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Earth Systems 3209/

Earth Science 1000 (MUN)

Midterm Review

What is Earth Science??


Earth Science differs from other
sciences in that:
1. Earth Science has a global perspective
2. Earth Science draws from all other
areas of science
3. Earth Science requires a consideration
of vast amounts of time

4 Major Branches of Earth


Science
Geology: examines earth, its form and composition,
and the changes it has undergone and is
undergoing.
Meteorology: study of the atmosphere and
atmospheric phenomena; weather and climate.
Astronomy: study of the universe; it includes the
observation and interpretation of celestial bodies
and phenomena.
Oceanography: study of the oceans and oceanic
phenomena.

Handout!

Evidence, Theories,
ParadigmsScientific Knowledge
Evidence facts collected by
observation and measurement which
serve as a springboard for
development of theories
Hypothesis: Is a tentative or untested
explanation to explain how or why
things happen in an observed
manner.
Theory: A well tested and widely
accepted view that explains certain

Formation of the Universe


Creationism (considered a NonScientific View):
Belief in the bible, other holy texts or
spoken word that led to the idea that
Earth was created by a creator with
purpose

Big Bang Theory


Proposes that universe originated as a single
mass that exploded around 15 billion years
ago. (best estimate is 13.7 bya)
After a few billion years material cooled and
condensed into stars and galaxies.
The explosion caused continuous expansion so
galaxies moved away from one another.
About 5 bya our solar system formed within the
Milky Way galaxy
Expansion and cooling continues.

Solar Nebular Hypothesis


pg.19,628
Explains the formation of the solar
system which began about 5 bya (at
least 10 by after the Big Bang
occurred)

4 stages of Solar Nebular


Hypothesis
1. Nebula
Huge rotating cloud of dust and gas
contracts due to gravity to form a
nebula

4 stages of Solar Nebular


Hypothesis
2. Protosun
Most material is gravitationally
swept toward the centre
Material is concentrated at the
center to form the protosun
(presun)

4 stages of Solar Nebular


Hypothesis
3. Protplanets
As temperatures dropped, substances with
rock forming minerals (iron and nickel)
joined together while orbiting the sun.
Repeated collisions over millions of years
formed the planets.

4 stages of Solar Nebular


Hypothesis
4. Solar Systems
Remaining debris was either
collected into the planets and moons
or swept into space by solar wind.

STSE
Remember:
Universe Vs. Solar System
The Universe: incorporates several solar
systems.
A solar system: is represented by planets
orbiting stars.
Habitable Zone (Goldilocks zone)
This zone in a solar system is where liquid water
can exist on the surface and not too far from the
star it is orbiting (too cold) or too close to the
start it is orbiting (too hot). Just right!

STSE
If you can find planets orbiting stars (other than
the sun), then you have found a solar system.
There have been 1500 solar systems found to
date.
Five Methods for Finding Solar Systems
1. Radial Velocity Method
2. Transit Photometry Method
3. Astrometry Method
4. Microlensing Method
5. Direct Imaging

STSE

Transit: The passage of a planet between a star and the


Earth.

Extrasolar planets: Planets that exist in other solar


systems (as opposed to the solar system where Earth
exists). These are called exoplanets.

STSE
The Solar Nebula Hypothesis infers that a solar
system should have rocky inner planets and
larger gaseous planets much further out.
Many solar systems found do not fit the pattern
described above.
Maybe gravity and friction has caused the larger
planets to move.
Alone, the Solar Nebula Hypothesis seems too
simplistic. Maybe it just represents the formation
and configuration of early planets.

Origin of the earth


It was thought that Earth was not
always layered as it is today. Some
scientists suggest that Earth was
somewhat like the moon billions of
years ago

Why does earth have


layers?
Thanks to nature (i.e. heat and
gravity)

Sources:
1. Radioactive Decay

Related
3. Residual Heat
to
density
This process is often referred to as differentiation
or
2. Particle Collisions

segregation.
*still occurring today (smaller scale)

Crust
Lithosphere

State: Thin, rocky outer skin


*Roughly 100km think (varies depending on ocean or continental)

Asthenosphere
(upper mantle)
Mantle

State: Mainly solid, very strong but can flow (like silly putty or
an eatmore bar)
*Is 2900 km thick The thickest layer!

Outer Core

State: liquid
Composition: iron and a small amount of nickel

* 2270 km thick
- convection currents exist within and contributes to origin of
magnetic field

Inner Core

*Hotter, denser and stronger that outer core


**State: solid
Radius = 1216 km

Temperature and Density


Increases with Depth

Temperature and Density Increases with Depth

Density inside Earth increases as depth


inside Earth increases.
Temperature inside Earth increases at a rate of
approximately 35 degrees celcius per kilometer.
This is
referred to as the Geothermal Gradient.

Biosphere

Geosphere

Hydrosphere

Atmosphere

Order of development
Geosphere hydrosphere
atmosphere biosphere
Hydrosphere and atmosphere formed
from early outgassing, where
molten material cooled and released
dissolved gases into the atmosphere
(N2, H2O vapor, CO2, Ar)

The earth is a complex set of


interacting systems
Each sphere influences one another
and effects our daily lives

All 4 Spheres
Shoreline

Catastrophism
Is a concept popular in the 1700-1800s
which states that earths landscapes had
been shaped primarily by great
disasters or catastrophes
(floods, storms, earthquakes, volcanic
eruptions etc.)

James Ussher: Anglican Arch Bishop


and scholar attempted to fit the rate of
change of Earth processes into a relatively
young aged Earth.

James Hutton
Scottish Geologist after years of
studying landforms and rocks
the present is the key to the past
and
that, the physical, chemical,
biological laws that operate
today to shape Earth also
operated in the past.

Uniformitarianism
two key concepts;
1) the geologic processes at work
today were also active in the past.
2) the present physical features of
Earth were formed by these same
processes, at work
over long periods of time.

Absolute time
Identifies the actual date of an
event, & pinpoints the exact time in
history when something took place.
For example, the extinction of the
dinosaurs about 66 million years
ago and the age of
Earth is approximately 4.6 Billion
years.

. Relative time
Attempts to place events in a
sequence of formation, but does
not identify their actual date of
occurrence.
Comparing events to each other
often does this.
Cant tell us how long ago something
happened; only that it followed one
event and preceded another.

relative dating
6 Major Types:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Superposition
Horizontality
Cross-cutting relations
Inclusions
Unconformities
Fossils

1. Law of Superposition
Book and cylinder demos
In an undeformed sequence of
sedimentary rock, each bed is older
than the one above and younger
than the one below.

*The youngest is always on top

2. Principal of original
Horizontality

states that most layers of sediment


are deposited in a horizontal
position.
If rock layers are folded or inclined,
then the layers must have been
moved
into that position by crustal
disturbances. (folding/faulting)

Faulting and Folding


Faulting Movement of rock units
along a crack in the rock.
The fault below is caused by
compressional forces.

Faulting and Folding


Folding Bending of rock units
caused by compressional forces, as
seen below.

Cross-cutting relations
Book demo
An igneous rock is younger than the
rock strata (or beds or layers) that it
cuts across.
A geological feature such as a fault is
younger than the rock strata (or beds
or layers) that it cuts across.

Contact Metamorphism
When molten rock comes into
contact with older rock
the heat causes a kind of baking that
changes the original rock.
Often represented as xs on diagrams

4. Law of Inclusion fragments


(rock fragments)

Pieces of one rock found in another


rock must be older than the rock in
which they are found.

5. Unconformities
A surface between successive
strata (layers) representing a
missing interval in the
geologic record of time

3 types:
1.Angular Unconformity,
2.Disconformities and
3. Nonconformity

*a gap in the rock record.

6. Fossils - Correlation
Hand out fossils
Fossils are used to match up rock
layers between widely separated
areas or between continents
any time period can be recognized
by its fossil content.
the matching up of
rock layers from one
area to another.

Interpreting and Drawing welllabelled, detailed crosssectional diagrams (Lab)


in order to do these, rock types need
to be correlated based on color,
texture, rock types and fossils.
Examples a key is needed

Absolute Dating

- pg. 228-235

Is finding the exact age of a


mineral, rock, fossil, landform or
finding exactly when a
geological event occurred.
3 Ways

1. Tree Growth Rings


2. Varves - Glacial deposits
3. Radiometric dating
ALL PRODUCES NUMBERS!

Tree Growth Rings


1 Growth Ring = 1 Year
In places where seasonal
changes occur (e.g. Newfoundland),
plants add on a new growth ring
each year.
By simply counting the growth rings in a
tree, one can calculate its age.

Varves
Are seasonal deposits of sediment that show
alternating layers of clay and sand.
Dark fine layer is deposited in fall/winter
when lake is frozen and humus settles out of
water. (clay)
Light coarse layer is deposited in
spring/summer due to abundant meltwater
carrying large sediment loads (sand)
1 layer of light and dark (2 sediment layers)
= 1 year

Radiometric Dating
Method of calculating the absolute
age of minerals, rocks and fossils
that contain radioactive isotopes

Radiometric Dating - isotope


Variations of an element that have
different mass numbers
The same number of protons but
different number of neutrons.

Radioactive Isotopes
Are unstable isotopes
The nucleus breaks down so the
original isotope called the Parent
Material decays into a new stable
isotope called the Daughter
Product.
The rate at which the nucleus breaks
down is called Half-Life.

Radiometric Dating - half life


Is the time required for or 50% of
the nuclei in a sample to decay.
Is exponential
Is a constant rate that is unaffected
by changes in the environment.

# OF HALFLIVES

1
2
3
4
5
6

% OF PARENT
MATERIAL

% OF DAUGHTER
PRODUCT

Ratio of
Parent:daughter

100%
50
25
12.5
6.25
3.12
1.6

100:

1:0

50
75
87.5
93.75
96.75
98.4

1:1
1:3
1:7
1:15
1:31
1:63

Fractions

1/1

1/2
1/4
1/8
1/16
1/32
1/64

Radioactivity Problems
Problem Type #3: Ratio of parent to daughter
A radioactive isotope y has a half life of 20,000 years. If the
ratio of radioactive parent to stable daughter in a rock sample is
1:7, how old is the rock?

Given:
Ratio of Parent to daughter is 1:7 &

Half-life = 20,000 years

Radioactivity Problems
Problem Type #3: Ratio of parent to daughter
A radioactive isotope y has a half life of 20,000 years. If the
ratio of radioactive parent to stable daughter in a rock sample is
1:7, how old is the rock?

Given:
Ratio of Parent to daughter is 1:7 &

Ratio parent to daughter 1:7


Out of 8 parts 1 is parent material

Half-life = 20,000 years

Age = # of Half-lives x Time for 1 Half-life


Age = ( 3 ) (20,000 years)
Age = 60,000 years

Fraction = 1/8
3 half lives

Sources of Error pg. 231


1. Addition or loss of either the parent
material or daughter product
2. Not for sedimentary rocks directly
since it determines how long a go
liquid rock cooled to a solid
3. Metamorphism resets the
radioactive clock
4. Appropriate application of certain
parent-daughter pairs. (to short/long
half life)

Fossils
What is a fossil?

Fossils are the remains or traces of


organisms found in sedimentary rocks.
What conditions are necessary for fossils to form?

1.Rapid Burial
2.Presence of Hard Body Parts
3.Low Oxygen Environment

Methods of Fossilization
Fossils are preserved in the rock record in several ways!
1)

Petrification (or Petrifaction) By Replacement

2)

Carbonization

3)

Mold and Cast


4.

Preservation (Intact)

5.

Ice, Mummification, and Amber

Traces (Indirect Evidence)

Tracks, Burrows/Tunnels, Eggs, gastrolites


(stomach stones), and Coprolites (feces).

Petrification

Occurs when the small internal


cavities and pores of the original
structure are filled with precipitated
mineral matter.
Formation:

cell walls and solid material are removed

It is replaced by mineral material carried by


ground water.

The process is called replacement.

Sometimes internal details and structures are retained.

Carbonization

Formation:

Fine sediment encloses delicate matter such as leaves (e.g.


ferns) in a oxygen-poor environment.

As time passes, pressure squeezes out the liquid and gaseous


components of the organism leaving behind a thin residue of
carbon.

Mold and Cast

Often preserve a replica of a plant or


animal in sedimentary rocks.

Formation:

An organism is buried in sediment and then


dissolved by groundwater leaving a hollow
depression or an impression called a mold.

The mold shows only the original EXTERNAL


SHAPE and SURFACE MARKINGS of the organism. It
does not reveal the internal structure!

When minerals or sediment fills the hollow depression


or impression it forms a cast.

Preservation

Original remains can be preserved in ice or


in amber (hardened tree sap).
Formation:

Either ice or amber covers the organism quickly after dying


or alive

It is protected from decay (oxygen-free environment) and


from pressures that would cause it to be crushed.

The entire organism has been preserved; even the soft parts,
which usually decay and disappear.

Examples:

(1) Woolly
Mammoths preserved in ice in Alaska and Siberia.
(2) Insects preserved in tree sap (amber). Cane in Jurassic
Park.

Trace Fossils

Show traces left in the rock by an


organism.

Formation:

Not the organism itself

Imprints or wastes left by the


organism

Examples include:
Tracks - animal footprints made in soft sediment. The sediment later
turns into sedimentary rock.
Burrows/Tunnels - Animal trails made in soft sediment. The sediment
later turns into sedimentary rock.
Coprolites - Fossil dung (feces).
Gastrolites Stomach stones.

INFORMATION FROM TRACE


FOSSILS

A measurement of the depth and surface


area of a footprint when coupled with the
supposed soil characteristics in which it
was made can give a reasonably accurate
measure of the creatures body mass.

GEOLOGIC TIME

Geologic time scale spans 4.5 billion years.


The last ~500 million years are detailed due to the
study of fossils.
Fossils have been used to divide geologic time into
eons, eras, periods, and epochs.

Geologic Time Scale


A Historical Perspective
Scientist and their contributions to the Geologic Time Scale:

Nicolaus Steno

Principle of Original Horizontality.

Principle of Superposition.

James Hutton and Charles Lyell

Principle of Uniformitarianism

William Smith

Principle of Faunal (Fossil) Succession

MESOZOIC

PROTEROZOIC

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Geologic Time Scale


What do the divisions of the geologic time scale signify?
Eons

Eras

Divisions of Geologic Time


Eon, Era, Period, Epoch
Largest
span of
time

Smallest
span of
time

EONS- largest time frames

Dont need to know the Eons in Precambrian


(just collectively called Precambrian)

Phanerozoic (visible life) The most


recent eon, which began about 540 million
years ago.

Fossils here help us determine the ages

About 13% of Earth history.

It represents the emergence of more


complex life as organisms evolved.

MESOZOIC

PROTEROZOIC

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Names of the Eras

EraSubdivision of an eon.
Eras of the Phanerozoic eon include:
Cenozoic (recent life)
Mesozoic (middle life)
Paleozoic (ancient life)

Eras are subdivided into periods.

Periods are subdivided into epochs.

You do NOT need to know the periods or


epochs.
Do NOT confuse the Paleozoic Era with
the Phanerozoic Eon.

FOSSILS INDICATED EVOLUTIONARY PATHWAYS:


Each Era can be divided based on the fossil
evidence found in rocks during those times
Precambrian Era single celled organisms
Little direct evidence of fossils due to lack
of species with hard body parts (and thus lack
of lifeforms).

Fossil evidence include algae, bacteria, and


traces of soft-bodied organisms.

MESOZOIC

PROTEROZOIC

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FOSSILS INDICATE EVOLUTIONARY


PATHWAYS:
Early Paleozoic Era -- Age of the Invertebrate
Paleozoic
Divided
Invertebrates
evolved intoEra
vertebrates.

Middle Paleozoic Era Age of Fishes

Abundance of fishes and First land plants


Late Paleozoic -- age of amphibians.

Lung fish evolved into amphibians

Mass extinctions of invertebrates including trilobites and


numerous other marine species occurred at the end of the
Paleozoic Era.

Fossils Indicate Evolutionary


Pathways:
Mesozoic Era -- Age of the Reptiles

Reptiles - Dinosaurs became dominant.

First birds are seen during this time.

First Flowering Plants


The end of the Mesozoic Era was marked by mass
extinctions of reptiles including dinosaurs and
numerous other species. Meteorite!
Cenozoic Era -- Age of the Mammals

Mammals evolve and dominate during this time.

Fossils Indicate Evolutionary


Pathways:

**You MUST know the


order as well as what
time each one was a
major player in

Single-celled Organisms - Invertebrates Fish First Land Plants


Amphibians Reptiles Birds Flowering Plants - Mammals

Summers I Fish First And Ride Bikes For Months


OR - Since I Found Flying Angels Riding Brooms Forget Medicine.

Mnemonic device

Summers I Fish First And Ride Bikes For Months


S = Single-celled organisms (Precambrian)
I = Invertebrates (Early Paleozoic -1/4)
F = Fishes (Middle Paleozoic -2/4)
F = First Land Plants (Early To Middle Paleozoic -3/4)
A = Amphibians (Late Paleozoic 4/4)
R = Reptiles (Mesozoic 1/3)
B = Birds (Mesozoic 2/3)
F = Flowering Plants (Mesozoic -3/3)
M = Mammals (Cenozoic)

Mass Extinctions
1) Permian Period Triassic Period Boundary (End of Paleozoic
Era and Beginning of Mesozoic Era)
2) Cretaceous Period Tertiary Period Boundary (End of Mesozoic
Era and Beginning of Cenozoic Era)
Some species flourished as other
species went extinct!

Mass Extinctions

end of the Paleozoic Era 245 Ma


-plate tectonic assembly of Pangaea and the loss of
habitat.
-

96 % of marine species disappeared.

- Trilobites are one example!

end of the Mesozoic Era 65 Ma


-

impact of a great meteorite and the corresponding


disruption of climate.
-over 50 % of all species went extinct

Fill In The Chart

There are over 100 known elements, but only 8 of


them make up over 98.5% of the earths crust by
mass.
1) Oxygen (46.6%)
3) Aluminum (8.1%)
5) Calcium (3.6%)
7) Potassium (2.6%)

2) Silicon (27.7%)
4) Iron (5.0%)
6) Sodium (2.8%)
8) Magnesium (2.1%)

Definition of Mineral pg. 32


Minerals are the building blocks of rocks.

Must exhibit specific characteristics:


1. Must occur naturally.
2. Must be inorganic ( not from living
organisms)
3. Must be solid.
4. Must have a crystal structure
5. Must have a definite chemical composition
( chemical formula)

Mineral Groups
Minerals that form the rocks within Earths crust
belong to seven (7) main mineral groups, which
include:
1) Silicates
2) Carbonates
3) Sulfates
4) Oxides
5) Halides
6) Sulfides
7) Native Elements

silicon-oxygen tetrahedron.

Hints To Classify Mineral


Groups
Mineral groups that end with
ate and have an oxygen
group in its chemical formula
are one of the following;
Silicates = Si + Oxygen
Sulfates = S + Oxygen
Carbonates = C + Oxygen

Olivine (Mg,Fe)2SiO4
Barite

BaSO4

Calcite CaCO3

Hints to Classify Mineral


Groups
Mineral groups that end with
ide and have a metal (e.g.,
Na, K) in its chemical formula
are one of the following;
Oxides = Metal + O
Sulfides = Metal + S
Halides = Metal + Cl, Br, F

Hematite
Fe2O3
Pyrite

FeS2

Fluorite CaF2

Mineral Groups
1 Silicates

A mineral group that has silicon and oxygen as part .


atomic structure. (SiOx)

Rock forming silicates are


divided into two groups:
Sialic Silicates
(Aluminosilicates)

Rich in silicon and aluminum.

Mineral are light in color.

Simatic Silicates
Rich in silicon and
magnesium.

Examples include:
Quartz
Mica (Muscovite)
Feldspar
Examples include:
Olivine
Pyroxene
Amphibole

of their

Mineral Groups

2 Carbonates

compounds consisting of an atomic structure of one


carbon and three oxygen (CO3).
calcite (Ca CO3),

3 Sulfates
compounds consisting of an atomic structure of one
sulfur and four oxygen (SO4).
the rock gypsum
The mineral barite (BaSO4) is mined and used in drilling mud.

Mineral Groups
4 Oxides

compounds consisting of an atomic structure of oxygen


combined with one or more metals.
Ore Minerals. As an example, the mineral hematite is Fe2O3

5 Halides
compounds consisting of an atomic structure of chlorine (Cl),
bromine (Br) or fluorine (F) with sodium, potassium, or calcium.

Halite (NaCl) is the most common halide. It is often


referred to as table salt.

Mineral Groups
6 Sulfides
compounds consisting of an atomic structure of one or
more metals combined with sulfur.
pyrite (FeS2), galena (PbS), and sphalerite (ZnS).

7 Native Minerals
elements that occur uncombined in nature.
commonly called native elements.
examples include: gold (Au), silver (Ag), copper (Cu), and
sulfur (S).

NOTE
Note that an ore mineral is any
mineral that has enough of a
particular element in it to be mined
at a profit.

Why should we care?


Nearly all manufactured
products we use are obtained
from minerals.

aluminum: soft drink cans


graphite (carbon): our pencil lead
copper: wire for our electricity
talc: baby powder
silver & gold: our jewelry
silicon: our computer chips

Cheat sheet

Speaking of Atomic Arrangement


(Structure)

Consider diamond versus graphite!

Note that completely different minerals can


form from the same atom, depending on how
the atoms are arranged.
pressure = closer packing of atoms =
different substance.
Temperature and pressure conditions under
which minerals form are very important.

Diamond Versus Graphite


Diamond and graphite are polymorphs of the
element carbon; however, they differ in terms
of the mineral properties hardness and
cleavage due to arrangement of the carbon
atoms.
Diamond is hard and has no cleavage since the
carbon atoms are arranged in a network
covalent structure. This does not allow for any
weak planes of bonding.
Graphite is soft and has perfect basal cleavage
(sheets) since the carbon atoms are arranged in

Graphite:
Soft gray material
Used as pencil lead lubricant
Crystal structure: sheets of pure carbon

Diamond:
Forms deep in Earth at high pressures
Pure Carbon
Hardest substance known to humans
Crystal structure: dense and compact

Mineral Properties
The following are a list of physical
properties that minerals could display:
1) Specific Gravity LATER so important its own class
2) Hardness
3) Cleavage Versus Fracture
4) Streak
5) Luster
6) Colour

7) Others

Taste, Feel, Magnetism, Acid Test, Crystal Form,


Smell, Double Refraction, Tenacity, and
Fluorescence.

Hardness
Definition: The resistance of a mineral to
scratching.
Hardness is expressed in terms of Mohs
Hardness Scale, which ranks relative
hardness
1 10.
You
could use from
a rhyme
to remember the
hardness scale:
Tonight
Ghosts
Come
From
Africa

On Quads
To
Catch
Dinosaurs

Cleavage

Definition: The tendency of some minerals to break along


smooth, flat, parallel surfaces.

Cleavage follows areas of weak bonding.

MICA

Cleavage Plane Directions


Cleavage in one direction is called basal cleavage. Example:
Mica

Cleavage in two directions.


Example: Orthoclase feldspar displays
this type of cleavage

Cleavage in three directions.


Examples: Halite, Galena, and Pyrite.

Fracture

A mineral that do not have any cleavage planes is said to break by


Fracture, which is the tendency of a mineral to break irregularly.
Example is glass or the mineral quartz, which is said to have
Conchoidal Fracture. This is a curved breakage that resembles the
concentric shape of a mussel shell.

Streak

The true color of the mineral. It is the colour of the mineral in


its powdered form.

To find the streak of a mineral, you must perform a streak


test. To do this, you scratch a mineral across an unglazed
porcelain tile and the powder streak left on the tile is the true
color of the mineral.

Luster

The appearance of the mineral in reflected light.


Most minerals can be described as either:
1. Metallic
OR
2. Non-Metallic
A) Glassy
B) Greasy
C) Earthy or Dull
D) Pearly

Colour

The actual colour of the mineral that you see.

Three reasons:

This property is less distinctive.


the others)

(not as reliable as

WHY?

1) Different minerals can have the same color.


2)

Some minerals may have impurities, which cause a single


mineral to have different colors.

3)

Surface Oxidation

Other Properties
These properties can be helpful
to identify minerals that are
similar:

Other Properties
Double Refraction: This is an
optical property. For example,
when a transparent piece of calcite
is placed over printed material, the
letters appear double.

Other Properties
Tenacity:
Mica (muscovite and biotite) will
bend and elastically snap back.
Gold is malleable, which means
that it can be hammered into
sheets.

Other Properties
Crystal Form (Shape):Shape or form
of a crystal can reflect the orderly
internal arrangement of atoms.

Crystal Faces
The smooth flat surfaces on crystals are called faces.

Other Properties
Fluorescence: When light from a
source strikes a mineral and reacts
with the component chemicals,
thereby making the mineral glow.
Example: Gypsum

Specific Gravity

Specific Gravity (SG): is the mass of a mineral compared to that


of an equal volume of water.

To determine specific gravity, you need


to carry out the following three steps:
1) Weigh the specimen in air and
record the weight.

Specific Gravity
2) Weigh the specimen submerged
in water and record the weight.

Specific Gravity = Density


Note: (In Reference to Core Lab #3)
Because pure water at 4C has a density
of 1 g/cm3, the specific gravity is equal to
its density. Thus, Specific gravity = Density.
Specific gravity has no units (it is simply a number),
whereas density has units (i.e. g/cm3).

To determine density you need


to:
1) Use a scale to measure the mass of the mineral sample.
2) Find the volume of the mineral sample.
3) Calculate density (which equals specific gravity).
Density

Volume(mineral)

Mass(mineral)

= Specific
Gravity

Specific Gravity
Given: 1mL = 1cm3 = 1g,

we know the weight of an equal


volume of water in grams. We can then use the following formula to
calculate specific gravity:
Calculation
S.G. = W(mineral)
W(water)

Specific Gravity
Given: 1mL = 1cm3 = 1g,

we know the weight of an equal


volume of water in grams. We can then use the following formula to
calculate specific gravity:
Calculation
S.G. = W(mineral)
W(water)
S.G. = 750
100

= 7.5

S.G. = 250
100

= 2.5

Rocks and The Rock Cycle


A rock is a solid mixture of one or
more minerals.
The picture below shows a piece of
granite, which is a go-to example of
a rock

Difference between a
mineral and a rock?
Minerals tend to have a
characteristic crystal structure based
on chemical composition,
Rocks have many minerals in them,
so they do not have a definite
structure.
Granite (rock) is made of feldspar, quartz,
amphibole, mica, pyroxene, etc (all minerals).

Rocks and the Rock Cycle

The Three Rock Types Include:

1)

Igneous Rocks (i.e. Fire Rocks from molten material)

2)

Sedimentary Rocks (i.e. Layered Rocks from deposition)

3)

Metamorphic Rocks (i.e. Changed Rocks)

All three rock types are interrelated through the rock cycle. The three
rock types are classified by their nature of origin (i.e. formation).

Reference:
Tarbuck and Lutgens
Pages 15 - 17

Igneous Rocks

Rocks that have solidified from a molten state.

If the molten material is located below Earths surface, then it


is called magma. Magma is higher in gases than lava.

If the molten material is located on Earths surface, then it is


called lava. Lava is lower in gases than magma.

Igneous Rocks

There are two classifications of igneous rock, which include:


1)

Plutonic (intrusive) forms from magma. Forms inside


the earths crust

2)

Volcanic (extrusive) forms from lava. On Forms on


earths surface

Extrusive Vs. Intrusive Igneous


Rocks
Extrusive are on the surface - cool
quickly, no time to form, so have
small grains
Intrusive are in the earth - cool
slowly, have time to form so have
larger grains

Sedimentary Rocks

Rocks formed when the weathered products (i.e. sediment) of pre-existing


rocks have been transported, deposited, compacted, and cemented into
solid rock.

These rocks usually show layering/strata/beds.

Most of Earths crust (95%) is igneous rocks; however, the surface of


the crust is largely covered by sedimentary rocks.

Clastic (i.e. Detrital) sedimentary Rocks:


Formed by deposition of rock and mineral
fragments
Chemical sedimentary Rocks: formed from
minerals that were carried in solution (dissolved in
water) and are deposited as precipitates.
Organic (Biogenic) Sedimentary Rocks: formed from the remains of dead animals.

Metamorphic Rocks

Rocks formed below Earths surface when pre-existing rocks (i.e.


igneous, sedimentary, and even metamorphic) are altered

3 Agents of Metamorphisism:
1.

heat,

2.

pressure, and

3.

chemically active fluids (e.g. water).

NOTE: MELTING IS NOT INVOLVED IN THE PROCESS OF


METAMORPHISM.

Metamorphic Rocks
Examples of metamorphic rocks
include: Quartzite, Marble, Slate,
Slate, Phyllite, Schist, and Gneiss.
Note that there are two types of
metamorphism, which include:
Contact and Regional.

Pre-notes on the Rock


Cycle
A) All three types of rocks could be weathered and
eroded compacted into sedimentary layers.

B) All three types of rocks could be metamorphosed


if subjected to appropriate conditions of
metamorphism (for example: heat, pressure,
chemically-active fluids).
C) All three types of rocks could be melted if the
temperatures become high enough.
D) Once melting to a molten has occurred, igneous
activity has begun.
E) The process of melting is not involved in
metamorphism. If it melts, it becomes liquid rock,
which will then cool to form Igneous Rock.

Rock Cycle
Cooling and
Crystallization
(i.e.
solidification)

Igneous
(Volcanic)
(Plutonic)

Melting

Magma/Lav
a

Metamorphic
Heat, Pressure, and Hot
Chemical Fluids
Heat,

Sedimentary
(Clastic)
(Chemical)
(Organic)

Weatherin
g And
Erosion

Melting

Weatherin
g And
Erosion

Pressure,
and Hot
Chemical
Fluids
Weatherin
g And
Erosion

Compaction
And
Cementing

Sediment
Examples include:
sand, silt, and clay
(mud)