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SAP2000

Academic Training

By Civilax.com
1999

ACCELERATED TRAINING

SAP 2000

1. INTRODUCTION
At present, many programs based on finite element method for MEF automatically calculate various
structures available. The engineer could thus ignore the principles of the MEF, it needs only to know
how to use computer programs and know the regulations in force. Only, that user would be unable
to realize the correction of the results given by the computer.
It is therefore essential that every engineer knows the basics of MEF, and also understand the process
of the solution phase. This skill can only be acquired by the analytical study of the concept of MEF
and knowledge of technology related to the use of these computational tools.
The training's goal is the presentation of the fundamentals of automatic calculation of a point
of view mainly physical while considering the computer code in its operating efficiency, ie as
a tool for the professional uses.
The latter can then taking into account the above considerations, formulate the problem of
computing structure and monitor results provided by the computer almost effortless.
2. BASIC CONCEPT OF FEM
The finite element method is a generalization of the method to the case of deformation structure
having planes or larger items. The method considers the solid liquid or gaseous medium, constituting
the structure as an assemblage of discrete finite elements. These are interconnected by nodes on the
boundaries of these elements. The actual structures are defined by an infinite number of nodes.
The structure is thus divided, it can be analyzed in a manner similar to that used in the beam theory
manner. For each type of elements, a function of deformation (depending on shape) of polynomial
form that determines the relationship between the deformation and the nodal force may be derived
based on the principle of minimum energy, this relationship is known as name of the stiffness matrix
of the element. A linear algebraic equation system can be established by imposing the balance of
each node, while considering as unknown deformations in the nival nodes. The solution is to
determine these deformations in following strengths and stresses can be calculated using the
stiffness matrices of each element.

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3. DESCRIPTION SAP 2000


SAP 2000 is a software for calculating and designing engineering structures especially adapted to
buildings and civil engineering works. In the same environment it allows graphical entry of
construction works at a cell library approach allows the behavior of this type of structure. It offers
many possibilities for analysis of static and dynamic effects with complements the design and
verification of reinforced concrete structures, structural steel. The chart postprocessor available
greatly facilitates the interpretation and exploitation of results and formatting calculation notes and
explanatory reporting.

Modeling

The software allows the modeling steps (definition of the geometry, boundary conditions, loads of
structures, etc.) in a totally graphic, digital or combined, using the myriad tools available.
Indeed, a structure can be composed into sub patterns (porches, trellises, slab, sailing) each set in its
corresponding graph database, then assembled into final calculation scheme, while the compatibility
of connections automatically.
Furthermore, finite element, associated with a graphic pattern generation bases (base mesh gantry
frame beam, slab, or sailing hull, etc.), settings are directly (Figure 1) .

Figure 1: Library structures SAP 2000.

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The digital pre-processor that automatically translates the captured data graphically, provides
ongoing support for the extension or correction of records generated. This digital data is translated
into a file with an extension. $ 2K or S2K.

Figure 2: Example of a digital file automatically translates the graphical input.

Analysis

The program offers the following opportunities for analysis:


- Linear static analysis:
- P-Delta analysis.
- Nonlinear static analysis.
- Dynamic analysis.

Post - processor

SAP 200 software significantly facilitates the interpretation of results, including the ability to
visualize: the deformed system, diagrams of efforts and envelope curves, the stress fields, the natural
modes of vibration, etc. ..

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4. MODELING TOOLS SAP 2000

Coordinate system

To define a structure and system of loading, two types of coordinates are used. The global coordinate
system is an arbitrary system in space, it is used to define the coordinates of the nodes and to give
direction loads. The local coordinate system is associated with each element and is used for
specifying local loads and interpretation efforts and therefore results.

Figure 3: Local and Global Axes of SAP 2000.

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4.1 "FILE" MENU


4.1.1 MODEL "TEMPLATE"
The library elements specially adapted to facilitate construction works of the designer to make the
model more complex structures (flat or three-dimensional structures composed of bar elements,
plates or shells) in an optimal way for a static calculation or dynamics.
4.1.1.1 ELEMENT "FRAME" - TYPE POST AND BEAM
It is the one-dimensional element with six degrees of freedom at the nodes, 3 translations and 3
rotations to resume efforts and 3 times 3.
The beams and gantries elements can be inserted from the library structures using SAP 2000
"MODEL FROM TEMPLATE" statement
The models in the library SAP2000 on FRAME elements, post and beam type are as follows:
-

Beam;
Portal frame;
Braced frame;
Eccentric frame;
Space frame;
Perimeter frame.

Beam

Portal
frame

Braced
frame

Eccentric
frame

Space
frame

Perimeter
frame

Figure 4: Elements Gallery FRAME.

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After choosing the model of the structure of the library, you must specify the following
characteristics for structural dimensions.
-

Number of spans ........................................................................................... Number of spans


Span length ...................................................................................................... Length of span
Number of stories .......................................................................................... Number of steps
Number of bays ........................................................................................ Number of gantries
Story height........................................................................................................... Story height
Bay width ................................................................................................. Width of the portico
Gap width ............................................................................. Distance between nodes bracing
Number of bays along X (Y) ................................................ Number of gantries along X (Y)
Bay width along X (Y) .................................................................. Wide porches along X (Y)

4.1.1.2 ELEMENT "FRAME" - TYPE LATTICE


A lattice bar means the bar can not take and pass the axial forces. Note that by declaring the item as
bar mesh saves computation time.
The software library contains the following types of systems lattice:
-

Sloped truss;
Vertical truss;
Space truss.

Sloped
truss

Vertical
truss

Space
truss

Figure 5: Library lattice elements - TRUSS.


The characteristics of the mesh model of the library are selected according to the geometry of the
structure to be modeled. These are:
- Number of bays ........................................................................................ Number of gantries
- Height of truss ............................................................................................... Height of lattice
- Truss bay length...................................................................................... Length gantry lattice
- Number of stories ......................................................................................... number of levels
- Story height............................................................................................................level height
- Top width along X (Y) .........................................................................greater width in X (Y)
- Bottom width along X (Y) ....................................................................... Less width in X (Y)

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4.1.1.3 ELEMENT "SHELLS"


They are used for modeling sails, blocks, and shells. The library contains the following models:
- Shear wall;
- Cylinder;
- Barrel;
- Dome.

Shear wall

cylinder

barrel

dome

Figure 6: Elements Gallery SHELLS


The dimensions and the number of elements must be specified according to the type of structure to
be modeled. These data are entered into the menu of the selected model are the following:
-

Number of spaces along X (Z) ................................................................................................


Space width along X (Z) ..........................................................................................................
Number of circumferential spaces ...........................................................................................
Number of height spaces ........................................................................................................
Cylinder height ........................................................................................................................
Radius ......................................................................................................................................
Number of spaces span ............................................................................................................
Span ........................................................................................................................................
Roll down angle .......................................................................................................................
Number of segments ................................................................................................................

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4.1.2 IMPORT AND EXPORT FILES


The software allow us to use files on other structures developed software like STAAD-III and
SAP90 in DXF format with an option to import files calculation.
However, SAP in 2000 with an option to export files in DXF format. Thus, it creates a digital input
S2K file format which can be used as a file of SAP 2000.

Fishier import
SAP90
SAP2000.S2K
SAP2000.JOB
.DXF
Export files
SAP2000.S2K
.DXF

Figure 7: "FILE" Menu


4.2 MENU "EDIT"
The "EDIT" menu mainly contains instructions on changing the structural geometry of the structure
modeled.

4.2.1 MOVE (Move)


This command enable linear displacement 03 in
directions X, Y and Z nodes, elements, of a structural
part, etc., depending on the geometry of the structure
studied.

Figure 8: Overview of the MOVE option.

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4.2.2 REPLICATE (generate)


This instruction help facilitate the modeling of structures by automatic generation of the similar
elements in the linear radial direction. And a generation to mirror relative to a plan exists.
For linear generation must specify the number and distance units to three axes quadratic X, Y and
Z. However, the angle and the axis of rotation and the number of elements to be generated, must be
specified in the If a radial generation.

EXAMPLE

Gantry base

Figure 9: Example of linear and radial generation.

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4.2.3 Unwound FRAME (FRAME elements Subdivide)


This instruction permit to subdivide a FRAME several identical or non-members. However, the
FRAME element can be divided by the intersection with the grid selected automatically at the
beginning or obtained by instruction GRID EDIT DRAW menu.

Figure 10: Example of subdivision of the FRAME element.

4.2.4 MESH SHELLS (Subdivide SHELLS items)


Even preceding specifications, except that the plate member is subdivided in two directions thereof.
In addition to the plate member has a two-way division by the intersection with the selected grid,
can be subdivided into the mouse by selecting nodes where the element will be broken.
A beam element takes into account exactly all load cases that are imposed and there is therefore no
a priori accuracy problem. As against the size of plate elements directly affects the convergence of
the solution. In general the smaller the size of the element is small and the more refined analysis
results are accurate. However, the execution time (number of digital iterations) increases
significantly with the degree of refining discretizations. In the same model can be used different
sizes depending on the sensitivity of each region.
Another feature relating to the dimensions of the element is the ratio of the largest dimension to the
smallest dimension of the element. A ratio close to unity generally provides better results.

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Figure 11: Example of a refined mesh of plate members.

4.3 "DEFINE" MENU


The instructions in this menu provides an easy tool to capture geometrical and mechanical definition
of static and dynamic load characteristics.
4.3.1 MATERIALS (Material Properties)
This instruction permit introduction mechanical and elastic properties of the material of the elements
of the model structure.
The software assigns default characteristics of the two materials, concrete and steel that can be
changed according to your requirements.
Types of materials can be customized by inserting the following properties in the book this option
menu.

Properties for calculation

Mass per unit volume .................................................................................................. Density


Weight per unit volume ............................................................................................... Gravity
Modulus of elasticity ................................................................................................. Modulus
Poisson's ratio ....................................................................................................coeff. Poisson
Coeff of thermal expansion ......................................................................... Thermal Gradient

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Properties for design of reinforced concrete

Reinforcing yield stress, fy ........................................ Elastic deformation of steel (400 MPa)


Concrete strength, fc .................................... Characteristic strength of the concrete (25MPa)
Shear steel yield stress, fs ........................................................ Design stress steels (348MPa)
Concrete shear strength, fcs ..................................... Shear strength of the concrete (25 MPa)

Property for design of the steel structure

- Steel yield stress, fy ........................... Elastic deformation of the metal profiles (E24 or E36)

Reinforced concrete

Steelwork

Figure 12: Menus for specifying material properties.

Default properties SAP2000

E (Mpa)
DENSITY (KN / m3)
Coeff. Poisson
Thermal Gradient

STEEL
2.0 108
76.80
0.3
1.17 10-5

CONCRETE
2.48 107
23.56
0.2
9.9 10-6

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4.3.2 FRAME SECTIONS (Section elements FRAME)


The geometric characteristics of the elements must be specified for each group of elements of the
same size.
These properties can be introduced directly in terms of prismatic features: cross sectional area of
the rod, moments of inertia with respect to local axes 2 and 3, constant torsion bar heights according
to local axes 2 and 3 for taking into account deformations due to shear.
However, these properties can also be specified in terms of the dimensions of the key section, and
the program (software) automatically calculates the necessary properties for analysis of the structure
and the structure of the verification.
SAP 2000 also presents possibilities for defining the geometrical characteristics from databases
(library metal sections) standard steel profiles or profiles with variable inertias. These types of
profiles can be imported from the following files: Aisc.pro, Cisc.pro and Sections.pro.
Different types of metal sections are:
-

Wide Flange (1);


Channel (2);
T (3);
Angle (4);
Double Angle (5);
Box / Tube (6);
Pipe (7);
Rectangular (8);
Circle (9).

Figure 13: Overview of the geometrical characteristics of the elements FRAME.

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(1)

SAP 2000

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

Figure 14: Different sections of the database 200 of the SAP.


4.3.3 SHELLS SECTIONS (Section elements FRAME)
SHELLS section elements is defined by the thickness.
There are several types of plate elements which are:
SHELL ELEMENT
They are used for modeling sails, boards and hulls. This type of element that will balance the
moments of axes tangent to the surface and perpendicular to the plane tangential forces. Three
degrees of freedom are taken into account in each node, two rotations in the tangent plane, a
translation perpendicular to the plane which are associated two times and strength.

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MEMBRANE ELEMENT

The membrane element is that the strength balance tangent to its surface, and therefore can not
transmit bending moments.
In practice, this type is used for thin items.

SHELL ELEMENT

This is the superposition of the plate element and membrane (assembly of the two schemes below).

Figure 15: Efforts of the resulting two-dimensional elements.


4.3.4 STATIC LOAD CASES (Definition of load cases)
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This allow to define multiple load cases and their types, such as, dead loads (DEAD), operations
(LIVE), seismic (QUAKE), wind (WIND), snow (SNOW) are distinguished and option other.
The own weight of the structure is taken into account by the coefficient 01 in the case of loads. This
coefficient can be changed as appropriate. For example, the own weight is canceled in the case of
which the operating load coefficient is replaced with 0.

Figure 16: Menu specification load cases.


4.3.5 RESPONSE SPECTRUM FUNCTIONS (Function response spectrum)
The 2000 SAP software contains in its database response spectra defined by the American seismic
code (Uniform Building Code) and are UBC94S1, UBC94S2 and UBC94S33.
In Algeria the response spectrum is defined by the seismic code RPA99. The function of the design
spectrum is given by the following system of equations:

T
Q
1.25 1 2.5 1
R
T1

Q
2.51.25A R
SA
2/3

g 2.51.25A Q T2
R T

2/3
5/3
2.51.25A Q T2 3

R 3 T

0 T T1
T1 T T2
T2 T 3.0S
3.0S T

Along with:
T1 & T2 = 0.15s = 0.4s.

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A: Acceleration Coefficient area.


R: Coefficient of global behavior of the structure.
Q: Quality factor.

Figure 17: Example of the response


spectrum given by the RPA99.

Figure 18: Menu For data of the response


spectrum

4.3.6 RESPONSE SPECTRUM CASES (spectral dynamic load)


This load case can take into account the structure of the modal response as a response spectrum
applied to the base. It is based on the modal superposition method which is described by the
following steps:
Formulation of coupled equations of motion by calculating the mass matrix, rigidity and damping.

MX CX K X p(t ).
..

Calculation of natural frequencies and modes.

M KA 0.
Calculate the mass matrix and generalized loading.

mr r Mr
T

pr r p t
T

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Determination of the equations of motion decoupled.

pr
mr
Calculation of the modal response.
y r 2 r r y r r2 y r

x Ni1 r y r

Figure 19: Menu concerns the spectral dynamic load


4.3.7 LOAD COMBINATIONS (Load Combinations)
This statement is used to introduce load combinations by multiplying each load case by their
coefficient of increase given by the regulations of calculation.
These combinations can be specified for the calculation of design of reinforced concrete and
structural steel according to American codes by enabling the option USE FOR CONCRETE
(STEEL) DESIGN.

Figure 20: Menu concerning seizure load combinations.

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4.4 "ASSING" MENU


The instructions in this menu are used to define the support conditions, the values of each load case,
etc.
4.4.1 JOINTS (Nodes)
4.4.1.1 RESTRAINTS (Conditions restraints)
The supports can be specified as articulated as built or as embedded with some relaxations. The
articulated support is considered to be released in rotation and locked in translation. SAP2000 also
lets you specify spring constants in translation or rotation, allowing the definition of elastic supports.

Recessed

Double support

Joint

Free node

Figure 21: Different types of media.

The user must specify the program in a number of modes of the node of the fixing structure with the
outside environment (support), and between these elements.
Generally the connection of two elements in a node may be a hinge, a locking recess or a few degrees
of freedom.
SAP in 2000, all nodes are recognizing rigid default nodes.

4.4.1.2 SPRINGS (Elastic supports)

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This option allows us modeling the elastic supports specifying the stiffness of the node 'K'. These
nodes have been supported on springs stiffness 'K (KN / m)' in the direction of translation and
rotation.
For example, modeling the ground, neoprene, etc.
Z (3)
y (2)
X (1)

Figure 22: Menu concerning seizure rigidities elastic supports.


4.4.1.3 MASSES (Ground)
The masses used in the calculation of dynamic
structure are calculated and distributed over the
nodes.
Essentially, the option is used to distribute the
weight of the floors on the nodes.

Z (3)
y (2)
X (1)

Figure 23: Menu concerning seizure rigidities elastic supports.


4.4.2 FRAME
4.4.2.1 SECTIONS
After defining all kinds of sections to be used in the structure, this instruction is to specify the type
of section for each element of the structure.
For example, the posts are FSEC1 type beams are FSEC2 type, etc.

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4.4.2.2 Prestress
The bars may be of a structure subjected to a
prestressing load, which can change the distribution
of loads in the structure. The load of the prestress
can be centered or eccentric to the axis of the bar
means. The positions are specified for the cable ends
of the bar and at mid-span. The effects of stress can
be transmitted to adjacent rods (reactions) or
assumed that the bias is already performed and
therefore does not cause a reaction in the structure.

Figure 24: Menu concerns the input data preloading.


4.4.2.3 RELEASE (Release the ends of the elements)
This statement frees some degree of freedom of the nodes to eliminate efforts in a given direction.
For example, a lattice bar system only allows the normal force and the shearing force, thus the
rotation is free to remove nodes times.

Figure 25: Menu concerns RELEASE statement.

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4.4.3 SHELLS (Elements plates)


SECTIONS
After defining all kinds of sections to be used in the structure (DEFINE menu), this instruction is to
specify the type of section for each plate element of the structure.
4.4.4 JOINT STATIC LOADS (Forces or displacements applied to the nodes)
The specification is to translate loads the nature of permanent loads, service or accidental in a set of
forces, moments, acceleration or displacement applied to the nodes of the elements. The program
includes tools for generating loads that define calculations without prior fillers such as different
cases of linear and planar distributed loads, own weight, thermal loads, prestressing, and also
equipped with generators of mobile charges, wind and seismic.
The fillers can be two types: point loads or distributed loads. Nodal point loads or expenses are
expenses that the user explicitly introduced on some nodes of the mesh, they can be applied as nodal
forces, displacements or rotations nodes (Figure 26).
Loads, forces or moments can be applied to any node of the structure. These loads are acting in the
directions of the global coordinate system. Several charges can be applied to each node, in which
case the charges are added at this point.

Figure 26: Example of loads at the nodes.

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4.4.5 STATIC LOADS FRAME (FRAME elements applied to the charges)


The loads applied to the FRAME elements can be in many forms which may be mentioned:
- Uniformly distributed loads.
- Trapezoidal loads.
- Point loads.
- Temperature loads.
The loads (forces or times) are oriented along the axes of the global structure. These are specified
by their directions of loading, application points for point and trapezoidal loads and values.
The program calculates the axial stress (lengthening or shortening) due to the temperature
difference, by introducing the temperature difference (T max and T min).

Uniform

Concentrated

Figure 27: Examples of charges on FRAME elements.

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4.4.6 Shelle STATIC LOADS (surface charges)


SAP in 2000 to specify the surface charges on the two-dimensional elements. The program provided
for this load to be evenly distributed per square meter depending on local or global axes.
The thermal load can be specified as a temperature gradient between the mounting conditions and
the conditions of service, resulting in a lengthening or shortening of the bar.

Figure 28: Menu concerning the specification of surface charges.


4.4.7 JOINT PATTERNS (Distribution of charges whatsoever nodes)
This allow automatic transmission
of the resulting linear or surface
option loads the nodes.
These fillers are defined by the
following equation:
Ax + By + Cz + D

Figure 29: Menu concerns SEAL Pattens order.

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4.5 "ANALYZE" MENU

STATIC ANALYSIS LINEAR

A linear static analysis to determine the displacement field, recreation restraints, the internal forces
at the nodes and the stress field existing in a structure subjected to various static loads several
implicit assumptions are made:
- Linear elastic behavior of materials.
- Small deformations.
- Small rotations.
The linear static analysis is based on the displacement method of satisfying the balance of forces
and accounts of trips each node in the model structure. To achieve the full analysis of the structure,
the stiffness matrix is obtained by the superposition of contributions from different rigidities of the
bars and of the elements constituting the structure. The compound of the force vector and external
loads distributed to the nodes of the structure. The equation with several unknowns (displacement)
thus obtained is solved using the method of Cholesky decomposition that is well suited for this type
of problems.

ANALYSIS P-DELTA

Delta-P analysis, also known as a second order analysis, allows to take into account the effect of
axial loads on the bending behavior of the elements. SAP 2000 uses a simple and efficient algorithm
for calculation based on the reformation of the vector force versus deformation undergone by the
structure while keeping the constant stiffness matrix. The calculation steps is summarized in the
following:
- Calculation of deflections in the case of initial load.
- Calculation of secondary loads due to movements of the nodes associated with traditional
efforts. These vectors nival charges are added to the vectors of the initial charges.
- Calculation of deflections and deformations and effort with the same stiffness matrix as a
result of the force vector corrected.
This method is particularly useful for the consideration of the effects of gravity on the lateral
stiffness of the structures, as required by certain codes.

NONLINEAR STATIC ANALYSIS

SAP 2000 also offers the possibility of a non-linear calculation taking into account the geometric
nonlinairit. The algorithm for this analysis is based on the geometric correction of the stiffness
matrix and load vector simultaneously.
This type of analysis is generally suitable for structures that deform appreciably under the effect of
loads applied to them.
The calculation steps are:

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The movements of the applied loads are calculated.


Estimates based on the deformed geometry corrections are then made to the stiffness
matrices of the elements and a new global matrix is rebuilt.
Vectors charges are revised to include the side effects of these movements.
The new system of equations is solved to give further displacement.
The forces on the components and reactions of supports are then calculated from these
new displacement.
The algorithm is iterative, user can specify the number of iterations required knowing that
the execution time increases with the number of iterations.
DYNAMIC ANALYSIS

Dynamic analysis available in SAP 2000 includes modal analysis, spectral analysis and temporal
analysis.

MODAL ANALYSIS

Modal analysis is used to determine the natural modes and frequencies of structures.
Since there is no external force, the natural frequencies and natural modes are a direct function of
the rigidity and the mass distribution of the structures. Therefore, the calculation result of the
frequencies of the natural modes and can vary considerably depending on the modeling of the
masses.

SPECTRAL ANALYSIS

The spectral analysis is used to calculate the seismic response of a structure using a response
spectrum. The modal responses are combined using the method of the complete quadratic
combination CQC (Complete Quadratic Combination) or SSRS. The results of spectral analysis can
be combined with the static analysis results for the dimensioning of the structure. To account for the
reversibility of the seismic loads, load combinations can be created by including the contributions
of seismic design with the - / +.

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TEMPORAL DYNAMICS ANALYSIS

In cases where a deterministic analysis study temporal dynamics is required, SAP 2000 has the
possibility of calculating the response of a structure under the effect of a dynamic load applied to
any node or ground movement ( at the base). The calculation method is based on the modal
superposition, which gives the response of the structure.
The procedure is to first calculate the modes and frequencies of the system to calculate the matrix
of generalized mass and generalized load vector, which will then be used for decoupling of the
differential equations of motion. The modal response to imposed loading is calculated by the
numerical integration method using the algorithm Wilson- with a constant time interval selected
by the user in the order of 0.1T (T being the period of the highest mode to be included in the answer).
Finally the answer is expressed in terms of geometric coordinates efforts in the elements and support
reactions.

OPTIONS ANALYSIS DATA BY SAP IN 2000

Figure 30: Menu in which the specification of analysis options.

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For dynamic analysis, one must specify the number of modes used in the calculation in a way one
must have a mass greater than 90% participation.
Regarding the P-Delta analysis, we have to specify the number of iterations and tolerance made in
the calculation of forces and displacements.

Figure 31: Menu For data to be specified for the P-Delta analysis and dynamic.

4.6 MENU "DISPLAY"


The 2000 SAP greatly facilitates the interpretation of results, including the ability to display:
4.6.1 SHOW LOADS (Graphical visualization of forces)
This instruction allows graphic visualization of the charges and values.

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4.6.2 SHOW TABLES INPUT (Digital Display of INPUT)


The instruction INPUT SHOW TABLES allows digital display loads and geometric coordinates of
the different elements of the structure.

Figure 32: Example ofINPUT TABLES.


4.6.3 Deformed SHOW SHAPE

(Viewing of the deformed system)

Deformations under any load case can be


traced and values of deformations at nodes
or spans can be viewed or printed.

Figure 33: Plots of the deformed.

4.6.4 FASHION SHOW SHAPE

(Playback modes of vibration)

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Deformed eigenmodes can be illustrated and animated for a better understanding and control modes
of the structures in space.
Many features and commands allow the scaling of the image, fragmentation, zoom, digital indexing,
etc. As well as a video file (AVI) can be created that contains the animation of the mode shape.

Figure 34: Plot of the mode shape.


4.6.5 SHOW ELEMENT FORCES / STRESSES (Visualization of forces and constraints)
The diagrams of shear forces, axial forces
or bending moments can be traced for the
entire structure or element.
Fields constraints or contours can be flat
or show for the volume elements.

Bending moment

Shear

Normal force
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Figure 35: Diagrams solicitations.

Figure 36: Contours of the stresses and strains.

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METAL SHED WITH CRANE

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MODELING STEPS

A simple model from the


software library (25m wide and 20m
high) gantry.

Subdivided into two higher element


using the unwound FRAME option.

Moving the intermediate node along


the Z axis 2m by the MOVE command.

Subdivision poles identical elements


20 (each 1.m)

Subdivision sleepers three bays to create


nodes for achieving the horizontal
braces.

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Generation posts by 1.m distance


(between column axis compound).

Modeling pole lattice compound


(generating elements 17 along the Z axis
from a base member designed by the
mouse).

Generating similar porticos along


the Y (10 gantries with a center distance
of 6m) axis.

Adding elements to the axis Y //, tq,


the bearing beams and braces and other
items, is made on only one span. Next,
the generation of these elements is set as
appropriate.
For this, enable the option SET LIMIT
and select two gantry shore.

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Generation of new elements for


other gantries specifying the number
and no generation.
(6m with no number 9)

Modeling vertical and horizontal


braces by adding elements FRAME by
mouse only for a span, then makes the
generation of these.
But first we must divide the two beams
to connect the nodes bracing beams.

Definition of groups

IPE450-1
IPE450-2
IPE450-3
IPE450-4
TRAVERS
TREILL IS
CONT-H
CONT-V
HEA600
PTR-ROOF
PTR

TRAVERS
HEA600
IPE450-1
IPE450-2

IPE450-3
IPE450-4
LATTICE

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ACCELERATED TRAINING

CONT-H

TRAVERS

SAP 2000

PTR-ROOF

PTR

Definition of different types of sections

The elements of the structure are steel frame


whose sections of the profile is imported from a
file (Euro.Pro) continent types of metal profiled.
For this reason, the steps are:
-

Menu selection 'DEFINE'


Select
submenu
'DEFINE
FRAME
SECTION'
Click to 'I IMPORT / WIDE FLANGE'
Selected file profiled 'Euro .Pro'
Select the profiles IPE450, IPE400, HEA600,
HEA200 (Posts, beams, beam rolling, cross).
Click to 'IMPORT ANGLE'
Select a cornier 15010010 (Lattice pole
compound)
Click to 'IMPORT CHANNEL'
Chose a UPN260 (bracing)

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Definition of load cases

G, Q, V, N, Ex, Ey, T
Where:

G: dead load.
Q: operating expense.
V: wind load.
N: snow load.
Ex, y: spectral seismic loads in the x, y.
T: load due to temperature.
These load cases are introduced by the command '' Static loads boxes'.

Defines the response spectrum calculation.

The response spectrum given by the RPA99 is


introduced as acceleration depending on the
period.

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ACCELERATED TRAINING

Case definition spectral dynamic load.

specification of the damping factor (Donated


by RPA99)
Specifying the application of each response
spectrum management.

SAP 2000

This load case is specified by the DEFINE


DEFINE RESPONSE SPECTRA menu.

Definition of load combinations

Load combinations are defined from sub menu


LOAD COMBINATION.

Specification supports
Selecting only the nodes of support by 'SET
LIMITS'.
Type specification supports using the button

Specifying sections of each element.

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ACCELERATED TRAINING

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Item selection is made by selecting the groups, then the type specification section of the selected
elements is set from the ASSIGN menu.
For example:
-

Select IPE450-1 groups IPE450-2, IPE450-3, IPE450-4.


Specify these IPE450 the profile using the ASSIGN menu and sub menus FRAME-SECTIONS.

Same procedure for the other elements as before using the item selection by groups or by other
selection options (SET LIMITS for example).
Some elements of the structure does not have the
bending moment. For example, the lattice pole
compound and bracing.
The release of those elements is in rotations made by
RLEASES option after selecting those components.

Specifying the load

In the case of this example, the dead load,


operating, snow are applied uniformly
distributed over the cross.
The steps are:
-

Select sleepers (THROUGH group)


Activate the submenu 'POINT AND
UNIFORM SPAN LOADS' ASSIGN
menu.
Give values for each load (by specifying
the load case and the loading direction)

The wind load is horizontally applied on poles


compounds along the Y axis, following the
same steps as above, as applied vertically on
the sleepers. Values and direction of
application are given by the Snow and Wind
settlement.

Specification of masses for dynamic


calculation.

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ACCELERATED TRAINING

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The dynamic calculation is done by the


introduction of horizontal loads (in the X, Y)
introduced by the MASSES in the ASSIGN
menu menu - JOINTS.
The introduction of these weights is necessary
for calculating the spectral dynamic.

Setting the Analysis options

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ACCELERATED TRAINING

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BUILDING A 4 R + D'HOME AND OFFICE USE


This structure is a steel frame building for offices and housing. It comprises gantries modeled by
the method of generation, and composite floors, it is assumed embedded in the ground. The building
is located in the seismic zone 2.
DIMENSIONS IN THE STRUCTURE PLAN
Length (X) ........................................................................................................................ 24.0 m
Width (Y) ......................................................................................................................... 12.0 m
Height (Z) ......................................................................................................................... 16.5 m

6m

6m

5m

5m

4m

5m

5m

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ACCELERATED TRAINING

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STAGES OF MODELING

Choosing a model of spatial structure from


the library.

Using the MOVE command to change the


length of intermediate span 4m to 5m.

Defining standard metal profiles to be used:

-1m

HEA340; HEB260; IPE360; IPE200.


These sections are defined from Euro.Pro file by
activating the option of DEFINE FRAME
SECTION menu.

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ACCELERATED TRAINING

Beams IPE200

Beams IPE360

HEB 260
posts

HEA 340
posts

HEB 260
posts

SAP 2000

Beams IPE200

Beams IPE200

Definition of load cases.

G; Q; Ex1; EY1; Ex2; EY2.


Tq:
G: dead load.
Q: operating expense.
Ex1 (y1) equivalent static load in X (Y)
Ex2 (y2): spectral dynamic load in X (Y)

Defines the response spectrum given by the


RPA99 using the RESPONSE SPECTRUM
DEFINE FUNCTIONS menu.

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ACCELERATED TRAINING

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Case definition for dynamic load spectral


Ex2, EY2.

The spectral dynamic load is applied in both X


and Y directions separately, as it is unfair to
apply the two functions of the response spectrum
in a load case (X or Y) at the same time.

Definition of load combinations.

G+Q
1.35G + 1.5Q

G + Q + Ex1
G + Q-Ex1
G + Q + EY1
G + Q-EY1
G + Q + Ex2
G + Q-Ex2
G + Q + EY2
G + Q-EY2

G + Q + 1.2Ex1
G + Q-1.2Ex1
G + Q + 1.2Ey1
G + Q-1.2Ey1
G + Q + 1.2Ex2
G + Q-1.2Ex2
G + Q + 1.2Ey2
G + Q-1.2Ey2

0.8g + Ex1
0.8g-Ex1
0.8g + EY1
0.8g-EY1
0.8g + Ex2
0.8g-Ex2
0.8g + EY2
0.8g-EY2

Specification of support conditions.

The structure is assumed embedded at its base.


The definition of the latter is established by the
restraints control or the menu

Introduction of the masses of floors for spectral dynamic calculation in horizontal direction X,
Y.

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In the case of this structure, they are calculated in this manner.


W = Wp + Q
Wp = own weight.
= 0.2
Q = operating expense.
Weight of the deck is not accessible:
Wterr = 2003.5 + 0.2 288 = 2061.2KN
Weight of the floors:
Wtage = 1818.4 + 0.2 (660 + 96) = 1969.7KN
Total weight of the structure:
Wtotal = 2061.2 + 4 = 1969.7 9940KN

Each floor is 18 knots. Therefore, the above values will be divided on 18 and gave the following
values:
Wterr / node = 114.5KN
Wtage / node = 109.5KN

Specifying different loads.

Dead load G:
Floor deck G = 5 kN / m
Current G Floor = 4 KN / m
Charges farms Q:
Floor deck Q = 1 KN / m
Q = current floor 2.5 KN / m
These charges are introduced by the FRAME
command STATIC LOADS (uniformly
distributed load)
Ex1 equivalent static loads, y1:

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ACCELERATED TRAINING

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These forces are distributed to nodes floors. The


calculation of the latter is determined using the
method given by RPA99.
ADQ
W
R

where:
A = 0.15; D = 2.5; Q = 1.10; R = 5.
V

0.15 2.5 1.1


9940 820KN
5

Load Distribution:

Fi

V Ft

Wi H i

W H
j 1

f1 = 314.60KN
f2 = 276.50KN
f3 = 236.00KN
f4 = 195.40KN
f5 = 154.90KN
f1 / node = 17.50KN
f2 / node = 15.36KN
f3 / node = 13.11KN
f4 / node = 10.86KN
f5 / node = 08.60KN

EVEN BUILDING R 4 WITH SOLID SLABS

Same steps as above except:

The floors are modeled by elements


SHELLS.
The loads are applied directly on the slab
(surface charges) using the UNIFORM
LOADS SHELL command ASSIGN menu
after selecting items to load.
For the dynamic study, the masses can be
applied to the nodes of the posts, and they
can be applied in each node of the slab
(element nodes SHELLS), dividing the
mass of the floor on them.

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ACCELERATED TRAINING

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MODELING A RAFT ON ELASTIC SUPPORTS

Consider that the foundation of the previous


structure is a general ribbed slab.
The floor is modeled as a solid slab, and the ribs
are modeled as beams.
Modeling riffles is based primarily on the
assumption that the soil is an elastic support.
In this case, all the nodes of the raft (INCL) to be
considered elastic supports specifying the soil
stiffness "K" by the ASSIGN SPRING option
menu after selection of the nodes of the raft
(usually k is between 40 and 80MPa / m3)

47