERS

Hectare = 10,000 square meters

Kilometer (km) = 1,000 meters

Meter (m) = 100 centimeters

Meridian (or line of longitude) = true north


and south line extending from an initial point
in both direction

COMMON TERMS
FOR REAL ESTATE BROKERS

Original Survey = cadastral survey which


boundaries and marks them for the first time

creates

land

Plat = A surveyed map of a town, section, or subdivision


indicating the exact locations and boundaries of individual
properties, streets, easements, and public recreation areas.

Setback = Zoning restrictions on the amount of bare land


required surrounding improvements; the amount of space
required between the lot line and the building line

Subdivision = Land that has been divided by the owner into


individual parcels or lots which have been grouped into blocks.
These lots, together with streets, alleys, parks, schools, planned
commercial areas, and public utility easements, are recorded on a
plat

COMMON TERMS
FOR REAL ESTATE BROKERS
Easement

= areas of land owned by the property owner, but in which


other parties, such as utility companies, may have limited rights
granted for a specific purpose.

Right-of-way

= a parcel of land granted by deed or easement for


construction and maintenance according to a designated use. This may
include highways, streets, canals, ditches, or other uses

Latitude

= A measure of relative position north or south on the Earth's


surface, measured in degrees from the equator, which has a latitude of
0, with the poles having a latitude of 90 north and south

Longitude

= is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west


position of a point on the Earth's surface

COMMON TERMS
FOR REAL ESTATE BROKERS

Prime Meridian = the longitude that passes through the


Royal Observatory, Greenwich, England, establishes the
position of zero degrees longitude.

Mean Sea Level = is a measure of the average height of


the ocean's surface (such as the halfway point between
the mean high tide and the mean low tide)

Contour Lines = a line on a map joining points of equal


height above or below sea level

Topographic Map = is a type of map characterized by


large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief

Sample Contour Lines

COMMON TERMS
FOR REAL ESTATE BROKERS BROKERS

TCT = Transfer Certificate of Title

OCT = Original Certificate of Title

Free-Patent = is a legitimate proof of ownership of public


land in the Philippines granted by the Philippine government.
It is an agreement between the government and the grantee,
that he or she is charged of developing the land within a
specified period of time.
Cadastral Survey = creates or re-establishes, marks, and
defines boundaries of tracts of lands.

Consolidation and Subdivision Survey = land survey of


more than two contiguous lots merging to form a single lot,
and a single lot subdivided into two or more lots, respectively.

COMMON TERMS
FOR REAL ESTATE BROKERS

CAD = Cadastral Survey

Csd = subdivision survey of Cadastral Lot

Psd = subdivision survey of a titled properties. All Psd surveys


are conducted by a Private Geodetic Engineer

Bsd - Is a subdivision survey on government titled properties


conducted by a Government Geodetic Engineer. If a private titled
land is being surveyed by a Government Geodetic Engineer thru
court order, the resulting survey is a Bsd.

Psu - is a survey on original land (not yet surveyed) by a private


Geodetic Engineer. This kind of survey will be used by titling thru
judicial proceedings (means thru court order).

FP - Free Patent survey by a Private Geodetic Engineer

o
o
o

Map it is a flat representation of earths


surface in paper
Tie point point one of the lot
Tie Line imaginary line connecting the known
geographic position (say BLLM) to the corner (point 1)
of the titled property
Surveying science of making measurements to
determine the relative position of points and lines on
the surface of the earth
Relocation Survey survey intended to verify
the boundaries of the property. The purpose of this is
to ascertain whether or not there are encroachments.

o
o

Subdivision survey a survey to


determine the boundaries of each lot in a
subdivision project
Topographic plan plan showing various
elevations of the property
Contour lines lines in a topographic plan
which indicate the elevation of the land at
various sections
Subdivision a tract of land, in general,
subdivided into two or more lots

15 MINUTES
BREAK

Map reading
FOR REAL ESTATE BROKERS

BASIC POINTERS IN
MAP READING
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

Types of Map
Map symbol
Map Scale
Important information in a map
o Cardinal direction (north, south,
east, west)
o Bearings and azimuth (technical
description)
o Scale say 1:200

MAP SCALE
Map Scale = indicates the relationship
between a certain distance on the map and
the distance on the ground. Often located in
the legend box
Types of Scales:
1.

Ratio or Representative Fraction (RF)


o

2.

Word statement
o

3.

Example: 1/100,000 or 1:100,000


"One centimeter equals ten kilometers.

Graphic Scale

BASIC MAPS/PLANS IN
REAL ESTATE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Vicinity Map/Location Map


Subdivision Plan
Lot Plan
Topographic Map
Geohazard Map
Land use Map

Lot Plan

Basic Information in
Approved Plan

Location of property
Name of owner/declarant
Location of land
Legal reference point
Bearings and distance from tie point to reference
point
Bearings and distances from point 1 to the end of
the lot
Technical description
Lot drawing or subdivision plan

Basic Information in Approved Plan

Area of lot
Boundaries
Date of survey
Date of approval
Name of surveyor

Valley Fault System

WHAT IS A COMPASS ?

WHAT IS A COMPASS?
o

is a navigational instrument that measures directions in a frame of


reference that is stationary relative to the surface of the earth
o The frame of reference defines the four cardinal directions (or points) north,
south, east, and west.

Can used for orienting a map

Can be use to find direction

Can be use to find location

ORIENTING A MAP
Orienting, or aligning, the
map is really easy with just
3 steps:
Lay your map out on a
relatively flat, smooth
surface.
Turn your declinationadjusted compass dial so
due North is at the index
pointer.
Place your compass on
your map with the edge of
the base plate parallel to
the north-south meridians
on the map.

Draw and label the


bearings indicated below.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Seatwork

N30degW
S30degE
N33degE
S33degW
N76degE

LOT PLOTTING

PROPERTY DESCRIPTION IN THE TITLE

Lot Plotting drawing the exact


shape (square,
rectangle, trapezoid) and
measurement of a particular lot from
the technical descriptions shown in the
title.
The boundaries and lot orientation on
the north, east,west and south are also
attained.

BASIC SHAPES

TYPE OF LOT

Cul-de-sac a passageway with only one


outlet. A blind alley.
Key lot exists when a lot has several
otherhomes backing onto the side of the home. If
you were to walk along the side of a key lot youd
be able to see two or three of the neighbors
backyards

CONTENTS OF A TCT
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

TCT Serial No.


TCT Number
Page and Book Number
Location of the property (Lot, Block and Survey
No.)
Technical description
Tie line
Reference points
Name and address of registered owner
Original registration of OCT
Place, date and time of last registration

CONTENTS OF A TCT

Name and signature of register of deeds


o Encumbrances annotated at the back of the
title such as:
o o Subdivision restriction
o o Right-of-way
o o Mortgage and other liens (loans, mechanics, tax)
o o Lis pendens (property is under litigation)
o o Sec. 4 Rule 74 of the Rules of Court
o o Writ of attachment and execution
o o Lease contract, Contract to sell

MATERIALS NEEDED IN
LOT PLOTTING

PROTRACTOR
POSITION

Measuring a Bearing .When measuring a quadrant bearing


using a protractor, it is important to note that a protractor has a
baseline, an origin and a set of graduated scales (outer scale and
inner scale) running opposite of each other. One row of numbers
begins with 0 and run to 180 with the other running opposite from
180 to 0. With two sets of numbers, it can be confusing at first
determining which number to use, but remembering a simple rule
will help. The rule is that you always count up from zero. In
addition, remembering that each quadrant runs from 0 to 90
degrees will help determine which number to use, meaning that
for a quadrant bearing, you will always select the lesser of the two
numbers shown on the scales.
Remember that a bearing is always measured toward East
or West from North or South and although there are 360 degrees
in a complete circle, quadrant bearings or 90 degrees in each
quarter-circle are used when plotting legal descriptions. Each
degree has 60 minutes and each minute has 60 seconds.

Seatwork

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

N 90 degrees E
S 45 degrees E
N 15 degrees E
S 05 degrees E
N 40 degrees E

___
___
___
___
___

NORTH

NORTH

NORTHEAST

NORTHWEST

SOUTH

SOUTH

SOUTHEAST

SOUTHWEST

LOT PLOTTING GUIDE

LOT PLOTTING GUIDE

STEPS IN LOT
VERIFICATION
Compare lot plan, title and tax declaration whether they
are agreeable with each other like name or owner,
bearings, boundaries, etc.
o Further verification is done by asking the help of the
assessor thru its tax mapping division
o If it is a subdivision lot, refer to the subdivision
developer, homeowners association, owners of adjacent
lots as to the correctness of the plan as shown in the
TCT
o If the lot is not within the subdivision, hire a licensed
geodetic engineer especially if the property is rawland.
o Verify actual area vs area stated in the title. Check
possible encroachments.
o

STEPS IN LOT VERIFICATION-GIS

Workshop

Plot the technical description of a property


Use protractor, ruler and Manila Paper
Presentation

Sum-up the
discussion
Legal Description
Site Location
Map Reading
Lot Plotting

Questions???

Thank You and


Good Luck !

Mobile : 0917 488 5555 Landline: (32) 421 2003


www.appraisalcebu.wordpress.com