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PRACTICAL OF CROP PRODUCTION RELEASED BY HARYANA AGRICULTURE UNIVERSITY HISAR (HAU HARYANA) BY DR. SATISH KHOKHAR
PRACTICAL OF CROP PRODUCTION RELEASED BY HARYANA AGRICULTURE UNIVERSITY HISAR (HAU HARYANA) BY DR. SATISH KHOKHAR

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2010

DR. R.K. PANNU DR. SATISH KUMAR DR. S.S. PAHUJA

DEPARTMENT OF AGRONOMY

COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE
CHAUDHARY CHARAN SINGH HARYANA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY

HISAR-125004 (HARYANA)

2

FOREWORD
I am happy to record that the Practical Crop Production Manual, written by Dr. R. K. Pannu and Dr. Satish Kumar, Department of Agronomy, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University (CCSHAU), Hisar, is being published for the benefit of students of agriculture. The manual contains very useful and detailed information on practical aspects of crop production right from land preparation to crop marketing and fulfills the need of a much needed document on practical crop production. It seems to be of great value not only to the students but also to the farmers and other persons engaged in crop production. The authors have rich experience of teaching and research on crop production technology of various field crops and the manual compiled by them will help to solve the practical problems encountered by the persons engaged in production of field crops. The manual is written in simple language and easily understandable as all the practices have been elaborated with solved examples. I hope it will be able to generate the desired confidence in students for solving daily field problems. This publication will certainly make the students to compete for different examinations and to face the interviews with desired vigour and strength. I congratulate the authors for their painstaking efforts in bringing out the manual which in my opinion will meet the demands of the students and other persons concerned directly or indirectly with the cultivation of field crops.

(K.S. Khokhar) Vice-Chancellor CCS Haryana Agricultural University Hisar

PREFACE
Crop production is the pivot of agriculture. It is a science as well as an art to manage the natural resources in a manner to maintain soil fertility and crop productivity. As, an art it embraces the knowledge to perform the various operations at the farm in a skilful manner. Whereas, the judicious and efficient use of farm resources and inputs for sustainable production is science. Hence, it should be taught to the students in a practical way. In view of the ever-growing human and cattle population and very limited scope for extension of cultivated area, it is necessary to produce more food, feed, fodder, fuel and fiber from the existing land area. But depletion and degradation of natural resources by intensive agriculture in post green revolution era coupled with increasing cost of inputs required for crop production are posing serious threat to sustainability of crop production. Therefore, it requires a comprehensive document of knowledge on different aspects of crop production from planning to marketing to impart practical training to the students. This manual is an attempt to provide knowledge on practical crop production as a cooperative agriculture by group of students. The manual covers all major practical aspects of crop production. The chapters on estimation of crop seed rate, estimation of crop yield, determination of manurial and fertilizer requirements of crops, irrigation and herbicide requirement, preparation of cropping scheme and computing cost of cultivation of crops with solved examples can be used as ready reckner and will develop confidence of self decision. We hope the manual will be helpful in fulfilling the objective of “Learning by doing” and “Earn while you learn”. We wish this manual will be useful to the students and teachers alike pursuing the sacred mission of increasing food production for the hungry millions. We are thankful to the authorities of CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar for granting permission to publish this manual. The encouragement and technical help rendered by Dr. A. S. Dhindwal, Professor and Head, Department of Agronomy is thankfully acknowledged. We are extremely thankful to the authors of various books, manuals and documents for getting useful material for inclusion in this publication. We are also grateful to the Indian Council of Agricultural Research for providing financial assistance for publication of this manual. Suggestions for improvement of the subject matter are always welcome. Hisar February, 2010 R. K. Pannu Satish Kumar

S. S. Pahuja

5

CONTENTS
Sr. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Title Practical crop production programme Seeds its classes, properties, characteristics and calculation Soil fertility and plant nutrition Weeds and their management Dry land agriculture Cropping scheme Irrigation management Package and practices for cultivation of crops Important differences in crop plants Crop terminology Working out cost of cultivation of crops National agricultural insurance scheme Agricultural loaning Land record terminology Annexures Page No. 1-3 4-14 15-31 32-45 46-47 48-54 55-64 65-80 81-85 86-92 93-97 98-101 102-109 110-119 120-143

PRACTICAL CROP PRODUCTION PROGRAMME
The idea of introducing a practical training course for under graduate students was started in the year 1974. The existing pattern of Saturday farm practical training, before November, 1974 wherein the final year under graduate students were registering for 2+2 credit hours in trimester, did not provide an integrated and intensive training in raising crops and to go in depth in successful crop production. This was mainly because of the fact that due to the shortage of land, students were not able to continue with plot work throughout the year and also with the start of new trimester a new batch used to come to do the work. Such a practice did not give thorough comprehensive about the field work in raising good crops on scientific lines to achieve the real objectives of higher net yield. The honest efforts of the university towards making every agricultural graduate a real practical farmer came into existence under the able stewardship of the then Vicechancellor, Sh. N.N. Kashyap, ICS who really understood the scope, utility and benefits of the course to the student’s community with an ultimate objective of developing selfreliance in crop production. The objectives on which the intensive training in the field of crop production started are as follows: (i) (ii) To earn while they learn. To give the students an opportunity to put into practice with their own hands the scientific principles of agricultural production studied by them in several courses of the curriculum. To develop the students capacity to plan the operations for a given holding and work it out with a suitable combination of improved practices to raise maximum crop yield from the land. To train the students under guidance to conduct farming operations as a business, so that economically higher production could be obtained with resultant profit. To learn the division of labour among the team of workers so that best results could be attained with co-operative effort and the art of managing man power is learnt. To develop the faculty of decision making and the execution of agricultural operations in the field. To arouse thinking about the problems faced by farmers and safely lead them to simple experimentation.

(iii)

(iv) (v)

(vi) (vi)

STUDENTS AT WORK ON PRACTICAL CROP PRODUCTION FARM

Mushroom Cultivation

Weeding with longtine hoe

Class in progress

Weeding with longtine hoe

Interculture operation

Herbicide spray

2

Thinning

Bund preparation

Channel preparation

Irrigating the field

Fertilizer application

Fodder harvesting

3

SEED, ITS CLASSES, PROPERTIES, CHARACTERISTICS AND CALCULATION
Seed is the living link between parents and its progeny. Biologically, seed is a ripe, fertilised ovule and a unit of reproduction of flowering plants. Agronomically, a seed, seed material or propagule is the living organ of crop in rudimentary form used for propagation. It can be any part of the crop from which a new crop will grow. Seed is the vital input in crop production because only through seed the investment made on other inputs like pesticide, fertilizer, irrigation and crop maintenance can be realized.The seed required for raising the crop is quite small. Its cost is less as compared to other inputs, but farmer gets greater income depending upon the quality of the small quantity of seed he uses. Therefore, utmost care must be taken to use quality seed. Certified seed guarantees quality and ensures high and assured yield. This emphasises the need for increasing the area under quality seed production. Differences between seed and grain Seed It should be viable one It should have maximum genetic and physical purit. It should satisfy minimum seed certification standards. It should be completely treated with pesticide / fungicide to protect the seed against storage pests and fungi. Respiration rate and other physiological and biological processes should be kept at low level during storage. It Should be compulsorily certified/ truthfully labeled. It Should never be converted into grain unless warranted. It should satisfy all the quality norms. Grain It may not be a viable one It may not have maximum genetic and physical purity. It may not satisfy minimum seed certification standards. It should never be completely treated with any chemical, since it is used for consumption. Respiration rate and other physiological and biological processes may not be kept at low level during storage. No need of certification. It can be converted into seed if the conditions warrant. Quality norms are not considered.

Since seeds are units of propagation of most arable crops, successful crop production relies on establishing an adequate population of vigorous plants for efficient use of natural resources and applied inputs. CHARACTERISTICS OF QUALITY SEED • • • • • Quality seed ensures uniform crop stand establishment with uniform vigour and population of seedlings per unit area. Selection of good seed is, therefore, of prime importance for remunerative farming. The seed should be of adaptable crop variety or hybrid fitting into the cropping system. Seed should be pure (true to type) with high germination percentage. It should be free from seed borne diseases, insects and insect eggs. They should be large, plump, bold, uniform in size, shape, colour with proper test weight. 4

• •

Seed should be free from noxious, objectionable or satellite weed seeds. The seed should be as fresh as possible or of proper age.

CLASSES OF SEEDS The crop grown for seed production is periodically inspected to determine the level of impurities for maintaining seed standards. After harvest, the seed is subjected to analysis and germination test. The standards for certification of each crop differ, but in all cases they result in the sale of quality seed to the farmers. Four classes of pure seed are recognised by the International Crop Improvement Association. Breeder or nucleus seed: It is directly controlled by the organising or sponsoring plant breeder or institution. It provides for initial or recurring increase of the foundation seed. This is the seed that is produced directly under the supervision of plant breeder. Foundation seed: This includes elite seed, would be seed stock (seeds, tubers, bulbs, plants, etc.) that are so handled as to maintain specific genetic identity and purity and that may be designated or distributed by representatives of an experimental station. Foundation seed is the source of all other certified seed classes, either directly or through registered seed agencies. It is also known as mother seed. The colour of the foundation seed tag is white. Registered seed: This is the progeny of the foundation or registered seed that is so handled as to maintain satisfactory genetic identity and purity and that has been approved and certified by the certifying agency. This class of seed is of a quality suitable for the production of certified seed. It can be produced by the farmers and other growers under special contract with the certifying agency. Registration seed tag is purple. Certified seed: This is the progeny of the foundation, registered or certified seed that is so handled as to maintain satisfactory genetic identity and purity and that is approved certified by the certifying agency. This is the seed designed for use by farmers for crop production. Two classes of certified seed are produced: F1 and F2. Recertification is not permitted from F3 generation of seeds. Certified seed tag contains blue tag. Hybrid seed: is the seed produced by crossing two or more homozygous inbred lines to obtain a desirable type with high yield potential. Only FI generation of hybrids is recommended for use as seed for commercial production. To maintain such FI hybrid seeds, parents are to be maintained and freshly bred each time, particularly, if the same vigour and known desired qualities are to be maintained. Hybrid seed may be the product of single, double or multiple cross. Genetic purity Breeder/Nucleus 100.0% Foundation seed 99.5% Certified seed 99.0% Physical purity: Seed should have the required level of physical purity for certification All crops 98.0% Free from other crop seeds , expressed in number /kg Crop Designated inseparable other crop seeds Barley Wheat, oats and gram Oats Wheat, gram and barley Wheat Oats, gram and barley 5

These are the plants of cultivated crops found in the seed field and whose seed similar to crop seed that is difficult to separate them economically by mechanical means cause physical admixture with the crop seed only when these crop mature approximately at the same time when seed crop matures. Objectionable weed seeds These are plants of weed species which are harmful in one or more of the following ways • The size and shape of their seeds are so similar to that of the crop seed that is difficult to remove their seed economically by mechanical means. • Their growth habit is detrimental to the growing seed crop due to competing effect • Their plant parts are poisonous or injurious to human and animal beings • They serve as alternate hosts for crop pests and diseases. Crop Designated Objectionable weeds Berseem Chicory (Chicorum intybus) Cucurbits Wild Cucurbita sp. Kasuri methi Melilous sp. Lettuce Wild lettuce (Lactuca sativa) Bhindi Wild Abelmoschus sp. Rape and Mustard Argemone mexicana Wheat Convolvulus arvensis (Hiran kuri) Paddy Wild paddy (Oryza sativa var. fatua) Free from designated diseases It refers to the diseases specified for the certification of seeds and for which certification standards must be met with. May cause contamination, when they are present in the seed field or with in the specified isolation distance. The objectionable designated diseases and their causal organisms of different crops are as under: Crop Wheat Sorghum Mustard Pearl millet Sesame Brinjal Chilies Cucurbits Cowpea Bhindi Potato Tomato Designated diseases Loose smut Grain smut or Kernel smut Alternaria blight Grain smut Green ear Ergot Leaf spot Little leaf Anthracnose leaf blight Leaf blight Mosaic Anthracnose Yellow vein mosaic Brown rot Root knot nematode Early blight 6 Causal Organism Ustilago tritici Sphacelotheca sorghii Alternaria sp. Tolyposporium penicillariae Sclerospora graminicola Claviceps microcephala Alternaria sp Datura virus Gleosporium piperatum Alternaria solani Cucumis virus Colletotricum sp. Hibiscus virus Pseudomonas solanacearum Meloidogyne incognita Alternaria solan i

Leaf spot

Xanthomonas ves icatoria

Steps to be taken during Seed Production to Insure Genetic Purity Following are the steps which can help in maintaining genetic purity of seed material: 1. Control of seed source Multiplication of seed material from an appropriate class viz. breeder’s, foundation, registered and certified procured from an appropriate source is essential. 2. Nature of preceding crop In order to maintain genetic purity of the seed there are certain requirements pertaining to the nature of preceding crop which may not deteriorate the seed quality and can help in growing healthy seed crop. Scientific crop rotation should be followed but if the same crop was grown in previous season, under special case, then the fields should be irrigated 3 weeks before sowing to allow germination of shattered seeds of previous crop and they should be destroyed during seed bed preparation like in case of wheat etc. Thus the volunteer plants of same variety or the crop should be destroyed under all the circumstances. 3. Isolation Isolation is an effective distance up to which pollen may be carried by various agencies like insects; wind etc. from commercial crop to the seed crop and results into natural crossing or cross pollination. The seed crop must be grown beyond this distance. 4. Rouging Presence of off type plants causes a potential threat to genetic purity, contamination; however removal of such plants before flowering or before heading may not jeopardize the genetic purity of the seed. The off-types may be produced because of presence of some recessive genes in the variety at the time of release or they may arise by mutation. The off-types may also grow as volunteer if the same crop or variety is grown in pervious year or there had been mechanical mixture due to use of same seed drill, threshing machine, etc. 5. Seed certification To insure the quality pedigree seed it has to be certified by any registered seed certifying agency like HSDC, NSC, TDC, etc. Most qualified and experienced seed certifying personal carry out field inspections to ensure the absence of off-types objectionable weeds and diseased plants in the field of seed crop. These personals also draw seed samples from the seed lots and conduct various seed tests to find out purity, germination, viability and seed healths. The seed lots which meet minimum seed standards are subsequently in its respective seed class. 6. Adoption of an appropriate agronomic practices These practices includes selection of suitable agro-climatic zone in which a successful seed production programme may be carried out, selection of well leveled and fertile plots which are free from water logging, selection of suitable variety, seed type, seed treatment, cultivation practices like using proper seed rate, timely sowing, using proper distance, use of all preventive measures against diseases, insect-pests, weeds, efficient water and nutrient management, timely harvesting, threshing, drying, grading, 7

bagging, etc. These practices help in raising a healthy seed crop for onward distribution to the cultivators for raising a good crop of higher productivity. Higher productivity could also be maintained by renewal of seed lots as under: Seed renewal period in years Crops Wheat Paddy Maize hybrid Sorghum hybrid Sorghum composite Bajra hybrid Barley Gram, pea, lentil, mung, urd Groundnut Cotton varieties Arhar Years 5 4 1 1 2-3 1 5 5 5 5 3

Seed Testing: Farmers often save seed from the current season's crop for planting in the next season. The farmer usually saves seed from plant (s) with desirable features (welldeveloped bold seed free from pests and diseases). In the case of cross pollinated plants, such as maize, farms will have to constantly change the cultivar season after season. Optimum crop stand establishment depends on quality of seed used and soil environment in which it is sown. Seed testing is the procedure for obtaining reliable information about its capacity for establishing adequate crop stand. Most seed testing labs provide information on five aspects of seed quality: viability, purity, vigour, seed health and presence of noxious weed seed. Seed germination: Germination is the transformation of an embryo into a seedling. During the process of germination, the metabolism and growth which were suppress or suspended are resumed. Seedling develops from the seed from its quiescent state. Water is the basic requirement for initiating the chemical reactions. Optimum temperature is essential for good germination. Individual species has its own temperature requirement which occurs within a limited range. Normally the temperature range for germination is 15- 40°C. Seed germination is also affected by oxygen supply since it is required for respiration. The primary role of oxygen is electron acceptor in catabolism. Many of the seeds are markedly light sensitive for germination, primarily to the activity of the phytochrome system. Seed viability: Seed viability is defined as the degree to which a seed is metabolically active and capable of germinating under favourable condition. Seed viability is the highest at the time of physiological maturity; Seeds with high moisture content deteriorate quickly due to energy expenditure and accumulation of breakdown process. Ageing is one of the reasons that affect the seed viability of seed increases, the semipermeable membrane of the cell organelles loses their selective permeability and allow 8

the metabolites to leach out. The important changes that take place due to ageing is the degradation of mitochondria which permanently lose their ability of swelling and contraction. Normally the viable seeds of many of the field crops germinate within 3-5 days. It is important to maintain the viability of seeds during germination. Longevity:It means the duration of the viability of seeds. Normally the seeds possess maximum germination potential during the physiological maturity and the deterioration of seed quality occurs from this point of maturation onwards. The rate of deterioration increases due to mechanical injury at the time of harvesting and processing. Higher moisture content in the seed also causes deterioration of seed quality and longevity. Stored seeds exposed to microorganisms and insects cause reduction in longevity. Seeds stored in low moisture, cool temperature and low oxygen tension enable increase in longevity. However, due to aging, there is break down of compounds that are essential for germination and accumulation of toxic by-products. Lipid auto oxidation is one of processes that destroy seed viability due to ageing, particularly in oilseeds. Small millets retain their viability for a long period. The seeds of tobacco remain viable for 10-15 years, if properly stored. Viability testing: Seed viability is the capacity of non-dormant seed to germinate under favourable conditions. There are different techniques for conducting standard germination test including petri dish test and rolled-towel test. Seeds are placed on absorbent material in the dish. Small seeds may be sandwiched between two layers of absorbent material. In the rolled towel test, seeds are arranged in rows and rolled up. Sand and cotton can be used as absorbent material. After placing the seed in appropriate medium, it is placed in a germinator at relative humidity of 90 per cent and a temperature of 20°C for 16 hrs, followed by further exposure for 8 hrs at 30°C for one to several weeks depending on the seed. Scoring is done by grouping seedlings into different categories as normal, hard seed, dormant seed, abnormal seed and dead or decaying seed. Tetrazolium test is a calorimetric test in which a biochemical reaction causes the test solution to change colour under certain conditions. Tetrazolium (2, 3, 5triphenyltetrazolium chloride) solution is colourless, but changes to red insoluble compound called formagan upon being reduced by hydrogen ion. Viable seed will change colour to red and dead or nonrespiring seeds remain colourless. This test is quick and reliable. Seed purity test: Seed purity is percentage of pure seed (seed without contaminants) in the sample tested. Contaminants include seeds of other crops, weed seed and inert matter. Pure live seed: Pure live seed (PLS) is the per cent of desired cultivar that will germinate. It is a function of both per cent purity and per cent germination. It is calculated as per cent. Per cent = (% germination x % purity) 100 Seed vigour: Vigour of seed is defined as the condition of the seed that permits germination to proceed rapidly and uniformly and allows production of uniform seedling stand. Seed vigour is a pre-requisite for rapid and uniform germination and fast growth of seedlings under field conditions. Vigorous seeds produce seedlings that will have good 9

health and natural robustness. The vigour of the seeds depends on the genome, history of the individual seed and the environment in which it is sown. Seed vigour is normally determined by germination, growth and development, resistance to variations mitochondria and extra active enzyme systems for assimilation, growth and development. Fully mature seeds possess complete physical and physiological development needed for maximum expression of vigour. Prevalence of high humidity and high temperature during seed storage affect the seed vigour and cause loss of viability. Other factors such as mechanical damage attack by pathogens and passage of time also affect the seed vigour. Mechanically affected seeds are prone to infestation by fungi and other microorganism insect incidence, particularly of seed borer (Bruchus), causes damage to the stored seeds which lose their vigour. Vigourous seeds are physically sound, germinate quickly and produce rapidly developing seedlings. Seed vigour test: Seed vigour indicates the properties of seed that determine its potential for rapid, uniform emergence and development of normal seedlings under a wide range of field conditions. It is influenced by genetic factors and external environmental conditions during seed development and maturity, harvest and storage. An environment of high temperature and humidity adversely affects seed vigor. In cold test, seed samples are placed on an appropriate medium in a cold environment at l0oC for 7 days and brought to an environment mediated at 25°C for 4 days. The seeds that emerge are counted. In accelerated aging test, imbibed seeds are kept at high temperature (45°C) and at high relative humidity (100%) for about 4 days. The seeds are then placed under optimal conditions for germination. Vigorous seeds survive this harsh treatment. Seed health: It evaluates the presence of pathogens and insect pests on the seed. Seed heath may be evaluated visually (change in testa colour, presence of spores etc) after incubating on an appropriate medium for disease development. It can also be determined by biochemical test such as enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Mechanical seed damage: Mechanical damage to seed affects seed quality. Damage may include readily visible splits or cracks in testa or chips of cotyledons. Physically damaged seeds are prone to rotting when planted in the soil. Mechanical damage to seed may be evaluated by soaking a sample in 0.1 per cent household bleach (sodium hypochlorite) for 15 minutes. Seeds with cracks in testa will imbibe the solution and the testa will separate from cotyledon. Test weight: refers to either weight of a fixed number of seeds, e.g., 100 seed weight or 1000 seed weight or seed weight from a fixed volume, e.g., seeds filled in test tube. Calculation of real value (RV) of seed Real value of seed is calculated as follows: RV = Purity (%) x Germination (%) 100 Calculation of seed purity Pure live seed (PLS) is calculated as follows: PLS= Purity (%) x Viability (%) 100 10

The test weight of some important crops is given as underCrop Cereals Wheat Barley Oats Maize Rice Sorghum Pearlmillet Ragi Pulses Chickpea Desi Chickpea Kabuli Lentil Pigeonpea Mung Urd Moth Cowpea Soybean Fieldpea Rajmash Oilseeds Linseed Rapeseed Groundnut Sesamum Sunflower Saflower Castor Fibre crops Cotton Hybrid Cotton Bt Sunnhemp Green Manuring Crops Sesbania Sunnhemp Clusterbean Medicinal crops Isabgol Methi Forage crops Lucerne Berseem Alkloid crops 140 300 40 60 30 30 25 32 100 30 250 10 4.5 350-500 6 44 35 500 145 145 15 20 15 30 2 20 2.4 2.5 7140 3330 25000 16670 33340 33340 40000 31250 10000 33340 4000 100000 222220 2860-2000 166670 22730 28570 2000 7000 7000 66660 50000 66660 33340 500000 50000 416670 400000 45 37 32 220 25 15 7 8 22220 27020 31250 4540 40000 66660 142850 125000 1000 seed weight.(g) Seeds per kg. ('000)

11

Tobacco 2 500000 Calculation of seed rate: Example 1: Calculate the seed rate of wheat for one hectare area with following observation: Spacing = 20X 5cm, Test weight of seed = 40 g, Establishment of plants = 70%, Purity percentage = 90, Germination percentage = 90. Solution: Purity % X Germination % Real value of seed = ----------------------------------100 x100 90 X 90 Real value of seed = ---------------- =0.81 100 x100 Area in one hectare Plant population needed/ha = ------------------------------------Space occupied by each plant

100 X 100 X100 X 100 Plant population needed/ha = ----------------------------- = 1000000 plants 20 X5 Plant population needed X Weight of one seed Seed rate /ha = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------Unit established plants X Real value of seed X1000X100 1000000 X 40 X 100 X100 Seed rate needed/ha = ----------------------------------- = 70.546 kg/ha 70 X 1000 X 81X1000 X100 Example 2: Calculate the seed rate of hybrid cotton for one acre area with following observation: Spacing = 67.5 X 30 cm,Test weight of fuzzed seedand unfuzzed seed is 140 and 150 g, respectively, Purity percentage = 90. Germination percentage = 80. Solution: Purity % X Germination % Real value of seed = ----------------------------------100 x100 90 X 80 Real value of seed = ---------------- =0.72 100 x100 Area in one acre Plant population needed/ha = ------------------------------------Space occupied by each plant 4000 X100 X100 Plant population needed/ha = ----------------------------- = 19753 plants 67.5 X30 Plant population needed X Weight of one seed 12

Seed rate Kg/ac. = ------------------------------------------------------------------Real value of seed X1000X100 19753 X 1.4 X 100 Seed rate (fuzzed seed) needed/ac = ----------------------------- = 3.84 kg/ac. 72 X 81X1000 X100 19753 X 1.5 X 100 Seed rate (unfuzzed seed) needed/ac = ----------------------------- = 4.115 kg/ac. 72 X 81X1000 X100 Example 3: Determine the seed requirement of rice to be transplanted in 5 acre with the following information: Seed germination = 90%, Seed purity = 90%, Test weight = 25 g, Spacing between hills = 15 cm x 15 cm, Number of seedlings per hill = 2, Damaged seedlings during uprooting = 10%, Seedling required for gap filling = 10%. Solution: 90 x 90 Real value of seed = ---------------- = 0.81 100 x 100 5 x 4000 x 100 x 100 x 2 Plant population required for 5 acre = ------------------------------ = 1777778 plants 15 x 15 110 No. of seedlings required to replace damaged seedlings during uprooting = ------100 110 No. of seedlings required to replace damaged seedlings during uprooting = ------100 1777778 x 110 x 110 Plant population needed in nursery = ---------------------------- = 2151111 plants 100 x 100 2151111 x 100 x 25 x 1000 Seed rate required for 5 acre = --------------------------------- = 66.39 kg 81 x 1000 Example 4: Work out the seed rate of sugarcane to be planted with 3 buded setts for one hectare from the given data: No. of buds on a cane = 30, No. of damaged buds on a cane = 5, Row spacing = 60 cm, Length of each sett = 30 cm, Average weight of a cane = 1 kg. 13

10000 x 100 x 100 Solution: No. of setts needed per hectare = ---------------------------- = 55555 setts 60 x 30 No. of buds/ sett x No. of setts /ha No. of canes needed /ha = --------------------------------------------------------------No. of buds per cane – No. of damaged bud per cane 3 x 55555 No. of canes needed /ha = -------------------= 6666.6 canes 30 – 5 Weight of 6666.6 canes = 6666.6 x 1 = 6666.6 kg = 66.666 q/ha Example 5: Find out the seed requirement of berseem for 2 kanal area sowing through broadcasting method with required plant stand of 400 plants / m2. The test weight of berseem is 2.0 g, purity 90%, germination 90% and seedling establishment 80%. Solution: 90 x 90 Real value of seed = ---------------- = 0.81 100 x 100 Plant stand required = 1000 x 400 = 400,000 plants 400,000 x 2 x 100 x 100x 1 Seed rate required = ------------------------------------- = 1.234 kg 100 x 81 x 80 x 1000

14

SOIL FERTILITY AND PLANT NUTRITION
The term soil fertility refers to the inherent capacity of soil to supply mineral nutrients. Soil productivity is related to the ability of a soil to produce yield economic products. It is the broader term since fertility is only one of a number of factors that determine the magnitude of crop yields. Difference between soil fertility and soil productivity Soil fertility (i) It is considered as an index of nutrients availability to plants. (ii) It is one of the factors for crop production. The other factors are water supply, slope of the land, depth of water table etc. (iii) It can be analysed in the laboratory. (iv) It is potential status of the soil to produce crops. Soil productivity (i) It is a broader term used to indicate yields of crops. (ii) It is the interaction of all the factors that determine the magnitude of yields. (iii) It can be assessed in the field under particular climatic conditions. (iv) It is the resultant of various factors influencing crop yield.

The Arnon's criteria of essentiality of elements in plant nutrition (i) A deficiency of the elements makes it impossible for the plant to complete its life cycle. (ii) The deficiency symptom of the element in question can be prevented or corrected only by supplying the elements. (iii) The element is directly involved in the nutrition of the plant and can not be replaced with other apart from its possible effect in correcting some microbiological or chemical condition in the soil. List of the essential nutrients required for plant growth Seventeen elements have been considered essential for plant growth are: _______________________________________________________________________ _ Mostly from air and water From soil solids ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Macronutrients Micronutrients -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Carbon(C) Nitrogen (N) Iron (Fe) Copper (Cu) Hydrogen (H) Phosphorus(P) Manganese (Mn) Zinc (Zn) Oxygen (O Potassium (K) Boron (B). Chloride (CI) Calcium (Ca) Molybdenum (Mo) Cobalt (Co) Magnesium (Mg) Sulphur (S) _____________________________________________________________________ Classification of the essential elements based on the physiological functions Considering the role played by various essential elements they may be grouped as follows:
Group Role Essential elements

15

I II III IV

Energy exchanges Energy stores Translocation regulators Oxidation-reduction regulators

Hydrogen, oxygen Carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous& sulphur Potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium Manganese, molybdenum, iron, copper, boron, cobalt & zinc

Difference between macro and micronutrients Elements which are required by plants in concentrations exceeding one part per million, often ten times that or more are called macronutrients. Elements which are required by plants in concentrations less than 1 ppm are considered as micronutrients. The forms of different nutrients elements used by plants Nutrients absorbed in uncombined form Nutrient Potassium Calcium Magnesium Iron Mangenese Copper Zinc Chlorine Nutrients absorbed in combined form or as salts Nutrient Nitrogen Phosphorus Sulphur Boron Molybdenum Carbon Hydrogen Form NH4+(ammonium), NO3 --(nitrate) PO4--(phosphate) HPO4- (phosphate)*H2PO4(orthophosphoric acid) SO3(sulphite), *SO"4 (sulphate) *BO3- -(borate) , HB4O7 (biborate) HMoO4- (molybdate) CO3 - -(Carbonate), H+ , *HCO3 – (bicarbonate) HOForm K+ Ca++ Mg++ Fe++ (Ferrous), Fe+++ (Ferric) Mn++ (Manganous), Mn+++(Manganic) Cu+ (Cuprous), Cu++ (Cupric) Zn++ CI-

* Indicate the forms in which most plants take up these nutrients. Functions of essential nutrients Carbon Basic molecular component of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Oxygen It is somewhat like carbon in that it occurs in virtually all organic compounds of living organisms. Hydrogen Plays a central role in plant metabolism. Important in ionic balance and as main reducing agent and plays a key role in energy relations of cells. Nitrogen It is a component of many important organic compounds ranging from protein to nucleic acids. It is an integral part of chlorophyll, which is the 16

primary absorber of light energy needed for photosynthesis. It imparts green colour to plants. Phosphorus Central role in energy transfer and protein metabolism. It is an important structural component of many biochemicals inluding nucleic acids. DNA and RNA are associated with control of hereditary processes. It is also associated with increased root growth and early maturity of crops. Potassium Helps in osmotic and ionic regulation. It functions as cofactor or activator for many enzymes of carbohydrate and protein metabolism. Imparts disease resistance in cereals and drought resistance in many crops. Calcium It is involved in cell division and plays a major role in maintenance of membrane integrity. Magnesium Component of chlorophyll and a cofactor for many enzymatic reactions. It is a structural component in ribosomes. Sulphur Like phosphorus, it is involved in plant cell energetics. It is associated with chlorophyll formation and sulphur containing amino acids. Iron An essential component of many hemo and non-hemo Fe enzymes and carriers, including cytochromes (respiratory electron carriers) and the ferredoxins. The latter are involved in key metabolic functions such as N fixation, photosynthesis and electron transfer. Zinc It is a constituent of several enzyme systems regulating various metabolic reactions. Manganese Involved in oxygen evolving system of photosynthesis. It can substitute for magnesium in many of the phosphorylating and group transfer reactions. It influences auxin levels in plants. CopperIt acts as electron carrier in enzymes associated with oxidation-reduction reactions. It has indirect effect on nodule formation. Boron It is essential for development and growth of new cells in plant meristcm. It is necessary for nodule formation in legumes. It is associated with translocation of sugars, starches, nitrogen and phosphorus. Molybdenum It is an essential component of enzyme nitrate reductase in plants. It is also a structural component of nitrogenase associated with nitrogen fixation in legumes. Chlorine Essential for photosynthesis and as an activator of enzymes involved in splitting water. Associated with osmoregulation of plants growing on saline soils. Nikle It influences urease activity in nitrogen metabolism and facilitates transport of nutrients to seed or grain. In free living Rhizobia, its supply is necessary for hydrogenase activity. VISUAL SYMPTOMS The cheapest diagnostic technique for identifying nutrient disorders in crop plants is visual symptoms. However, visual symptoms are some times confused with disease, insect or soil moisture stress. There are three steps in identifying nutrient disorders by visual symptoms.

17

(l)

Observing plant for its normal growth and development: stunted growth may be due to deficiency or toxicity of all elements, but N and P deficiencies have more influence on growth reduction, (2) Plant part affected: whether foliar symptoms appear on lower or older leaves, or on younger or growing points of the plant, and (3) Recognition of nature of symptoms: chlorotic, necrotic or deformed. If symptoms appear on lower leaves, they may be due to deficiency of mobile nutrients such as N, P, K and Mg. Mobile nutrients are those which can be translocated within plants. Hence, deficiency symptoms occur first on the lower part of the plant. If deficiency symptoms first appear on the upper young leaves, they may be due to deficiency of immobile nutrients such as Ca, Fe, Cu, S, B, Mn and Mo. Immobile nutrients are not translocated to the growing region of the plant but remain in older leaves where they were originally deposited after absorption from the soil. Key points in identification of nutrient deficiency symptoms in crops are given in following table. Practical applicability of this method is rather limited. • Symptoms are often vitiated by the interaction of elements and also by the intensification of pests and diseases. • The very fact that crop is showing deficiency symptoms indicates that its growth and development has already been hindered and optimum yield may not be possible even after the remedy. • Deficiency symptoms may vary from species to species and even from variety to variety. • Plants may not exhibit deficiency symptoms due to hidden hunger. GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF NUTRIENT DEFICIENCY SYMBTOMS Nutrient ________________________________Symptoms_______________________ N Stunted growth, chlorosis (yellowing) first on lower leaves, reduced tillering in cereals. P Purple orange colour of older leaves, new leaves dark green, poor root system, stunted growth. K Older leaves may show spots or marginal burning starting from tip. Ca Failure of terminal bud and root tips, growing point die and curl, new leaves become white. Mg Interveinal chlorosis of older leaves with veins remaining green, pinkish colour of old leaves. S Chlorosis of younger leaves, severe deficiency leads to chlorosis of entire plant. Zn Characteristic little leaf and rosetting or clustering of leaves at the top of fruit trees. In sorghum, its deficiency is called white bud, cotton little leaf and in citrus mottle leaf. Fe Interveinal chlorosis of younger leaves, severe deficiency leads to yellowing of entire leaf first and finally white. Mn Similar to iron deficiency, at advanced stages, necrosis develops instead of white colour. Cu Chlorosis of young leaves, rolling and dieback. In advanced stages dead tissue appears along the tips and edges of leaves similar to that of potassium deficiency. Mo Mottled pale appearance in young leaves, bleaching and withering of leaves. 18

B

Thickened or curled leaves, thickened, cracked or water-soaked condition of petioles and stem, cracking or rotting of fuuits, tubers or roots

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NUTRIENT DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS

N-deficiency (Wheat)

N-Deficiency (Soybean)

N-Deficiency (Tobacco)

N-Deficiency (Maize)

Zn-Deficiency (Rice)

Fe-Deficiency (Groundnut)

P-Deficiency (Sugarcane)

Fe Deficiency (Maize)

Mn-Deficiency (Wheat)

N-Deficiency (Rice)

P-Deficiency (Maize)

Fe-Deficiency (Rice)

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Fe-Deficiency (Groundnut)

P-Deficiency (Brassica napus)

Mn-Deficiency (Wheat)

Mn-Deficiency (Berseem)

N-Deficiency (Soybean)

P-Deficiency (Wheat)

P-Deficiency (Sorghum)

P-Deficiency (Sugarcane)

N-Deficiency (Wheat)

K-Deficiency

S-Deficiency (Wheat)

K-Deficiency (Berseem)

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Nutrient Response on Yield

Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms

22

Deficiency diseases caused by micronutrient deficiency are as follows: • Iron= Bright yellow green or yellow chlorosis in grain crops. • Manganese= Grey speck of oats, Speckled yellows of sugarbeet. Marsh spot of peas. Pahala blight of sugarcane. • Copper= White tip in grain crops. • Zinc= White bud of maize. Khaira disease of rice. • Molybdenum= Yellow spot of citrus. • Boron= Crown rot or dry rot of sugarbeet. Top sickness of tobacco. Fertilizers are the nutrient supplying chemicals in concentrated form. There are different form/types of fertilizers supplying essential nutrients. Some fertilizers supply only one nutrient and are called straight fertilizers, where as, there are some fertilizers which supply more than one nutrient are called complex fertilizers. Classification of nitrogen fertilizers 1. Nitrate (NO3) fertilizers N content (%) Sodium nitrate Na NO3 15-16 Calcium nitrate Ca(NO3)2 33-35 Potasium nitrate KNO3 13.00 2. Ammonium (NH4) fertilizers Ammonium sulphate (NH4)2 SO4 20.60 Ammonium phosphate NH4H2PO4 20.00 Ammonium chloride NH4Cl 25.00 Anlydrous ammonia NH3 81.50 3. Nitrate & ammonium fertilizers Ammoium nitrate NH4NO3 33.50 Calcium ammonium nitrate CaNH4 NO3(NH4NO3.CaCO3) 25.00 Ammonium sulphate nitrate (NH4)2 SO4.NH4NO3 26.00 4. Amide (CN2) fertilizers Urea CO (NH2)2 46.00 Calcium cyanamide CaCN2 21.00 Relative efficiency of nitrogen fertilizers: Based on the experiment results the following conclusions have emerged: • Under most conditions urea, calcium ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate, on equal nitrogen basis, are equally effective. • Ammonical fertilizers are more effective than nitrate fertilizers fro lowland rice. • Nitrate nitrogenous fertilizers are better suited for top dressing. • For crops such as tea, ammonium sulphate is more effective than others.

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Phosphatic fertilizers Fertilizers Single super phosphate Triple super phosphate Dicalcium phosphate Calcium metaphosphate Rock phosphate Basic slag Mono-ammonium phosphate Diammonium phosphate Ammonium phosphate sulphate Nitrophosphate (ODDA) Nitrophosphate (PEC) Potassium metaphosphate

Total (%) P2O5 N (%) 16.0 48.0 34.0 63.0 27.0 2.5-7.5 48.0 11.0 46.0 18.0 20.0 16.0 20.0 20.0 14.0 16.0 60.1 -

Relative efficiency of phosphatic fertilizers • For short duration crops and those with restricted root system, fertilizers with high proportion of water soluble phosphorus are advantageous. • Higher water soluble phosphorus is less important for long duration crops. • Higher water solubility is desirable for crops requiring quick start. • Localized placement of water soluble phosphate fertilizers is more effective when the rate of application is limited. • On acid soils, granular fertilizers with high degree of water solubility are most effective than powdered fertilizers to be mixed with soil. • On acid to neutral soils, band placement of powdered fertilizers with high degree of water solubility will give better results than mixing the fertilizers with soil. • On calcareous soils, granular water soluble phosphate is more effective. • Fertilizers with low solubility will give good results when applied in powdered from mixed with soil. • Monoammonium phosphate is better than diammonium phosphate on calcareous soils. • Rock phosphate and bone meal are ideal for strongly acid soils and for long duration crops. Potassium fertilizers Murate of potash Potassium sulphate Potassium nitrate KCl K2SO4 KNO3 24 K2O(%) 60 48 44

Sulphate containing fertilizers and soil amendments
Fertilizer/amendments Sulphur (%) Fertilizer/amendment Sulphur (%)

Ammonium sulphate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium phosphate sulphate Basic slag Single super phosphate Micronutrient carriers Micronutrient Zn

23.7 4.5 15.4 12.4 22.4

Potassium sulphate Gypsum Copper sulphate Ferrous sulphate Zinc sulphate

17.8 23.5 12.8 18.8 17.8

Name of salt

Zinc sulphate heptahydrate Zinc sulphate monohydrate Zinc oxide Zinc EDTA Copper sulphate pentahydrate Copper sulphate monohydrate Copper EDTA Manganese sulphate trihydrate Manganese sulphate monohydrate Manganese Ferrous sulphate Iron EDTA Borax Boric acid Solubor Sodium molybdate Ammonium molybdate Potassium chloride

Micronutrient content (%) 21 33 55-70 12 24 35 9-13 26-28 30-32 5-12 19 12 10.5 17.5 19 37-39 52 48

Cu Mn Fe B Mo Cl

Antagonism among different essential plant nutrients Some of the enzymatic and biochemical reactions requiring a given micronutrient may be poisoned by the presence of other second trace element in toxic quantities: (i) Molybdenum use is limited by excess copper or sulphur (ii) Excess Zn, Cu or Mo encourages iron deficiency (iii) Excess phosphorous deficiency of Zn, iron or copper but increases Mo uptake (iv) High level of nitrogen intensify Cu and Zn deficiencies (v) Excess Na and K may affect Mn uptake (vi) Boron uptake is limited by excess lime (vii) Excess Fe, Cu or Zn may reduce Mn absorption 25

Organic manures: Organic manures are the decomposed organic matter. These are having plant nutrients in low concentration and are required in large quatity, hence, called bulky manures. These are crop residue or animal excreta.
AVERAGE NUTRIENT CONTENT OF ORGANIC MANURES Manure N (%) P2O5 (%) Bulky organic manures Farm yard manure 0.5-1.5 0.4-0.8 Compost (urban) 1.0-2.0 1.0 Compost (rural) 0.4-0.8 0.3-0.6 Green manures (averages) 0.5-0.7 0.1-0.2 Non edible cakes Castor cake 5.5-5.8 1.8-1.9 Mahua cake 2.5-2.6 0.1-0.9 Karanj cake 3.9-4.0 0.9-1.0 Neem cake 5.2-5.3 1.0-1.1 Safflower cake 4.8-4.9 1.4-1.5 (undecorticated) Edible cakes Coconut 3.0-3.2 1.8--1.9 Cotton seed cak\) 6.4-6.5 2.8-2.9 (decorticated) Cotton seed cake 3.9-4.0 1.8-1.9 (undecorticated) Groundnut cake 7.0-7.2 1.5-1.6 Linseed 5.5-5.6 1.4-1.5 Niger 4.7-4.8 1.8-1.9 Rapeseed 5.1-5.2 1.8-1.9 Sesame or til, cake 6.2-6.3 2.0-2.1 Manure of animal origin Dried blood 10.0-12.0 1.0-1.5 Fish manure 4.0-10.0 3.0-9.0 Bird guano 7.0-8.0 11.0-14.0 Bone meal (raw) 3.0-4.0 20.0-25.0 Bone meal (steamed) 1.0-2.0 25.0-30.0 Activated sludge (dry) 5.0-6.5 3.0-3.5 Settled sludge (dry) 2.0-2.5 1.0-1.2 Night soil 1.2-1.3 0.8-1.0 Human urine 1.0-1.2 0.1-0.2 Cattle dung + urine 0.60 0.15 Horse dung + urine 0.70 0.25 Sheep dung + urine 0.95 0.35

K2O (%) 0.5-1.9 1.5 0.7-1.0 0.6-0.8 1.0-1.1 1.8-1.9 1.3-1.4 1.4-1.5 1.2-1.3 1.7-1.8 2.1-2.2 1.6-1.7 1.3-1.4 1.2-1.3 1.3-1.4 1.2-1.3 1.2-1.3 0.6-0.8 0.3-1.5 2.0-3.0 0.5-0.7 0.4-0.5 0.4-0.5 0.2-0.3 0.45 0.55 1.00

Green manure crops and the quantity of nutrient added These are protein rich crops which are rich in nitrogen and succulent in growth. High succulancy helps in easy and early decomposition after turning in soil by ploughing at flowering stage with maximum biomass addition and early decomposition because of low fibre content. 26

N content and addition by leguminous green manuring crops Crop Av. Yield of Green N content (%) N added (Kg/ha) matter (q/ha) green Sannhemp 212 0.43 75.0 Sesbania 200 0.42 68.9 (Dhaincha) Mung 80 0.53 34.5 Cowpea 150 0.49 50.3 Cluster bean 200 0.34 55.7 (Guar) Senji 286 0.51 120.0 Khesari 123 0.54 54.9 Berseem 155 0.43 54.2 Chemical composition of the straw fed to animals Crop straw Percent content N P2O5 Paddy 0.36 0.08 Wheat 0.53 0.10 Sorghum 0.40 0.23 Pearlmillet 0.65 0.75 Maize 0.42 1.57 Biofertilizers and their probable fixing capacity
A. 1. 2. 3. Association Nitrogen Symbiotic Associative Free living Strains Rhizobia, Frambia, Anabeena Azospirillum, Acetobactor, Herbspirillum a) Azotobacter, Derxia, Cyanobacteria, Rhodospirillum, Beijerinckia b) Blue green algae (Tolypothrix, Nestoc, Calottria, Plectonema) Pseudomonas and Bacillus VAM (Vesicular Arbicular Mycorrhiza) Remarks 40 – 750 kg N/ha 20 – 40 kg N/ha 20 – 40 kg N/ha 12 – 15 kg N/ha

K2O 0.71 1.10 2.17 2.50 1.65

B.

Phosphorus Phosphorus solublizers

Can provide 30 kg P2O5/ha Reduce the requirement of phosphorus by 20%

Rhizobium bacteria species responsible for nitrogen fixation in different legumes Group Rhizobium species Legume Alfalfa R. meliloti Melilotus (certain clovers), Medicago (alfalfa), Trigonella Clover R.trifolii Trifolium spp. (clovers) Soybean R.japonicum Glycine max (soybeans) Lupini R. lupine Lupinus (lupines), Ornithopus spp. (serradella) Bean R. phaseoli Phaseolus vulgaris (dry bean), Phaseolus coccineus Peas R. leguminosarum Pisum (peas), 27

Crop groups based on response to salt stress Sensitive group Resistant group Highly sensitive Medium sensitive Medium tolerant Highly tolerant Lentil Radish Spinach Barley Mash Cowpea Sugarcane Rice (transplanted) Chickpea Broadbean Raya Cotton Beans Vetch Rice (direct sowing) Sugarbeet Peas Millets Wheat Tabacco Maize Pearl millet Safflower Clover, berseem Oats Taramira Alfalfa

Calculation on fertilizer requirement
Example 1 : For one hectare cultivation of wheat calculate the amount of calcium ammonium nitrate, single super phosphate and murate of potash fertilizers if one one to apply 150 kg N, 60 kg P2O5 and 60 kg K2O per hectare nutrients. Solution: Wheat area to be cultivate = 1 ha or 10,000 m2 amount of nutrients needed to be applied: N = 150 kg, P2O5 = 60 kg and K2O = 60 kg. Fertilizers available: Calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) = 25% N Single ammonium phosphate (SSP) = 16% P2O5 Murate of potash (MOP) = 60% K2O Since we are aware total amount of nitrogen to be applied to the crop is 150 kg and among the above three fertilizers CAN contains only 25% N and other two fertilizers do not have N content so all the amount of nitrogen should be met through CAN. 150 X 100 Amount of CAN required = --------------- = 600 kg 25 Similarly, single super phosphate contains only 16% P2O5 60 X 100 Therefore, the total amount of SSP = ------------= 375 kg 16 60 X 100 Similarly, the amount of MOP required = ------------= 100 kg 60 Therefore, 600 kg CAN, 375 kg SSP and 100 kg MOP is required to provide 150 kg N, 60 kg P2O5 and 60 kg K2O per hectare to the wheat crop. Example 2: Calculate the quantity of urea, DAP and murate of potash for a crop to be grown in 2 acre area. The crop requires 120 kg N, 60 kg P 2O5 and 40 kg K2O per hectare. Solution : Total are under the crop = 2 acre or 8000 m2 2 Nutrient required in 1 ha (10000 m ) area are: Nitrogen P2O5 K2O = = = 120 kg 60 kg 40 kg 28

But we have to apply fertilizer to 8000 m2 is as follows:120 X 8000 Nitrogen = ---------------- = 96 kg 10000 60 X 8000 P2O5 = ---------------- = 48 kg 10000 40 X 8000 K2O = ---------------- = 32 kg 10000 Fertilizers available: Urea = 46% N, DAP = 18% N and 46% P2O5 and murate of potash = 60% K2O Now we can calculate the individual fertilizers. But here one point must be noted that available fertilizers Urea and murate of potash contains only single nutrient but DAP contains two nutrient elements i.e. nitrogen and phosphorus. Therefore, first it is required to find out the amount of DAP to meet 48 kg P2O5 per 8000 m2 demand. 48 X 100 Quantity of DAP required for 48 kg P2O5 = ------------- = 104.35 kg 46 18 X 104.35 Nitrogen in 104.35 kg DAP = ----------------- = 18.78 kg N 100 Total nitrogen required = 96 kg Nitrogen supplied through DAP = 18.78 kg Balance N to be supplied = 96 – 18.78 = 77.22 kg Now, 77.22 kg N should be supplied through Urea (46%) 100 X 77.22 Therefore, the quantity of Urea required = ---------------- = 167.87 kg 46 100 X 32 Similarly, the quantity of murate of potash = ------------- = 53.33 kg 60 Hence, to meet the crop requirement 167.87 kg Urea, 104.35 kg DAP and 53.33 kg murate of potash is required. Example 3: Estimate total quantity of fertilizers for a crop to be grown in 4000 m2 area. The crop requires 150 kg N, 50 kg P and 40 kg K per hectare. The fertilizers available with the farmer are Urea, SSP and MOP. Solution: Area to be grown = 4000 m2 2 Nutrient required in 1 ha (10000 m ) area are: 150 kg N, 50 kg P and 40 kg K. 2 So, the nutrient required for 4000 m is as follows:150 X 4000 N = ---------------- = 60 kg 10000 50 X 4000 P = ---------------- = 20 kg 10000

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40 X 4000 K = ---------------- = 16 kg 10000 Convert P into P2O5 and K into K2O because SSP and MOP fertilizers contains 16% P2O5 and 60% K2O. P2O5 = P X 2.29 = 20 X 2.29 = 45.8 kg K2O = K X 1.20 = 16 X 1.20 = 19.2 kg Now, we are aware that for 4000 m2 area the nutrient required as per recommendation is:N = 60 kg P2O5 = 45.8 kg K2O = 19.2 kg Now, calculate the quantity of individual fertilizer:100 X 60 Quantity of Urea required = ------------= 130.43 kg 46 100 X 45.8 Quantity of SSP required = --------------- = 286.25 kg 16 100 X 19.2 Quantity of MOP required = --------------- = 32 kg 60 Example 4 : Calculate the quantities of urea, SSP and MOP for sugarcane crop to be grown on half acre area. The crop requires 250 kg N, 100 kg P2O5 and 60 kg K2O per hectare. Vermicompost (N 2%, P2O5 1% and K2O 1%) @ 10 t per hectare was applied at the time of field preparation. Solution : Total area under wheat crop = Half acre or 2000 m2 Vermicompost application = 10 t/ha or 10000 kg /10000 m2 or 1 kg/m2 = 1 X 2000 = 2000 kg

Amount of vermicompost applied in wheat crop Nutrient content in vermicompost =

N 2%, P2O5 1% and K2O 1% (as given) 2 X 2000 Amount of N supplied through vermicompost = ------------= 40 kg 100 1 X 2000 Amount of P2O5 supplied through vermicompost = ------------= 20 kg 100 1 X 2000 Amount of K2O supplied through vermicompost = ------------= 20 kg 100 Rate of nutrient application per hectare = 250 kg N, 100 kg P2O5, 60 kg K2O per hectare. But we have half acre area or 2000 m2. 250 X 2000 Therefore, for 2000 m2 N required is = ---------------- = 50 kg 10000 30

Therefore, for 2000 m

2

P2O5 required

= =

Therefore, for 2000 m2 are K2O required

100 X 2000 ---------------- = 10000 60 X 2000 ---------------- = 10000

20 kg 12 kg

Balance amount of N required:Total N – N supplied through vermicompost = 50 – 40 = 10 kg Similarly, P2O5 required = 20 – 20 = 0 (Nil) Similarly, K2O required = 12 – 20 = -8 (Nil) 100 X 10 Quantity of Urea required = ------------= 21.7 kg 46 No, SSP and MOP is required as the full dose of P2O5 and K2O was supplied through vermicompost. Example 5: On a field of one hectare wheat is to be sown after mungbean. Calculate the amount of Urea and SSP required if the dose of N and P2O5 are 120 and 60 kg per hectare. Assume that mungbean left the residual nitrogen in the field @ 20 kg per hectare. As per soil test report the field was found sufficient in potash. Solution : Amount of N required = 120 kg per hectare Amount of P2O5 required = 60 kg per hectare Residual N of mungbean = 20 kg per hectare Balance N required for wheat crop = 120 – 20 = 100 kg 100 X 100 --------------- = 217.39 kg 46 100 X 60 Therefore, quantity of SSP required = --------------- = 375 kg 16 Example 6: Calculate the quantity of water required to spray 0.5% zinc sulphate along with 3% urea at anthesis stage to remove the zinc deficiency in one acre area. If the knapsack sprayer of 15 litre capacity saturates the crop canopy in 250 m 2 area. Solution : 250 m2 area is sprayed with = 15 litre water 1 , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , = 15/250 , , , , 4000 m2 , , , , , , , , , , , , , = 15/250x 4000 = 240 litre. Example 7: How much amount of urea is needed to make 3% urea solution for spray of wheat crop in one acre area at anthesis. Solution : In 100 litre water the quantity of urea required = 3 kg 1, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , = 3/100 kg 240 , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , = 3/100 x 240 = 7.2 kg Example 8: How much amount of zinc sulphate is needed to spray 0.5% solution in wheat crop in one acre area at anthesis? Solution : In 100 litre water the quantity of zinc sulphate required = 500 g 1, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , = 500/100 240 , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , = 500/100 x 240 = 120 g=1.2 kg Therefore, quantity of Urea required = 31

PRACTICES TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF APPLIED FERTILIZERS
1. The fertilizer scheduling must be based on soil tests. 2. Selection of fertilizers should be done according to the soil reaction viz. acidic fertilizers for alkaline soils and alkaline fertilizers for acidic soil reactions. 3. Surface application through broadcasting should not be adopted but the fertilizer should be placed about 3-4 cm by the side or, below the seed. 4. Optimum and balanced use of fertiliser: Neither too low nor any alone nutrient can increase the productivity therefore, it is essential that most optimum dose of fertiliser and balanced quantity of nutrients should be applied. 5. About 30 to 50 kg N ha-1 should be reduced after raising a legume crop, growing Azolla, blue green, algae or practicing green manuring. 6. The phosphatic and potassic fertilizers should be basal placed because P2O5 and K2O are not lost from the soil but they are adsorbed by the soil particles. Their poor mobility restrict them to the place of application, therefore, they must be placed in the root zone. 7. Split application of phosphate fertiliser in soils prone to phosphate fixation (in acidic soils) or reversion (in sodic soils) gives better response. 8. Home mixing of fertilizers should be in accordance with fertilizer mixing guide and such fertilizer mixtures must be applied as soon as possible. 9. In case of heavy soil types half of nitrogenous fertilizers should be basal placed and rest half should be top dressed in one split only but in case of light soils. N should be applied in three equal splits i.e. 1/3 as basal, 1/3 after 30 days of sowing and rest 1/3 about 50-60 days after sowing. 10. Flooding with too deep water or poor drainage should be avoided after application of fertilizers at least for a week time. 11. Top dressing should be done after draining out the water and weeding so that the loss of nutrients is minimum. 12. The paddy fields used for transplanting should be puddled and fertilizers should be applied at the time of puddling because this will help the fertilizers to reach and get stored in reduced zone of the soil. 13. Skipping the basal application of nitrogen in transplanted/deep water rice and its application after 3-4 weeks of transplanting increases recovery. 14. Light sandy, calcarious and soils under very high cropping intensity are deficient in micronutrients like zinc and sulphur. The deficient plants become sickly and cannot absorb nutrients, thus the fertilizer is not absorbed, therefore such soils must be supplied with zinc sulphate (ZnS04) at the rate of 20-25 kg/ha every after 2-3 years. 15. The acidic soils should be treated with liming materials as and when required. 16. Drilling of fertilisers under irrigated conditions and deep placement under dryland conditions increases fertiliser use efficiency and boosts productivity. 17. Deep placement of fertilizers along with foliar feeding of nitrogen through spraying of nitrogenous fertilizers in place of top-dressing should be done in case of dry lands. 18. Judicious and careful application of micro-nutrients reduces occurrence of physiological or nutrients deficiencies diseases in crop plants and helps raising healthy crops. 19. Addition of organic manures should be done at least one in 3-5 years of time. 20. Weed growth should not be permitted in the cropped area during any part of the year.

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21. In case of flooded fields or calcarious soils use of slow release nitrogenous fertilizers like U.F. 30, sulphur coated urea, urea super granules, neem coated or neem blended urea should be done so that loss of nitrogen can be minimized. 22. An appropriate plant protection measure and proper tillage practices should be adopted so that plants remain healthy and absorb the applied nutrients from the field.

WEEDS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT
Weed . Plants are differentiated into crops which meet the needs of man and weeds which compete or interfere in mains affairs. Weeds are defined in different ways: (i) A weed is a plant growing where it is not wanted (ii) Weed is an unwanted plant (iii) A plant out of place. (iv) A plant that is extremely noxious, useless, unwanted or poisonous (v) Any plant or vegetation, excluding fungi, interfering with the objectives or requirements of people. Characteristics of weeds i. Most weeds are prolific seed producers. . ii. Dormancy in weed seeds is a continuous source of weeds on crop land. iii. Some weeds propogate vegetatively. iv. Dispersal of weed seeds exposes weeds to different ecosystems. v. Weeds are hardy and resist to adverse climatic, soil and disease conditions. vi. Evasiveness of weeds because of their bitter taste, disagreeable odour, spiny nature and mimicry. vii. Weeds are self sown plants. viii. Large number of weed species available to varied ecosystems. Losses caused by weeds (a) Land weeds i. Weeds compete with crop plants for nutrients, soil moisture, CO2, space and sunlight and reduce the crop yield and production efficiency. ii. Weeds reduce the quality of farm produce. iii. Loss of animal health. iv. Menace to human health, and working efficiency. v. Weeds damage to industry and public utilities. vi. Deterioration of aesthetic values. (b) Aquatic weeds i. They impede water flow in canals, channels, rivers, drainage etc. ii. They are menace to fishries. iii. They are water wasters. iv. They spoil the recreational value of water bodies. v. They pose pollution problems in water. Extent of yield losses caused by weeds The extent of losses due to weeds depends on intensity of infestation, time of occurrence and type of weeds. The yield losses in upland rice ranged between 66 to 92.8 33

per cent. Among the field crops sesame, cowpea, soybean and groundnut are most sensitive to weeds. The average losses due to weeds in different crops were 30 to 40 per cent in soybean, maize, potatoes, fodder and root crops and 15-20 per cent in other cereals. Crop-weed competition Weeds compete with the crop for different growth factors like nutrients, light, water and carbon dioxide. Many of the weeds also excrete certain chemicals into soil which inhibits the growth of crop plants. Critical Period of Crop - Weed Competition The basic idea of weed management is to provide curative treatment when economic damage is caused by weeds. For integrated weed management it is necessary to work the critical periods of weed competition and also necessity of weed free environment needed during the initial period of crop growth. This provides the active duration during which the presence of several cultivated crops in the plots is needed to be free of weeds. Critical periods vary in different crops due to variation in their growth habit and crop duration. Critical period of crop-weed competition and yield losses caused by weeds in different crops Crops Critical period (DAS) % reduction in grain yield A. Cereals Rice (direct seeded) 15-45 15-90 Rice (transplanted) 30-45 15-40 Wheat 30-45 20-40 Maize 15-45 40-60 Sorghum 15-45 15-40 Pearlmillet 30-45 15-60 B. Pulses Pigeon pea 15-60 20-40 Greengram 15-30 25-50 Blackgram 15-30 30-50 Cowpea 15-30 15-30 Chickpea 30-60 15-25 Peas 30-45 20-30 Lentil 30-60 20-30 C. Oilseeds Soyabean 20-45 40-60 Groundnut 40-60 40-50 Sunflower 30-45 30-50 Castor 30-60 30-35 Safflower 15-45 35-60 Sesamum 15-45 15-40 Rapeseed-mustard 15-40 15-30 Linseed 20-45 30-40 D. Commercial crop. Sugarcane 30-120 20-30 34

Potato Cotton Jute

20-40 15-60 30-45

30-60 40-50 50-80

35

Major crops, associated weeds and their recommended herbicides with time application: Name of Major weeds Name of herbicide Rate of Crop found selective herbicide application Wheat and Fumaria parviflora, For wild oats: Barley Melilotus spp, Triallate or Diallate 1.25 kg ai/ha Chenopodium album, For Phalaris: Vicia spp, Asphodelus Methabenzthiazuron 0.75-1.50 kg/ha tenuifolius, Spergula Metoxuron 1.5 kg/ha arvensis, Convolvulus Isoproturon 0.75 kg/ha arvensis, Avena fatua, For Isoproturon Phalaris minor, Poa resistant areas: annua, Polypogon spp. Sulfosulfuron 24.5 g/ha Clodinafop 60 g/ha Tralkoxydim 350 glha For broadleaved weeds: 0.25-0.50 kg/ha 2,4-D Rice Echinochloa colona, Echinochloa crusgalli, Paspalum distichum, Panicum spp., Cyperus spp., Ammania baccifera, Eclipta alba Cyperus spp, Digera arvensis, Phyllanthus nhruri, Euphorbia hirta, Trianthema monogyma, Solanum nigrum,Cynodon dactylon Same weeds as of maize Same weeds as of maize Cyperus rotundus, Cynodon dactylon, Euphorbia hirta, Commelina benghlalensis, Digera arvensis, Phyllanthus niruri,Chenopodium album, Sorghum halepense, Croton sporsiflora, Corchorus spp Cyperus rotundus, Butachlor/ Thiobencarb/ Pendimethalin Anilofos Pretilachlor Simazine or Atrazine 1.5 kg al/ha

and rate of Time of application PPI Post emergence treatment 3040 days after sowing -do

0.4 kg ai/ha 1.0 kg ai/ha 1-1.5 kg/ha

Maize

Within 2-3 days of transplanting in 4-5 cm standing water -do -do As preemergence or 7-15 days after sowing in 500600 l water/ha Pre-emergence or 7-15 days after sowing As pre-plant soil incorporation As preemergence -do Apply 9 days after planting

Jowar and Bajra Groundnut Sugarcane

Simazine or Atrazine Fluchloralin Pendimethalln Alachlor Atrazine or Simazine Metribuzin Dalapon Isoproturon + 2,4- D

0.5-1.0 kg/ha 1-2 kg/ha 2 kg/ha 1-2 kg/ha 1-2 kg/ha 0.75-1.5 kg/ha 0.5-1.0% directed spray 1-2 kg/ha + 0.25-0.30 kg/ha

Cotton

Trifluralin or

0.75-1.5 kg/ha

PPI

36

Pigeon Pea

Green gram and Black gram Cowpea Soybean Gram and Lentil

Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine spp, Celosia argentia, Sorghum halepense, Amaranthus spp, Corchorus spp, Trianthema monogyna Cyperus rotundus, Amaranthus spp, Celosia argentia, Sorghum halepense, Convoivulus arvensis, Solanum nigrum, Digora arvensis, Trianthema monogyna, Phyllanthus niruri Same as above

fluchloralin Pendimethalin

Pre-emergence 1.2-1.5 kg/ha

Pendimethalin Alachlor

0.75-1.0 kg/ha 1-1.5 kg/ha

Pre-emergence in 500-600 I water/ha

Pendimethalin Alachlor Same as above Alachior or Metolachlor Pendimethalin Fluchioralin or trifluralin Pendimethalin

0.50 kg/ha 1-2 kg/ha Same as above 1-2 kg/ha 0.50-0.75 kg/ha 0.75 kg/ha 0.75-1.0 kg/ha

Same as above Same as above Chenopodium album, Asphodelus tenuifolius, Fumaria parviflora, Ana galls arvensis, Cyperus rotundus, Melilotus spp., Vicia spp Cyperus rotundus, Cynodon dactylon, Euphorbia hirta, Eleusine spp., Trianthema monogyna, Phyllanthus niruri, Digera aivensis, Commelina benghalensis Chenopodium album, Fumaria parviflora, Spurgula arvensis, Anagallis arvensis, Cyperus rotundus, Vicia spp., Melilotus spp

Applied as preemergence in 500-600 I water/ ha Same as above Applied as preemergence PPI

Sunflower

Pendimethalin

1-2 kg/ha

Applied as preemergence

Mustard and Linseed

Isoproturon Trifluralin

0.75-1.0 kg/ha 0.50 kg/ha

Pre-emergence -do

37

IMPORTANT WEEDS (KHARIF)

Echinochloa crusgalli

Solanum nigrum

Digera arvensis

Tribulus terrestris

Achyranthus aspera

Eluesine indica

Euphorbia hirta

Dactyloctenum aegyptium Eragrostis japonica

Physalis minima

Xanthium strumarium

Trianthema portulacastrum

38

IMPORTANT WEEDS (RABI)

Poa annua

Oxalis corniculata Anagallis arvensis Polygonum plebijum Chicorium intybus Malva parviflora

Chanopodium murale

Vicia sativa

Fumaria parviflora

Polypogon monspeliensis Asphodelus tenuifolius Convolvulus arvensis

39

Circium arvense

Lathyrus aphaca

Phalaris minor

Avena ludoviciana

Chenopodium album

Rumex maritimus

Orobanchi aegyptiaca

Parthenium hysterophorus

Cornopus dydimus

Melilotus indica

Cynodon dactylon

Cyprus iria

40
Cynadon dactylon Cyprus iria

Distinguishing characteristics between related crops and weeds Below given crops and weeds are of rabi season and are associated with each other. But because of their similar morphology it is difficult to identify them easily for physical and mechanical control. Hence, some of the peculiar characters of each is given below for their easy identification and control. Wheat Stem is hollow, no branching, seedling dark green in colour. Barley Stem is hollow, no branching, seedling light green in colour. Wild oats Stem is hollow, no branching, pale green purple dot found at the juncture of the tillers. Leaves are green in colour, slightly more rough than Phalaris. No serrations and hairs at the margin. Ligule is large and serrated. No auricles, hairs are found at the juncture of leaf sheath and lamina. Plant grows erect. Tillers do not branch. Produce 60-70 seeds per plant. Phalaris Stem is solid, branched, seedlings have purple colour at base up to 50 days of growth. Leaves are smooth, light yellowish colour with purplish green spots at juncture of lamina and leaf sheath. Ligule is the largest with smooth curve. No auricles, no hairs at the juncture of leaf sheath and lamina. Tillering is rossete type. Tillers branch. Produce 10,000 to 30,000 seeds per plant.

Leaves are dark green in colour with serrations at the margin of lamina. Leaves are rough and have hairs. Ligule is small. Auricles are small, hairy and stem is half clasped. Plant grows erect. Tillers do not branch. Produce 50-60 seeds per plant.

Leaves are light green in colour and smooth. No serrátions and no hairs at the margin. Ligule is small. Auricles are large, no hairs and stem is fully clasped. Plant grows erect. Tillers do not branch. Produce 50-60 seeds per plant.

Morphological differences in rice and Echinochloa spp. Rice Leaves have two auricles and a ligule. Plants are 100cm in height in dwarf varieties. Leaves are dark green in colour. Echinochloa spp. There are no auricles and ligule. Plants have generally more height than rice plants. Leaves are lighter in colour than rice.

41

Selection of herbicides Several herbicides are available in the market today and the selection of a herbicide depends upon weed flora (broad leaved, sedges, grasses, etc.) and time of application (before or after planting). A single herbicide can not control all weeds. Two or more herbicides may be mixed together (tank-mix application) to achieve broad spectrum weed control. If they are not compatible they may be applied one after the other after a gap of a few days (sequential application). Some formulations with mixture of herbicides: are also available (ready-mix) for ready use by farmers (e.g. Butanil is the mixture of butachlor and propanil, Almix is the combination of chlorimuron-ethyl and metsulfuron- methyl).Care may be taken while using herbicides in situations, where simultaneously more than one crop is grown (inter-or mixed cropping). Select a herbicide which is safe to all the crops grown. For example, choose atrazine for weed control in maize and pendimethalin for maize intercropped with legumes. Selection of an herbicide also depends on its availability in the market and the cost The following points may be considered for increasing the efficiency of herbicides and to reduce the cost of weed control • Apply herbicides at recommended rate and time of application • Apply pre-plant and pre-emergence herbicides on a well prepared field free from clods and crop or weed residues. • Use low dose in light soil and higher dose in heavy soils. • Ensure optimum soil moisture at the time of application, particularly with soil-acting herbicides. • Lower herbicide dose integrated with hand weeding or hoeing is more effective and economical, than herbicide alone at higher dose. • Take up spraying of herbicides on a calm, clear and sunny day for maximum benefit. Do not take up spraying, if the rain is expected in the next 4-6 hours. • The performance of some of the herbicides can be enhanced substantially by adding adjuvants (e.g. surfactants like Teepol, Selwet, etc.) to the spray solution • Apply post- emergence herbicides on the actively growing vegetation. Never apply when weeds are too small or when they are overgrown. • Follow herbicide rotation (different herbicides in different years) and use herbicide mixture to prevent weed flora shifts and development of herbicide resistant weeds. Application of the herbicide Uniform application of the herbicide is very crucial for good weed control and for better crop growth. Often a very small quantity of the herbicide is required to be applied on a large area. Any deviation would result in serious consequences. While under-dosing would result in poor weed control, over-dosing may damage the crop. In order to apply the herbicide uniformly, one needs to calibrate the sprayer and calculate the herbicide requirement carefully. Herbicides are applied on area-basis (kg or L/ha) not by concentration basis (%) as is done in case of insecticides or fungicides. However in 42

controlling weeds in non-crop lands, aquatic ecosystem and in spot application, very often the herbicide is applied on concentration basis. Herbicide formulations Most herbicides are formulated as wettable powders (WP) or emulsifiable concentrate (EC) and aqueous concentrates which are diluted in water and applied with a sprayer. Granular formulations (G) are used directly mostly in submerged conditions. There is a growing practice amongst farmers to broadcast the mixture of other formulations of herbicides with sand, soil or urea, just before irrigation (as done with isoproturon in wheat) instead of spraying. Many small and marginal farmers in India do not have a sprayer, and it is natural for them to look for alternative methods to do away spraying. However, it should be pointed out that mixing of other formulations herbicides with sand, soil or urea to obtain granules is neither very scientific safe as the farmers invariably make these mixtures by bare hands. It is difficult to obtain uniform distribution in the field with sand application. Calibration of the sprayer Calibration is nothing but finding out how much area could be sprayed with the sprayer you have. The area sprayed is also dependent on the type of nozzle, spray pressure and the speed of application. The most practical way to calibrate the spray is by actually using it in the field. Spraying can be done by moving the spray lance from side to side using a flat fan nozzle or walk forward holding the spray lance one position using a flood jet nozzle. In both cases measure the swath width i.e., the width that is to be treated.Mark an area having width equal to the swath width. Keep the sprayer on a level ground and fill the water to a marked level. Carry out spraying on the marked area at a normal speed. Avoid skipping or overlapping. Refill the sprayer to the original level marked earlier.The quantity refilled is the quantity required to spray the marked area. Work out the volume rate/ha. Marked area 20 square meters Quantity of water used 1 litre Volume rate = (lXl0, 000)/20 = 500 L/ha or 200 L/acre With the same swath width and operating speed, the spraying could be undertaken to apply the herbicides in the field. The basic principle in calibration of a boom sprayer with more than one nozzle or tractor-mounted sprayer is also similar, the only difference being the flow rate all nozzles in a boom has to be taken into account. Calculation of herbicide requirement The product label and the literature supplied with the herbicide will provide details of herbicide name, active ingredient (a.i.), date of expiry, directions for use etc. It must be read before using the herbicide. It is particularly important to note the strength of the product (a.i.) as the same herbicide may be sold under different trade names with varying amounts of active ingredient. For example, isoproturon is available at 50 and 75% formulations. For this reason only, the 43

recommendations are normally made on kg a.i. basis. Even in liquid formulations the herbicide present is mentioned in g/L. The amount of commercial formulation of the herbicide required can be calculated by the following formula: Commercial product (kg/ha) = Dose in kg a.i. /ha X 100 % a. i. in the product Isoproturon is available as 75% WP and 50% WP. If the recommended rate of application is 0.75 kg ai/ha then the amount of commercial product required is:50% WP product = 0.75 X 100 = 1.50 kg/ha 50 75% WP product = 0.75 X 100 = 1.00 kg/ha 75 Paraquat is to be applied at 0.5 kg a.i. /ha. The herbicide is available as Gramoxone (commercial name of paraquat) which contains 25% paraquat. The quantity of Gramoxone required is = 0.50 X 100 = 2.0 litre/ha 25 Making stock solution In order to apply herbicide uniformly in the entire required area, it is advisable prepare stock solution of the herbicide. Suppose; in order to apply herbicide uniformly in the entire required area, it is advisable prepare stock solution of the herbicide. Suppose; Area to be treated = 1 ha (2.5 acres) Sprayer capacity = 15 litre Sprayer calibration = 450 litres / ha Then, 450 = 30 15 that is 30 refills are required to spray one hectare area. In which case, it is advisable to dissolve the required amount of herbicide as obtained in calculations 1, 2 or 3 in 30 measures (could be a glass tumbler, plastic mug or a container) of water which becomes the stock solution. Now add 1 measure of this stock solution to sprayer tank containing 15 L water, stir it and spray as suggested earlier. Alternatively one can dissolve the entire quantity of herbicide in 450 liters of water contained in a big container and use this solution directly for spraying. Tips for proper application of herbicides • The spray tank should be at least one-third full with clean water before any concentrate is added and the contents well mixed while the concentrate is being put in slowly. • Wettable powder formulations should be made up into a paste and then diluted before adding to the spray tank. • The spray tank should always be emptied completely before refilling to avoid altering the concentration of the spray. 44

• • • • • • •

• • • •

The spray should be made as required to avoid storing unused diluted spray. Should there be a short delay in application, stir or agitate the contents in the sprayer just before use to prevent settling down of the herbicide at the bottom. Wettable powder formulations are more prone to settling down than liquid formulations. Pressure should be built up before the control lever or tap is moved to the 'spray' position (in case of tractor-mounted sprayers). Never operate the sprayer while standing still. In tractor-mounted sprayers open the nozzles only when tractor starts moving. Never when it is stationary. Do not apply herbicide, when the tractor is taking turns. Accurate swath matching is a must. Spraying along the rows can help in easy swath matching. With tractor-mounted sprayers adjust the height of spray boom for uniform application. Pumping should stop as soon as the tank is empty and a mark should be left in the field to indicate from where the spraying should recommence. It is worth dividing the area to be treated into convenient units for uniform spraying particularly for pre-emergence application. Do not apply a herbicide, if a crop susceptible to that herbicide is growing downwind of the area to be treated. Volatile esters of herbicides should be avoided under such a situation. Early morning is often a good time to spray when the wind is gentle. It is advisable to use a separate sprayer for spraying hormone type herbicides (MCPA, 2, 4-D, etc.). Small traces of herbicide residues in the sprayer can cause pytotoxicity in susceptible crops. Avoid spraying foliage-active herbicide if rains are expected in the next two hours or so. However , a light rain or irrigation is often beneficial for a soil-active herbicide. Apply herbicide using a sprayer with 500-600 L/ha water. Flood jet or flat fan nozzle should only be used for spraying the herbicides.

Aftercare of sprayers and nozzles • Wash the sprayer thoroughly with water before and after each use. • Any blocked nozzle should be changed or washed in clean water. Do not blow through blocked nozzle with the mouth or use hard objects (such as knives, wires etc.) as they may alter spray output and droplet size. • Nozzles should therefore be checked often and may require replacing once in a year or so. • When sprayer is to be stored, it should be thoroughly cleaned by adding detergent the water and rinsing several times to remove all traces of the detergent before storing. The tank should be drained and left with the lid off to allow air circulation. 45

• All bearings and hinges should be oiled or greased and wheeled machines should be put on blocks with the tyres out of sun. • Hoses can be removed and stored hanging vertically to prevent rodent damage. Safe handling of herbicides It is important to read the label before use and follow directions and precautions properly. The label tells what the herbicide is, lists the amount of active ingredient and gives recommendations and precautions for use. Most herbicides are potentially dangerous particularly in concentrated form but they are not likely to cause injury if used properly and if recommended precautions are observed. The dangers associated with mishandling and misapplication of herbicides may include possible injury to the operator and handler, poisoning live stock, damage to desirable plants, damage to equipments and poisoning fish and wild life etc. The following points may be taken note of in preventing the abuse of herbicides. • Avoid prolonged contact with the skin, breathing vapours or dusts and splashing herbicide solution in to eyes or mouth. • Wash off with soap water any herbicide spilled on the body. • Do not smoke or eat while working with chemicals. • Do not spray against the wind. Cover the face with a cloth while spraying. • If unusual symptoms such as dizziness, nausea or skin rashes appear, seek medical advice at once. • Dispose of empty containers immediately. Mutilate them to avoid re-use and bury the remnants deep in an isolated area. Do not use them for domestic purposes. • Avoid contaminating water supplies with herbicides. • Store unused herbicides in original containers in a locked storage area away from food grains and children. First aid In case of accidental ingestion, induce vomiting by putting the forefinger at the base of the palate or by administering a warm glass of water with a spoon of common salt. Give a glass of water containing medicinal charcoal. In case of severe symptoms of toxicity, call for a doctor immediately. Keep the patient in fresh air.

46

DRYLAND AGRICULTURE
Growing of crops under rainfed conditions is known as dryland agriculture. Depending upon the amount of rainfall received dryland agriculture can be grouped into three categories: 1. Dry farming Dry farming is the cultivation of crops in areas where rainfall is less than 750 mm per annum. Prolonged dry spells during crop period are most common. Crop failures are more frequent under dry farming conditions. Dry farming regions are equivalent to arid regions and moisture conservation practices are important in this region. 2. Dryland farming Cultivation of crops in areas receiving rainfall above 750 mm is known as dryland farming. Dry spells during crop period occur, but crop failures are less frequent. Dryland farming areas are grouped under semi arid regions. Adoption of soil moisture conservation practices and also provision of drainage especially in black soils are necessary. 3. Rainfed farming Cultivation of crops in regions receiving more than 1150 mm rainfall is known as rainfed farming. It is practiced in humid regions where crop failures are rare and drainage is the most important problem. Distinguish dryland vs rainfed farming Constituent Dryland farming Rainfed farming Moisture availability to Shortage Enough the crop Growing season (days) < 200 > 200 Growing regions Arid and semiarid as well as uplands sub-humid and humid of sub-humid and humid regions region Cropping system Monocrop or intercropping lntercropping or double cropping Constraints/ problems wind and water erosion water erosion and drainage The average values of different soil moisture constants of different soil types Soil type Sandy Sandy loam Loam Clay loam Clay Field capacity (% by weight) 5-10 1 0-18 18-25 24-32 32-40 Permanent wilting point (% by weight) 2-6 4-10 8-14 11-16 15-22 Available soil water (Cm/m depth) 5-10 9-16 14-22 17-25 20-28

Major problems of dry farming (I) Inadequate and uneven distribution of rainfall (II) Late onset and early cessation of rains (III) Prolonged dry spells during the crop period (IV) Low moisture retention capacity and low soil fertility 47

CROPPING SCHEME
Preparation of cropping scheme On a farm, various crops are grown in various ways with respect to time and space on individual fields. The relative area allocated to each crop on the farm depends on availability of resources, market trends, domestic needs and certain other factors like location of farm, transportation facilities, distance from the agricultural industries etc. Therefore, a proper planning of the crops to be raised on the farm is important to get higher profit. In this context it is important to know certain terms used in crop planning. 1. Cropping systems: These are the ways or systems according to which various crops are grown on a given piece of land in a given period of time. The cropping systems can broadly be divided into two types, monoculture (monocropping) and multiple cropping. In monoculture same crop is grown continuously (year after year) on same piece of land. This system is neither common nor desirable as it impairs the soil health, increases incidence of crop pests and decreases the crop yield. In multiple cropping system two or more crops are grown in a year or a season on a given piece of land. This system is most common as it gives more output per unit area per unit time. Growing two or more crops on the same field in a year is achieved by two ways, either by growing compatible crops together, called mixed cropping and intercropping, or by growing the suitable crops in a sequence (one after the other), called sequential cropping. In mixed cropping all component crops are sown almost at the same time in the same field and plant population of each crop in the field is reduced proportionately as compared to their pure stand. e.g. maize + cowpea (as forage crops), barley + gram etc. But in intercropping system the widely spaced main crops are sown first and then sub-crops (intercrops) are sown in between the rows of the main crop to make efficient use of the resources namely moisture, nutrient, space and light available in between the rows. In this case, plant population of the main crops or area occupied by them remains same as in their pure stands. e.g. cotton + mung, sugarcane + potato etc. Multiple cropping systems can also be termed as intensive systems particularly when more than two crops are grown in a year. The intensity of a cropping system is determined by a parameter called cropping intensity. The cropping intensity is the ratio of total cropped area in a year to the net sown area expressed in percentage. Cropping intensity in irrigated areas is greater than in unirrigated or dryland areas because more crops can be grown under assured irrigation conditions. For example the cropping intensity of a farm having 3 hectares of cotton-wheat cropping sequence can be calculated as: Cropped area of cotton = 3 ha Cropped area of wheat = 3 ha Total cropped area = 6 ha Net sown area = 3 ha Total cropped area Cropping intensity = -------------------------- x 100 Net sown area

48

Cropping intensity

6 = -------------- x 100 = 200% 3

2. Cropping Pattern: It refers to relative area occupied by a crop or a group of crops in a particular region during a particular season or year. From the cropping pattern one could know the relative abundance of a crop in a region. For example a farmer has following cropping systems on his 20 ha land. Rice - wheat = 10 ha, Maize - wheat = 6 ha, Maize - berseem = 4 ha In this case, relative area under rice, wheat, maize and berseem is 10 ha (25%), 16 ha (40%), 10 ha (25%) and 4 ha (10%), respectively. This cropping pattern has abundance of wheat. Hence, it is called wheat based cropping pattern. 3. Crop rotation: It is the process of growing different crops in succession on a piece of land in a specific period of time with an object of getting maximum profit without impairing the soil fertility. It is well known that yields of crops decrease year after year if grown continuously in the same field. Therefore, it is advisable to grow crops rotationally to get higher yield and while maintaining the soil fertility. Therefore, the crop rotation is an order in which the crops are grown on a piece of land over a fixed period. Principles of crop rotation: While framing a crop rotation for a field, following principles must be followed.  Non-leguminous crops should be followed by leguminous crops because legumes fix atmospheric nitrogen into the soil and thus help in restoring soil fertility depleted by non-legumes.  Deep tap rooted crops should be followed by those which have shallow and fibrous root system so that the crops may not compete for the nutrients in the same root zone.  High input requiring crops such as potato, sugarcane, rice, wheat, maize etc. should be followed by less input requiring crops like pulses and oilseeds.  Selection of crops should be based on many factors like availability of resources such as water, marketing facilities, demand, soil and climatic conditions of the area as well as financial condition of the farmer. For dryland or water scarcity areas, only those crops should be selected which can tolerate the soil drought. On the other hand for low lying and flood prone areas the crops like paddy, jute etc. should be selected as these can tolerate water-logging conditions. The crops which are needed by people of the area as well as of the family and are marketed easily should be selected for a rotation.  Erosion permitting crops (like millets) should be alternated with erosion resisting crops (like legumes).  The crops attacked by similar type of pests should not be grown in succession as such crops may act as alternate hosts for these pests and thus the pests damage the crops throughout the year. Similarly the crops having similar crop associated weeds should not be included in the same rotation.  The rotation should provide maximum employment to the farm labour (family and hired labour), machinery and equipments use throughout the year. 49

Advantages of crop rotation:  It restores the soil fertility through fixation of atmospheric nitrogen, encouragement of microbial activity, avoidance of accumulation of toxins and maintenance of proper physico-chemical properties of the soil.  It helps in controlling insect-pests, diseases and weeds as change of the crop is accompanied by change in cultural practices, microclimate and the pesticides so that certain pests may not become permanent or resistant to a particular pesticide.  Growing crops of different nature in a rotation helps to ensure better utilization of farm resources, farm labour, machinery and equipments throughout the year.  Growing crops of different root depth ensures utilization of soil nutrients from entire soil mass and thus reducing the cost of cultivation.  Growing crops of different nature can make better utilization of residual moisture, fertility and organic residues.  Growing different types of crops in a rotation can fulfill daily needs of food, fibre, feed, fuel, spices etc. of the farmer to a great extent. Some important crop rotations followed in Haryana are: (a) One year rotations: Paddy - wheat – mung, Paddy -lentil, Paddy - toria - wheat, Paddy - potato – sunflower, Paddy – berseem, Pearl millet – wheat, Pear millet – gram, Pearl millet –lentil, Pearl millet – mustard, Pearl millet – barley, Pearl millet - barley + gram, Pigeon pea – wheat, Sorghum - berseem + oats, Cotton – wheat, Cotton + mung – wheat, Fallow- gram or barley, Fallow-mustard, Groundnut – wheat, Guar – wheat, Green manuring - paddy – wheat, Maize - potato – sunflower, Maize –wheat, Sorghum + cowpea – oats, Sorghum + cowpea – wheat, Maize - berseem + Japanese rape, Sorghum – barley, Clusterbean – barley, Sorghum - mustard – mung, Napier grass + cowpea- berseem (b) Two-year rotations: Cotton - pea - pearl millet – gram, Fallow - mustard - pearl millet - gram Green manuring - wheat - bajra – berseem, Maize - potato - wheat - paddy - berseem Maize - potato – sugarcane, Pearl millet - gram - sorghum -lentil Sorghum - wheat – sugarcane, Sorghum - berseem - maize + cowpea - oats Sugarcane (autumn planted) + potato or onion or mustard or wheat- Sugarcane (ratoon) Sugarcane (autumn planted) + chickpea - Sugarcane (ratoon) (c) Three-year rotations: Cotton + mung - potato – sugarcane (planted) - Sugarcane ratoon Green manuring - paddy - wheat - cotton + mung - wheat – sugarcane (d) Four year rotation Paddy - pea - sugarcane (planted) - Sugarcane ratoon - green manuring - paddy – wheat 4. Rotational Intensity: It indicates the number of crops grown in a rotation in a year. This can be expressed by following formula as: No. of crops grown in a rotation Rotational Intensity = ---------------------------------------------- x 100 50

Duration of crops (In years) The rotational intensity of following crop rotations can be calculated as: Maize - potato – mung-Paddy - early potato - wheat - mung 7 Rotational intensity = ------ x 100 = 350%.
2

5. Cropping Scheme: A cropping scheme is a plan according to which various crops are grown on individual fields of a farm during a given period of time with the objective of obtaining maximum return from each crop without impairing the soil fertility. Thus, a good cropping scheme ensures maximum net income from the farm most profitable use of resources, land, labour, capital and management alonwith maintaining the soil fertility. Principles or cropping scheme: The following points should be considered while framing a cropping scheme for a farm (i) A proportionate area should be allocated for farm buildings and layout before distributing the farm area under different plots of crops. This area should be about 5 percent for large farms of more than 50 ha and 10 per cent for smaller farms of 50 ha or less. (ii) The number of plots should be either equal to duration of the rotation or a multiple of that so that each crop in the rotation could be grown on equal area. (iii) Selection of crops for a farm depends upon (a) situation of the farm and (b) facilities available on the farm. (a) If the farm is near a city or a canning factory, at least 60 per cent of net cultivated area should be under vegetable crops and remaining area can be put under orchards and other crops. If the farm is situated near a sugar factory, at least 60 per cent of the cultivated area should be put under sugar crops like sugarcane and sugar beet. A farmer having his farm near a dairy farm should go mainly for fodder cultivation. Apart from fodder, he can grow oilseeds and pulses on 10-15 per cent of the area to supply concentrates to the dairy cattle along with the fodder. If a farm is located near a cold storage, the farmer should grow onion, potato and fruit crops. On a farm situated near a highway, port, railway station, the farmer should grow perishable crops like vegetables etc. (b) If power, irrigation, inputs, labour, transport etc. are available on a farm, the farmer should adopt an intensive cropping scheme in order to maximise profits per unit area per unit time. Under intensive cropping, vegetables and other input and labour intensive crops should be grown. (iv) The area of individual plots should be equal unless the farmer is compelled by topography, soil conditions or any other reason to layout his farm into uneven plots. (v) In case of mixed cropping or intercropping, the relative area under different crops should be worked out so that none of the crops is adversely affected due to competition. For the purpose of calculation, both crops are considered to be one crop only. (vi) The cropping scheme should efficiently utilize the inputs and other resources available on the farm and give higher profits, besides meeting daily needs of the fanner. (vii) At least one leguminous crop should be included in a rotation in order to maintain soil fertility and physicochemical properties. 51

Example 1: Suggest a suitable cropping scheme for a farm of 10 ha which is situated near a sugar mill. The farmer has a tube well to irrigate the land. Calculate cropping intensity and rotational intensity of the farm. Solution: Net cultivated area will be 9 ha as 1 ha area (10%) is kept for farm layout and buildings. The farmer will grow sugarcane on 60% of the net area. The crop rotations may be as follows: Maize - potato – sugarcane (planted) - ratoon - mung (3 years) = 3ha Paddy - toria - potato - urd (1 year) = 1ha Sorghum (fodder) - berseem - maize + cowpea (1 year) = 1ha Maize – sugarcane (planted) + potato- ratoon + mustard - urd (3 year) = 3ha Cucurbits - cauliflower - onion ( 1 year) =1ha Number of plots is 9 as total duration of all the rotations is 9 years. Cropped area under various crops: Maize = 1+1 = 2 ha, Maize (fodder) = 0.5 ha, Potato = 1+1+ 0.5 = 2.5 ha, Sugarcane = 2 + 2 = 4 ha, Mung = 1 ha, Paddy = 1 ha, Toria = 1 ha, Urd = 1 + 1 = 2 ha, Sorghum = 1 ha, Berseem = 1 ha, Cowpea = 0.5 ha, Mustard = 0.5 ha, Cucurbits = 1 ha, Cauliflower = 1 ha and Onion = 1 ha. Therefore, total cropped area = 20 ha Cropping intensity = (20/9) X l 00 = 222.2% Rotational intensity of the farm = Total number of crops x l 00 Total duration of all rotation =19 X l00=211.1% 9 Example 2: Prepare a suitable cropping scheme for 10 ha farm situated near a dairy farm. The farm has all the facilities for intensive cropping. Also find out the cropping intensity of the farm. Solution: Net cultivated area is 9 ha as 10% i.e. 1 ha area is under buildings and layout. Crop rotations to be adopted are as follows: Sorghum-berseem-maize (1 year) Napier + cowpea - Napier + berseem (1 year) Maize + cowpea - oats (1 year) Paddy - wheat - mung (1 year) Cucurbits-potato-onion (1 year) Cropping scheme of the farm: Area (ha) 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.0 Total=9ha 52 Kharif sorghum napier + cowpea maize + cowpea paddy cucurbits Rabi berseem napier + berseem oats wheat potato Summer maize

mung onion

Cropped area under various crops: Sorghum = 2 ha, Napier = 2 ha, Paddy=2 ha, Berseem = 3 ha, Cowpea=2 ha, Cucurbits = 1 ha, Wheat=2 ha, Potato = 1 ha, Maize = 3 ha, Oats = 2ha, Mung=2ha, Onion=1ha Therefore, total cropped area = 23 ha Cropping intensity = 23/9 x 100 =255.5% Example 3: Give a cropping scheme for a farm of 10 ha area situated in a village which is away from the market and has no good transport facilities. The farmer has all the facilities for crop production including irrigation. Find out cropping intensity of the farm. Solution: Since there are no facilities for market and transport, so the farmer will grow cereals, pulses and oilseeds as these can be stored for a longer period and sold later on. The farmer can go for high intensity cropping as he has all the input facilities. Therefore, crop rotations for the farm are as under: Paddy - wheat - urd (1 year) Maize - potato – wheat (l year) Groundnut - wheat - urd (1 year) Paddy - mustard – mung (l year) Sorghum - berseem - maize (fodder) (1 year) Cropping scheme of the farm: Area (ha) Kharif Rabi Zaid 2 Paddy Wheat Urd 2 Maize Wheat Potato 2 Groundnut Wheat Urd 2 Paddy Mustard Mungbean 1 Sorghum Berseem Maize (F) Total 9 ha Paddy = 2+2 = 4 ha, Maize = 2 ha, G.nut = 2ha, Sorghum = 2ha, Wheat = 6 ha, Mustard= 2 ha, Berseem = 1 ha, Urd = 4 ha, Potato = 2 ha, Mung = 2ha, Maize = 1ha Total cropped area = 27 ha 27 x 100 Cropping intensity = -------------- = 300%. 9 Example 4: Frame a cropping scheme for a 20 ha farm in a village with no irrigation facilities. The average annual rainfall of the village is 300 mm in kharif and 75 mm in winter season. Calculate the cropping intensity of farm. Solution: Since, the farm do not have the irrigation facilities hence low water requiring crops will be cultivated and intercropping will be followed to cover risk of crop failure and better resource utilization. Area under building is 2 hectare and remaining is under cultivation. 53

Area in hectare 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 Total area = 18 ha

Kharif Fallow Fallow Fallow Pearlmillet Pearlmillet Clusterbean Mungbean Pigeonpea Pigeon pea + pearlmillet Pearlmillet + mungbean Barley Mustard Gram Mustard Gram Barley Barley Fallow Fallow Fallow

Rabi

(i) (ii)

Cropped area under different crops: Pearlmillet = 4 ha, Clusterbean = 2 ha, Barley= 6 ha, Mustard= 3 ha, Gram= 3 ha, Pigeon pea = 3 ha, mungbean = 3 ha Total cropped area = 24 ha 24 x 100 Cropping intensity = -------------- = 133.3%. 18 Cropping intensity of the individual field can also be computed as number of crops grown in one year time in percentage e.g. (i) Fallow- Mustard 100% (ii) Rice – Wheat 200% (iii) Mung – Rice – Wheat 300% (iv) Pearlmillet + mung – Mustard 200% (v) Sorghum (F) – Berseem – Maize + Cowpea 300% (vi) Maize – sugarcane+Potato – Ratoon – Mung = 400/3 = 133.33% Maize – Potato – Wheat – Paddy – Berseem = 500/2= 250% Green manuring – Wheat – Pearlmillet – Berseem = 300/2 = 150%

54

IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT
Water is the essential for all metabolic processes in plants. Crops are grown in different land situations, soil types, climatic conditions, seasons and water supply situations. Crops also differ in their structures and habitats. Their water requirements thus vary widely. The water requirement of a crop plant can be met either by the conserved moisture of rain or by artificial application of water in the form of irrigation. While applying irrigation to crop serious water losses occur unless it is properly monitored. It is always advisable to enhance the water use efficiency. The agronomic definition of water use efficiency (WUE) involves two major terms : a biological component (commonly called the transpiration efficiency), that specifies the amount of dry matter produced per unit of water transpired, and a management component that specifies the fraction of the total water supply use for transpiration . The over all WUE is considerably influenced by the management of crop and soils. Several scientists have suggested management practices to reduce evaporation, particularly in areas where the evaporation value is quite high. It is suggested that any management practice that influences LAI (leaf area index) will result in increased radiation interception, decreased evaporation and increased WUE. In a few instances WUE was improved through crop management, either by application of fertilizers or the improvement of soil fertility by the inclusion of legumes in the rotation. In semiarid regions intense rain storms are common. Control of runoff assumes greater importance in increasing infiltration and WUE. The water losses during irrigation can also be minimized by selecting an appropriate method of irrigation. Different methods of irrigation
Method of irrigation Check Soil texture Light or heavy Infilteratio n rate 0.5-10 Land and slope (%) Levelled, Less than 0.1 Uniformly graded, 0.1-0.3 Moderate, 0.3-30. Rolling and undulating Level to undulating Stream size (litres/sec.) Large more than 15 Any, more than 12-15 Small more than 12 Any, more than 5 Any, more than 5 Crops All crops except those on ridges and susceptible to waterlogging All crops Row crops and vegetables All crops except rice and jute Widely spaced vegetable and fruit crops

Border Furrow Sprinkler Drip

Medium Light to moderate Very light Light to heavy

1-2 0.5-2.5 2.5-2.0 0.5 or more

55

Classification of irrigation methods Methods of irrigation are broadly grouped as: 1. Surface irrigation 2. Subsurface irrigation 3. Overhead or sprinkle irrigation 4. Drip irrigation Methods of irrigation coming under different groups are as follows: 1. Surface irrigation methods A. Methods involving complete flooding of the soil surface (i) Wild flooding (ii) Border or border strip irrigation (iii) Check or check basin irrigation (iv) Counter ditch irrigation B. Methods involving partial flooding of the soil surface (i) Furrow irrigation (a) Straight level furrow (b) Alternate furrow Corrugation Basin and ring irrigation Surge irrigation 2. Subsurface irrigation methods Irrigation through lateral supply trenches Irrigation through under ground pipes or tiles 3. Overhead or sprinkler irrigation methods Nozzle line system Rotatry head sprinkler system Fixed head sprinkler system Propeller type sprinkler system Perforated pipe method

(ii) (iii) C.

i. ii.

i. ii. iii. iv. v.

4. Drip or trickle irrigation methods Each method of irrigation has certain advantages and disadvantages and is adopted based on certain principles. Some methods may be adapted to a fairly wide range of conditions. In some lands, several methods can be profitably adopted. In other areas, only one specific method is applicable. The choice of method under a set of conditions should be made carefully as a wrong method may lead to a considerable loss of water by runoff and deep percolation. Hence, select the method according to the prevailing situations. 56

IRRIGATION METHODS

Wild Flooding

Sprinkler Irrigation

Drip Irrigation

Ridge and Furrow

Types of Sprinklers

Trench Method Sub-surface

57

Border

Corrugation

Check Basin

Bed and Furrow

Ridge and Furrow

Basin Irrigation

58

Irrigation guide of important field crops
Crop Irrigation schedule ID/CPE Others 1.0-1.4 (1.2)* 0.8-1.50 (0.9) 0.7-0.9 (0.75) 0.6-0.9 (0.8) 0.8-1.25 (0.8) 0.75-1.2 (0.9) 6-8 0.5-0.9 (0.6) 0.6-1.05 (0.7) 0.4-0.9 (0.6) 0.5-0.9 (0.6) 0.4-0.8 (0.6) 0.25-0.9 (0.6) 1.0-2.0 (1.2) 0.4-0.5 bar tension 0.4-1.0 (0.6) 0.6-0.8 (0.6) 0.8-1.05 (0.9) 0.2-0.6 (0.4) 0.4-0.8 (0.6) 0.9-1.2 (l.0) 0.25 bar tension 80-300 mmCPE 40.50% DASM 50%DASM 75%DASM 50-75% DASM 60-75% DASM 50-75% DASM 50%DASM 45-55% DASM 1-5 DDPW (IDDPW) (For dwarf) (For tall) Depth (cm) 5±2 4-7 7-8 3-8 6-10 6-8 5-8 1-5 4.5-8 6-8 5-8 5-8 6-8 6-8 3-6 4-6 6-8 5-8 5-8 6-8 5-6 4-5 Irrigation Number Requirement 8-26 4-8 3-4 2-9 5-20 1-8 3-6 8-30 2-6 1-4 2-8 1-5 1-4 1-4 6-9 1-10 1-3 1-3 2-6 1-5 3-7 13-16 49-129 30-52 25-30 28-64 60-200 8-48 24-48 Flowering, tillering 15-24 8-24 15-50 8-30 8-24 8-30 30-45 6-45 8-20 8-24 15-40 8-30 18-35 80-110 Critical Stage Flowering, panicle initiation CRI, flowering Flowering, tillering Flowering, boll formation Shoot elongation, tillering Flowering, premordia initiation Tasselling, silking

Rice Wheat Cotton Sugarcane Sorghum Maize Pearl millet 0.4-0.9 (0.6) Barley Rapeseedmustard Groundnut Sesamum Gram Pigeonpea Potato Tobacco Lentil Peas Sunflower Saffiower Soybean Berseem

Tillering, heading Flower initiation, pod formation Peg formation, pod filling Flowering, seed setting Flower initiation, pod formation Flower initiation Stolonization, tuber formation Vegetative phase Pre flowering, pod formation Flower initiation, pod formation Flower bud initiation, seed setting Flower initiation Flower initiation, pod filling Flowering, seed setting (for seed purpose) Flowering

Greengram Black gram Cowpea Sugarbeet Linseed Jute Finger millet

0.6-0.9 (0.6)

5-8

2-4

15-30

0.6 0.5-0.8 (0.6)

0.2 bar tension

4-5 6-8

8-10 1-4 1-3 2-8

40-50 8-20 8-20 15-45

Root initiation and development Flower initiation, seed setting

5060%DASM 50%DASM

6-8 5-8

Heading

DDPW = Days after disappearance of ponded water; DASM = depletion of available soil moisture

59

Example 1: A tubewell has discharge of 1 cusec (cubic feet per second). How much water it will give if operated for 12 hours? Solution: 1 Cusec = 1 cubic feet per second = 28.32 litre/second In one second tubewell will discharge = 28.32 litre water In one minute , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , = 28.32 x 60 , , , , In one hour , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , = 28.32 x 60 x 60 ,, In 12 hour , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , = 28.32 x 60 x 60 x 12 = 1223424 litre = 1223 m3 Example 2: A canal outlet has discharge of 2 cusec. It takes 4 hours to irrigate 2 hectare area of sorghum grown for fodder on student farm. If the irrigation efficiency of the field is 80%, work out the depth of irrigation applied. Solution: I Q t = a.d I: Irrigation efficiency (unit value) Q: Discharge (cusec) t: Time (hour) a: Area (hectare) d: Depth (cm) IQt d = ------------a 0.80 x 2 x 4 d =------------------ = 3.2 cm 2 Example 3: Measure the quantity of water supplied in a rectangular irrigation channel running water with a depth of 20 cm and the width of channel is 70 cm if a paper boat covers the distance of 100 m in 50 second time. Solution: Volume of water = depth x width x length (distance) = 20 x 70 x 100 x 100 = 14000000 cc = 14000 litre Volume of water 14000 Discharge = ----------------------- = -------------- = 280 lt./sec. Time 50 1 cusec = 28.32 litre Therefore, Discharge = 280/28.32 = 9.887 cusec Example 4: Calculate the quantity of water needed to irrigate the wheat crop at CRI stage in one hectare area. The depth of irrigation should be 6 cm. The time taken for irrigation was 4 hours and the irrigation efficiency was 70%. Solution: I Q t = a.d axd Q = ------------Ixt

60

1 x 6 x 100 Q = ------------------ = 2.14 cusec 70 x 4 Example 5: Calculate the time required to irrigate one hectare area with depth of irrigation of 8 cm from a tubewell with discharge of 1 cusec and the irrigation efficiency of 70%. Solution: I Q t = a.d axd t = ------------IxQ 1 x 8 x 100 t =------------------ = 10.67 hours. 75 x 1 Example 6: How much area can be irrigated in one day with a electric tubewell having discharge of 2 cusec and depth of irrigation be kept as 6 cm. If the electricity is available for 12 hours a day. The irrigation efficiency of the field is 80%. Solution: I Q t = a.d IQt a = ------------d 0.80 x 2 x 12 a =------------------ = 3.2 hectare 6 Example 7: Calculate the amount of water stored in a tank of 5’x5’x5’ diamention. Solution: 1 ft.= 30.48 cm = 0.3048 m 5 ft.= 30.48 x 5 = 152.40 cm Volume of tank = 152.40 x 152.40 x 152.40 = 3539605.8 cm 3 or cc 1000 cc = litre = 3539.6 litre say 3540 litre Example 8: Calculate the size of farm tank to store 1,00,000 litre water with a depth of 10’. Solution: 1000 litre = 1 cubic mt. (100 x 100 x 100 cm3) 1,00,000 litre = 100 cubic mt. 10 x 30.48 Depth of the tank = 10 = 10 x 30.48 cm = ------------- = 3.048 m 100 Volume of tank 100 m3 Area of tank = --------------------- = ------------ = 32.81 m2 Depth of tank 3.048 If length is 6 m than width will be 32.80/6 = 5.46 m

61

Irrigation terminology used in state irrigation department
Ahar: is a piece of land having embankments and used for storage of water. The pond, khata and bed combined together is called Ahar. Bed: The land where water is stored is called pet or bed of the ahar. Bed of river: is a space between the banks occupied by the river at its fullest flow. Canal: is a water course running over the land of a third party even if it irrigate the land of a third party. It represents a stream of water flowing in a well defined channel. Canal includes all parts of river stream, natural collection of water or natural channel of water. Canal includes all canals, channels, reservoirs, water courses, field drains, all parts of river, stream, lake or natural drainage channels maintained and controlled by the state government. Chaur: Chaur means a village path and this can also be on the embarkment of the ahar. Damosh Koha: means a beel or inland pool of shallow water being a part of the deserted bed for a river. Degi chur: Daba chur or Nutan chur namely chur, which emerges only at ebb tide and remains under water at flow tide. Ghat: means a flight of steps made of wood, brick, stone, iron etc. for access to the water of a tank or a river. It also means the place on a river bank or a tank, where people gather or where boats are mooted for puposes of ferry or which is used for loading and unloading. Khasra Nehri: It is a register maintained by irrigation booking clerk (Nehri Patwri). It have record of field number, name of the owner and cultivator, area irrigated and crop sown and other relevant information. Khata: The ditch from which earth is taken for repair of that embarkment is called Khata. Khatauni: is the demand statement of water charges to be recorded from the cultivators of village. It is open for inspection and it is maintained by Patwari. Outlet: Means a device for supplying water to a water course from a canal. Parchas or demand slip: Demand slip are prepared by the Patwari (Nehri) and issued to irrigators as a demand slip for deposition of irrigation charges. Pind: The embarkment which keeps the water confined is called pind. Remuneration: The lambardars or other persons collecting water charges, 3% of the collected amount be paid as remuneration. Taman: It is penalty charged jointly from the persons who were benefited from the canal breach on the respective area irrigated by breach basis. Water allowance: means the discharge authorized for a given culturable command area.

62

PRACTICES FOR IMPROVING WATER USE EFFICIENCY Water resources of India are limited in relation to the needs and hence available water has to be used in the most efficient manner. Water is lost in an irrigation system by evaporation, transpiration by weeds and seepage in reservoirs and carrier systems. Water is lost by deep percolation beyond root zone in fields, and also by runoff at the end of borders and furrows. Water use efficiency (WUE) is the yield of marketable crop produced per unit of water used in evapotranspiration. WUE = Y/ET where, WUE = Water use efficiency (kg/ha mm) Y = Marketable yield of the crop (kg/ha) ET = Evapotranspiration (mm) WUE is also known as crop water use efficiency or consumptive water use efficiency (Ecu) if the water used for metabolic purpose of the crop (G) is also included with ET. Ecu = Y/( G+ET ) Field water use efficiency (Eu) is the ratio of crop yield to the amount of water used in the field (WR) which includes G + ET + deep percolation (D) Eu= Y/( G+ET+D) = Y/ WR The factors that govern WUE of crops are discussed in physical terms of output marketable yield or economic yield of crop and irrigation water used ratio. Hence decrease in water loss or increase in grain yield by any practice will increase the WUE. The following practices be followed for improving the water use efficiency. 1. Lining of canals: About 40-60% of water released from the reservoir reaches the field and only 20-40% is used by the crops. Hence, lining of canals and distributaries reduce the water losses due to deep percolation and ultimately improve the WUE. 2. Climate : Weather affects both yield and ET. Evapotranspiration is an evaporative process largely controlled by climatic factors. Incident solar radiation and advected heat provide energy for the evaporative process. Atmospheric vapour content and wind movement control vapour and flow phenomena. The plant exercises control over transpiration and radiation utilization in photosynthesis. The amount of radiation determines the rate of photosynthesis, hence the potential yield. Other components of climate (temperature, day length, rainfall etc.), influence vital physiological processes and thereby determine the actual yield. 3. Selection of Crops and Varieties : The transpiration ratio (weight of water/weight of dry matter) is 300 for C 4 plants, while it is 600 for C 3 plants and only 125 for CAM plants. Varieties also differ in their adaptation to environment, resistance to pests and diseases and management levels. Selection of properly adopted crops with good rooting habits, low transpiration rates and improved energy consumption in photosynthesis will increase WUE. 4. Agronomic Practices : Time, depth and pattern of sowing influence WUE by harnessing, incident solor radiation to the maximum possible extent and producing a uniformly good crop canopy with mutual shading effect amongst the leaves. Timely sowing ensures proper temperature and other soil physical conditions favouring optimal crop growth to a greater competition with weed flora. Depth of sowing affects seedling emergence, vigour and finally yield. Plant population and orientation of rows of crop influence WUE indirectly by influencing the interception and utilisation of incident solar energy that influences crop yields. 63

5. Mulches : Manipulation of climate to any great extent is not possible at present. Organic, Inorganic and dust mulch be used to reduce evaporation from the soil. 6. Ridges and Furrows : The north facing side of the east-west oriented ridge had on an average 6.l oC lower temperature and the east face of the north-south oriented ridge 2.6 oC higher temperature than flat surface. Therefore, the north face of the east-west oriented ridges would receive less radiation and less water will be lost in evaporation. 7. Antitranspirants : Reducing transpiration is the most effective means of increasing the amount of water available to the crop. During 'critical periods' stomatal closure by the use of antitranspirants might help to tide over deficits this might conserve or at least delay the loss of water and increase yield. 8. Weed control : Elimination of weeds is the most efficient and practical means of reducing transpiration. Weeds compete with crop plants for nutrients, space, water and light. Hence, reduce WUE by reducing crop yield and using water for ET. 9. Shelterbelts: Irrigated crops extract large quantities of energy from the air brought in from the nearby uncropped area in the farm of sensible heat. Shelterbelts are used at the leading edges to decrease the damaging effects of winds over the cropped surfaces and to modify the microclimate by changing wind speed, evaporation, air temperature etc.Frequency of irrigation can be reduced in shallow rooted crops like onion, garlic etc., without affecting the yields adversely by planting them on the leeward side and planting other deep rooted taller crops like castor,maize, etc., on the windward side. 10. Irrigation Scheduling: Inadequate supply of soil moisture as well as excess moisture in the soil have an adverse effect on plant growth and productivity and are, therefore, conducive to low WUE. For each crop and combination of environmental conditions, there is a narrow range of soil moisture levels at which WUE is higher than with a lesser or greater supply of water. Excess water application is not only a waste of water, but impairs soil aeration for lengthy periods increases leaching of plant nutrients, leads to water logging and salinisation and alkalinisation. Surface runoff and deep percolation losses should be avoided. 11. Irrigation at Critical Periods of Crop Growth: Moisture stress during the critical period (moisture sensitive period) will irrevocably reduce the yield and the provision of adequate water and other inputs at other stages will not offset the loss in yield. The critical period usually coincides with the formation of reproductive organs and fertilisation when root growth comes to a stand still. 12. Frequency of Irrigation: In general, yield of most crops increase when soil moisture level is maintained during crop period as near to field capacity as possible. 13. Methods of Irrigation: Large variations occur in the components of water loss, water application and field WUE due to different methods of irrigation. Field WUE is generally greater with sprinkler and drip irrigation methods than surface irrigation methods. Among the various surface irrigation methods, WUE is highest with furrow and border strip methods. 14. Fertilization: Irrigation imposes a great demand for fertiliser nutrients. For irrigation to be profitable, yields must be high. Higher yields mean greater nutrient uptake by crops, with the nutrient uptake being roughly proportional to crop yield. Nutrient availability is highest for most crops when water tension is low. Adequate irrigation with suitable fertilisation increases yields considerably, with relatively small increase in ET and, therefore, markedly improves WUE. 64

PACKAGE AND PRACTICES FOR CULTIVATION OF CROPS
Particulars/Operations Land preparations Mungbean 2-3 Harrowing followed by planking Asha (75 )*, K 851 (65 ), Muskan (75 ), Satya (65 ), Pusa bold (70 ), SML 668 (64) Urdbean 2-3 Harrowing followed by planking T 9 (80 ), Urd 1 (75 ), Pant U 30 (75 ), Pant U 35 (85) Jawahar Urd 3 (75 ), Mash 414 ( 72), Mash 338 (90) Pigeonpea 2-3 Harrowing followed by planking Manak ( 135), Paras (145 ), UPAS 120 ( 125), Type 21 (165 ), Pusa Ageti (160) Soybean 2-3 Harrowing followed by planking PK 416 (120 ), PK 472 (110 ), PK 1024 (118 ), PK 564 (120 ) Lentil 2-3 Harrowing followed by planking HM 1(140), Sapna (140), Garima (135) Chickpea 2-3 Harrowing followed by planking Desi: H 208 (145), C 235 (145), HC 1 (140), HC 3 (150), HC 5 (142) Kabuli: HK1(148), HK 2(146), KAK 2(150) Rainfed: Oct. end Irrigated: 1-15 Nov.

Variety and duration

Sowing

Ist week of July or with the onset of monsoon 15-20

Ist week of July or with the onset of monsoon 15-20

Seed rate (kg ha-1)

Type 21 from mid March to mid June, Manak & Paras from June end to mid July 12.5-15

Last week of June to Ist week of July 75

Mid November

Sowing method Fertilizer application
( kg ha-1)

Drilling N P K 20 40 Site specific 25

Drilling 20 40 Site specific 25

Drilling 20 40 Site specific 25 65

Drilling 25 80 Site specific 25

Small seed: 3045-50 kg for 35 desi and 90 kg Bold seed: 45-50 for Kabuli and HC 3. Drilling Drilling 20 40 Site specific 25 20 40 Site specific 25

Zinc sulphate (kg ha-1)

Time of application Number of irrigation Time of irrigation Major weed flora

Critical period of cropweed competition (days after sowing) Manual weeding Promising herbicide(s) Time of application Rate of application Major diseases

Full N, P and Zn Full N, P and Zn at at sowing sowing 2-3 2-3 Vegetative and Vegetative and pod development pod development Cyprus rotundus, Cyprus Trianthema rotundus, monogyna, Trianthema Cynodon monogyna, dactylon, Cynodon Amaranthus dactylon, viridis,Celotia Amaranthus argentia, viridis,Celotia Sorghum argentia, helepense Sorghum helepense 15-30 15-30 2 weeding at 25 and 45 DAS Pendimethalin, Fluchloralin PE, PPI 1.0-1.5 kg ai/ha Root rot, yellow vein mosaic virus 2 weeding at 25 and 45 DAS Pendimethalin, Fluchloralin PE, PPI 1.0-1.5 kg ai/ha Root rot, yellow vein mosaic virus

Full N, P and Zn Full N, P and Zn at Full N, P and Zn at at sowing sowing sowing 2-3 2-3 2-3 Vegetative and Vegetative and Vegetative and pod development pod development pod development Cyprus rotundus, Cyprus rotundus, Chenpodium Trianthema Trianthema album, monogyna, monogyna, Asphodelus Cynodon Cynodon tenuifolius, dactylon, dactylon, Vicia spp., Amaranthus Amaranthus Fumaria viridis,Celotia viridis,Celotia purviflora, argentia, Sorghum argentia, Meliotus spp., helepense Sorghum Anagalis helepense arvensis 15-45 2 weeding at 25 and 50 DAS Pendimethalin, Fluchloralin PE, PPI 1.0-1.5 kg ai/ha Wilt, sterility mosaic virus 15-45 2 weeding at 25 and 50 DAS Pendimethalin, Lasso, Fluchloralin PE,PE, PPI 1.0-1.5 kg ai/ha Wilt, yellow vein mosaic virus 25-50 2 weeding at 25 and 50 DAS Pendimethalin, Fluchloralin PE, PPI 1.0-1.5 kg ai/ha Blight and root rot

Full N, P and Zn at sowing 2-3 Vegetative and pod development Chenpodium album, Asphodelus tenuifolius, Vicia spp., Fumaria purviflora, Meliotus spp., Anagalis arvensis 25-50 2 weeding at 25 and 50 DAS Pendimethalin , Fluchloralin PE, PPI 1.0-1.5 kg ai/ha Wilt, alternaria blight,

66

Control methods

Seed treatment for root rot and spray of endosulphan @2 ml/lt of water for YVMV Leaf minor, pod borer Spray of endosulphan @2 ml/lt of water Early to mid October 12-15 YVMV and pod borer Soil salinity Low H.I. Termite incidence Moisture stress at reproductive stage

Seed treatment for root rot and endosulphan @2 ml/lt of water for YVMV Leaf minor, pod borer Spray of endosulphan @2 ml/lt of water Early to mid October 12-15 YVMV and pod borer Soil salinity Low H.I. Termite incidence Moisture stress at reproductive stage

Seed treatment for wilt and resistant variety for SMV

Seed treatment for wilt and endosulphan @2 ml/lt of water for YVMV Leaf minor, white fly and Hairy catterpillar Spray of endosulphan @2 ml/lt of water Mannual with sickle in the mid of November 30-35 YVMV and pod borer Soil salinity Low H.I. Termite incidence Moisture stress at reproductive stage

Seed treatment with 2.5 g Bavistin/kg seed and resistant variety Leaf minor, pod borer Spray of endosulphan @2 ml/lt of water Mannual with sickle in the mid of April 15-18 Wilt and pod borer Soil salinity Low H.I. Termite incidence Moisture stress at reproductive stage

Major insects/pests Control methods

Pod borer, Tur pod fly, Hairy catter piller Spray endosulfan @1.5lt/ha at pod development Mannual with long tine blade in the mid of November 20-25 Wilt and pod borer Soil salinity Low H.I. Termite incidence Moisture stress at reproductive stage

Seed treatment with 2.5 g Bavistin/kg seed, and resistant variety Leaf minor, pod borer Spray of endosulphan @2 ml/lt of water Mannual with sickle in the mid of April 20-25 Wilt and pod borer Soil salinity Low H.I. Termite incidence Moisture stress at reproductive stage

Time of harvesting

Grain Yield (q ha-1) Major constraints

* values in parenthesis are crop duration in days

67

Particulars/Operations Land preparations Variety and duration

Rice 3-4 Jaya 142 PR 1061 (145) HKR 120 (146) HKR 126 (140) IR 64 (135) HKR 46 (135) Gobind (115)

Maize 2-3 Harrowing followed by planking HHM-1, HHM2, HM-4, HM-5 and HPQM-1

Cotton 3-4 H 777 (180-190) HS 6 (180-185) H 1098 (165) HHH 223 (175180) H 1117 (175-185) AAH 1 (180) HHH 81 (185) HD 107 (180) HD 123 (165) 15 April – 7 June

Bajra 2-3 HHB 50 (76-80) HHB 60 (74-76) HHB 67 (60-62) HHB 94 (80) HHB 117 (70) HC 10 (75-80) HC 20 (80-85) HHB 146 (7580) HHB 68 (60-62) 1 July – 15 July

Wheat 3-4 C 306 (150) WH 157 (140) WH 711 (140) WH 542 (142) WH 283 (140) S 308 (141) PBW 343 (141) PBW 373 (130) Raj 3765 (130) UP 2338 (135) WH 912 (138) Unirrigated last week of October Irrigated November 1-25

Barley 2-3
C 138 (138), C 164 (137), BG25 (136), BH75 (136), BG105 (137), BH 393 (121), BH 331 (127), BH 338 (107)

Nursery sowing Transplanting/sowing

15 May to 30 June 15 June – end of July

Rainfed: With the onset of monsoon Irrigated: June 25 to July 20 20

Rinfed: 15 Oct.-15Nov. Irrigated: 15 Nov.-30 Nov. Late : December

Seed rate (kg ha-1)

25-30

Am Cotton 15-20 Hybrid 1.82-.25, Desi 7.5 Drilling 120-150 60 40-60 68 Drilling
Dwarf Hybrid

4-5

100-125

Sowing method
Fertilizer application (kg ha-1)

Transplanting
Medium duration Short duration

Drilling
Desi Irrigated

Drilling
Dwarf Tall

Rainfed : 75 Irrigated : 90 Late : 115 Drilling
Irriga ted Rain fed

N P K

150 60 60

120 60 60

150 60 60

175 60 60

50 -

125 62.5 -

150 60 60

60 30 30

60 30 15

30 15 -

Zinc sulphate (kg ha-1) Time of application Basal

25 1/3 N + P + K + Zn

25 1/3 rd N+full P+K +Zn/ha

25 P + K + Zn

25 ½ N + P + Zn

25

25

1st top dressing 2nd top dressing Number of irrigation Time of irrigation Major weed flora

1/3 N at second irrigatin 1/3 N at fourth irrigation 18-20 Per week Cyprus rotundus, Echinochloa crusgalli, Celotia argentia,Eclipta alba, Echinochola colonum, Cyprus iria

1/3 rd N at knee high 1/3 rd N at tassel emergence 2-3 Vegetative stage, tasseling and silking stage Cyprus rotundus, Trianthema monogyna, Cynodon dactylon, Amaranthus viridis,Celotia argentia, Sorghum helepense

½ N end July ½ N at flowering 3-4 End June, flowering, boll formation Cyprus rotundus, Trianthema monogyna, Cynodon dactylon, Amaranthus viridis,

¼ N after thinning ¼ N at head formation 1-2 Top dressing, grain formation Cyprus rotundus, Trianthema monogyna, Cynodon dactylon, Amaranthus viridis,

½ N + P + K + Zn Irrigted : ½ N+full P+ K + Zn Rainfed: All at sowing ½ N at 1st ½ N at 1st irrigation irrigation Desi-2, Dwarf-6 22, 45, 65, 85, 105, 120 Chenpodium album, Phalaris minor, Vicia spp., Fumaria purviflora, Meliotus spp., Anagalis arvensis,Avena ludivicina, Convolvulus arvensis 2 40-45, 8085 Chenpodiu m album, Phalaris minor, Vicia spp., Fumaria purviflora, Meliotus spp., Anagalis arvensis,Av ena ludivicina, Convolvulu s arvensis

69

Critical period of crop-weed competition (days after sowing) Manual with number and time of weeding Promising herbicide(s) Time of application Rate of application Application method Major diseases

25-45 Manual at 20 and 45 DAT Butachlor, Thiobencarb, Anilophos 2-3 days after transplanting
2.5 kg ha-1, 2.5 kg ha-1, 1.3 kg ha-1

20-45 Manual at 20 and 45 DAS Simazine/ Atrazine PE/7-15 DAS 1-1.5kg ha-1 Spray Seedling blight Downey mildew Leaf rust

25-55 3 Manual at 25, 40 and 55 DAS Pendimethalin, Fluchlorlin, Traclon PPI, Preemergence, Preemergence
5 kg ha-1, 2 kg ha-1, 2 kg ha-1

20-40 30 DAS Atrazine Pre-emergence 1 kg ha-1 Foliar spray Downy mildew, Ergot, Smut

20-45 2 Manual at 30 and 45 DAS Isoproturan (50 WP and 75 WP), Topic, Leader 30-35 days after sowing 2 kg ha-1, 1.25 kg ha-1, 400 g ha-1, 33 g ha-1 Foliar spray Brown, Yellow and black rust, Karnal bunt, loose smut

25-45 Manual at 25 and 45 DAS Isoproturan (75 WP), 2,4-D 40-45 DAS 1 kg ha-1, 1.0 g ha-1

Dusting Stem rot, Blast, Sheeth blight, Bacterial leaf blight

Foliar spray Antharacnose, Wilt, Leaf curl, Root rot, Boll rot, Bacterial blight 75-100 g Plantomycine/ 1520 g streptocycline + 4 1.5-2.0 kg copper oxychloride/ha.

Control methods

Seed treatment with Emisan or carbendazim @ 1g/kg seed, Spray of 500 g carbendazim or hinosan or 300 g bim or sivic @/ 500 lt of water/ ha

Seed treatment @ 3g/kg seed

Foliar spray Brown, Yellow and black rust, loose smut, covered smut Seed treatment Seed treatment Seed with emisan @ 2 with 2.5 g treatment g or thiram @ 4 Bavistin/kg seed, with 2.5 g g / kg seed. Later and resistant Bavistin/kg on spray of variety seed, and Quman @ 1 lt/ha resistant variety

70

Major insects/pests

Root caterpillar, Leaf hopper, Hopper, Gundhi bug, Stem borer Furadan 25 kg ha-1/ Endosulfan 1.25 lit ha-1,/Methyl parathion / 25 kg ha-1

Stem borer Shoot fly and aphid Endosulphan 1.25 lit ha-1, 10% Phorate dust @15 kg/ha

Control method

Time of application

When required

When required

Aphid, Jassid, Caterpillar, Spotted, American and Pink boll worm Metasystox 1.0 lt / Endosulfan 1.5 lt/ Ekalux 1.5 lt/ Hostathion 1.5 lt/ Cypermethrin 500 ml/ Fenuvalrate 250-300 ml /ha. June end – Mid October When required October – November 20-25 Seed availability Water supply at sowing Adulterated agrochemicals

White fly, Hairy caterillar

Termite, Aphid, Jassid, Toka

Termite, Aphid, Jassid, Toka
Chloropyrip hos 6.0 ml kg-1 seed, Endosulfan 1.25 lit. ha-1

Monocrotophos @ 1.25 lit. ha-1

Chloropyriphos 1.5 ml kg-1 seed, Endosulfan 1.25 lit. ha-1

When required

Seed treatment, when required Mid April 50-60 Poor soil health Weed problem Unbalanced fertilizer use

Time of harvesting Grain Yield (q ha-1) Major constraints

Mid September to October 60-70 Poor water availability Poor soil health Adulterated agrochemicals

September – October 50-60 Top borer Water logging/ water stress Poor plant population

September – October 25-40 Seed availability Adulterated seed in market Untimely rains

Seed treatment, when required Mid April 40-50 Poor soil health Weed problem Unbalanced fertilizer use

71

Particulars/ Operations Land preparations

Brassica 2-3 Harrowing followed by planking Raya:RH 30 (140), Varuna (142),RH 8113(150), RH 8112 (145), RH 781(140), RH 819(148), Vasundhra(135), Savran Jayoti(135), Geeta (147) Brown Sarson : BSH 1(136), Yellow srson : YSPb 1 Taramira: T27(150) Toria: Sangam(112), TL 15(90), TH 68(89) Toria: Mid Sept. Sarson: Sept.25 to Oct.10 Raya Sept.30 to Oct.20 3.75-5.0 Drilling Irrigated Rainfed 60-80 40 30 20 Site specific, 2 bags 2 bags gypsum gypsum 25 Full N,P&Zn at sowing in rainfed, Half N, full P&Zn at sowing & remaining N at Ist irrigation in irrigated condition 2

Sunflower 2-3 Harrowing followed by planking HybridsTimely sown :KBSH-1,MSFH8,PAC-36,KBSH44,HSFH-848&PACH234 Late sown :MSFH17,PAC-1091,Sungin85,Procin09,HSFH-848 Composit : EC-68415

Groundnut 2-3 Harrowing followed by planking MH-2(110), MH-4(1150, M145(125), M-13(145) and Punjab mungfali-1(130)

Sesamum 2-3 Harrowing followed by planking HT 1 (77)

Castor 2-3 Harrowing followed by planking Aruna (140), CH 1 (110)

Variety and duration

Sowing

15 Jan. to 15 Feb.

Seed rate (kg ha-1) Sowing method Fertilizer application N P K Zinc sulphate (kg ha-1) Time of application

Composite:10 Hybrid:3.75-5 Drilling/dibbling Hybrid Composite 60 100 40 50 2 bags 2 bags gypsum gypsum Half N,P at sowing, remaining N at Ist irrigation 4-6

Rainfed: June end to Ist week of July Irrigated: Last week of June (Not later than 15 July) Bunch type:120 Spreading:100-110 Drilling 15 50 2 bags gypsum 25 Full N,P& gypsum at sowing 2-3 37.5 Site specific Full N at sowing

Last week of June to Ist week of July 3-5 Drilling 37.5 Half N at sowing and remaining after 60 days os sowing 2

2nd fortnight of July 12.5 Drilling Planted 150 50 Site specific

Sugarcane 3-4 Harrowing followed by planking Early (250) : Co J 64, Co H 56, Co H 92 Medium (275) : Co 7717, Co H 99, Co S 8436, Co H 119 Late (300) : Co 1148, Co H 35, Co S 767, Co H 110 Autumn: OctNov Spring: April 7500-10000 Flat- Furrow Ratoon 225 50 Site specific

25 1/3 N, full P&Zn at sowing & 1/3N each at II & III irrigation

Number of irrigation

2

8-10

72

Time of irrigation

Flowering & pod development

Ist irrigation at 30-35 and last at 75-80 days after sowing of crop

Major weed flora

Chenpodium album, Asphodelus tenuifolius, Vicia spp., Fumaria purviflora, Meliotus spp., Anagalis arvensis

Cyprus rotundus, Trianthema monogyna, Cynodon dactylon, Amaranthus viridis,Celotia argentia, Sorghum helepense

Critical period of cropweed competition (days after sowing) Weed control method Manual weeding Promising herbicide(s)

25-40

15-45

Depends upon rainfall however one irrigation at flowering is important Cyprus rotundus, Trianthema monogyna, Cynodon dactylon, Amaranthus viridis,Celotia argentia, Sorghum helepense 15-45

Ist irrigation at 30-35 DAS and IInd at post capsule formation Cyprus rotundus, Trianthema monogyna, Cynodon dactylon, Amaranthus viridis,Celo tia argentia, 15-30

One at 40-45 and 2nd at 80-85 DAS

10-25 days interval depending upon soil moisture

Cyprus rotundus, Trianthema monogyna, Cynodon dactylon, Amaranthus viridis,Celotia argentia, Sorghum helepense

Trianthema portulacastrum, Convolvulus arvensis, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Sorghum helepense, Cynodon dactylon, Ipomoea hyderacea, Physallia minima, Ecliptica alba

30-45

60-90

2 weeding at 25 and 45 DAS Pendimethalin (PE), Fluchloralin (PPI) @ 1.0-1.5 kg ai/ha in irrigated areas only

2 weeding at 25 and 45 DAS -

2 weeding at 25 a50 DAS Pendimethalin (PE) @ 1.0 kg ai/ha only in irrigated condition

weeding 30DAS -

Manual after 1st irrigation -

Two hoeing 30 and 60 DAS Pre-emergence (2-3 DAS) application of Simazine @ 4 kg/ha or Atrazine @ 2.5 kg/ha or Sencor @ 1.5-2.0 kg/ha by mixing in 625-700 L water. Almix @ 20 g/ha or 2,4-D Sodium salt @ 2.5 kg/ha in 500625 L water at 30 and 60 DAS. Red rot, Smut, wilt, Grassy shoot, Ratoon stunting Sett treatment with 0.25% Emisan- 6 for controlling smut, Moist hot air treatment (MHAT) at 54 o C for 2 hours at RH > 95% is most effective against GSD,

Major diseases

Phyllody, alternaria blight, downy mildew, White rust Spray of Mencozeb @1.5 kg/ha and repeat at 15 days interval

Alternaria blight, Flower rot, Root and stem rot Seed treatment for root rot with Bavistin@2g/kg seed and spray of Dithane M 45(0.2%) and repeat at

Control methods

Seed and preemergence rot, Tikka and Charcoal rot For the control of Seed and pre-emergence rot, Charcoal rot treat the

Phyllody, Phytopthora blight, Leaf curl Spray zineb @2 kg/ha for Phytopthora blight and

No major disease

-

73

15 days interval

Major insects/pests

Hairy caterpillar,Spotted boll worm,Aphid and Jassid

Cut worm,Hairy caterpillar,Flower borer and damage by birds Spray of Fenvelrate @ 200ml for cut worm,endosulphan @1250 ml/ha

sedd with Thiram@3-5 kg/kg seed and for Tikka spray 0.2% Menocozeb Aphid,Jassid, White grub and Hairy catter piller Spray endosulfan @ 1.250lt/ha for hairy caterpillar and seed treatment with Quinalphos 25EC@ 15 ml/kg seed Mannual in the end of Oct. or early November 25-40 Incidence of white grub Soil salinity Low H.I. Termite incidence Moisture stress at sowing and reproductive stage

metasystox @ 1ml/litre of water

RSD and external sett borne infection of smut and red rot

Control methods

Spray of endosulphan @ 2 ml/lt of water

Jassid, Sesamum gall fly and sesamum bud fly Spray of monocrotop hos @ 2 ml/lt of water

Semi looper and hairy catterpillar

Pyrilla, Black bug, White fly, Top borer, shoot borer, stalk borer, mealy bug Spray endosulfan/ monocrotophos @ 1.50lt/ha

Spray of monocrotophos @ 625ml/ha

Time of harvesting

March

End of April

Grain Yield (q ha-1) Major constraints

20-25 Downy mildew, White rust Soil salinity Low H.I. Low moisture at sowing in rainfed crop Moisture stress at reproductive stage

15-25 Irrigation water Vacant land Bird damage Moisture stress at reproductive stage Threshing

Mannual with sickle in the end of Septemberr 7 Phyllody Soil salinity Poor soil Shattering Moisture stress at
reproductive

October end

November to January

15-20 Seed availabilty Termite incidence Moisture stress Threshing Poor plant population

600-700 Top borer, red rot High seed cost Water stress / water logging Market price Plant population in ratoon

stage

74

Particulars/Operations Land preparations Variety and duration

Berseem (F) 2-3 Harrowing followed by planking FOS 1, HFC 42-1, CS 88 Mescavi and Hisar berseem 1 (HFB 600) Summer: March20 to April 10 Kharif: June 25 to July 10 40-50 Drilling 25 62.5 Full N and P at sowing End of Sept. to end of October 20-25 Broadcasting in thin layer of water 25 70 Full N and P at sowing

Fodder cowpea (F) 2-3 Harrowing followed by planking

Sorghum (F) 2-3 Harrowing followed by planking HC 136, HC 171, HC 260, HC 308, HJ 513 and Sweet sudan grass 59-3 (Multicut) Summer: March20 to April 10 Kharif: June 25 to July 10 Sweet sudan grass: April 50-60 Sweet sudan grass:30-40 Drilling 75 15 Half N, P at sowing and remaining N at 30 DAS, however, in sweet sudan grass apply 25 Kg/ha after each cutting 4-5 10 days interval

Bajra (F) 2-3 Harrowing followed by planking F2 seed of any recommended grain hybrid End of March or in the beginning of April 7.5-10 Drilling

Oat (F) 2-3 Harrowing followed by planking HFO 114, O S 6, OS 7, HJ 8 Mid. Oct. to mid. Nov. 75-100 Drilling 80 Half at sowing and half after Ist cut 3-4 20-25 days interval

Clusterbean (G) 2-3 Harrowing followed by planking FS 277, HFG 156, HFG 119 April to mid July

Sowing

Seed rate (kg ha-1) Sowing method Fertilizer applicationN P K Time of application

40-50 Drilling 20 50 At the time of sowing

Number of irrigation Time of irrigation

2 Vegetative stage

Major weed flora

Cyprus rotundus, Trianthema monogyna, Cynodon dactylon, Amaranthus

4-6 Ist irrigation as early as possible and later on at 7-10 days interval Chicorium intybus

50 kg N, P at sowing and 25 kg N one month after sowing 3-4 15 days interval

1-2 Vegetative and flowering stages

Cyprus rotundus, Trianthema monogyna, Cynodon dactylon, Amaranthus

Cyprus rotundus, Trianthema monogyna,

Chenpodium album, Phalaris minor, Vicia spp., Fumaria

Cyprus rotundus, Trianthema monogyna, Cynodon dactylon,

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viridis,Celotia argentia, Sorghum helepense

viridis,Celotia argentia,

Critical period of crop-weed competition (days after sowing) Weed control method

15-30 Manual weeding at 25 DAS No major disease Jassid Spray of melathion @500 ml /ha 55 days after sowing 350-400 Soil salinity Low moisture at sowing Seed availability

20 Weeding only in case of seed crop is required No major disease 700-800 Seed availability of good variety Irrigation Poor yield in the Ist cut

15-30 Weeding at 25 DAS

Cynodon dactylon, Amaranthus viridis,Celotia argentia 25-50 Weeding at 25 DAS Atrazine PE and PO (715days) 500 g ai/ha No major disease No major disease 50-55 days after sowing as fodder crop 400-450 Germination Moisture stress Seed availability

purviflora, Meliotus spp., Anagalis arvensis,Avena ludivicina, 25-45 Manual at 25 and 45 DAS No major disease 60-65 days after sowing as fodder crop 600-700 Moisture stress Seed availability -

Amaranthus viridis,Celotia argentia 15-30 Manual at 25 and 45 DAS Jassid Malathion @ 500 ml / ha 60-65 days after sowing as fodder crop 325-350 Good quality seed availability Weed infestation Fertilizer application

Promising herbicide(s) Time of application Rate of application Major diseases Control methods Major insects/pests Control methods Time of harvesting Fodder yield (q ha-1) Major constraints

Atrazine PE and PO (7-15days) 500 g ai/ha Grain smut, red leaf spot Seed treatment with 2.0 g Emisan/kg seed and resistant variety Shoot fly and stem borer Spray of endosulphan @750 ml /ha Mannual 350-500 Good quality seed availability Weed infestation Fertilizer application

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ESTIMATION OF GRAIN YIELD
Example 1 : Estimate the grain yield of wheat crop in field sown at 20X5 cm spacing and plant attributes having effective tillers 4 per plant, grains/spike 45 and test weight is 45g. Solution : Calculation of plant population in the field: Row to row spacing of the crop = 20 cm= 0.20 m Plant to plant spacing of the crop = 5 cm= 0.05 m I: Space occupied by one plant = 0.20x0.05=0.100 m2 Area of one hectare = 10000 m2 10000 Number of plants per hectare = --------- =1000000 plants 0.01 II: Counting number of plants in one meter row length say 20 at 5 cm plant to plant spacing. Row spacing is 20 cm. Length of one hectare = 100 meter Breadth of one hectare = 100 meter Area of one hectare = 100X100 =10000 m2 100 Number of rows at 20 cm in one hectare length = ----------- = 500 0.2 Number of plants in one hectare = 100X20 = 2000 Total plants in one hectare area = 500X2000 = 1000000 plants III: Per plant yield = No. of effective tillers/plant X No. of grains per spike X weight of one grain If number of effective tillers = 4 Number of grains per spike = 45 Test weight = 45g 45 Per grain weight = ---------- = 0.045g 1000 4 X 45 X 45 Per plant yield = ----------------- = 8.1 g 1000 Per hectare yield = Plant population X Per plant yield = 1000000 X 8.1g = 8100 kg = 81 q/ha.

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Example 2 : Estimate the grain yield of rice crop having 30 plants/ m2 and plant attributes having effective tillers 3.5 per plant, 200 grains/panicle and test weight is 25g. Solution : Grain yield/hectare = No. of plants/hectare X No. of effective tillers/plant X No. of grains per panicleX weight of one grain 30X10000X3.5X200X25 = ------------------------------- = 52.5 q/ha 10X1000X1000 Example 3 : Estimate the theoretical/ha grain yield of chickpea crop in field sown at 30X15 cm spacing and plant attributes having 60 pods per plant, 1.5 grains/pod and 100 seed weight is 20g. Solution : Per plant yield = No. of pods/plant X No. of grains per pod X weight of one seed 60 X 1.5 X 20 Per plant yield = ----------------------- = 18 g 100 100 X 100X100 X 100 Number of plants per hectare = ------------------------------- =222222 plants 30 X15 Per hectare yield = Plant population X Per plant yield = 222222 X 18= 3999996g = 3999 kg = 39.99 q/ha. Example 4 : Estimate the seed cotton yield of Bt cotton crop sown at 90X60 cm spacing and having 70 bolls/ plant and weight of each ball was 3.0g. Solution : Grain yield/hectare = No. of plants/hectare X No. of effective tillers/plant X No. of grains per panicleX weight of one grain 30X10000X3.5X200X25 = ------------------------------- = 52.5 q/ha 10X1000X1000 Per plant yield = No. of bolls/plant X weight of one boll Per plant yield = 70 X 3.0 = 210 g 100 X 100X100 X 100 Number of plants per hectare = ------------------------------- =18518.5 plants 90 X60 Per hectare yield = Plant population X Per plant yield = 18518.5 X 210= 3888888g = 3888 kg = 38.88 q/ha. Example 5 : Calculate the cane yield /ha of sugarcane crop sown at row spacing of 60 cm with 3 buded setts with seed rate of 30 q/Ac. The effective canes per meter row length is 10 and weight of one cane is 1 kg. 78

Solution : Number of canes in one row = 10 X 100 = 1000 100 X 100 Number of rows per hectare = ------------------ =166.6 = 167 60 Per hectare yield = No. of rows X No. of canes/ row X Per cane yield = 167 X 1000 X 1= 167000 kg = 1670 q/ha. Example 6 : Compute the theoretical seed yield of raya crop sown at 30X15 cm spacing and having 250 siliqua/ plant, 14 seeds / siliqua and test weight will be 6.0g. Solution : Per plant yield = No. of siliqua/plant X No. of seeds/ siliqua Xweight of one seed Per plant yield = 250 X 14 X 0.006 = 21 g 100 X 100X100 X 100 Number of plants per hectare = ------------------------------- =222222 plants 30X15 Per hectare yield = Plant population X Per plant yield = 2222222 X 21= 4666662g = 4667 kg = 46.67 q/ha. Example 7 : Compute the fodder yield of berseem with a plant population of 400 plants per square meter. Each plant produces 2.5 tillers and weight of each tiller is 2.0 g. Solution : Number of plants per hectare = 400 X 10000 =4000000 plants Weigh of each plant = 2.5 X 2.0 = 5.0 g. Per hectare yield = Plant population X Per plant yield = 4000000 X 5= 20000000g = 20000 kg = 200 q/ha.

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MORPHOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THEIR SPECIES AND RELATED PLANTS
Morphological differences in cultivated species of cotton Plant part Vegetative Branches Fruiting Branches Leaves Lobes Stipules G. arboreum Ascending, no or few Two, jointed Two third to four fifth cut into 5-7 lobes Ovate, oblong or curvilinear Linear or falcate Longer than broad, 3-4 teeth at apex at margin Tapering, usually 3 locular with 6-17 seeds per locule Many, jointed Small, half or less cut into 3-7 lobes Ovate, rotund To rounded Linear Broader than long, 6-8 triangular angular teeth Rounded, 3-4 locular with 6-11 seeds perlocule G. herbaceum G. hirsutum Horizontal, no or very few Many, jointed Big, half or less cut into 3-5 lobes Broadly triangular cuminate Falcate or auriculate Bigger, longer than broad with 4-12 acuminate teeth Rounded or tapering, 3-5 locular with 5-11 seeds per locule

CROPS,

G. barbadense Horizontal Many, jointed Big, two third cut into 3 lobes Long, tapering acuminate Falcate or auriculate As long as broad, 10-15 long acuminate teeth Rounded or tapering, 3-4 locular with 5-8 seeds per locule

Bractioles

Capsules or bolls

Difference between different species of wheat
Triticm aestivum Chromosomes42.Stem hollow with slightly thick walls Rachis tenacious Empty glumes long and narrow Grains long and narrow Triticm dicoccum Chromosomes-28. Stems sold or hollow with thick walls Rachis more or less fragile Empty glumes long and narrow Keel prominent Grains long and narrow Coleoptile 4-6 nerved. Aplical tooth on empty glumes short and blunt. Triticm durum Chromosomes-28. Stems sold or hollow with thick walls Rachis more or less fragile Empty glumes long and narrow Keel prominent Grains long and narrow Coleoptile 2 nerved. Apical tooth on empty glumes stout, generally acute and curved blunt. Triticm spherococum Chromosomes-42.Stem hollow with thin walls Rachis tenacious Empty glumes broad with outer face convex Keel less prominent or in upper half only Grains angled Apical tooth on empty glumes strong, curved and scarbid.

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Difference between rape and mustard Rape Mustard The plant is shorter, the height ranges The plants are tall, the height ranges between between 45-150 cm. 90- 200 cm. The leaves borne sessile and are glabrous The leaves are not dilated at the base and and hairy. The lower part of the case of lasping as in stalked broad and pinnatified. rape but are the blade (lamina) grasps the stalk partially or completely. The Fruits (pods) are thicker than those The fruits (pods) are slender and 2-6.5 cm only of mustard (rai) and are laterally long, strongly ascending or erect with short compressed with the beak one-third to half and stout beaks. their length. Seeds are either yellow or brown with a Seeds are brown or dark brown. smooth seed coat. Morphological differences in Sorghum, Pearl millet, Napier grass and Johnson grass Sorghum (Jowar) Maize Pearl millet (bajra) Napier grass

Stem is erect and Stem are completely Stem is erect and produce Perennial grass with erect cylindrical with no filled with pith, the tillers. and cylindrical stem.The tillers in most cases. internodes are plant tillers profusely and somewhat flattened tillers increase in number or groved on the year after year. The stem side next to the leaf near the top is usually sheath. No tillering. hairy. Leaves have parallel Leaves are rough veins and midrib is and hairy white in colour. Leafblade is long and Leafblade is linear and pointed and has hairs on may have hairs on both both sides. The sheath the sides. clasps the stem almost fully. Lugule is 5 mm long. Inflorescence is a compound spike with unbranched tapering central axis. Inflorescence is a dense spike and is about 1530cm long.

Inforescence is a It has two types of panicle or spike and inflorescence – the peduncle may bestaminate (tassels) branched, erect, and pistilates (cobs) curveddownward or at two angles on the half bent. plant. The grain covered by lemma varies in colour from pale yellow to various shades of brown todeep purple brown. The grains vary from white to violet in colour. Seed is somewhat flattened on sides.

Seed is somewhat Kernels tan, sometimes flattened on sides but reddish black, oblong and more or less ovate with pointed. one endsome what taperingand cone shaped.

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Difference between different fodder crops Lucerne (Medicgo sativa) The plant is a herbaceous perennial. Branches arise from a short compact stem at a point, a little above the ground level. Leaves are trifoliate oblong, the middle leaflet possessing a short petiole with serrated margin. The serrted edge does extend to lower margin of leaflet. Veins make acute angles projecting in the midrib. Stipules are serrated, broad and sharply pointed. Berseem (Trifolium alexandrium) The plant is a herbaceous annual. Plants are branched and glaborous. Leaves trifoliate and leaflets ovate. The petioler branches are of nearly equal length. Leaves are pubescent with white markings. Petioles are pubescent. Stipules are membranous pointed with greenish purple veins on them. Flower born on long peduncles, rise in leaf axil, flower pediceled white or pinkish Senji (Melilotus spp.) The stems are erect and smooth.

Leaves thick trifoliate, serrated edge, oblong, narrowed at base, notched or rounded at apex, pin point stipules.

Flower colour is usually purple but it may be blue also. Inflorescence spike like raceme.

Flower is receme, numerous, often one sided, white (M. alba) and yellow (M. indica), pods ovate, one seeded, netted hulls. Seeds mitt or semi-heart shaped, greenish yellow turn brown with age.

Fruit is indehiscent pod coiled 2-3 times (spiral shaped pod). Seeds are greenish to yellow turning brown with age, one half kidney shaped and one half mitt shaped.

Seeds are redish

Kinds of rapeseed and mustard grown in India are as followsIndependent group Species Common name (i) Sarson (a) Brassica campestris var. yellow sarson Turnip rape(Yellow sarson) (b) Brassica campestris var. brown sarson Turnip rape(Brown sarson) (ii) Toria (a) Brassica campestris var. yellow toria Indian rape (yellow toria) (b) Brassica Campestris var. black toria Indian rape (Lahi) (iii) Rai (a) Brassica juncea Indian mustard(Rai, Raya or Laha) (b) Brassica juncea var. rugosa. Pahari rai (Rugosa) (c) Brassica nigra Black mustard (Banarsi rai)

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Difference in C3 and C4 plants Character Optimum temperature for photosynthesis Optimum light intensity for photosynthesis Photosynthetic rate per unit leaf area Maximum growth rates under optimal conditions Water use efficiency Leaf chlorophyll a/b ratio; CO2 compensation point (ppm CO2) Photosynthesis inhibited by 21% O2? Photorespiration detectable? Dry matter production tons ha 1 year-1 (t ha-1 yr-1) Theoretical energy requirement (CO2:ATP:NADP) Particulars Plant nutrients Pest control Inputs Ecology Use of resources
-

C3 plants 15-30 C 30-50% full sunlight 50% of C4 under optimal conditions 34-39 g m-2 day-1 Dry wt. 1.49 mg g-1 water 2.8 + 0.4; 30-70
o

C4 plants 30-45oC Full sunlight Double of C3 under optimal conditions 50-54 g m-2 day-1 Dry wt. 1.49 mg g-1 water 2.8 + 0.4; 0-10

Yes Yes 22+ 0.3 1:3:2

No Only in bundle sheath 39+ 17 1:5:2

Differentiate between sustainable and modern agriculture Sustainable agriculture Modern agriculture Farmyard manure, compost, green Chemical fertilizers are used. manures, bio-fertilizers and crop rotations are used. Cultural methods, crop rotation and Toxic chemical are used. biological methods are used. High diversity, renewable biodegradable inputs are used. Stable ecology. The rate of extraction from forests, fisheries, underground water resources and other renewable resources do not exceed the rate of regeneration. and High productivity and low diversity chemicals are used. Fragile ecology. The rate of extraction exceeds the rate of regeneration. Falling of trees, deforestation, overgrazing and pollution of water bodies takes place. Food material residues. contains toxic

Quality of food Food materials are safe. material

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CROP TERMINOLOGY
WHEAT Anthesis: A developmental main stage when yellow anthers are clearly visible on spikes. It is also called 'flowering'. Each floret's lemma and palea are forced apart by swelling of their lodicules, which allows the anthers to protrude. After a day or two, the lodicules collapse and the florets close again. Auricle: Also called a collar. It is the pale-coloured papery extension of a leaf blade at its junction with its leaf sheath. It may be slightly hairy. Awns: These are coarse hair-like protrusions on a spike. They extend from the tip of lemmas and sometimes to a small extent on the sterile glumes. Awns photosynthesise when green. Band placement: Application of fertilizer along with the rows of the crop. Basal application: Application of fertilizer at the time of sowing in the soil. Boot: As the young spike expands inside the leaf sheaths it can eventually be felt and finally seen after the flag leaf stage as a sheath swelling or boot. It becomes most obvious shortly before its awns start to protrude out of the top of the last sheath. Conventional tillage:This involves inverting the soil surface layer incorporating crop residues and vegetation and breaking up the surface to a fine tilth. Also called clean tillage. Cross sowing: Sowing of the seed in both the direction i.e. opposite to each other. Crusting: This is the sealing of the soil surface by fine soil particles. These particles block the larger pores reducing the movement of gases into and from the soil and reducing penetration of water. It is more common on soils high in silts, soils with low organic matter and soils with high Na (sodium). Double ridges: This is a developmental stage of the growing apex (growing point) when it is approximately 0.5 mm long. Prior to this stage the short apex («0.2 mm) had been producing only leaf primordia or single ridges, which are angular structures. At the double ridge stage the new leaf primordia are rounded ridges and associated with each one is a bud in its axil; hence the term double ridge. This bud becomes a spikelet. Floret: Each spikelet has between 2 and 6 florets where the grains form. Each floret is made up of a papery lemma with its long awn (both green at anthesis) and an opposing palea. These together form a cup for the grain. At anthesis each full sized lemma and palea enclose male stamens with their yellow pollen and the female stigma. Pollen falls on the stigma and self fertilization occurs to form a grain. The number of grains in a spike is equal to the number of fertile florets produced by the spike. Green leaf area index (GLAI or LAI): This is the area of all green leaves on a square metre of ground. When each one square metre of ground has more than 4 square metres of leaf growing on it the crop is intercepting about 90% of the solar radiation falling on it. With more interception than this during stem elongation to booting stage, yields are unlikely to exceed 4 t/ha. GLAI summed over days is called leaf area duration (LAD). Like green leaf number after heading, it is well linked to yield. Heading: A developmental stage when the head, spike or ear emerges from its enclosing sheath. When only a small part is visible it is called 'ear peep'. The stage from partial to full appearance is also called 'Ear Emergence'. Jointing stage: The stem elongates by extending the regions between the stem nodes. The first nodes (joints) become visible and progressively larger after the terminal spikelet 84

has formed on the microscopic spike. After a crop lodges, it grows back towards the vertical by adjusting angular growth at these 'joints' that bear some resemblance to arthritic finger joints. Ligule: A papery structure one mm or so long which marks the junction between a leaf sheath and its blade and is in the same plane as the sheath. Together with the auricle it is called the leaf collar. Minimum tillage: With a limited number of passes of machinery, minimum tillage aims to achieve some soil disturbance and physical weed control but to leave much of the crop residues on the surface of the soil or in the surface layers. Pan evaporimeter: This is an aboveground circular metal trough about 1.5 m diameter and 30 cm deep and filled with water. The number of mm of water evaporated from the pan indicates approximately how much water the crop is losing, providing there is no water stress. It can be a guide to how much irrigation water needs to be applied to replace transpiration losses. You can make your own evaporimeter and measure how far the water surface falls (in mm) every few days. Top it up regularly. Make sure thirsty animals are not drinking it by covering it with chicken wire or equivalent. Your measurement is roughly how many mm of water you would have to supply to the crop to replace losses. Perennial weeds: Plants that live for several years. The most difficult perennial weeds to control are those that propagate both by seeds and by vegetative means. Examples are the perennial grasses that can produce new plants from broken pieces of ‘root’. Broad leaved weeds such as thistles have the same approach. Both establish extensive networks of these propagating root systems. Photosynthesis: A process used by plants to make sugars (carbohydrates) for growth. Essential ingredients in the process are solar radiation to provide energy, the green chlorophyll of the leaves and shoots to trap and convert that energy, carbon dioxide from the air to provide the carbon in the carbohydrate, and water. Rachis: The long axis of the ear or spike to which the spikelets are attached. Solar radiation: This is the energy from the sun that reaches the ground, remaining after passage through the atmosphere and clouds. About half that energy is visible light. Plants can use about half for photosynthesis. Spike: An alternative name for the ear or head. Spikelet: The spike (or ear) is divided into 15 to 30 spikelets. These are in two rows up the full length of the spike. Each spikelet is made up of 2 to 6 florets where the grains form, and surrounding structures of glumes, lemmas, and paleas. Split application: Application of fertilizer in a crop more than one time at different stages of the crop growth. Spores: These are the tiny 'seeds' of fungi, the means by which fungal diseases spread. Usually spores can 'germinate' better and infect new leaves and plants when conditions are warm and humid. A dense crop canopy is usually humid because leaves transpire. Stem node: A node is a junction. A stem node is where a leaf arises on the stem. Stem nodes can be felt as bumps or joints when the finger and thumb are run up the stem. Internodes are the regions between the bumps. Stephenson Screen: A white wooden box with angled slatted walls allowing through ventilation but no direct light, mounted about 1.5 m above the ground in which meteorological instruments are kept. It is called a screen because it screens out sunlight 85

and rain. Instruments are usually for measuring humidity and maximum and minimum temperatures. Stomata: These are the active pores on both surfaces of leaves in wheat that, by changing their apertures, control the rate at which carbon dioxide (CO2) enters and water vapour exits the plant. They close in the dark and whenever the plant is short of water. When stomata are open, the loss of water through them cools the leaf. Terminal (top) spikelet: The final spike let to be formed. This is at the top of the spike. It is produced at 90° to the plane of all other spikelets. When it appears, potential fertile spikelet number for the spike has been determined and can be counted under a microscope. Tiller: A tiller is a shoot or branch that grows from the axil (inside base) of a leaf the point where the leaf joins its own shoot. A tiller bud is formed in the axil of every leaf but whether it grows into a tiller depends on the 'health' of the plant when the bud is young. It may remain dormant indefinitely if the plant is short of water when it forms. When water becomes available again, a recent tiller bud in a later axil will develop instead. Top dressing: The application of fertilizer in the standing crop. Transpiration: Leaves are covered in stomatal pores. When the pores are open, water vapour leaks through them from the inside of the leaf to the air. This is called transpiration. Leakage is fastest when the stomata are most open, when the air is very dry and hot and it is windy. Under these conditions crops can lose water very quickly, at up to I litre per square metre of ground over three hours (assuming a closed canopy), and become stressed. Water use efficiency (WUE): The amount of material produced by the crop for each unit of water used. The units may be kg biomass or kg grain per kg (litre) of water. It may also be expressed as the amount of water required to produce biomass or grain. Depending on genotype, season length and evaporative conditions, crops need to transpire between 500 and 1000 litres of water throughout growth to produce each one kg of grain. Depending on the size of plants at anthesis and the previous factors, between 200 and 400 litres of water is needed between anthesis and maturity for each one kg grain. Crops with more biomass at anthesis commonly produce more grain. They have more material available to move from store to the developing grains. WUE is often much poorer than these values because much of the water reaching the field does not pass through the crop. It is lost in drainage and in evaporation from bare soil early in the season. Early achievement of ground cover by the crop improves WUE. Zero tillage: Also called direct drill. In one pass the machinery cultivates a row slot, drills the seed and places the fertilizer in the slot and covers the seed. Relatively little of the previous crop residues are disturbed or incorporated. RICE Panicle: The rice inflorescence known as panicle is a group of spikelets borne on the uppermost node of the culm. The primary panicle branch is divided into secondary and sometimes tertiary branches. These bear the spikelets. Aus: It is the local name of rice in West Bengal and Bihar which is sown in the month of May-June and harvested in September-October. Aman: It is a Kharif season rice crop which is sown in the month of June-July and harvested in November-December. 86

Boro : It is spring season cultivated rice crop in West Bengal. It is sown in NovemberDecember and harvested in March-April. Low land: Low land cultivation is the situation where the crop specially rice is cultivated under assured and adequate supply of water (Ponded water). Upland : It is the cultivation of crops (rice) under rain fed condition and there is no assured supply of water and dependence is completely in rains. Direct seeding: Sowing of seeds directly in the field while seed not seedling without giving any primary treatment. Transplanting: It is the planting of seedling in the main field after attaining a certain age. Seedlings are raised in a small area to save time and energy. Dapog: This is a method of raising rice seedlings and the method has been introduced in India from Philippines. It saves almost half of the time in seedling raising. The main merit of this method is that less area is heeded to raise faster seedlings. The seedlings are ready for transplanting at about two weeks age. Hulling: The process of removing husk and bran from the paddy seed in one operation. Khaira: It is a disease caused by zinc deficiency in rice. Usually appears in nursery but may appear, in patches, after 10-15 days of transplanting. Growth of the diseased plant is stunted. The plants show chlorosis between the veins of new leaves, where brown spots are formed. On lower leaves, a large number of small, brown to bronze spots appear which collapse to form bigger spots and ultimately the entire leaf turns bronze coloured and dries. MAIZE Silking: The growth stage in maize crop when female flowers are borne inside the young cobs which spring from one of the nodes on the stem usually located about midway on the stalk. Tassels: The male flowers borne in a cluster on the top of end of the maize stem as a terminal panicle. Queen of cereals: Maize is known as queen of cereals because it has very high yield potential, there is no cereal on the earth has so immense potential. Pod corn: The kernel is enclosed in a pod or husk, the ear formed is also enclosed in husk. Pod corn is also known as cow corn, forage corn and husk corn. It is not grown commercially. Pop corn: The kernels are small and posses a higher percentage of hard endosperm starch. The ability to pop is due to rapid expansion of moisture in each individual starch grain upon the application of heat. Flint corn: The kernels consist of endosperm with soft starch in the centre and completely enclosed by a very hard outer layer. The kernels shrink uniformly as they mature. Dent corn: The kernels are characterized by a depression or dent in the crown due to shrinkage during ripening in a deposit of soft starch at the crown. This group is the most widely cultivated corn. Flour corn: The kernels consist almost entirely of soft starch with a very thin layer of hard starch on the sides. They are also known as soft corn. Sweet corn: The kernels are translucent, horney and more or less wrinkled in appearance when dry. They have a large proportion of sugar to starch and hence sweeter than other corns. 87

Waxy corn : The endosperm looks waxy adhesives and for textile and proper sizing. Baby corn: The sweet corn when harvested young before complete development of kernel and used for table purpose. TOBACCO Priming: It is the slow drying of ripe tobacco Nicotiana spp. Leaves from the stalk: it starts at the bottom and keep on moving upwards as the leaves ripen. Curing: Method or process of preserving or arresting decomposition: to preserve as by drying. Course or treatment by which a product is made ready for use as in tobacco. Toping: Topping consists in removal of the terminal bud with or without some of the small top leaves just before or after the emergence of flower head in case of tobacco. Desuckering: Removing of suckers or lateral branches by hand before they become large enough to retard the development of leaves in tobacco. CHICKPEA Pod: A monocarpellary fruit developing from a superior one chambered ovary; when ripe, it dehisces (splits) along both inner and outer seams- in pulses. Nodule: Small swelling on roots of various leguminous plants; these contain bacteria (Rhizobium spp.) living symbiotically with the root tissue and capable of converting atmospheric nitrogen into nitrogenous compounds using energy derived from carbohydrates supplied by plants. Symbiosis: Any stable condition in which two different organisms live together in close association to their mutual advantage. Tendril: A slender, leafless, spirally coiled structure with the help of which plants climb is called tendril. It is modified leaf. Nipping: It is the process of plucking the apical buds of the crop at about 30-40 days after sowing. Nipping stops the apical growth and promotes the lateral branches, thus the plants become more vigorous and produce more flowers and pods and yield per plant is increased. GROUNDNUT Pegging: In groundnut, at the base of the ovary, a meristmatic region grows and becomes a stalk like structure (the Gynosphore) that bends downwards and force the ovary into the soil. The gynospore is commonly referred to as the peg. The peg carrying the ovary pushes itself into the soil. The whole process is known as pegging. Shelling: Seperating kernel from the groundnut pod. Earthing up: Process of putting the earth or soil just near or on the root and stem on groundnut plant. It gives support to the plant and provides additional food material. It can be done either by manual labour or bullock or power drawn ridger. Aflatoxin: Damp nuts (high moisture) if stored will ferment and allow the development of poisonous mould such as Aspergillus flavus in kernels during post harvest processing and storage, leads to contamination with aflatoxin a health hazard both for humans and livestock . The oil expressed from such produce will be rancid (taste like stale fat) and cake when fed to poultry will result in a heavy mortality of birds. SESAMUM Capsule: Dry dehiscent fruit derived from two or more seeded fused carpels; to release the seeds, the splitting takes place in many ways. Siliqua: A long, slender, dehiscent fruit of Brassica spp. 88

Shattering: Loss of seeds by splitting of siliqua due to over drying or other natural calamities like hail storm. COTTON Lint: Outgrowth of an epidermal cell of the seed coat having long outgrowth forms the staple or lint. Fuzz: Outgrowth of an epidermal cell of the seed coat having short outgrowth forms fuzz. Seed cotton: The seed of cotton having lint and fuzz is known as seed cotton. Cotton seed: Seed of cotton which do not have lint. Monopodial branch: The vegetative branch develops from the true auxillary bud, which only bears leaves and no flowers in cotton. Sympodial branch: The accessory bud in cotton develops into sympodial or fruiting branch which bear flowers. Square: In cotton, the flower buds which appear as small, pyramidal shaped green structure is called square. Square consists of three triangular shaped leafy structures known as bracteoles and the flower bud. Ginning percentage: Ratio in percentile of lint to the seed cotton is known as ginning percentage. It is around 33%. Ginning: It is the process of cotton lint separation from seed cotton. Picking: Collection of seed cotton from the open cotton balls is known as picking. 1Bale of cotton: 180 kg of lint. JUTE AND SUNN-HEMP Retting: Retting is a process by which the fibres in the bark of jute get loosened and seprated from the woody stalk. It is a microbial process affected by various aerobic and anaerobic micro-floras. Extraction: Removal of fibre from the retted stalks of jute gently, keeping the stalks in water. Extraction should be done from each reed (stem). Steep: To soak stem of fibre crop in a liquid for the purpose of cleaning, softening or extracting a principle. BARLEY Six-row barley: It is the barley specie which has three fertile spikelets at each node of the spike. The spikelets are in six distinct rows and arranged at a uniform distance around the tough rachis. This is cultivated in India (Hordium vulgare). Two-row barley: It is the barley specie in which medium spikelets are fertile and set grains. Although the lateral spikelets are infertile, they possess all floral organs. Hordium distichon is cultivated in India but Hordium irregulare in not cultivated. Malting: Process of germinating grain, generally barley, to develops the enzyme diastase. The diastase is capable of sacharifying not only the starch of malt itself but also that of the grain mixed with it. Hence, malt is used in the brewing and distilling industries to convert starch to fermentable sugars. SUGARCANE Ratooning: It is a practice in sugarcane to take second crop from the regenerated shoots from the harvested first years planted crop. Ratooning of cane is very essential for increasing the benefit to the farmer. Ratooning saves expenses as land preparation, planting material cost, seed treatment cost, and planting expenses. Proper management of ratoon crop is necessary for higher yield. 89

Bagasse: The residue of cane left after extacting the juice from the millable canes is called as bagasse. It is used as sourse of fuel alongwith cane trash. Earthing up: Hilling the clumps in stages is required to provide habitat to the shoot roots and sufficient height of the soil thus achieved suppress the formation of late shoots. The earthing up results in formation of furrows which helps in drainage of excess water during rains. Earthing up is done at maximum tillering stage. Light earthing in the month of May and heavy earthing in the end of June, prior to the break of monsoon, should be done. Propping up: It is a practice of tying the canes with the dry leaves of the sugarcane removed from the lower portion of the shoot.This should be carried out in the month of August and September, so as to prevent lodging of crop. Raw sugarcane: chewed to extract the juice Jaggery: Solidified molasses, known as Gur or Gud, traditionally produced by evaporating juice to make a thick sludge and then cooling and molding. Molasses: It is a byproduct produced during preparation of jaggery or crystal sugar. It is of low density semi-solid material which is generally removed from the top of the boiling juice to clean it. It is a impurity and can be used in distillaries for manufacturing alcohal. The ethanol produced from the molasses in the spirit industry is also used as a auto mobile fuel by 5% mixing in petrol. It is also used as a additive to the livestock feed. Green top:These are the green leaves present at the top of the shoot generally removed at the time of cane harvest and are used as fodder for cattles. Press mud:It is also a byproduct of sugar industry specially where sugar is produced by carbonation method and used as manure in alkaline and saline soils. Arrowing:The emergence of sugarcane inflorescence in the axial of aplical bud is called as arrowing. The arrowing causes reduction in juice percentage due to pith formaton as reduce the tonage. Adsali: The crop of sugarcane which takes year and half in crop maturity is called as adsali. In India the adsli crop is cultivated in south India. Eksali: The crop of sugarcane which takes one year in crop maturity is called as eksaali. In India the eksali crop is cultivated in north India and resuts in low yield compared with south India. Blind hoeing: After the planting of cane setts it takes about one month in germination depending upon temperature, hence the shallow cultivation to control weeds and conserve moisture is called as blind hoeing. Trashing: Stripping of dry leaves immeditely after havest from the cane is called trashing.

90

WORKING OUT COST OF CULTIVATION OF CROPS
Farmer grows a crop to get more and more production not only for fulfilling his domestic requirement but also to get higher income or profit from the crop as an enterprise by selling the product and byproduct in the market. Raising a crop successfully involves a lot of expenditure on various items like purchase of various inputs required by the crop and hiring of labour, machinery etc. for performing various field operations. This expenditure on the various items needed for crop production is called cost of cultivation or production of the crop. Difference between market value of final crop product obtained from a given land area and the total expenditure on inputs and other items (cost of cultivation) gives the net return or profit from the area. Therefore, the net profit per unit land area can be increased not only by increasing yield of the crop produce but also by minimizing the cost of production. An account of the cost of cultivation and return per unit land area is necessary to find out the profitability of a crop or cropping system grown in a locality or region. Therefore, cost benefit analysis of the crop enterprise on a farm is necessary for the following purposes:  To find out the cost of cultivation of a crop per unit area and the profit per unit area from the crop enterprise.  To find out the relative cost of various inputs and other items in order to find out their relative importance in crop production.  To compare the profitability of a crop with other crops on a farm in order to find out the better crops for the farm.  To compare the best crop or cropping system on a farm with other enterprises on the same farm to find out the best enterprise on the farm.  To know the relative allocation of various enterprises with respect to space and time on a farm so that the best enterprise dominates the farm.  To help farmers, administrators and policy makers in taking appropriate decisions about allocation of agricultural resources. To estimate the cost of cultivation of a crop and incom e from it, it is necessary to know the prices of items (inputs and outputs). 91

Input output prices of important crops in Haryana (Kharif, 2008) Input prices S.No. Item A. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. B. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. C. 1. 2. 3. 4. D. 1. 2. E. 1. 2. Seed (Rs./kg) Paddy (Hybrid) Paddy (Super fine) Paddy (Basmati) Paddy (Duplicate) Cotton (Bt)/570g Cotton (Desi) Cotton (American) Bajra (Hybrid) Arhar Guar Jowar Fertilizer (Rs/q) Urea DAP SSP Zinc sulphate 483 935 335 2370 48.00 48.00 40.00 - 43.00 40.00 750 36.00 36.00 38.00 26.00 25.00 27.00 B. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Average value Output prices S.No. A. Item Main Product (Rs./q) Paddy (Hybrid) Paddy (Super fine) Paddy (Basmati) Paddy (Duplicate) Cotton (Bt) Cotton (Desi) Cotton (American) Bajra (Hybrid) Arhar Guar Jowar By-products (Rs/q) Paddy Cotton Bajra Guar Arhar 600-1200 1200 96 -125 105-120 500-1125 930 2365 2545 1545 2700 2700 2460 751 2206 1514 55 Average Value

FYM 15 Weedicide/ Insecticide/ Fungicide Butachlor Rs. 170/litre Phorate (Thimet) 10G Rs. 45/Kg Chlorpyriphos Rs.202/litre Emissan Rs.500/100g Hiring Rates (Rs/day or hour) Human Days 100-150 Tractor (Rs./Acre) 225-300 Tubewell Irrigation (Rs./ Irrigation) ))iIirrigation/acre) Electrical 190-325 Diesel 240-380

92

Input output prices of important crops in Haryana (rabi, 2008-09) Input prices S.No. Item A. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. B. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. C. 1. 2. 3. 4. D. 1. 2. 3. E. 1. 2. Seed (Rs./kg) Wheat (Dwarf) Gram Barley Mustard Sugarcane Berseem Sunflower Fertilizer (Rs/q) Urea DAP Average value 16.25 35.00 16.00 35.00 1.48 108.80 500.00 483-485 943 Output prices S.No. Item A. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. B. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Average Value Main Product (Rs./q) Wheat (Dwarf) 1080 Gram Barley Mustard Sugarcane Berseem 2089 720 2073 160 60

Sunflower 2100 By-products (Rs/q) Wheat (Dwarf) Gram Barley Mustard (per acre) Sugarcane 160-250 100-125 120-189 800-1738 25-40

SSP 335 Zinc sulphate 1800-2600 FYM 15 Weedicide/ Insecticide/ Fungicide Algrip Rs. 130/ 8g Bavastin Rs.60/100g Topic Rs.425/160g Stomp Rs.400/litre Hiring Rates Human Days(Rs/day) 100-200 Bullock/Camel(Rs/da 250-300 Tractor (Rs./Acre) 240-300 Tubewell Irrigation (Rs./Ac.) Electrical 250-350 Diesel 260-400

By knowing the rates of different inputs and outputs of a crop the total cost of cultivation and income from the crop can be worked out by multiplying the rate of each item by its corresponding quantity or number and adding the resultant amounts of all the items as per the following table:

93

Cost of cultivation and profit of crops (Rs./acre) in Haryana for kharif , 2008
Item Paddy (Basmati)
Qty./ Number Amount / value (Rs)

Cotton (Bt)
Qty./ Number Amount/ value (Rs)

Pearlmillet (Hybrid)
Qty./ Number Amount/ value ( Rs)

Pigeonpea
Qty./ Number Amount/ value (Rs)

Preparatory tillage Pre-sowing Sowing/planting Ridging Seed(kg) Seed treatment Manure/FYM (q) Fertilizer requirement (kg) Nitrogenous Phosphatic Potassic Zinc sulphate Total Fertilizer application Irrigation Hoeing/Weeding Manual Chemical Plant protection Harvesting/ picking Miscellaneous Interest on capital Variable cost Transportation charges Managt. charges Risk factor Rental value of land Total cost Main product (qts) By-product (qts) Gross return Return over variable cost Net return Cost of prodn./qt Without by-product With by- product No. of farmers Area (acres) Human labour days Bullock days Tractor hours

5.60

5.60 4.60 44.30 19.60 6.10 6.90

1413 192 949 72 532 49 69 466 319 45 165 995 63 2269 185 72 485 1781 83 553 9762 180 994 994 8992 20922 29775 1191 30966 21204 10044 1788 1719 -

3.00

0.60 14.0 24.00 8.80 -

768 335 250 70 750 210 252 143 395 70 985 462 150 2800 50 438 7733 518 825 825 2500 12401 25380 1000 26380 18647 13979 1319 1269 -

2.60

1.70 5.90 10.90 2.20 -

668 9 264 9 64 77 124 35 159 39 133 346 742 435 51 3176 254 343 343 3230 7346 5706 1644 7350 4174

2.50

5.50 5.50 4.80 4.90 -

687 236 265 31 143 82 51 79 130 25 245 240 55 516 296 380 3180 191 337 337 3728 7773 7940 1692 9634 6452 1859 2159 1780 -

10.80

3.20

0.50

0.80

11.70

9.40

3.60

36 135 38.0 6.30

7 18.50 32.0 1.50 3.40

148 452.50 26.20 0.10 3.80

4 967 750 -

113 195.50 25.40 3.40

94

Cost of cultivation and profit of crops (Rs./acre) in Haryana for rabi, 2008-09
Item Wheat (Dwarf) Qty./ Amount/ Number Value (Rs) 4.32 1136 286 270 63 47.49 772 27 10.47 137 54.26 21.66 2.34 2.81 570 352 18 72 1012 52 1242 225 85 20 1557 1011 73 478 332 8776 878 878 6102 16633 19387 3521 22908 14133 6276 928 785 Qty./ Number 4.04 Raya Amount/ Value (Rs) 1055 311 262 29 60 119 259 318 2 579 51 544 175 41 781 548 58 277 202 5090 509 509 3429 9538 14927 1461 16388 11298 6850 1325 1206 Chickpea Qty./ Amount/ Number Value (Rs) 2.27 564 199 254 525 22 22 17 53 70 16 282 50 52 721 637 43 207 113 3777 378 378 2316 6848 7499 425 7924 4147 1076 1908 1805 Sugarcane Qty./ Amount/ Number Value (Rs) 6.39 1729 245 891 199 4319 85 532 791 361 80 1232 51 2473 32 1028 476 1014 2894 62 2072 2408 21744 2174 2174 14499 40591 44919 2261 47179 25436 6588 145 138

Preparatory tillage Pre-sowing Sowing/planting Ridging Seed(kg) Seed treatment Manure/FYM (qtl) Fertilizer requirement (kg) Nitrogenous Phosphatic Potassic Zinc sulphate Total Fertilizer application Irrigation Hoeing/Weeding Manual Chemical Plant protection Harvesting/picking Threshing/winnowing Miscellaneous Interest on working capital Transportation charges Variable cost Management charges Risk factor Rental value of land Total cost Production (qts) Main product By-product Gross return Return over variable cost Net return Cost of production/qt Without by-product With by- product Number of farmers Area (acres) Labour Human days Bullock days Tractor hours

1.72 7.91 24.72 19.54 0.09

15 1.47 1.56 3.23

29.20 37.31 75.34 22.15 3.50

4.52 -

1.11 -

0.93 -

11.27 -

17.92 16.82

7.20 -

3.59 3.59

180.66 37.0

-

-

-

-

362 2075.40 32.41 0.23 6.14

223 742.50 22.71 0.29 5.36

-

34 131.25 22.66 0.84 3.79

-

60 196.0 76.27 0.27 13.05

-

The figures in the table give only an average picture of the state based on the information collected from randomly selected farmers of randomly selected villages in each district. However, considerable variations in the costs and returns exist among farmers and districts due to differences in agro climatic conditions resource use pattern, farming practices followed etc. Charges for irrigation, labour, machinery and rental value of land were considered at prevailing market rates of the locality.

95

NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL INSURANCE SCHEME
Background and earlier attempts at Crop Insurance In a country like India, where crop production has been subjected to vagaries of weather and large-scale damages due to attack of pests and diseases, crop insurance assumes a vital role in the stable growth of the sector. An All-Risk Comprehensive Crop Insurance Scheme (CCIS) for major crops was introduced in 1985, coinciding with the introduction of the Seventh-Five-year Plan and subsequently replaced by National Agricultural Insurance Scheme (NAIS) w.e.f. 19992000. These Schemes have been preceded by years of preparation, studies, Planning, experiments and trials on a pilot basis.The Scheme is expected to be a critical instrument of development in the field of crop production, providing financial support to the farmers in the event of crop failure. It encourages farmers to adopt progressive farming practices and higher technology in Agriculture. It helps in maintaining flow of agricultural credit. It provide significant benefits not merely to the insured farmers, but, to the entire community directly and indirectly through spill-over and multiplier effects in terms of maintaining production and employment, generation of market fees, taxes etc. and net accretion to economic growth. It streamlines loss assessment procedures and help in building up huge and accurate statistical base for crop production. Area and crops to be covered under the scheme: HARYANA 71262.78 ha Bajra, Maize, Cotton, Arhar, Gram , Mustard FARMERS TO BE COVERED: All farmers including sharecroppers, tenant farmers growing the notified crops in the notified areas are eligible for coverage. The Scheme covers following groups of farmers: a. On a compulsory basis: All farmers growing notified crops and availing Seasonal Agricultural Operations (SAO) loans from Financial Institutions i.e. Loanee Farmers. b. On a voluntary basis: All other farmers growing notified crops (i.e., Non-Loanee farmers) who opt for the Scheme. RISKS COVERED & EXCLUSIONS: Comprehensive risk insurance will be provided to cover yield losses due to non preventable risks, viz.: a. Natural Fire and Lightning b. Storm, Hailstorm, Cyclone, Typhoon, Tempest, Hurricane, Tornado etc. c. Flood, Inundation and Landslide d. Drought, Dry spells e. Pests/ Diseases etc. Losses arising out of war and nuclear risks, malicious damage and other preventable risks shall be excluded. SUM INSURED / LIMIT OF COVERAGE: The Sum Insured (SI) may extend to the value of the Threshold Yield (TY) of the insured crop at the option of the insured farmers. However, a farmer may also insure his crop beyond value of Threshold Yield level upto 150% of Average Yield (AY) of notified area on payment of premium at commercial rates. 96

In case of Loanee farmers the Sum Insured would be at least equal to the amount of crop loan advanced. Further, in case of Loanee farmers, the Insurance Charges shall be additionality to the Scale of Finance for the purpose of obtaining loan. In matters of Crop Loan disbursement procedures, guidelines of RBI / NABARD shall be binding. PREMIUM RATES: S.No. 1. Season Kharif Crops Bajra and Oilseeds Other crops (cereals, other millets and pulses) 2. Rabi Wheat Other crops (other cereals, millets, pulses and oilseeds) 3. Kharif & Rabi Annual Commercial / Annual Horticultural crops Premium rate 3.5% of SI or Actuarial rate, whichever is less 2.5% of SI or Actuarial rate, whichever is less 1.5% of SI or Actuarial rate, whichever is less 2.0% of SI or Actuarial rate, whichever is less Actuarial rates

Transition to the actuarial regime in case of cereals, millets, pulses & oilseeds would be made in a period of five years. The actuarial rates shall be applied at District / Region / State level at the option of the State Govt. AREA APPROACH AND UNIT OF INSURANCE: The Scheme would operate on the basis of 'Area Approach' i.e., Defined Areas for each notified crop for widespread calamities and on an individual basis for localised calamities such as hailstorm, landslide, cyclone and flood. The Defined Area (i.e., unit area of insurance) will be a Gram Panchayat. Individual based assessment in case of localised calamities, to begin with, would be implemented in limited areas on experimental basis initially and shall be extended in the light of operational experience gained. The District Revenue administration will assist Implementing Agency in assessing the extent of loss. SEASONALITY DISCIPLINE: a. The broad seasonality discipline followed for Loanee farmers will be as under: Activity Loaning period Cut-off date for receipt of Declarations Cut-off date for receipt of yield data Kharif April to September November January / March Rabi October to next March May July / September

b. The broad cut-off dates for receipt of proposals in respect of Non-loanee farmers will be as under : 97

Kharif season : 31st July Rabi season : 31st December However, seasonality discipline may be modified, if and where necessary in consultation with State and the Govt. of India. ESTIMATION OF CROP YIELD: The State Govt. will plan and conduct the requisite number of Crop Cutting Experiments CCEs for all notified crops in the notified insurance units in order to assess the crop yield. The State Govt. will maintain single series of Crop Cutting Experiments (CCEs) and resultant Yield estimates, both for Crop Production estimates and Crop Insurance. Crop Cutting Experiments (CCEs) shall be undertaken per unit area /per crop, on a sliding scale, as indicated below: S.No. 1. 2. 3. Unit Area Taluka / Tehsil / Block Mandal / Phirka / any other smaller unit area comprising 8-10 villages Gram Panchayat comprising 4-5 villages Minimum number of CCEs required to be done 16 10 08

A Technical Advisory Committee (T.A.C.) comprising representatives from N.S.S.O., Ministry of Agriculture (G.O.I.) and IA (Implementing Agency) shall be constituted to decide the sample size of CCEs and all other technical matters. Objectives/ Salient Features LEVELS OF INDEMNITY & THRESHOLD YIELD: Three levels of Indemnity, viz., 90%, 80% & 60% corresponding to Low Risk, Medium Risk & High Risk areas shall be available for all crops (cereals, millets, pulses & oilseeds and annual commercial / annual horticultural crops) based on Coefficient of Variation (C.V.) in yield of past 10 years' data. However, the insured farmers of unit area may opt for higher level of indemnity on payment of additional premium based on actuarial rates. The Threshold yield (TY) or Guaranteed yield for a crop in an Insurance Unit shall be the moving average based on past three years Average Yield in case of Rice & Wheat and five years Average Yield in case of other crops, multiplied by the level of indemnity. NATURE OF COVERAGE AND INDEMNITY: If the 'Actual Yield' (AY) per hectare of the insured crop for the defined area [on the basis of requisite number of Crop Cutting Experiments (CCEs)] in the insured season, falls short of the specified 'Threshold Yield' (TY), all the insured farmers growing that crop in the defined area are deemed to have suffered shortfall in their yield. The Scheme seeks to provide coverage against such contingency. 'Indemnity' shall be calculated as per the following formula: Shortfall in Yield X Sum Insured for the farmer Threshold yield 98

{Shortfall in Yield = 'Threshold Yield - Actual Yield' for the Defined Area}. INDEMNITY IN CASE OF LOCALISED RISKS: Loss assessment and modified indemnity procedures in case of occurrence of localized perils, such as hailstorm, landslide, cyclone and flood where settlement of claims will be on individual basis, shall be formulated by IA in coordination with State Govt. The loss assessment of localized risks on individual basis will be experimented in limited areas initially and shall be extended in the light of operational experience gained. The District Revenue administration will assist IA in assessing the extent of loss. IMPLEMENTING AGENCY (IA): An exclusive Organization would be set up in due course, for implementation of NAIS. Until such time as the new set up is created, the 'GIC of India' will continue to function as the Implementing Agency.

99

AGRICULTURAL LOANING
State cooperative banks are fully engaged in agriculture and rural development through loaning reaching upto the village level. Similarly Primary land development banks are also financing for land purchase and development. The role of public sector is also increasing now because agriculture has been taken on priority list after housing and vehicle loan. The largest public sector bank of the country State Bank of India runs a number of schemes for the development of agriculture and rural development. State Bank of India's branches have covered a whole gamut of agricultural activities like crop production, horticulture, plantation crops, farm mechanization, land development and reclamation, digging of wells, tube wells and irrigation projects, forestry, construction of cold storages and godowns, processing of agri-products, finance to agri-input dealers, allied activities like dairy, fisheries, poultry, sheep-goat, piggery refurbished second hand tractors, loans against pledge of warehouse receipts, loans against produce stored by the farmer at his own premises, loans against book debts of Arthias, mulberry cultivation, rearing of silk worms and grainages. Infact Bank can cover any other agricultural related activities undertaken. Some of the schemes are exclusively for agricultural graduates under self employment scheme. The names of the schemes are as under: AGRICULTURAL GOLD LOANS KISAN CREDIT CARD (KCC) PRODUCE MARKETING LOAN KISAN GOLD CARD SCHEME (KGC) SETTING UP OF AGRI-CLINIC & AGRI BUSINESS CENTRES LAND PURCHASE SCHEME SCORING MODEL FOR TRACTOR LOANS FINANCING OF SECOND HAND / USED TRACTORS SCHEME FINANCING POWER TILLERS FINANCING FOR COMBINE HARVESTERS SCHEME FOR FINANCING FARM MACHINERY – WHERE TANGIBLE ASSETS ARE CREATED DAIRY PLUS SCHEME FOR FINANCING DAIRY UNITS DAIRY SOCIETY PLUS - SCHEME FOR FINANCING DAIRY SOCIETIES BROILER PLUS SCHEME TO COVER LOANS FOR GENERAL PURPOSE UNDER - GENERAL CREDIT CARD (GCC) SBI KRISHAK UTHAAN YOJNA GRAMIN BHANDARAN YOJNA - CAPITAL INVESTMENT SUBSIDY SCHEME FOR CONSTRUCTION / RENOVATION OF RURAL GODOWNS SCHEME FOR FINANCING PRIVATE COLD STORAGE/ PRIVATE WARE HOUSES FOR ONLENDING TO FARMERS SCHEME FOR FINANCING SEED PROCESSORS MORTGAGE LOAN TO SEED PROCESSING UNITS CAPITAL INVESTMENT SUBSIDY SCHEME FOR COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION UNITS OF ORGANIC INPUTS UNDER NATIONAL PROJECT ON 100

ORGANIC FARMING SCHEME FOR DEBT SWAPPING OF BORROWERS ARTHIYAS PLUS SCHEME MINOR IRRIGATION SCHEMES FINANCE TO HORICULTURE FINANCING JLG OF TENENT FARMERS SCHEME FOR FINANCING MICRO FINANCE INSTITUTIONS (MFIs) / NON GOVERNMENT ORGANISATIONS (NGOs) KISAN CREDIT CARD (KCC) Purpose: To provide timely and adequate credit to farmers to meet their production credit needs (cultivation expenses) besides meeting contingency expenses, and expenses related to ancillary activities through simplified procedure facilitating availment of the loans as and when needed. Who are eligible for the loan? Owner cultivators, tenant cultivators and Share croppers. Agricultural borrowers having good track record for the last 2 years (i.e., Maintaining standard loan accounts). Creditworthy new borrowers can also be financed. Loan amount Loan amount is based on operational land holding, cropping pattern and ancillary and contingency needs of the farmer for the full year. 100% of the cultivation cost available as loan upto Rs 50000/ and 85 % of the cost as loan above Rs 50000/. Expenses to meet important ancillary activities to production can also be financed in addition to the above. The total limit is inclusive of 20% of production credit, which includes crop production expenses and working capital for allied agricultural activity, as contingency credit /consumption loan. Disbursement of the Loan As per the cultivation requirements of the crop, the loan will be disbursed in cash. Security Loan amount upto Rs 50000/Above Rs 50000/- upto Rs 100000/Above Rs 100000/Hypothecation of Crops. (1) Hypothecation of crops. (2) Mortgage of land or third party guarantee* (1) Hypothecation of crops (2) Mortgage of lands

*For loans upto Rs. 1 lac to farmers having legal ownership of agricultural lands with good track record for last 2 years, no collateral is required How do you repay: It is a revolving cash credit limit with any number of withdrawals and repayments and Limit is valid for 3 years. How to apply for the loan: You may contact our nearest braches engaged in agricultural advance or even talk to the marketing officers visiting village. SETTING UP OF AGRI-CLINIC AND AGRI BUSINESS CENTRES 101

Purpose: The scheme is to provide self employment opportunities to technically trained persons and to augment extension services for agriculture. Who are eligible for this loan? Agricultural graduates/graduates in subjects allied to agriculture like horticulture, animal husbandry, forestry, dairy, veterinary, poultry, pisciculture and other activities. LIST OF VENTURES: • Soil and water quality cum inputs testing laboratories. • Post surveillance, diagnostic and control services. • Maintenance, repairs and custom-hiring of agricultural implements and machinery of Micro irrigation system. • Agri service centers including the above 3 activities (group activities). • Seed processing units. • Micro propagation through plant tissue culture lab & hardening units. • Setting up of vermiculture units, production of Bio-Fertilisers, Bio-Pesticides (Bio control agents) • Setting up apiary (bee keeping) and Honey, Bee Products, processing of units. • Facilitation and agency of Agri. Insurance Services. • Provision of extension, consultancy services. • Hatcheries and production of Fish-Fingerlings for Aquaculture. • Provision of livestock health cover, setting up veterinary dispensaries & services including frozen, Semen Banks and Liquid Nitrogen supply. • Setting up of information technology kiosks in rural areas for access to various agriculture related portals. • Feed processing and testing units. • Value addition units. • Setting up of cool chain from the farm level onwards (group activity). • Post harvest management centers for sorting, grading, standardization, storage and Packaging. • Setting up of metallic/non-metallic storage structure (Group Act). • Retail marketing outlets for processed Agri products. • Rural marketing dealership of farm inputs and outputs.Any combination of 2 or more above viable activities along with any other economically viable activities selected by the graduates, which is acceptable to the bank. LOAN AMOUNT Individual Activity – Rs.10 lacs Group Activity – Rs. 50 lacs (maximum). In case of group projects, if the group consists of 5 or more persons, all except one of them would have to be agriculture graduate trained under the scheme and the remaining could be non-agri graduate with experience in business development and management. Loan amount for loans upto Rs 5.00 lacs 100% Loans above Rs 5 lacs upto 85 % of the cost SOFT LOAN ASSISTANCE: 102

50 % of margin to be contributed by the applicant is provided by NABARD as Soft loan without any interest. SUBSIDY: Credit linked capital subsidy @ 25% of the capital cost of the project funded through bank loan would be eligible. This subsidy would be 33.33% in respect of borrowers belonging to SC, ST, women and other disadvantaged sections and those from North-Eastern and Hill States. In addition to the above subsidy, full interest subsidy would be eligible for the first two years of the project. The capital subsidy will be backended with minimum 3 years lock-in period. The interest subsidy would, however, be concurrent. SECURITY: Upto Rs. 5.00 lacs Above Rs. 5.00 lacs Hypothecation of assets created. Hypothecation of assets created and Mortgage of land or Third party guarantee.

How to repay the loan? The loan should be repaid in 5-10 years with grace period of maximum 2 years. How to apply this loan? You may contact our nearest branch for the application and produce your certificates of qualification and experience, if any. LAND PURCHASE SCHEME Purpose: To assist Small and Marginal farmers and landless agricultural labourers for purchase of land, who are our existing borrowers to consolidate land holdings & development of wasteland & fallow lands. Who are eligible?  Small and Marginal Farmers owning less than 5 acres of unirrigated / 2.5 acres of irrigated land in their own names, landless agricultural labourers.  The borrowers should have a record of prompt repayment of the loan for at least two years.  Good borrowers of other Banks are also eligible provided they liquidate their outstandings to other banks. Loan amount: Loan may be considered for:  Cost of land  Provision of irrigation facilities & land development (shall not exceed 50% of the cost of the land).  Purchase of farm equipments.  Registration charges and stamp duty. Loan amount will be 85 % of the cost of the land, as assessed by the bank, subject to the maximum of Rs 5 lakhs Security Mortgage of land to be purchased 103

How to repay the loan Max. 9-10 years beginning after the expiry of gestation period, with half-yearly instalments. Gestation period will be maximum of 1 year for the developed land and 2 years for the land to be developed. How to apply for this loan? Contact your Branch. You may contact our nearest branch or talk to the marketing officers visiting your village. SCORING MODEL FOR TRACTOR LOANS Purpose: Agricultural term loans are sanctioned for purchase of new tractors, accessories and implements. Who are eligible for tractor loan? Agriculturists (individually or jointly ) and Persons offering security like NSCs, KVPs, the Bank’s Fixed Deposits, surrender value of LIC policy, gold ornaments etc. to cover more than 60% of the loan amount are eligible for the loan .The applicants should score minimum score of 40 under the Scoring model of the bank. Loan amount: Upto 95 % of the cost of the Tractor, trailer and accessories. (Depending on the scores in the scoring model).The cost includes the Registration charges and insurance premium not exceeding Rs 15,000/-. Additional loan equal to 10% of tractor loan for repairs may be provided for at the time of sanction. Bank will finance only for those models of tractors which have completed the commercial test from organizations viz. Central Farm Machinery Training and Testing Institute (CFMTTI) Budni (Madhya Pradesh) or Farm Machinery Training and Testing Institute (FMTTI), Hissar Security: Hypothecation of the tractor, accessories and implements. Noting of Bank’s hypothecation charge in the RC Book of the tractor is compulsory in all the cases. Collateral Security like NSCs, KVPs, Banks Fixed Deposits ,Surrender value of LIC policy etc OR Mortgage of agricultural lands .However no collateral security is required, if the score is 70 and above on the scoring model of the bank. How to repay the loan? Within a maximum period of 9 years, including a grace period not exceeding 12 months. The installments shall be payable half-yearly / yearly, coinciding with the harvesting and marketing period of the crops proposed to be grown by you FINANCING OF SECOND HAND / USED TRACTORS SCHEME Purpose: Loans provided for the purchase of second hand tractors refurbished by Mahindra and Mahindra and Tractors and Farm Equipments Ltd. Tractors which are up to 7 years old

Who are eligible? 104

Individual farmer or a group of farmers not exceeding three in number (as coborrowers) owning minimum 3 acres of perennially irrigated agricultural land. In case of co-borrowers the land should be in same area. Loan amount: Upto 85% of the cost. The cost will be based on the price fixed by the company for each tractor after refurbishing. The overall maximum limit will be Rs.2.50 lac including the cost of implements. The implements purchased shall be new. Security: Loan upto Rs 50000/Hypothecation of tractor and accessories. (1) Hypothecation of tractor and accessories (2) Mortgage of the land of the farmer or any other tangible Security to cover atleast 50% of the loan amount or suitable third party guarantee.

Above Rs.50,000/-

How to repay the loan? The loan amount including interest shall be repayable in half-yearly/yearly instalments coinciding with the harvest of crops grown. The repayment of loan amount should be completed before the expiry of 9 years from the date of original purchase of the tractor inclusive of a maximum gestation period of one year. FINANCING FOR COMBINE HARVESTERS Purpose: Finance is given for the purpose of combined harvesters. Makes in the approved list of the bank will only be financed Who are eligible? a. For self propelled Combine Harvester 1. Farmers who are in a position to operate the Harvester successfully and owning minimum of 8 acres of irrigated land (corresponding acreage for other types of land). 2. Farmers owning lesser acreage than that prescribed above are also eligible for availing combine harvester loans provided they could operate the harvesters successfully and generate sufficient income. Additionally they should provide additional collateral security like NSCs, Bank Fixed Deposits, LIC policies urban property etc to the value of at least 50% of the loan amount. b. For Combine Harvesters as an attachment /equipment Farmers who are in a position to operate the Harvester successfully and owning minimum of 6 acres of irrigated land (corresponding acreage for other types of land). They should own a tractor of not less than 50 HP . Farmers owning lesser acreage than that prescribed above, are also eligible for availing combine harvester loans provided they could operate the harvesters successfully and generate sufficient income, additionally they should provide additional collateral security like NSCs, Bank Fixed Deposits, urban property etc the value of at least 50% of the loan amount Loan amount: Upto 85 % of the cost of combine harvester and accessories. Security: 1. Hypothecation of assets financed 2. Mortgage of land/buildings 105

How do you repay? Repayment of the loan will be in Quarterly/half yearly/yearly installments’ depending on the liquidity your activity creates and a maximum period of residual economic life of the tractor owned which is assumed as 9 years. DAIRY PLUS SCHEME FOR FINANCING DAIRY UNITS PURPOSE For construction of shed, purchase of milch animals, milking machine, chaff cutter or any other equipment required for the purpose. Who are eligible? (1) Individual farmers who are members of the milk procuring societies or located on milk route (2) They should be less than 65 years of age. (3) Individual dairy unit having less than 10 animal - should own minimum 0.25 acre of land for every 5 animals for growing fodder and be in a position to procure the balance requirements locally. (4) Individual dairy unit having 10 animals and above - should own or lease a minimum of one acre of land for cultivation of fodder for every 5 animals. Other terms: • Animal purchase should be in 2 batches. • Only buffaloes producing more than 7 litres of milk per day and cows producing more than 8 litres of milk per day are financed. • Animals in first and second lactation alone are eligible for finance. LOAN AMOUNT: 100% of the cost for loans upto Rs 50000/90% of the cost for loans above Rs 50000/- with a maximum of Rs 5 lakhs as Term loan WORKING CAPITAL: A working capital @ Rs.2500/- per animal per year may be sanctioned for purchase of feed, fodder and medicine along with the term loan Security: Hypothecation of assets created out of bank finance for loans upto Rs 1.00 lac. For loans Over Rs.1 lac -Mortgage of landed property (or) third party guarantee worth for loan amount (or) group guarantee of other 2 dairy farmers. How do you repay? The loan should be repaid in monthly installments over a period of 5 lactations. MINOR IRRIGATION SCHEMES Purpose: Loan covers various activities like digging of new wells (open / bore wells), deepening of existing wells, energisation of wells (oil engine/electrical pump set ), laying of pipelines, installing drip / sprinkler system and lift irrigation system. Who are eligible? All farmers having a known source of water available for irrigation purpose are eligible for the loan. Loan amount:

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For loans upto Rs 50000/For loans above Rs 50000/-

100 % of the project cost upto 85 % of the project cost will be provided as loan cost

What are documents you need to provide? (1) Land records. (2) Quotation for the assets to be purchased. (3) An estimate for the civil works to be undertaken. (4) Geologist certificate wherever applicable. (5) Feasibility certificate from the EB Department. Security: A) Where movable assets are not created (a) Upto Rs 10000/(b) above Rs 10000/Personal guarantee Personal guarantee and Mortgage of land

B) Where movable assets are created (a) Upto Rs 50000/(b) Above Rs 50000/Hypothecation of assets created Hypothecation of assets and mortgage of land

How to repay the loan? Repayment will be in Quarterly / half yearly / yearly installments’ over a period of 5 to 7 years depending on the crops or the liquidity created by the agriculture activity undertaken.

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LAND RECORD TERMINOLOGY
Khewat Number The Khewat number normally referred as 'KHATA NUMBER' by revenue officials is the account number given to owner(s) which form a set of co-sharers who own the land in same or different proportions. It therefore, can be understood as the account number given to various owners in the Khewat. The Khewat number in the Jamabandi runs sequentially starting from 1 to N. The Khewat Number may get changed in the next Jamabandi due to rearrangements i.e. same owners who were owners in some Khewat earlier may get another Khewat number in next Jamabandi. To clarify the things further, let us assume that there are 10 Khewats in a village and owners A, B & C were earlier in ownership of the Khewat 5 and did some transactions to a person say X who may be an owner in this village already or may appear in the Shajra and Jamabandi of the village due to this transaction for the first time. Now due to mutation(s), it may be the case that owners in Khewat number 5 sold complete land to X. If complete Khewat is sold and owner 'X' already exists in the village, then all the land will shift to Khewat that belongs to X. In case owner 'X' is a new owner and was not there in the Jamabandi earlier, then during mutation entry Khewat number 5 will cease to exist and instead Khewat number 5/1 will be given to 'X'. During final rearrangement / sequencing of Khewat number, then it may be the case that depending upon the caste/sub-caste of the Owner 'X' now Khewat number 5/1 (Khewat created from 5) may get another number. The arrangement, which has been shown above is a simple one for the purpose of understanding but in real situations it may be more complicated one depending upon the nature and type of mutations taking place in the village. You may say if above is the case then what is the way to know the Khewat of owners in the previous Jamabandi. This can be known with the help of Khewat number written with red ink (in computerized print it is shown as underlined) beneath the current Khewat number. In case you see Khewat number 6 (in blank ink) and beneath that Khewat a number say 5 is written in red-ink, then you can simply assume that present owners of Khewat number 6 in the current Jamabandi were owners in Khewat number 5 in the previous Jamabandi. Sometimes, a denominator is attached to a Khewat number also. This happens because of the fact that during the writing of Jamabandi and arrangement of Khewat numbers, a Khewat is left inadvertently and has to be inserted in between. For example though there were 10 Khewats and Patwari tried wrote the details for 10 Khewat in sequence one after another but forgot to mention a Khewat in between. Such Khewat if is to be inserted after Khewat 6 will be given number 6/1 or if is to be inserted after 8 will be given number 8/1. Though this practice of writing Khewat number is wrong but there is no immediate solution available. A facility has been given to enter such Khewats also by giving additional field i.e. bata (denominator) for such Khewat number. However, after the mutations, once a new Jamabandi is prepared, such denominators will not be allowed. Above is true in case of khatoni number also. But for denominator of Khasra, there is specific meaning and it has been explained in the section ‘Khasra Number’.

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Khatoni Number As Khewat number refers to a set of owners, khatoni number refers to a set of cultivators in the same sense. This khatoni number is given to the cultivators in the Khewat and runs sequentially in the village starting from 1 to N. Each Khewat will have at least one khatoni or more khatonies but will appear in a sequence within the Khewat and in the village. The Khatoni number if in one sense shows the cultivators then in another sense will show who are the persons who have the possession of the Khatoni consisting of various Khasras in the Khewat. In still another sense it also shows who are the persons who are owners of various khasras in the khatoni. In the same way as in case of Khewat where owner may sell, gift or mortgage, same type of transaction also takes place in the Khatoni also. Before the things start confusing you, the example shown below would help you to understand this issue. Say, A, B & C are owners in Khewat number 5 and this Khewat has three Khatonies number 5, 6 and 7. In Khatoni number 5, it is written 'Kast Va Kabja Swayam' and has got three khasras. Then this means that these three khasra are collectively possessed and cultivated by all the three owners mentioned in Col.4 i.e. Owners Details of Jamabandi. In the next khatoni i.e. Khatoni number 6 which say has one khasra and it is written 'A, B, C Hissadar Baya X Mustari Kast Va Kabja Swayam Mustari'. This description means that the Khasra in the khatoni number 6 has been sold by all the three owners collectively i.e. A, B & C to X who is the owner in 'Khana Kast'. This is because of the fact that owners A, B and C have sold a particular khasra number to X and X will be shown in khatoni number 6 as buyer and possession is also with X i.e. the purchaser. The purchaser will not get any Khewat number for the reason that khasra sold was earlier under the possession with all the three owners. Purchaser X will get another Khewat only when this Khewat number gets divided and shares are worked out based upon the area owned by each owner. Beneath the khatoni number, another number is written (underlined in computerised print) in red ink in the manually written Jamabandi) which shows the Khatoni number of current Khatoni in the previous Jamabandi. In the manually written Jamabandi this number is not shown. But once the mutations take place through this software and Khatonies are rearranged, then under each current Khatoni number, old Khatoni number would be shown as underlined. As explained under Khewat, that in the manually written Jamabandi, sometimes a bata (denominator) is added to show the Khewat inserted in between. It is also true in case of Khatoni. Khasra Number The Khasra number is nothing but a plot number given to a specific piece of land in the village. Same way as one or more Khatonies form a Khewat, similarly one or more Khasra form a khatoni. The Khasra numbers in a khatoni may or may not be mentioned sequentially and once a khasra number has appeared in a khatoni, it can not figure in another Khatoni except in the case if the Khasra is 'Min'. But if it is min then it can not repeat in the same Khatoni. The Khasra numbers in a village are created once settlement of village starts. The settlement officials take village as a whole and on its map start from North East and give number to each and every plot in each direction and reach to North East direction again after giving number to each plot in all the directions. 109

Khasra number may get divided due to sale, gift etc. during the mutation and is given a new number with denominator. For example, because of mutation, Khasra number 100 is divided into two parts then during mutation two divisions of this khasra i.e. 100/1 and 100/2 will be created and transaction takes place. Once all the mutations have taken place the rearrangement of Khasra i.e. numbering is done by Patwari. How this renumbering/rearrangement is done is explained below: Say in the village only 499 Khasras were there in the previous Jamabandi and two new khasra divisions i.e. 100/1 and 100/2 were created due to mutation. During reorganisation, Khasra number 100/1 will get number 500/100 and 100/2 will get Khasra number 501/100 and khasra number 100 will cease to exists i.e. the last Khasra number is incremented by one (that is 499 now become 500 and 501) and in the denominator Khasra number out of which the Khasra is formed is attached. This will be the case for all the Khasra divisions. New Khasra number generation takes into account the principal of 'First-In First-Out (FIFO)' that is Khasra which got divided due to mutation number 5 will have precedence in getting new number over the khasra number which has been divided due to mutation number 10. To make the things further clear, let us say that khasra 100 was divided due to mutation number 5 and Khasra number 45 was divided into two parts (i.e. 45/1 and 45/2) due to mutation number 10. Then once the mutations are over and rearrangement of Khasra is undertaken, then new Khasra numbers are generated based upon the principal of 'FIFO'. Suppose last khasra in previous Jamabandi was 499 then new Khasra number will be 500/100, 501/100 (for khasra number 100) and 502/45 and 503/45 (For Khasra Number 45). So the example clarifies though the khasra number 45 is a number lesser than Khasra number 100 yet Khasra numbers generated out of 45 due to mutation number 10 will get next i.e. higher numbers. Group Number During the execution of this software, you will often encounter the term 'Group Number' not visible in the Jamabandi anywhere but software making abundant use of this term. The group number has been given to each owner who himself or along with other owners owns a specific proportion of land in the Khewat or who have same parentage. Group number will also refer to the owners in the different proportions even if their parentage is same. During the writing of Khatoni description also, sometimes group numbers are generated to show the groups of cultivators. Min & Salam In the course of the implementation of Land Records Computerisation software you will often see the term Min/Saalam (feu / lkye) invariably. The 'Min' means partially and 'Saalam' means completely. If min is mentioned against an old Khewat/Khatoni/Khasra number then you can assume that the Khewat / khatoni / khasra under consideration is carved / formed out of the old Khewat / Khatoni / Khasra partially or transaction is taking place partially. 'Salam' word refers to the fact that new Khewat / Khatoni / Khasra is formed out of the old Khewat / Khatoni / Khasra when same was transacted completely. In case the Khewat / Khatoni / Khasra is formed due to min transaction, then you will see 'Min' besides the Khewat / Khatoni / Khasra. In case nothing is mentioned then you can very well assume that the Khewat / khatoni / khasra is 'Salam', by default. Mortgagee In case an owner takes loan from some individual or an institution with the security of his land then the deed is known as Mortgage deed and persons / institutions 110

from which loan is taken are known as mortgagee. If mortgage takes place from one persons to another, then the mostly mortgage is with possession that is the mortgagee has the possession of the piece of land mortgaged and in revenue terminology it is known as ‘RAHIN’. If the mortgage takes place and loan is taken from some Government Institution, then the mortgage is without possession and it is known as ‘AD-RAHIN’ Awaal / Doaym / Soyam Suppose A took loan from B and after mortgaging the land to B then B is known as Mortgagee 'Awwal' if B further takes loan from 'C' after keeping the land mortgaged as security, which he had taken from A. Then C will be known as Mortgagee 'Doyam'. If C further mortgage the land taken from B to D then D will be referred as Mortgagee 'Soyam'. Type of Holding During the course of entering the khatoni details, there is a field known as 'Type Holding'. The type of holding will be 'Individual' if the possession and ownership rests with the same family. In case the holding is owned by more than one family then the holding type will be 'Joint'. If both are not true for a holding then the holding type will be ‘Institutional'. This information is very important to understand and should be entered carefully as in Agriculture Census the information is analysed based upon this parameter. Patti In the British regime a village was divided into number of patties/sections based upon the caste of the persons residing in that village. For example, Rajput used to dwell in a separate location, Brahimn in other and 'Shudras' still in another location. These locations were known as 'pattis'. But after the independence, this classification was changed and at present refers to various cluster / hemlets in the village in which villagers reside in groups irrespective of their caste. Conversion Factor Conversion factor (ranges from 0.000 to 1.000) is specified to convert the local area unit prevalent in the village to the Metric System i.e. mentioned in terms of Hectares-Ares-Centares. When the local unit is multiplied with this conversion factor then the area in Metric system can be obtained. The reports sent to Government of India are firstly converted to the Metric system if local unit is different from the Metric system. If the local unit is Kanal-Marla then a kanal has 20 Marlas. If local unit is 'BighaBiswa-Biswansi' then 20 Biswansi make up a Biswa and 20 Biswa make a Bigha. If local area unit is 'Meters--Decimetres' (normally in the urban areas where khasra/plots are very small) then 100 decimetre make up a meter. In case, the local unit is 'Hectare-AresCenteres', then 100 centare (equal to a meter) form an Are and 100 are form a Hectare. Therefore a hectare refers to 10000 square metres of land. Revenue Unit On behalf of Govt., the Nambardar of a village collects land revenue and deposits the revenue in the Treasury. This service rendered by the Nambardar is a paid one. The rate of swai changes from time to time and at present it is 65% of total demand that is if demand is Rs. 1/- then swai will be 0.65 paisa and total revenue to be collected from the owner(s) will be Rs.1.65/-. Of this 65%, 30 is local rate and 35% is Nambardari that is the amount given to the Nambardar for this service.

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Percentage Collection of Land Revenue The land revenue collection is normally done twice a year by the Govt. through Nambardar in such a way that land revenue collection is done half in Kharif and half in Rabi season. But sometimes it is done in different percentage proportion say 60% in Kharif and 40% in Rabi or as the villagers decide at the time of Permanent Settlement. Professional Area of Village The professional area of village is measured by the Survey of India organisation. And in all the Agriculture Census reports this area figures are mentioned. It has been observed that normally Patwari is not aware of professional area. If that is the case, then actual area mentioned in the village may be entered against this field where ever referred to. Alamat This term will appear during the entry of Shajra Nasb. This normally connotes a person's characteristic. If an owner has alamat as 'Bandobasti Kabij’ then that means that the owner was also owner at the time of settlement. In case alamat is 'Baap Dada Jivit Hai' it means that the owner's father/grandfather are alive. These alamat details are to be entered correctly as the processing & printing of Shajra Nasb depends upon this field information. For example, even if an owner’s father and grandfather are not alive but entered as alive then the box of the father and grand father will be depicted left to the owner's box whereas if this alamat is not there and not filled then owner's box will be exactly below the box of his father and father's box will be beneath the box of owner's grand father. Total Shares In Jamabandi, in the very beginning, total shares are mentioned. These shares are in proportion to the total area of the Khewat. For example if there 100 shares mentioned and total area of the Khewat is 1000 meters then that means each share is worth 10 meters. (1000mts. /100shares). Further each group shares are mentioned which are in proportion to the total area of the Khewat. For example there are three groups in the Khewat with respective shares as 10, 30 and 50. If in first group there are 2 owners then each owner will have 10 shares each and owns 100 meters of land. If in next group also there are two owners then each will own 15 share i.e. 150 meters of land each. In the third group there are 5 owners then each owns 10 shares which equivalent to 100 meters of land to each owner. So the total land comes out to be 1000meters. Lagan In case the land is cultivated by other than the owner of the land, then the person cultivating the land is liable to pay something either is cash or kind to the owner or agreed based upon the mutual agreement between the two. The agreement between two parties is known as 'Lagan'. Sometimes if there is sale deed in the Khatoni, then the revenue will be mentioned in this column in that case. Mazrua (Krisht)/Giar Mazrua (Akrisht) In case the land of khasra is such that it is possible to cultivate it either through man-made irrigation sources or through rainwater then land type is known as 'Mazrua' otherwise it is known as 'Gair-Mazrua'. Under the 'Gair-Mazrua' land classification one term is usually referred to, as 'Gair-Mumkin' which specifies that anything constructed on it, is impossible to shift. For example, if a house is constructed on a piece of land, then 112

the classification of that Khasra will be 'Gair-Mumkin Makan' as it is impossible to shift the same house somewhere else. Wazib_Ul_Arj and Peshani The customary rights of the village are shown in a report known as 'Wazib_Ul_Arj'. The attestation of these customary rights by the revenue officer in front of village and signature of villagers to whom the customary rights information is read is known Peshani. Bartan The TD rights or forestry rights of the villagers in revenue terminology are known as ‘Bartan. SHAJRA NASB Prepared in every estate at the time of settlement, it forms a part of record of rights. Shajra Nasb is a pedigree table showing succession to ownership rights occurring from time to time in an estate. It is revised after every five years along with Jamabandi and in the interval, changes occurring from time to time are reflected in the Patwari's copy through suitable references. The Shajra Nasb also serves as an index for locating an owner’s accounts (Khata Numbers) in the Jamabandi. In the new Jamabandi owner's accounts are arranged as per arrangement in the Shajra Nasb. The name of owner in the Shajra Nasb is arranged according to caste and sub-caste. JAMABANDI REGISTER It is prepared quinquenially in duplicate for every estate on the basis of entries existing and changes recorded on the Mutation Register, Khasra Girdawari Register and Fard Badr over a period of 5 years. It is the document to which a presumption of truth is attached. The form of the Jamabandi has 12 columns and gives Khewat / Khatoni number-wise information of total holding of each owner of land in a particular revenue estate. It also indicates cultivation, rent and revenue and other cesses payable on land and constitutes an up to date record of various rights in land. The new Jamabandi is prepared by the Patwari and is attested by the Revenue Office in a public meeting of local villages. Two copies of the revised Jamabandi are prepared, one copy is filed to the District Record Room and other copy remains with the Patwari. All changes in title/interests of the revenue estate coming into the notice of Revenue Authorities are duly reflected in the Jamabandi according to set procedures. MUTATION REGISTER All changes in title or interest are incorporated into the Jamabandi through attestation of mutation. The Patwari enters the mutations on the basis of a document/verbal information presented by the concerned parties for the change in title/interest on land. This information is first entered into the Patwari’s Diary (Roznamcha Wakyati) giving serial no. And date and then into the mutation register referencing the Roznamcha no. However, the final changes in the Jamabandi are made only after the Revenue officer has attested the mutation. The mutation form has 15 columns and every entry is given a Serial Number, which is called Mutation Number. This Mutation Number runs continuously from one settlement to another for each estate. The Mutation register is maintained by the Patwari and all entries are made in duplicate. The Patwari’s copy (PARAT PATWAR) contains the brief substance of the Revenue Officer’s order, while the other copy (PARAT SARKAR) contains the detailed order and is kept in the Tehsil in separate estate-wise bundles. Whenever a mutation is entered, the 113

Patwari makes a note in the remark column of the Jamabandi in pencil giving the Mutation No. and type of mutation. When the mutation is attested, he makes the entry in Red ink, giving Mutation No., type and date of attestation. When the new Jamabandi is written, all the mutations accepted are attached to the new Jamabandi for cross-reference and an index sheet linking the mutations to the Khatas is placed in the Jamabandi. KHASRA GIRDAWARI It is a register of harvest inspections unlike the Jamabandi, which is Khewat-wise, the Girdawari, is Khasra-wise. The Patwari conducts a field to field harvest inspections every six months in the month of October and April. He records the plot-wise details regarding crop grown, land description and status of the cultivator. This register is considered important as it acts as master file for the preparation of many returns and reports. This document is retained in the custody of Patwari for the period of 12 years after which it is retrieved from him and destroyed. No presumption of truth is attached to this record though entries in it are often used as evidence in courts. Changes in the tenancy however are made through mutations in view of Section 10-A on the Tenancy Act. FIELD MAP A field map for every revenue village is prepared at the time of the Settlement. The original map is called ‘MUSAVI’. Its updated version is called ‘SHAJRA KISTWAR’ and these are kept in safe custody in the Record Room. A wax copy called ‘MOMI’ is available in the Tehsil. All changes in field boundaries occurring due to partition, sale etc. attested in Mutation are entered from the Parat Sarkar Mutation onto the Momi. A copy on cloth called ‘LATHA’ is kept and updated by the Patwari. VILLAGE NOTE BOOK Popularly known as "LAL KITAB" these are prepared at the time of settlement. The kitab has valuable information regarding crops grown in the estate, soil classification, area under different crops, land use, transfers in land, wells and other means of irrigation in the village and abstract of the livestock and cattle census in the village. The data is updated regularly through harvest inspections and revisions of other records, which are the main source of the data to this kitab. These Lal Kitabs are prepared at village, tehsil and district level and maintained in the Patwari Office, Kanungo and Sadar Kanungo respectively. WAZIB-UL-ARJ In this customary rights of the villagers are maintained. This information is attached at the end of the Misal Hakiyat (Permanent Settlement). In the subsequent Jamabandies this information is not attached. NAKSHA BARTAN The forestry right popularly known as TD rights details is maintained in this document. This too is the part of Misal Hakiyat (Permanent Settlement). In subsequent Jamabandies, this information is not attached.

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Term Abadi Deh Badastur Banjar Banjar Jadid Banjar Kadim Barani Bigha Biswa Biswansi Chahi Chahi Nahri Chkota Gair-Mumkin Girdawar Girdawari Karam Kharaba Kharif Khasra Khata Khatauni Khewat Khud Kashat Killabandi Lamaberdar Latha Girdawari Marla Mauza

Description of Term Site of village where predominantly people live. Unaltered / Same As Uncultivated land New fellow (land not cultivated for continuous four harvests though it was cultivated earlier. Old fallow (If continued to be uncultivated for next four harvests) Dependent on rainfall A measure of area (It is different in different areas based upon local Karam unit) 5Bigha=1Kila (Acre) One twentieth of a bigha One twentieth of a biswa Irrigated from well Irrigated partly from a well and partly from canal. Lump sum grain rent or rent consisting of a fixed amount of grain in the Rabi and Kharif. A type of land on which existing arrangement are difficult to move. Kanungo or Supervisor of Patwaris Harvest Inspection Unit of Length and varies from tehsil to tehsil and district to district. Portion of crop that has failed to come due some calamity Autumn harvest List of fields, field register Holding of tenant (Fard Patwar) Holding slips prepared at re-measurement A list of Owner’s holding Cultivated by the owner himself Rectangular measurement Village Headman (Person who collects land revenue from cultivators) Cloth copy of the Patwari’s Map (Sizra) Measuring of Area (9 square Karam), 20 marla= 1Kanal Village 115

Khasra Girdawari Harvest Inspection Register

Min Misal Haqiyat Musavi Nahri Parat Patwar Parat Sarkar Rabi Sabika Taccavi Waris Wasil Nawis Zamindar Varsal

Portion / Part Record-of-Right prepared at the time of settlement. Mapping Sheet Irrigated from canal Patwari copy of the new settlement record Government Copy of the new settlement record Spring Harvest Former Loan granted by a Government to landowner for agriculture purposes. Successor Baqi Revenue Accountant in the Tehsil Landowner This type of Mutation is caused by either death or will of a person. In case of death of a person in the family, Patwari records the details regarding name of the person who has died, date of death and entry number of Chawkidar Register in his Roznamcha Waqaiti (Diary of daily events). Land can also be transferred to the successors i.e. sons, daughters, relative or any other person even if the owner is alive by way of his will. Whenever a person sells his land either completely or partially, to another person, this type of mutation is know as Bai or Sale. The information recorded in this case is Sale Deed No., date of Registry and amount of Registration etc.

Bai

Tabdeel Malkiat: This type of mutation is carried out after the settlement of dispute by some court. This is also know as degree by court (Ba Hakumat Adalat). The information recorded in this case includes Case Number, Date of starting of Case, Date of Judgment, Name of the Court, Name of the Judge, names of the persons who filed the Case, Names of the persons on whom Case is filed & Judgment Details etc. Rahin (Mortgage Whenever a land is mortgaged, completely or partially, to another Deed) person or party, mutation is of Rahin type. The deal can be either verbal or through Registry. In this case information like Date of Mortgage, Amount and Registry No. (or Roznamcha No. in case the deal is verbal). The land can be mortgaged with or without possession. Fak-Ul-Rahin (Redemption deed of Mortgage) This type of mutation is reverse process of Rahin. Whenever a person who has mortgaged his land want to get it back after paying dues to the mortgagee, the type of mutation is called Fak-ul-Rahin. It can be of two sub types. Verbal (through Roznamcha) or through Registry. In case of verbal type, the details include type of Mortgage 116

Serial No. of Roznamcha Waqaiti amount of Mortgage returned etc. In case of Registry, Deed No. is also recorded in addition to the above information. Tabadala Tabadla or mutation of exchange is the mutation, when two owners decide to exchange their lands. It can Again be either verbal (through Roznamcha Waqaiti) or through Registry.The details recorded are similar as those in the previous case i.e. either through Roznamcha Waqaiti entry or through Registry. Whenever a part of complete land is gifted to some person, the mutation is called Hibba or Gift. The details of the person to whom land has been gifted are recorded. Whenever a piece of land is given on lease for a long period, the mutation is known as Pattanama. Whenever there is a division of land in a joint holding, the mutation is known as Takseem or Mutation of Partition. The partition can be verbal among the landowners or when court directs the partition.

Hibba (Gift):

Pattanama Takseem

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ANNEXURE - I Certified seed and subsidised rates (Rs./qt.) of different varieties of crops at sale counter of Haryana Seed Development Corporation for 2009-10.
Crop Wheat Variety C 306 WH 147, WH 542, WH 283, WH 1021, DBW 17 UP 2338,WH 711, PBW343,PBW502, PBW 373,PBW 509,Raj 3765, HD2851 All varieties Kent All varieties Desi varieties Sapna/Garima T9 CSR 30,HBC 19 PR 1121 Pusa 1 PR 111, PR 113, PR 114 Pusa 44,HKR 47, HKR 126 IR 64 PR 78 Manak, Paras RMO 40 HG 365, HG 563, RGC 936 HHB 60,HHB 67, HHB 117, HHB 94, HHB 197 PB 48 (Hybrid) HC 10, RBC 2 HT 1 All All Muskan, Asha, Pusa bold, SML 668 All Desi: HD 123 Narma (Gas delinted) Narma (Mechine delinted) AAH 1, HHH 287 BG 1, BG 2 Full sale rate 2700 1400 2100 2100 Subsidy 700 700 Subsidised rate 2700 1400 1400 1400

Barley Oat Raya Gram Lentil Pea Methi Toria Paddy

1900 3850 4500 5000 5500 6500 6500 6000 6800 6200 4500 2200 1700 3630 4400 4000 3500 4200 15000 2100 8600 4000 3000 4850 2350 6300 6600 6300 50000 750/450 g 925/450 g

1000 2000 2000 2000 3000 500 500 500 1200 1200 1200 500 1200 1800 1200 1200 2115 1500 1500 1500 -

900 3850 2500 3000 3500 6500 6500 3000 6300 5700 4500 1700 1700 3630 3200 2800 2300 4200 15000 1600 7400 2200 1800 3650 235 4800 5100 4800 50000 750/450 g 925/450 g

Arhar Moth Guar Bajra

Til Groundnut Soybean Mung Dhainch Cotton

Bt cotton

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ANNEXURE – II

Farmers welfare schemes rendered by Marketing board, Haryana
i) Subsidy for purchase of high/improved/hybrid seeds and purchase of implements: In order to introduce better seed and produce hybrid seeds, it is proposed to help farmers by way of giving subsidy on certified seeds through Haryana Seed Development Corporation. A Provision of funds to the tune of Rs. 112.50 lakhs for the purchase of Specific Gravity Separators and other machinery/equipments has been made. The scheme would aim at encouraging organic agricultural produce in consultation with Agriculture department and H.S.D.C. Therefore, HSAMB has provided a budget of Rs. 1.00 crore for providing assistance to the Haryana Seeds Development Corporation. Subsidy on purchase of gypsum for reclamation of Alkaline land: Gypsum is the important component of improving productivity of soil. Govt. of India has declined to give subsidy; hence the use of Gypsum has reduced. Alkaline land can be made fertile only if the Gypsum is used by the farmers. This expenditure is now to be borne by the Haryana Gov. Therefore HSAMB has provided a budget of Rs. 1.00 crore for grant to HLRDC as subsidy for purchase of Gypsum.

ii)

iii) Providing working capital to Haryana Seeds Development Corporation: Availability of quality seeds at affordable price is of utmost importance for improving agriculture production. A proposal has been received from H.S.D.C for financial support in shape of loan. It is HSAMB who can help HSDC in its endeavor to provide farmers better quality seeds. HSAMB proposes to provide working capital of Rs 5.00 Crore to HSDC on an interest @ 6% p.a. for the purpose as requested by the Managing Director, HSDC. The amount will be released by 15th April and will be returned by HSDC to HSAMB after sale of seeds and not later than 15th Dec of the same year. Market Fee and Charge The income of the HSAMB/Market Committees is derived from the collection of market fee on the sale and purchase of agricultural produce which is levied @ 2% advalorem basis. The market committees contribute 30% of the total collection of market fee to the Board. The other source of income of the Board/Market Committees is from sale of plots in the new mandis and license fee etc. The total income from the collection of market fee during the year 2006-2007 was Rs. 166.63 crores. The income during the current financial year is Rs. 222.39 crores upto Feb, 2008. Incidental charges are payable by seller. BUY
/

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Incidental charges payable by seller/buyer Category 'A' Wheat Paddy

Bajra,Mash,Moong,Moth, Massar,Sarson,Toria Til Methi,Oats,Guar, Maize. Gram, Barley Jowar Arhar, Groundnut, Sun Flower Seed

Incidental Charges (Payable by Seller) 1. Unloading Cleaning and Dressing Manually By machine Market charges 1. Filling and Placing the unit on the platform/balance. 2. Weighing 3. Unloading from the balance 4. Stitching manually by machine 5. Auction Charges 6. Commission 7. Brokerage Category 'B'

Rates in rupees per unit filling 50 Kg. 0.65 0.65 1.25 0.67 50 Kg 0.89 1.15 1.54 0.84 1.00 1.15 1.50 0.87

0.65 0.50 0.35 0.75 0.08 per hundred rupees 2.50 per hundred rupees 0.16 per hundred rupees Cotton,Wool, Ground-nut (Unshelled) Chillies (Dry)

0.64 0.48 0.35 0.77 0.08 per hundred rupees 2.50 per hundred rupees 0.16 per hundred rupees Category 'C' Non-persihable vegetables viz. Potatoes, Shakarkandi, Onion, Arvi, Garlic and Ginger.

0.62 0.47 0.35 0.77 0.08 per hundred rupees 2.50 per hundred rupees 0.16 per hundred rupees Category 'D' Perishable vegetables and fruits.

Incidental Charges (Payable by Seller) 1. Unloading 0.60 Cleaning and 0.60 Dressing 0.70

0.50 per bag 5.00 per trolley 15.00 per truck 120

0.30 per unit 10.00 per trolley 20.00 per truck

Manually By machine Market charges 1.Filling and Placing the unit on the platform/balance. 2. Weighing 3. Unloading from the balance 4. Stitching manually by machine 5. Auction charges 6. Commission

0.62

0.54 0.37 0.17 0.77 0.08 per hundred rupees 2.00 per hundred rupees (2.50 per hundred rupees for cotton only). 0.16 per hundred rupees

0.80 per unit 1.00 per unit 0.15 per unit

5.00 per hundred rupees

5.00 per hundred rupees

7. Brokerage

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ANNEXURE - III HAFED One of the unique strengths of this organisation is its direct contact with the farmers. The raw material for all Hafed’s consumer products, be it paddy, oilseeds or any other agricultural produce, is directly procured from the farmers by specialised and experienced purchase staff of Hafed, thus ensuring that the consumers get only the best. Scrupulous quality checks at all levels of Procurement, Production and Packing in ISO 9001:2000 and HACCP certified processing units ensure purity, safety and natural taste of Hafed Products to the consumers. This organization is also formulating a large variety of high quality, economically priced agro chemicals for different uses such as insecticides, weedicides and fungicides for all major crops of Haryana. Rates of input sold by HAFED at its sale point Particular Rates (Rs.)/ Particular Rates (Rs.)/liter or liter or kg kg Phorate 10% CG 11.00 Isoproturon 75% WP 512.00 Chloropyriphos 170.00 Sulphosulfuron 255.00 20% EC 75%WG Monocrotophos 36 280.00 Clodinopfop Propanyl 315.00 SL 15% WP Endosulphan 220.00 Butachlore 50%EC 157.00 35%EC DDVP 76% EC 290.00 2,4-D 38% Ethyl Ester 180.00 Imidaciprid 17.8 SL 560.00 Urea 241.50/ 50 kg Pretacholore 50% 280.00 DAP 467.50/50 kg EC Malathion 50% EC 195.00 ZnSO4 22.30 Fenvelrate 0.40% 1.40 TSP (12:32:16) 381.85/50 kg Rates of herbicides sold in open market Particular Rates (Rs.)/ Particular liter or kg Butachlore 50%EC 140.00 Metsulfuron (10%) + chlorimuron (10%)+ RM 2.0% Pretilachlore 50 EC 300.00 2,4-D 38% Ethyl Ester Anilophos 215.00 2,4-D 58% Amine Oxadiargyl 80 WP 165.00/ 45 g Ethoxysulfuron 15 WDG Bispyribac - 6000.00 Atrazine 50 WP Sodium Clodinofop 350.00/ 16 g Trifluralin Sulphosulfuron 300.00/ 13g Pendimethalin Fenoxaprop 275.00/ 100 g Carfentrazone Metsulfuron methyl 110.00/ 8 g Oxyflurofen Glyphosate 58% SL 280.00 Paraquat Rates (Rs.)/liter or kg 120.00/ 8g 280.00 350.00 2800 240.00 380.00 400.00 130.00/ 20 g 1400.00 370.00

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ANNEXURE - IV Water rates for the purposes of irrigation from Canals and drains (Rates in Rs./acre) Category/Crop Bhakra Yamuna Per crop Command Command Category A: Ploughed in green before 15th September are Dhaincha, Guar, Arhar, Cowpea (other not assessable to water rates green fodder crop) Category B: 35.00 35.00 Per crop Groundnut, Bajra, Maize, Sorghum, Arhar Category C: 40.00 10.00 Per crop Urd, Moong, Gram, Guar, Til, Lentil, Soyabean and other pulses Category D: 50.00 45.00 Per crop Wheat, Cotton, Barley, Mustard, Melon and fibre crops Category E: 60.00 60.00 Per crop Paddy, Oat, Vegetables, Potato, Onion, Bersem, Water nuts, Tobacco, Spices, Medicinal and aromatic plants Category E-1: 80.00 70.00 Per crop Sugarcane Category F: Garden, (i) Gardens and orchards, Floriculture 60.00 60.00 orchard and and plantation plantation / (ii) Single watering for ploughing half year the followed by a crop or not followed by a rest per crop crop in the same or succeeding harvest 10.00 10.00 Per crop (iii) Single watering for grass 10.00 10.00 Per crop Note : The water rates will be charged 50% of the termed water rates for: (i) Using water saving devices like drip and sprinkler irrigation by the irrigation on lift outlets. (ii) Lift maintained and operated by cultivator.

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ANNEXURE – V Area - Million Hectares Production - Million Tonnes Yield - Kg./Hectare Table 1: Area and production of food grains of different states (2006-07) State Uttar Pradesh Punjab Andhra Pradesh West Bengal Haryana Rajasthan Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Bihar Karnataka Tamil Nadu Orissa Gujarat Chhattisgarh Jharkhand Assam Uttarakhand Others All India Area 20.04 6.30 7.27 6.36 4.35 12.70 11.78 13.45 6.70 7.45 3.17 5.40 4.57 5.06 2.38 2.38 0.99 3.36 123.71 % to All - India 16.20 5.09 5.88 5.14 3.52 10.27 9.52 10.87 5.42 6.02 2.56 4.37 3.69 4.09 1.92 1.92 0.80 2.72 100.00 Production 41.21 25.31 16.23 15.97 14.76 14.21 13.75 12.65 11.10 9.60 8.26 7.34 6.50 5.81 3.69 3.06 1.74 6.09 217.28 % to All - India 18.97 11.65 7.47 7.35 6.79 6.54 6.33 5.82 5.11 4.42 3.80 3.38 2.99 2.67 1.70 1.41 0.80 2.80 100.00

Table 2: Area, production and poductivity of wheat in different states (2006-07) State Uttar Pradesh Punjab Haryana Madhya Pradesh Rajasthan Bihar Gujarat Maharashtra Uttaranchal West Bengal Himachal Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Karnataka Jharkhand Assam Others All India Area 9.20 3.47 2.38 3.99 2.56 2.05 1.20 1.23 0.39 0.35 0.36 0.26 0.27 0.08 0.06 0.14 27.99 % to All India 32.87 12.40 8.50 14.26 9.15 7.32 4.29 4.39 1.39 1.25 1.29 0.93 0.96 0.29 0.21 0.50 100.00 Production 25.03 14.60 10.06 7.33 7.06 3.91 3.00 1.63 0.80 0.80 0.50 0.49 0.21 0.13 0.07 0.19 75.81 % to All India 33.02 19.26 13.27 9.67 9.31 5.16 3.96 2.15 1.06 1.06 0.66 0.65 0.28 0.17 0.09 0.25 100.00 Cumulative% 33.02 52.28 65.55 75.21 84.53 89.68 93.64 95.79 96.85 97.90 98.56 99.21 99.49 99.66 99.75 100.00 Yield 2721 4210 4232 1835 2751 1908 2498 1325 2049 2282 1385 1893 762 1529 1117 @ 2708

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Table 3: Area, production and poductivity of rice in different states (2006-07) State West Bengal Andhra Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Punjab Orissa Tamil Nadu Chattisgarh Bihar Karnataka Haryana Jharkhand Assam Maharashtra Gujarat Madhya Pradesh Kerala Others All India Area 5.69 3.98 5.92 2.62 4.45 1.93 3.72 3.36 1.40 1.04 1.62 2.19 1.53 0.73 1.66 0.26 1.71 43.81 % to All India 12.99 9.08 13.51 5.98 10.16 4.41 8.49 7.67 3.20 2.37 3.70 5.00 3.49 1.67 3.79 0.59 3.90 100.00 Production 14.75 11.87 11.12 10.14 6.82 6.61 5.04 4.99 3.45 3.37 2.97 2.92 2.57 1.39 1.37 0.63 3.35 93.36 % to All India 15.80 12.71 11.91 10.86 7.31 7.08 5.40 5.34 3.70 3.61 3.18 3.13 2.75 1.49 1.47 0.67 3.59 100.00 Cumulative% 15.80 28.51 40.42 51.29 58.59 65.67 71.07 76.41 80.11 83.72 86.90 90.03 92.78 94.27 95.74 96.41 100.00 Yield 2593 2984 1879 3868 1534 3423 1354 1486 2470 3238 1828 1332 1680 1894 824 2390 @ 2131

Table 4: Area, production and poductivity of pearlmillet in different states (2006-07) State Rajasthan Uttar Pradesh Maharashtra Gujarat Haryana Madhya Pradesh Karnataka Tamil Nadu Andhra Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Others All India Area 4.88 0.88 1.45 0.94 0.62 0.19 0.39 0.07 0.06 0.02 0.01 9.51 % to All India 6.4 4.5 6.3 16.9 29.8 0.1 6.3 8.4 22.1 0.5 8.9 Production 3.42 1.29 1.06 1.02 1.02 0.25 0.19 0.10 0.05 0.01 0.01 8.42 % to All India 40.62 15.32 12.59 12.11 12.11 2.97 2.26 1.19 0.59 0.12 0.12 100.00 Cumulative% 40.62 55.94 68.53 80.64 92.76 95.72 97.98 99.17 99.76 99.88 100.00 Yield 701 1455 729 1088 1649 1365 483 1511 770 591 @ 886

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Table 5: Area, production and poductivity of maize in different states (2006-07) State Karnataka Andhra Pradesh Bihar Uttar Pradesh Maharashtra Rajasthan Madhya Pradesh Tamil Nadu Himachal Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Punjab Gujarat Jharkhand West Bengal Others All India Area 0.96 0.73 0.64 0.87 0.58 1.03 0.86 0.20 0.30 0.32 0.15 0.52 0.24 0.09 0.40 7.89 % to All India 12.17 9.25 8.11 11.03 7.35 13.05 10.90 2.53 3.80 4.06 1.90 6.59 3.04 1.14 5.07 100.00 Production 2.72 2.46 1.72 1.16 1.15 1.12 0.84 0.76 0.70 0.49 0.48 0.36 0.30 0.25 0.59 15.10 % to All India 18.01 16.29 11.39 7.68 7.62 7.42 5.56 5.03 4.64 3.25 3.18 2.38 1.99 1.66 3.91 100.00 Cumulative% 18.01 34.30 45.70 53.38 60.99 68.41 73.97 79.01 83.64 86.89 90.07 92.45 94.44 96.09 100.00 Yield 2829 3396 2671 1335 1983 1086 976 3838 2326 1505 3123 698 1230 2968 @ 1912

Table 6: Area, production and poductivity of chickpea in different states (2006-07) State Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Rajasthan Andhra Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Karnataka Gujarat Chattisgarh Haryana Bihar West Bengal Orissa Others All India Area 2.46 1.31 1.01 0.60 0.68 0.65 0.25 0.21 0.11 0.06 0.03 0.04 0.08 7.49 % to All India 32.84 17.49 13.48 8.01 9.08 8.68 3.34 2.80 1.47 0.80 0.40 0.53 1.07 100.00 Production 2.41 0.92 0.87 0.65 0.50 0.31 0.21 0.18 0.09 0.05 0.02 0.02 0.10 6.33 % to All India 38.07 14.53 13.74 10.27 7.90 4.90 3.32 2.84 1.42 0.79 0.32 0.32 1.58 100.00 Cumulative% 38.07 52.61 66.35 76.62 84.52 89.42 92.73 95.58 97.00 97.79 98.10 98.42 100.00 Yield 980 706 863 1085 742 473 870 843 843 818 769 652 @ 845

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Table 7: Area, production and poductivity of pigeonpea in different states (2006-07) State Maharashtra Uttar Pradesh Karnataka Gujarat Madhya Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Orissa Jharkhand Bihar Tamil Nadu Others All-India Area 1.12 0.41 0.60 0.29 0.32 0.40 0.13 0.07 0.04 0.03 0.15 3.56 % to All India 31.46 11.52 16.85 8.15 8.99 11.24 3.65 1.97 1.12 0.84 4.21 100.00 Production 0.82 0.30 0.28 0.22 0.22 0.16 0.11 0.06 0.04 0.02 0.08 2.31 % to All India 35.50 12.99 12.12 9.52 9.52 6.93 4.76 2.60 1.73 0.87 3.46 100.00 Cumulative% 35.50 48.48 60.61 70.13 79.65 86.58 91.34 93.94 95.67 96.54 100.00 Yield 726 749 470 751 683 401 803 645 989 732 @ 650

Table 8: Area, production and poductivity of cotton in different states (2006-07) Production M Bales of 170 Kgs. Each 8.79 4.62 2.68 2.18 1.81 0.83 0.75 0.61 0.22 0.14 22.63

State Gujarat Maharashtra Punjab Andhra Pradesh Haryana Madhya Pradesh Rajasthan Karnataka Tamil Nadu Others All India

Area 2.39 3.11 0.61 0.97 0.53 0.64 0.35 0.38 0.10 0.06 9.14

% to All India 26.15 34.03 6.67 10.61 5.80 7.00 3.83 4.16 1.09 0.66 100.00

% to All India 38.84 20.42 11.84 9.63 8.00 3.67 3.31 2.70 0.97 0.62 100.00

Cumulative% 38.84 59.26 71.10 80.73 88.73 92.40 95.71 98.41 99.38 100.00

Yield 625 253 750 381 582 220 363 276 374 @ 421

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Table 9: Area, production and poductivity of soybean in different states (2006-07) State Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Rajasthan Andhra Pradesh Karnataka Others All India Area 4.76 2.52 0.64 0.10 0.13 0.18 8.33 % to All India 57.14 30.25 7.68 1.20 1.56 2.16 100.00 Production 4.78 2.89 0.77 0.16 0.09 0.16 8.85 % to All India 54.01 32.66 8.70 1.81 1.02 1.81 100.00 Cumulative% 54.01 86.67 95.37 97.18 98.19 100.00 Yield 1006 1147 1203 1515 718 @ 1063

Table 10: Area, production and poductivity of sugarcane in different states (2006-07) State Uttar Pradesh Maharashtra Tamil Nadu Karnataka Andhra Pradesh Gujarat Haryana Uttarakhand Punjab Bihar Madhya Pradesh West Bengal Orissa Assam Others All India Area 2.25 1.05 0.39 0.33 0.26 0.21 0.14 0.12 0.10 0.13 0.06 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.04 5.15 % to All India 43.69 20.39 7.57 6.41 5.05 4.08 2.72 2.33 1.94 2.52 1.17 0.39 0.39 0.58 0.78 100.00 Production 133.95 78.57 41.12 28.67 21.69 15.63 9.58 6.10 6.02 5.96 2.81 1.27 1.27 1.06 1.82 355.52 % to All India 37.68 22.10 11.57 8.06 6.10 4.40 2.69 1.72 1.69 1.68 0.79 0.36 0.36 0.30 0.51 100.00 Cumulative% 37.68 59.78 71.34 79.41 85.51 89.90 92.60 94.32 96.01 97.69 98.48 98.83 99.19 99.49 100.00 Yield 59626 74898 105123 87944 82167 73037 68429 50413 60808 45953 43639 76307 63403 39074 @ 69022

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ANNEXURE – VI Three Largest Producing States of Important Crops during 2006-07 Production : mt Crop/ Group of Crops I. Foodgrains Rice West Bengal Andhra Pradesh Uttar Pradesh All - India Uttar Pradesh Punjab Haryana All - India Karnataka Andhra Pradesh Bihar All - India Maharashtra Rajasthan Karnataka All - India Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Uttar Pradesh All - India Total Foodgrains Uttar Pradesh Punjab Andhra Pradesh II .Oilseeds Groundnut All - India Gujarat Tamil Nadu Andhra Pradesh All - India Rajasthan Uttar Pradesh Haryana All - India Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Rajasthan 14.75 11.87 11.12 93.35 25.03 14.60 10.06 75.81 2.72 2.46 1.71 15.10 6.14 5.50 5.06 33.92 3.20 2.30 1.98 14.20 41.21 25.31 16.23 217.28 1.44 1.01 0.74 4.86 3.81 0.87 0.80 7.44 4.78 2.89 0.77 States Production

Wheat

Maize

Total Coarse Cereals

Total Pulses

Rapeseed & Mustard

Soyabean

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Sunflower

All - India Karnataka Andhra Pradesh Maharashtra All - India Madhya Pradesh. Rajasthan Maharashtra All - India

8.85 0.52 0.33 0.20 1.23 5.81 5.17 3.72 24.29 133.95 78.57 41.12 355.52 8.79 4.62 2.68 22.63 8.51 1.39 0.58 11.27

Total Oilseeds

Uttar Pradesh Maharashtra Tamil Nadu All - India Cotton @ Gujarat Maharashtra Punjab All - India Jute & Mesta$ West Bengal Bihar Assam All - India @ : Production in million bales of 170 kgs. each. $ : Production in million bales of 180 kg. each.

III . Other Cash Crops Sugarcane

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ANNEXURE – VII National Agricultural Research Institutes in India • Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur, Rajasthan. • Central Institute for Cotton Research, Nagpur, Maharashtra. • Central Institute for Sub-Tropical Horticulture, Lucknow, UP. • Central Potato Research Institute, Simla, HP. • Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied fibres, Barrackpore, WB. • Central Agricultural Research Institute for Andaman and Group of Islands, Portblair. • Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Bhopal, MP. • Central Plantation Crops Research Institute, Kasargod, Kerala. • Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad, AP. • Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack, Orissa. • Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute, Dehradun, • Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Trivendrum, Kerala. • Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana. • Central Tobacco Research Institute, Rajahmundry, AP. • Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technology, Mumbai, Maharashtra. • Directorate of Oil seeds Research, Hyderabad, AP. • Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad, AP. • Directorate of Wheat Research, Kamal, Haryana. • Directorate of Water Management Research, Rahuri, Maharashtra. • Indian Agricultural Research Institute (Deemed University), Pusa, New Delhi. • Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi, UP. • Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research, Lucknow, UP. • Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, MP. • Indian Institute of Pulse Research, Kanpur, UP. • Indian Agricultural Statistics Institute, New Delhi. • Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore, Karnataka. • Indian Lac Research Institute, Ranchi, Bihar. • Jute Technological Research Institute, Kolkata, WB. • National Centre for Mushroom Research and Training, Solan, HP. • National Research Centre for Agro-forestry, Jhansi, UP. • National Research Centre for Cashew, Puttur, Karnataka. • National Research Centre for Groundnut, Junagadh, Gujarat. • National Research Centre on Soybean, Indore, MP. • National Research Centre on Citrus, Nagpur, Maharashtra. • National Centre for Integrated Pest Management, Faridabad, Haryana. • National Research Centre for Sorghum, Hyderabad, AP. • National Centre for Weed Science, Jabalpur, MP. • National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi. • National Research Centre for Spices, Calicut, Kerala. • National Research Centre for Arid Horticulture, Bikaner, Rajasthan. • National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Nagpur, Maharashtra. 131

• • • • • • • • • • • •

National Research Centre on Rapeseed and Mustard, Bharatpur, Rajasthan. National Centre for Integrated Pest Management, LBS Centre for Bio and Plant Protection, Pusa, New Delhi. National Centre for Agricultural Economics and Policy Research, Library Avenue, New Delhi. National Biotechnological Centre for Crop Science, Pusa, New Delhi. National Research Centre for Oil Palm, Pedavegi, West Godavari, AP. National Research Centre for Onion and Garlic, Pune. Nuclear Research Laboratory, Pusa, New Delhi. Project Directorate for Cropping Systems Research, Meerut, UP. Plant Quarantine Regional Station, National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, Hyderabad, AP. Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore, TN. Vivekananda Parvatia Krishi Anusandhana Shala, Almora, UP. Water Technology Centre for Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar, Orissa.

INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTRES • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Centre for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Indonesia. Centre International de Agricultural Tropical (CIAT), Colombia. Centre International de la Papa (CIP), Peru. Centre International de la Mejoramiento de Maizy Trigo (CIMMYT), Mexico. International Board for Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR), Rome. International Centre for Agricultural Research in the Dry Area (ICARDA), Syria. International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE), Kenya. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), Nepal. International Centre for Research in Agro-forestry (ICRAF), Kenya. International Crops Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISA T), India. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Nigeria. International Irrigation Management Institute (IIMI), Sri Lanka. International Laboratory for Research on Animal Diseases (ILRAD), Kenya. International Livestock Centre for Africa (ILCA), Ethiopia. International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Philippines. International Service for National Agricultural Research (ISNAR), Netherlands. West Africa Rice Development Association (WARDA), Ivory Coast. Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development (WINROCK INTERNATIONAL), Canada.

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ANNEXURE - VIII Abbreviations of important agricultural institutes
CARl CAZRI CCRI CFTRI CICR CPPTI CPRI CRRI CSSRI CSWCRTI CSIR CTRI CTRI DPR/IIPR DRR FRI IARI IASRI ICAR ICARDA ICRISAT IGFRI IGSI ILRI IIHR IISR IRRI IVRI JARI JTRI NAARM NBPGR NBSSLUP NCERT NCDC NDRI NSI NRCG SBI VPKAS PBCS - Central Agricultural Research Institute, Port Blair (Andman and Nicobar). - Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur (Rajasthan). - Central Coffee Research Institute, Chikmanglur (Karnataka). - Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore (Karnataka). - Central Institute for Cotton Research, Nagpur (Maharashtra). - Central Plant Protection Training Institute, Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh) - Central Potato Research Institute, Simla (Himachal Pradesh). - Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack (Orissa). - Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal (Haryana). - Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute, Dehradun (Uttaranchal). - Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. - Central Tobacco Research Institute, Rajamundry (Andhra Pradesh). - Cotton Technological Research Institute, Mumbai (Maharashtra). - Directorate of Pulse Research, Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh) or lndian Institute of Pulse Research, Kanpur (UP) - Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh). - Forest Research Institute, Dehradun (Uttaranchal). - Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi. - Indian Agricultural Statistics Research Institute, New Delhi. - Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi. - International Centre for Agricultural Research in Dryland Areas, Aleppo (Syria). - International Crop Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru, Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh). - Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi (Uttar Pradesh). - Indian Grain Storage Institute, Hapur (Uttar Pradesh). - Indian Lac Research Institute, Ranchi (Jharkhand) - Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta, Bangalore (Karnataka). - Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research, Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh). - International Rice Research Institute, Manila (Philippines). - Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly (Uttar Pradesh). - Jute Agricultural Research Institute, Barackpore (West Bengal). - Jute Technological Research Institute, Kolkata (West Bengal). - National Academy for Agricultural Research & Management, Hyderabad (AP). - National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi. - National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Nagpur (Maharashtra). - National Council of Educational Research and Training, New Delhi. - National Cooperative Development Corporation, New Delhi/ - National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal (Haryana). - National Sugar Institute, Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh). - National Research Centre for Groundnut, Junagarh (Gujarat) - Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu). - Vivekanand Parvatiya Krishi Anusandhanshala, Almora (Uttaranchal). - Potato Breeding and Certification Station, Kufri, Simla (Himanchal Pradesh).

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ANNEXURE - IX Conversion Factors between Important Primary and Secondary Agricultural Commodities Commodity Rice Rice (Cleaned) Production Cotton Cotton Lint Production Cotton Seed Production 100 Yards of Hessian 4148 Yards of Hessian 1 Ton of Sacking 1 Ton of Hessian Sacking etc. Groundnut Kernel to Nuts in Shell Oil to Nuts in Shell Oil to Kernels Crushed Cake to Kernels Crushed Sesamum Oil to Seeds Crushed Cake to Seeds Crushed Rapseed and Mustard Oil to Seeds Crushed Cake to Seeds Crushed Linseed Oil to seeds Crushed Cake to Seeds Crushed Castor seed Oil to Seeds Crushed Cake to Seeds Crushed Coconut Copra to Nuts Oil to Copra Crushed Cake to Copra Crushed Nigerseed Oil to Seeds Crushed Cake to Seeds Crushed Kardi Seed Oil to Seeds Crushed Cake to Seeds Crushed Mahua Seed Oil to Seeds Crushed Cake to Seeds Crushed 134 Conversion Factor 2/3 of Paddy Production 1/3 of Kapas Production 2/3 of Kapas Production 2 Times of Cotton Lint Production 54 lbs. of Raw Jute 1 Ton of Raw Jute 5.55 Bales of Raw Jute (of 180 Kgs. each) 54 lbs. of Raw Jute 70 Percent 28 Percent 40 Percent 60 Percent 40 Percent 60 Percent 33 Percent 67 Percent 33 Percent 67 Percent 33 Percent 67 Percent One Ton of Copra = 6773 Nuts 62 Percent 38 Percent 28 Percent 72 Percent 40 Percent 60 Percent 36 Percent 64 Percent

Neem Seed Oil to Kernels Crushed Cake to Kernels Crushed Soyabean Seed Oil to Soyabean Seed Crushed Meal to Soyabean Seed Crushed Hull from Soyabean Seed Crushed Wastage from Soyabean Seed Crushed Sugar Gur from Cane Crushed Crystal Sugar from Gur Refined Crystal Sugar from Cane Crushed (Cane Factories) Khandasari Sugar (Sulpher and Nonsulpher) from standard Gur Refined Molasses from Cane Crushed Cane - Trash* from Cane Harvested Lac Seed Lac Shell Lac Cashew nut Cashew Kernel

45 to 50 Percent 50 to 55 Percent 18 Percent 73 Percent 8 Percent 1 Percent 11.20 Percent to 11.50 Percent 62.5 Percent 10.20 Percent 46 Percent 4.0 Percent to 4.5 Percent 8.0 Percent to 12.0 Percent 66.0 Percent of Stick Lac 57.4 Percent of Stick, or 87.0 Percent of Seed Lac 25 Percent of Cashewnuts

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ANNEXURE - X

Glossary
Acid soil. Adaptability. Aerobic. A soil with a pH reading of less than 7.0 on a scale from 0 to 14. In plants, a modification in the structure or function to fit a changed environment. Requiring oxygen to function, as opposed to anaerobic. Agriculture. The science of using crops and animals to transform sunlight energy into products that can be stored and used by humans elsewhere and at a later date. Agrologist. One who understands and practices the science of agriculture. Agronomy. A science combining crop production and soil management. The word is derived from two Greek words: agros (field) and nomos (to manage). Alkaline soil. A soil with a pH above 7.3 on a scale from 0 to 14. Anaerobic. Not requiring oxygen to function. Anatomy. The study of structure. Annuals. Plants that complete all developmental and reproductive stages in one season or year. Anthesis. The period when anthers are extruded from the glumes. Apical dominance. The inhibition in plants of lateral buds by high levels of auxins produced in the lead shoot or apical meristem. Apomixis. A form of asexual reproduction. Seeds are formed in plants without sexual fertilization. Arid climate. A region with an annual rainfall of less than 25 cm (10 in). Aridic soils are dry more than half the time. Ash. The residue remaining after complete combustion of organic matter. Assimilation. In plants, the conversion of photosynthetic products into substances used by the plant. Auricles. Ear or finger-like clasping appendages located at the base of the leaf blade and at the top of the leaf sheath. Awn. A bristle like extension of the glumes (lemma) of cereal and grass plants. Axillary buds. Vegetative buds arising from leaf axils. Backcross. Combining the progeny of a cross with one of the parents. Bearded. In plants, having awns. Biennials. Plants that live for two years and reach reproductive development in the second year. Biological significance. Differences between any two treatments that have a high (usually I to 5 out of 100) probability of being caused by the treatment and a low probability of being caused by chance variation. Biological variation. The difference between any two measurements resulting from factors other than the treatment (error, chance) within defined limits. Biological yield. The total dry-matter weight of above-ground parts including economic or grain yield and non grain plant parts. Biomass. The total dry-matter production of a crop, the net result from photosynthesis, respiration, and mineral uptake. Blade. In plants, the leaf portion above the sheath. Bloat. In ruminant animals, a condition of excess stomach gas, often caused by succulent legumes, that can cause death. Bog soils. Imperfectly drained soils developed from peat. Boll. The oblong fruit of the cotton or flax plant. Bolt. In plants, the undesirable formation of reproductive organs on plants grown for their vegetative organs such as sugar beets, turnips, carrots, or parsnips. Boot stage. The point in cereal plant development when the developing inflorescence is encased in the leaf sheath (boot). Breeder lines. 150 to 300 individually selected heads from a plot of a potential new cereal cultivar, grown in individual head rows, closely checked for uniformity, and bulked to produce the initial seed of a new cultivar. Broadcast. A method of seeding by distributing seed on the soil surface. Cambium. A cellular layer of tissue separating the xylem and phloem in the stems of dicots. Canola. A name applied to rapeseed or any derivative of the crop. Carbohydrate. Sugar, starch, and cellulose components.

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Carbon: nitrogen ratio. The ratio of the percentage of carbon to that of nitrogen in organic materials. Cardinal temperatures. Plant development is governed by three cardinal temperatures: the minimum is the temperature below which plant functions are not detectable; the maximum is the temperature above which it is not detectable; and the optimum is the temperature at which the function proceeds at maximum speed. Cell. In plants, a unit of structure. Cellulose. A long chain structure of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen that serves as the building material of plant cells. Cereal. A member of the grass family grown for its grain, including rice, barley, wheat, oats, rye. Chaff. The glumes or bracts covering the kernels or grains of plants removed by threshing. Check. A standard reference cultivar for comparison in tests. Check row planting. Plants spaced in hills equally in all directions. Chlorophyll. The green pigmentation in the chloroplasts of the plant cell that is necessary for photosynthesis. Chromosomes. Precisely arranged chemical threads carrying the units of heredity and found in the nucleus of cells. Clay. A mineral soil comprised of small layered particles, 0.002 to 0.005 mm in size. Climate. The total long-term weather conditions of an area. Cobalt. A minor element required by rhizobia bacteria in plant nodules for the formation of vitamin B12, which in turn is essential to the formation of haemoglobin needed for nitrogen fixation. Combine. A machine that incorporates the operations of cutting, threshing, and separating grain, straw, and chaff. Companion crop. A crop grown in association with forage seedlings to act as a cover crop to suppress weeds. Compensation point. In plants, the intensity of a photosynthetically related input required to equal the loss of carbon compounds through respiration. At the compensation point, the amount of CO 2 absorbed is equal to the amount given off. Competition. Events associated with a retardation in plant growth arising from an association with other plants. Controlled storage. Units to reduce respiration to extend storage life and quality of stored plant products. Cotyledons. The two halves of a pea or bean seed that form the first leaves of a plant. Cotyledons are storage organs. Coumarin. The bitter flavor substance of sweet clover. Coumarin may occur in lesser amounts in other plams. Coumarin may be converted to toxic substances when spoilage of sweet clover hay or silage occurs. Cover crop. A crop grown to protect the soil from erosion or nutriem leaching. Crop physiology. The science of plam functions and the phenomena of plams studied in a community of plams under field conditions. Crop production. A science aimed at maximizing photosynthesis to increase economic crop yield.

Cross-inoculation groups. Symbiotic bacteria are specific for many legumes such as soybeans, but in some
cases bacteria will cross-inoculate with several species, e.g., alfalfa and sweet clover. In plants, the top of a root where buds and new shoots arise. Differentiated cells on the top of roots capable of initiating new shoot growth. The stem or straw of grasses with joints or nodes at intervals. Cultivar (cv.). An inclusive term for lines, varieties, hybrids, or selections of crops. Each cultivar is distinct from other cultivars of the same species. Cultural energy. Energy from human and animal labor, and from fossil fuels used by machines in their manufacture and operation in all aspects of food production, transportation, processing, and distribution. Cultural energy efficiency. The ratio of useful output of energy to energy inputs. Cytology. The study of individual cells. Crown. Crown buds. Culm. Denitrification. Detassel. The release of inert nitrogen through the breaking down action of plant tissues and nitrates to nitrites, ammonia, and N2gas. Removal of the pollen-producing organ (tassel) of corn.

Determinate species. Plants having definite limits, i.e., a definite distinction between vegetative and reproductive stages. Dicots. Plants having two cotyledons at the first node. The word dicot is derived from dicotyledon meaning having two cotyledons. Differentiation. The formation of specialized tissues during growth and development.

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Diploid. Having two sets of chromosomes, one from the female and one from the male parent. Direct-seeded forages. Seeded without a companion crop. Double cropping. The practice of producing two successive crops from the same piece of land in one year. Dryeration. The combination of high temperature drying and aeration. Durum wheat. A hard spring wheat high in protein that is favored for the production of semolina flour used to make pasta products such as spaghetti and macaroni. Ecofallow. A system combining crop rotation minimum tillage and weed control to conserve soil and moisture and to control disease. Ecology. The study of reciprocal relations among plants and animals and their environment. Economic yield. The grain tubers, fiber, oil, or plant component of value, in contrast to noneconomic yield of stover, straw, leaves, or other residue. Ecosystem. The interaction of natural forces in a harmonious situation. Egg. In plants, the reproductive cell of the female. Empirical. Practices based on observation and experience without a scientific understanding; e.g., ancient agriculturists knew that manure increased crop yields and accordingly recommended manure application, but it took centuries to learn that it was nitrogen, phosphorus, and potash and other microelements that were associated with yield increases. Energy. The potential of light, heat, or chemical energy to do work. Ensilage (silage). Chopped plant material preserved by fermentation. Enzyme. A substance that catalyzes and often initiates a biochemical reaction. Erosion. In soil, the loss by water, wind, or other action. Etiolation. The elongation of plant cells caused by a high concentration of auxins (plant hormones) usually as a result of low light intensity. Eutrophication. A process whereby phosphorus-induced algae growth in still water depletes oxygen from the water as the algae decay. The reduced oxygen supply may suffocate fish or other living forms. Evapotranspiration. The combined loss of water from an area from evaporation and transpiration. Fallow. A field uncropped, usually for one growing season to conserve moisture. Fermentation (silage). A process whereby bacteria act on the energy content of the chopped plant material to produce an acid that preserves or pickles the crop material. Fertilization (plant). The union of the nucleus from the male pollen grain with the embryo or egg of the female ovary. Fertilization (soil). The addition of plant nutrients to the soil to promote photosynthesis and growth. Fibrous root. A root with many fine branches as opposed to a single or multiple taproot. Filial generation. (Fl, F2, etc.). The generation of the progeny following a cross. Flag leaf. The final, uppermost leaf to develop. Usually refers to cereal plants. Forage (herbage). Plant biomass that serves as animal feed. Fungicide. A chemical used to control plant disease (fungi). Gamete. A sex cell containing half the chromosome number as other body cells. The male gamete and the female gamete combine in fertilization to produce the normal chromosome number. Gasohol. A blend of gasoline and alcohol. Genes. Unit of inheritance having a specific chemical composition and having specific location on a chromosome. Genetics. The science that deals with the inheritance of traits. Genotype. The heritable or genetic composition of an individual (see phenotype). Geotropism. Growth or movement of a plant part with respect to gravity forces. Vegetative plant parts are usually negatively geotropic and grow upward; roots are geotropic and grow downward. Glumes. Bracts (chaff) covering a kernel. Wheat glumes are easily removed at threshing; in barley they often adhere to the kernel. Grain. The kernels of a crop. Grazing. Livestock harvesting plant material. Groat. The endosperm of an oat kernel with the lemma and palea (hull) removed. Growing point. The lead meristematic tissue from which subsequent growth arises. Growth. Haemoglobin. Harvest index. An increase in dry weight usually as a result of an increase in cell size or cell number. The "blood" in a legume root nodule resulting in a pink-red color. The ratio of grain yield to biological yield by weight. ~

Haylage.
Herbage.

A silage product made from forages and preserved at 40 to 60% moisture.
The fresh or preserved plant parts of a crop.

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Herbicide.

A substance used to kill or destroy plants, sometimes called weedicides. Selective herbicides have a relatively specific action in contrast to the relatively general action of nonselective herbicides. Heterozygous. An individual having unlike genes at one or more points (loci) on its chromosomes. Homozygous. An individual having similar genes at all points (loci) on its chromosomes. Hormones. Naturally occurring chemicals produced in plant cells to regulate plant functions. Humus. A form of soil organic matter that is somewhat resistant to further rapid decomposition. Humus has a carbon:nitrogen ratio of 10:1. Hybrid. The first generation progeny of a cross between two different strains of the same species. A hybrid may combine characteristics derived from the two parent stocks and may be more desirable than either parent. Hybrid vigor or heterosis. The extra vigor or yield often obtained from progeny following a cross. Ideotype. In plants, a biological model that is expected to perform in a predictable manner within a defined environment. Indeterminate. Plants having no defined limits of vegetative and reproductive development. Inflorescence. The flowering parts of a plant such as a spike of wheat, a head of barley, a panicle of oats. Inoculation. The application of a rhizobium strain to seed or soil of a legume crop to promote nitrogen fixation. Insecticide. A chemical used to kill insects. Intercropping. The production of two or more crops simultaneously on the same field. Internodes. The region between two nodes of a plant stem. In grasses, the leaf sheath encases much of the internode. Interseeding crops. Establishing a second crop between the rows of an existing crop. In vitro. Conducted in a test tube as contrasted to in vivo, which means conducted in a living organism. e.g., in vitro digestibility of plant material. Isolines. Lines identical in all aspects but one. Lateritic soils. Mineral-rich (iron and aluminum) soil that hardens irreversibly into rocklike material when dried. The name comes from the Latin word for "brick." Leaching. The action of water removing soil materials in solution. Leaf Area Index (LAI). The ratio of leaf area to land area. A LAI of 4 means that on one hectare there are four hectares of leaf area, usually one side of the leaf lamina only. Legume. A plant capable of forming a symbiotic relationship with Rhizobium bacteria to fix atmospheric nitrogen. Lemma. The outer structure of a single floret of grasses often bearing an awn. The lemma and palea cover the grain of oats and barley. The lemma is larger than the palea and, in oats and barley, adheres to the grain on the opposite side of the crease. In wheat and rye, the lemma and palea are usually removed at threshing. Light saturation. When photosynthesis is not increased by additional light intensity, a leaf has reached light saturation. Lignin. A differentiation product in cell walls that makes them strong and firm. Ligule. A thin membranous extension of the leaf sheath positioned against the culm of grasses where the leaf blade forms. This clear-cut division between leaf blade and sheath is not present in a ligule less line, and the leaf blade adopts an upright position. Loam. A soil comprised of a mixture of clay, silt and sand, or gravel. Lodging. The permanent displacement of the stems of crops from their upright position. Lodicules. Small organs in grasses and cereals located between the ovary and the surrounding glumes. The lodicules swell at the time of fertilization to force open the glumes. Magnetic response. A reaction to the earth's polarity whereby roots become aligned to the N-S magnetic force. Mediterranean climate. Typified by mild wet winters and hot dry summers with 200- 300 mm of rainfall. Meristem regions. Areas in the plant where cells are rapidly dividing. Cells in meristem regions are not differentiated. Minimum tillage. The minimum soil manipulation necessary for maximum crop production under existing soil and climatic conditions. Mitochondria. Cellular bodies contained in cell protoplasm that serve as sites for the breakdown of food energy. Mixed grain. Usually refers to oat and barley mixtures in a 50:50 ratio or a 65:35 ratio of oats to barley. Spring wheat may be added to a mixture of oats and barley. Molybdenum. A minor element required by rhizobia for nitrogen fixation in plants. Monocots. Plants having a single cotyledon or leaf at the first node of the lead shoot or stem. The word monocot is derived from monocotyledon meaning having one cotyledon. Monoculture. The production of a single species on an ongoing basis.

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Morphology. Muck.

Referring to plant shape or structure. A black soil developed from fairly well decomposed organic material formed under poor drainage conditions. Multilines. A blend or mixture of lines of one species that are genetically very similar (e.g., a multiline of wheat). Multiple cropping. Growing two or more crops on the same field in a year. Mutant. A selection resulting from a heritable variation (mutation). Natural ecosystem. A geographic area virtually untouched by man. Neutral soil. On a scale from 0 to 14, a neutral soil has a reading of 7.0 and is neither acidic nor alkaline. Nitrogen fixation. In plants, the conversion of inert atmospheric nitrogen N2 into a form useful to plants. Nodes. Solid regions or joints in stems. In grasses, the leaf sheath is attached to the node. Lateral buds may develop at a node. Nodules. In plants, refers to nitrogen-fixing nodules on a legume root consisting of plant cells crammed full of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Nubbin. A small, poorly developed ear of corn.0 Organic farming. An attempt to minimize the use of chemicals and inorganic inputs in crop production. Organic matter. Plant residues (roots, leaves, stems) in soil. Palea. The small inner structure of a single floret in grasses. In barley and oats, the palea adheres to the grain in the crease area. In wheat and rye, the palea is removed by threshing. Panicle. In grasses, the spikelets may be attached by fine branches or subdivisions of the stem. In this case the inflorescence is called a panicle. Parasitic leaves. When the loss of energy by respiration exceeds the contribution from photosynthesis, a leaf is considered to be parasitic. Penultimate leaf. The next to last leaf to develop on a plant such as corn and cereals. Petiole. The stalk on which the leaf blade is attached to the stem. In ladino clover, the petiole arises from the stolon. In rhubarb, the petiole is the harvested portion. Perennial. A plant that lives for more than one year. A perennial plant may reach reproductive development in the first season and in each subsequent season. Pesticide. Includes chemicals such as rodenticides, insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides used to control pests in plants and animals. Phenotype. The physical appearance of a plant resulting from the action of genotype and environment. Phloem. Conducting tissue within a plant to transport the products of photosynthesis to other plant parts. Photosynthesis. The basis of all agriculture; the process that transforms CO2 into food. Phototropism. A growth, enzyme-regulated plant response of bending toward a light source. Physiological maturity. The point in economic yield development at which no further increase in dry weight takes place. Phytoplankton. Simple plant forms that are part of the plankton group, are capable of photosynthesis, and are the major source of sustenance for all animal life in the seas. Pistil. The female reproductive organ in flower consisting of a stigma, style and ovary. Plankton. The small plants (phytoplankton) and animals (zooplankton) that drift and float in the oceans. Plant breeding. Organized attempts to produce progressively better adapted populations. Plant physiology. The science of functions and phenomena of plants as studied individually. Plastic responses. The ability of plants to respond (within limits) to competitive stress such as seeding rate. Pollen. Plant germ cells produced in the anthers containing the genetic material of heredity in the nucleus. Pollination. The transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma. Productivity score. A measure of crop performance obtained by summing grain yield, biological yield, and harvest index values. Prolific corn. Plants that are consistently capable of producing two or more ears per plants. Proteins. Substances comprised of amino acids and present in all living systems. Protoplasm. A viscous, gel-like living substance within a cell that includes the nucleus, chloroplasts in green cells, and mitchondria. Relay cropping. A term to describe the seeding of one cropimmediately into another standing crop, in quick succession Respiration. The release of energy involving the use of oxygen and giving off carbon dioxide. Rhizobium. A microorganism capable of entering the root hair of a legume to form a nodule and fix nitrogen from the atmosphere.

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Rhizomes.

Underground stems of plants which grow horizontally beneath the soil surface and which are capable of developing new roots and shoots at internodes. Rotation. Varying the sequence of crops grown on the same piece of land. Ruminant animals. Multistomached livestock capable of utilizing cellulose and inorganic nitrogen forms to produce protein. Silage (ensilage). A form of feed preserved by the acid-producing action of fermentation. Sink. In plants. the storage capacity of the economic yield component. Soil capability. The capacity of a soil or tract of land to be used for sustained and profitable production of food. Soil salinity. Soils with a high level of soluble salts, but not highly alkaline. Source. In plants, the photosynthetic capacity to provide assimilate. Spike. In grasses, if the spikelets are directly attached to the stem or rachis the entire inflorescence is called a spike. Spikelet. The inflorescence of grasses consists of a series of spikelets. The spikelet therefore is the basic unit of the spike. Each spikelet may have one or more florets encased by a pair of outer glumes. Stamens. The pollen-producing organs of plants. Stolons. Horizontal, above ground stems of plants. Stomata. An opening in the epidermis of a leaf contained between two guard cells which regulate the size of the opening. Stomata allow for free exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen within the leaf and the outside air and are the openings through which water vapor passes in transpiration. (Singular form is stoma). Stooling. A term to indicate branch or tiller development in plants. Sucker. A shoot or tiller arising from the base or axils of plants. Sward. A canopy of crop leaves. Symbiotic relationship. When two different organisms live in close association and depend on each other for their mutual benefit. Taxonomy. The classification and naming of organisms. Teleology. The doctrine that final causes influence events. As applied to plants, the view that plant development is due to the purpose served by them is considered unscientific and incorrect: e.g., roots do not grow toward a moisture source, leaves do not orientate themselves to maximize photosynthesis, and plants do not develop large horizontally disposed leaves so that they can compete in evolutionary processes. Topsoil. The upper productive layer of soil. Transpiration. Water loss from the plant that accounts for 99% of the water used by plants. Turgid. Swollen with water. Unstable soils. Soils subject to rapid loss of organic matter and erosion. Urea. A solid form of nitrogen fertilizer containing 46% nitrogen and produced by reacting ammonia with carbon dioxide under pressure at an elevated temperature. Vacuole. A region in a plant cell filled with cell sap and stored food products and by-products. The vacuole is bounded by a membrane. Vernalization. In plants, a cold temperature-photoperiod requirement to develop reproductive organs. Vertical integration. When a producer becomes a middleman by processing his own agricuhural products for sale directly to the consumer. Weed. A plant out of place. Whorl. A circular arrangement of plant leaves. Xylem. Conducting tissue in plants to transport water and nutrients absorbed by the root to other plant parts. Zero-tillage. A system in which a crop is planted with minimum soil disturbance directly into an untilled stubble from the previous crop, using chemicals for weed control.

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