Ivan Pattiasina
Extended Mathematics 10
Tide Modeling Investigation Report
Introduction
Tides are calculated and measured every hour. It shows shorttem changes in the height of the
surface of the ocean in a place. The gravitational force of the moon, sun, and the motion of the
rotation of the earth determine the shortterm change in height of the tides. The wavelength is
half the circumference of the Earth; tides are the longest of all waves. They are never free of the
forces that allow them to occur. Therefore, they are known as forced waves.
Greek navigator and explorer, Pytheas, first founded the calculation of tidal motion. He was the
first to write about the correlation between the position of the mood and the height of the tide.
From his research, he found that the position of the moon, located in a certain place, determines
and shows the tidal movement of the ocean. Pytheass theory was then supported by Isaac
Newtons Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. Newtons analysis of gravitation
shows the movement of planets, moons, and other parts in gravitational field(s). He concluded
tht the pull of gravity between two bodies is equal to the masses of the bodies. However, it is
somewhat equal to the square of the distance between the two things. It is concluded that as the
distance increases, the gravitational pull weakens in a fast pace.
Although the gravitational movement of the moon causes the main cause of change of height in
tides and the sun, as taken in by the ocean, the cube of the distance from the Earths core to the
center of the tidegenerating object, also causes the force that generates the tides.
Grindstone Island, Data recorded by 27th December 2003 using Atlantic Standard Time
(AST)
Time
(AST)
Heigh
t (m)
00.0
0
7.5
01.0
0
10.2
02.0
0
11.8
03.0
0
12.0
04.0
0
10.9
05.0
0
8.9
06.0
0
6.3
07.0
0
3.6
08.0
0
1.6
09.0
0
0.9
10.0
0
1.8
11.00
Time
(AST)
Heigh
t (m)
12.0
0
6.9
13.0
0
9.7
14.0
0
11.6
15.0
0
12.3
16.0
0
11.6
17.0
0
9.9
18.0
0
7.3
19.0
0
4.5
20.0
0
2.1
21.0
0
0.7
22.0
0
0.8
23.0
0
2.4
26.0
0
10.2
32.0
0
3.5
33.0
0
1.7
34.0
0
1.2
35.0
0
1.2
Time
(AST)
Heigh
t (m)
24.0
0
5.0
25.0
0
7.9
4.0
Time
(AST)
Heigh
t (m)
36.0
0
4.4
37.0
0
7.2
38.0
0
9.7
39.0
0
11.3
40.0
0
11.8
41.0
0
11.1
42.0
0
9.4
43.0
0
7.0
44.0
0
4.4
45.0
0
2.2
46.0
0
1.0
47.0
0
1.3
15.00
16.00
17.00
18.00
19.00
20.00
21.00
12.3
11.6
9.9
7.3
4.5
2.1
0.7
Calculation:
A. Amplitude (A)
MaximumMinimum
2
12.30.7 11.6
=
2
2
= 5.8
B. Vertical Shift (D)
Maximum+ Minimum
12.3+ 0.7
2
13
2
6.5
C. Frequency (B)
1
T
2
( x upx low )
2115
6 isthe half of the period .
1
T 2
2
6 2
12
Therefore ,the frequencyis
2
b
2
12
d y low
( x upx low )
y up y low
11+
6.54.0
(1211)
6.94.0
11+
2.5
1
2.9
3
11+0.862069
11.862069
E. Function
[ b ( xc ) ] +da cos[b ( xc ) ]+ d
a sin
a = 5.8
0.523599
b=
6
c = 11.862069
d = 6.5
Therefore, the equation would be made upon the values from each variable.
sine :5.8 sin [ 0.523599 ( x11.862069 ) ] +6.5
cosine :5.8 cos [ 0.523599 ( x11.862069 ) ] + 6.5
The used function will be from the sine function.
Variables
The variables in the graph are the time and the height. The variables represent the x and y on the
plotted graph. The x represents each hour and the y represents the height of the tide.
Parameter
The parameters of the graph are based upon the calculation done to find the amplitude, vertical and
horizontal shift, and the period/frequency. The amplitude is represented by the variable a, the
period/frequency represented by b, the horizontal shift represented by c, and the vertical shift
represented by d.
a = 5.8
0.523599
b=
6
c = 11.862069
d = 6.5
Constraints
After testing out the function on Graphmatica, the function shows that the curve of the function does
not follow the dotted plot. The shape of the curve is placed near the curve of the dotted plot, but is not
as accurate as it should be. The found formula is very specific in terms of the decimal point numbers.
Therefore, when the modification is applied, random numbers cannot be sprouted to modify the
formula because it would be too complicated.
Function (Part 1)
To finally show the curve of the graph, the function of the graph has to be decided. The function has to
be decided accordingly to the shape of the graph. The graph that represents the tide shows that the
curve starts after the 0 from the yaxis.
Based on
finding the two
functions for
sine and cosine,
the graph shows
the
characteristics
of a cosine
function graph.
The reason why
the cosine is
used is because
the graph shows
that the curve
starts after the
(0,0)
coordinates
from the yaxis.
After inserting
the function, the
curve of the
graph shows
that it does not
follow the
dotted points. It
is seen that the
curve does not
meet the points
of the dotted
plot. Therefore,
adjustments
have to be made in order for the function to suit the dotted plot. Therefore, the function originally
found its error.
Modification
Time
Height
Manual
Error
Graphmatic
a
Error
7.5
10.2
11.8
12
10.9
8.9
6.3
3.6
1.6
0.9
10
1.8
11
12
6.9
13
9.7
14
11.6
15
12.3
16
11.6
17
9.9
18
7.3
19
4.5
20
2.1
21
22
0.7
0.8
T
6.91872387
7
9.75505832
8
11.7192025
3
12.2848656
3
11.3004786
5
9.02980729
9
6.08127612
3
3.24494167
2
1.28079747
2
0.71513437
4
1.69952134
9
3.97019270
1
6.91872387
7
9.75505832
8
11.7192025
3
12.2848656
3
11.3004786
5
9.02980729
9
6.08127612
3
3.24494167
2
1.28079747
2
0.71513437
4
1.69952134
%
T
%
7.75034830 7.69798972 2.63986294
8
1
7
4.36217325 10.2768765 0.75369133
7
2
9
0.68472433 11.9297275
6
1 1.09938565
12.2416648 2.01387347
2.37388022
2
7
3.67411606 11.1343898 2.15036574
8
7
9
1.45850897 8.88583689 0.15913605
3
1
6
6.06040938 3.80302560
3.47180757
7
2
9.86273132 3.36731064 6.46359326
7
2
9
19.9501580 1.48252844
2
3 7.34197231
20.5406251 0.87915711 2.31587563
5
9
2
5.58214730 1.70864735 5.07514696
2
5
9
0.74518246 3.76279093
5
9 5.93022652
0.27136053 6.52598257 5.42054235
5
8
3
0.56761162 9.30464064 4.07586962
6
7
2
1.02760800 11.4013013 1.71291953
3
3
2
0.12304368 12.2896872 0.08384360
8
4
8
2.58208059 11.7468068 1.26557666
1
9
5
8.78982526 9.90892730 0.09017477
7
3
8
16.6948476 7.23736989 0.85794667
3
3
4
27.8901850 4.40271541 2.16187969
6
4
5
39.0096442 2.11648319 0.78491393
1
3
6
2.16205337 0.95253449 36.0763566
9
7
7
112.440168 1.20302909 50.3786366
23
9
6
3
2
3.97019270 65.4246958 2.80509097 16.8787907
2.4
1
9
8
3
14.8933136 6.63841242
6.5
4
8 6.6472336
Before applying the modifications to the function, calculations have to be made to find out the
error percentages from both manual counting, in which represents the original function found.
The error percentage calculated from Graphmatica uses the function given by the application and
it shows a different function, when compared with the original calculated function. This shows
the difference between the given shape of the dotted plot by the original function and the
function that Graphmatica has calculated. The table below shows that the found formula is
incorrect by 6%
Modification Process
# Trial
Modified value of Horizontal shift (C)
Trial 1
Evaluation
Time
Height
7.5
10.2
11.8
12
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
Manual
T
3.34109359
7
6.19645145
4
9.13314489
8
11.3642892
9
10.9 12.2920513
11.6678378
8.9
4
9.65890640
6.3
3
6.80354854
3.6
6
3.86685510
1.6
2
1.63571070
0.9
6
0.70794869
1.8
8
4 1.33216216
3.34109359
6.9
7
6.19645145
9.7
4
9.13314489
11.6
8
11.3642892
12.3
9
11.6 12.2920513
11.6678378
9.9
4
9.65890640
7.3
3
6.80354854
4.5
6
3.86685510
2.1
2
0.7 1.63571070
Error
%
55.4520853
7
39.2504759
4
22.6004669
6
5.29758921
6
12.7711128
6
31.0993015
8
53.3159746
5
88.9874596
2
141.678443
8
81.7456339
9
60.6695167
5
66.6959460
1
51.5783536
7
36.1190571
8
21.2659922
5
7.60740411
3
5.96595949
6
17.8569478
8
32.3137863
4
51.1899676
9
84.1359572
1
133.672958
Graphmatic
a
T
7.69207550
5
10.1713382
2
11.7517860
3
12.0384913
9
Error
%
2.56100672
7
0.28099788
1
0.40859295
2
0.32076157
8
0.54872844
10.9598114
1
8.78529021 1.28887403
1
9
6.05830441
5 3.83643786
3.46028230 3.88104716
2
3
1.64042628 2.52664294
7
2
1.05348804 17.0542276
9
9
1.84613366 2.56298163
9
6
3.82029422 4.49264446
1
6
6.48265989 6.04840733
4
4
5.48505268
9.16794989
3
3.40383616
11.205155
6
12.0852116 1.74624680
4
6
11.5882083 0.10165240
2
1
9.83833788 0.62284964
5
6
7.27286378 0.37172898
4
8
4.53285522 0.73011615
7
8
2.30299467 9.66641308
5
5
1.14048710 62.9267293
9
6
5
1
0.70794869
66.9779724
22
0.8
8 11.5064127 1.33582378
8
44.4932433
18.3413883
23
2.4 1.33216216
5 2.84019332
5
48.2195852 6.62793592 9.00772236
6.5
8
6
6
Trial 2
= 5.8sin (0.6x 13.1) + 6.5
This time, the vertical shift
(B) is modified and the
horizontal shift is still 13.1, a
previously used for the first
trial. The modified vertical
shift is the baby blue
highlight. It is seen that the
modified formula is even
farther away from the dotted
plot. Thus, concluding that
this formula is not doable.
The table below shows that
the manual T is 5.9, which
shows a 0.6 difference from
the original functions vertica
shift.
10
Time
Graphmatic
Error
a
%
T
90.6652661 7.69207550
0.70010504
4
5
10.1713382
1.69343054 83.3977398
2
4.36582903 63.0014488 11.7517860
9
2
3
7.78375485 35.1353762 12.0384913
4
1
9
10.7532281 1.34653058
7
9 10.9598114
12.2369265 37.4935563 8.78529021
1
2
1
11.7165513 85.9770059 6.05830441
8
7
5
9.37388476 160.385687 3.46028230
3
9
2
1.64042628
6.02728752 276.70547
7
2.84582234 216.202482 1.05348804
6
9
9
0.94086655 47.7296356 1.84613366
8
6
9
0.97787601 75.5530995 3.82029422
9
3
1
2.94392225 57.3344600 6.48265989
9
2
4
6.15220876
2 36.5751674 9.16794989
9.48198875 18.2587176
2
6 11.205155
11.7700742 4.30833920 12.0852116
8
8
4
12.2171712
11.5882083
4 5.3204417
2
7.74844242 9.83833788
10.6670958
2
5
7.66133391 4.94977960 7.27286378
1
8
4
4.24988467 5.55811831 4.53285522
6
2
7
1.62446545 22.6445019 2.30299467
9
3
5
0.70221072 0.31581827 1.14048710
Manual
T
Height
7.5
10.2
11.8
12
10.9
8.9
6.3
3.6
1.6
0.9
10
1.8
11
12
6.9
13
9.7
14
11.6
15
12.3
16
11.6
17
9.9
18
7.3
19
4.5
20
21
2.1
0.7
Error
%
2.56100672
7
0.28099788
1
0.40859295
2
0.32076157
8
0.54872844
1
1.28887403
9
3.83643786
3.88104716
3
2.52664294
2
17.0542276
9
2.56298163
6
4.49264446
6
6.04840733
4
5.48505268
3
3.40383616
6
1.74624680
6
0.10165240
1
0.62284964
6
0.37172898
8
0.73011615
8
9.66641308
5
62.9267293
11
8
4
5
1
1.80529059 125.661324
66.9779724
22
0.8
3
1 1.33582378
8
4.54836752 89.5153133
18.3413883
23
2.4
1
7 2.84019332
5
5.96831569 64.6576551 6.62793592 9.00772236
6
6
6
6
Trial 3
= 5.8*sin ( 0.5 x 12) + 6.5
This time, the vertical shift is
changed to the original
vertical shift, which is 0.5
However, the horizontal shift
is changed to a lower number
It is changed to a lower
number because the first trial
shows that if the horizontal
shift (C), was increased, the
curve would lean more to the
dotted plan. However, if the
horizontal shift was increased
instead of decreased, the
curve of the graph would lean
away from the dotted plan, in
which shows no accuracy.
The orange highlight shows
that when the horizontal shift
is changed to 12.0, it follows
the graphs dotted plot.
However, it is not entirely a
perfect match. From this, we
can conclude that this is the
modified formula. The table
below shows that the manual
T counted does not differ
much from the original
formulas vertical shift, whic
is 6.5 The manual percentage
error, with calculations done
on Excel, show that the third
modified formula is 6% error
When the third formula is
compared to the other two
formulas, the final formula
makes more sense because it
shows accurate and reliable
results, unlike the other two
formulas. The first two
12
Height
Manual
T
7.5
10.2
11.8
12
10.9
8.9
6.3
3.6
1.6
0.9
10
1.8
11
8.12060989
10.5921338
9
12.0617607
9
12.1696746
8
10.8894544
7
8.53454272
1
5.68150395
3
3.02886156
4
1.22607492
4
0.71452907
8
1.61946828
8
3.71933187
6
12
6.9
13
9.7
14
11.6
15
12.3
16
11.6
17
9.9
6.5
9.28066812
4
11.3805317
1
12.2854709
2
11.7739250
8
9.97113843
6
Error
%
8.27479852
7
3.84444988
5
2.21831180
5
1.41395568
7
0.09674795
6
4.10626156
6
9.81739756
7
15.8649565
5
23.3703172
2
20.6078802
6
10.0295395
5
7.01670309
8
5.79710144
9
4.32300903
2
1.89196800
1
0.11812258
3
Graphmatic
a
T
7.69207550
5
10.1713382
2
11.7517860
3
12.0384913
9
Error
%
2.56100672
7
0.28099788
1
0.40859295
2
0.32076157
8
0.54872844
10.9598114
1
8.78529021 1.28887403
1
9
6.05830441
5
3.83643786
3.46028230 3.88104716
2
3
1.64042628 2.52664294
7
2
1.05348804 17.0542276
9
9
1.84613366 2.56298163
9
6
3.82029422 4.49264446
1
6
6.48265989 6.04840733
4
4
5.48505268
9.16794989
3
3.40383616
11.205155
6
12.0852116 1.74624680
4
6
11.5882083 0.10165240
1.4993541
2
1
0.71857005 9.83833788 0.62284964
9
5
6
13
18
7.3
19
4.5
20
2.1
21
0.7
22
0.8
23
2.4
7.31849604
7
4.46545727
9
2.11054552
7
0.83032531
8
0.93823920
7
2.40786611
2
6.56752541
2
14
H
4
T 0
5

Recorded Data
Taken Before the
27th, 2003
15
calculation. However, if the graph were to use the finalized modified function from the first day,
it would look like this:
It appears that the graph does not show any significant changes to the new dotted points for the
timeframe between 01:00 to 04:00. It also shows that the function can still be applied to the new
dotted plan. In fact, it shows a better and much more accurate result than the other graphs with
the original dotted points.
DAY 2 (281003)
Time 24.0
(AST 0
)
Heigh 5.0
t (m)
25.0
0
26.0
0
32.0
0
33.0
0
34.0
0
35.0
0
7.9
10.2
11.6
11.6
10.5
8.5
6.0
3.5
1.7
1.2
1.2
Time 36.0
(AST 0
)
Heigh 4.4
t (m)
37.0
0
38.0
0
39.0
0
40.0
0
41.0
0
42.0
0
43.0
0
44.0
0
45.0
0
46.0
0
47.0
0
7.2
9.7
11.3
11.8
11.1
9.4
7.0
4.4
2.2
1.0
1.3
16
17
2nd Modification
y=5.8 sin [ 0.5 ( x0.4 ) ] +6.5
The 1st modified formula shows that when the horizontal shift is decreased to a value below 1, it
shows that the curve is starting to follow the pattern of the dotted plan, in which is represented
by the color navy blue.
18
2nd Trial
y=5.8 sin [ 0.5 ( x0.01 ) ]+6.5
19
This modifications shows a much more accurate result because the modified formulas curve is
closer to the graph. Thus, it gives off a more accurate result.
However, after testing two different formulas with both days, it is clear that the first formula, in
which is, y=5.8 sin [ 0.5 ( x12 ) ] +6.5 , is far more accurate because it follows the curve of
the tidal range. Therefore, no modification is needed.
Height
7.5
10.2
11.8
12
10.9
8.9
6.3
3.6
1.6
0.9
10
1.8
11
12
6.9
13
9.7
14
15
11.6
12.3
Manual
T
5.34771788
1
8.21401719
9
10.6606653
3
12.0886374
8
12.1483162
6
10.8250902
3
8.44293127
1
5.58507497
4
2.95122423
3
1.18623756
7
0.72224526
9
1.67284883
5
3.80530735
9
6.59752062
3
9.36585743
7
11.4325324
Error
%
28.6970949
1
19.4704196
2
9.65537858
3
0.73864562
8
11.4524427
4
21.6302273
1
34.0147820
8
55.1409715
84.4515145
3
31.8041740
9
59.8752628
5
58.1787791
2
44.8506179
8
31.9843234
8
19.2598496
8
7.05258211
Graphmatic
a
T
7.69207550
5
10.1713382
2
11.7517860
3
12.0384913
9
Error
%
2.56100672
7
0.28099788
1
0.40859295
2
0.32076157
8
0.54872844
10.9598114
1
8.78529021 1.28887403
1
9
6.05830441
5 3.83643786
3.46028230 3.88104716
2
3
1.64042628 2.52664294
7
2
1.05348804 17.0542276
9
9
1.84613366 2.56298163
9
6
3.82029422 4.49264446
1
6
6.48265989 6.04840733
4
4
5.48505268
9.16794989
3
3.40383616
11.205155
6
12.0852116 1.74624680
20
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
Time
11.6 12.2915514
11.7325966
9.9
4
9.89251971
7.3
9
7.22183565
4.5
6
2.1 4.37442105
2.04742230
0.7
3
0.81056986
0.8
6
0.96668835
2.4
1
6.68265955
5
Manual
Error
T
%
2.47755450 69.5269466
5
8
2
50.9615941
7.9 4.97325561
8
7.84275698
1.2
6 33.1273648
10.3835046
11.6
2 13.7915564
11.9734348 9.29929800
11.6
8
7
12.2232773 38.6290694
10.5
9
6
11.0718619 79.5802789
8.5
9
8
8.80109532 148.355917
6
4
3
5.96694026 270.407123
3.5
9
9
3.26329682 245.534308
1.7
7
6
1.35211120 27.4456924
1.2
5
6
2.2 0.7013083 77.9746480
Height
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
7
5.96165002
7
18.5110771
3
35.5139687
5
60.4852368
1
108.305764
3
192.488900
5
1.32123320
2
59.7213187
3
41.6902589
9
4
11.5882083
2
9.83833788
5
7.27286378
4
4.53285522
7
2.30299467
5
1.14048710
5
1.33582378
2.84019332
6.62793592
6
Graphmatic
a
T
5.27767885
8
8.03919339
1
10.4346804
8
11.8655478
2
11.9742455
4
10.7336118
7
8.45366049
9
5.70411325
5
6
0.10165240
1
0.62284964
6
0.37172898
8
0.73011615
8
9.66641308
5
62.9267293
1
66.9779724
8
18.3413883
5
9.00772236
6
Error
%
3.70238476
8
1.36464108
7
78.2600040
3
2.21289852
4
3.43344530
1
2.62485250
5
0.73554764
8.21907625
6
3.17203616
20.49774
1.49015306 23.3163257
9
2
1.07873852 6.73674853
6
6
2.04059816 3.98504577
21
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
4
1.47022735 72.6439497
4.4
9
8
58.7354609
7.2 3.47061018
2
6.21269328 43.0384631
9.7
3
2
24.8788012
11.3 9.02511909
4
11.2193076 3.18017796
11.8
8
5
12.2580451 24.4414875
11.1
5
6
11.8870123 63.2075147
9.4
6
1
10.1970510 125.871018
7
6
5
252.329906
4.4 7.60192272
9
4.73700526 513.788309
2.2
9
1
2.30373041 120.988329
1
5
4
0.89784870 80.9310256
1.3
5
2
6.76295713 102.027843
3
5
9
4.13537930
7
6.83963105
5
9.47760598
4
11.3901181
4
12.0992626
1
11.4278360
2
9.54361668
1
6.91743959
2
4.20554262
8
2.08558363
1.08730501
1
1.46015995
5
6.70557242
7
6
3.83508251
1
3.71514376
2
1.91718978
9
0.73266778
3
2.57985008
5
3.31147495
4
1.96735178
9
1.83467574
1
9.25987487
8
16.3451957
3
10.9131263
3
6.67333144
1
9.09056978
9
2nd:
Time
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
Height
7.5
10.2
11.8
12
10.9
8.9
6.3
3.6
1.6
0.9
1.8
4
6.9
9.7
Manual
T
6.471000121
9.255183577
11.364802
12.28334723
11.78592736
9.994328115
7.347195478
4.492639842
2.129555981
0.836509241
0.93008256
2.387365925
4.851565546
7.719359412
Error
%
13.71999839
9.262906104
3.688118612
2.361226948
8.127773942
12.29582151
16.62215045
24.79555116
33.09724883
7.054528773
48.32874668
40.31585186
29.68745586
20.41897514
Graphmatica
T
7.692075505
10.17133822
11.75178603
12.03849139
10.9598114
8.785290211
6.058304415
3.460282302
1.640426287
1.053488049
1.846133669
3.820294221
6.482659894
9.16794989
Error
%
2.561006727
0.280997881
0.408592952
0.320761578
0.548728441
1.288874039
3.83643786
3.881047163
2.526642942
17.05422769
2.562981636
4.492644466
6.048407334
5.485052683
22
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
Time
11.6
12.3
11.6
9.9
7.3
4.5
2.1
0.7
0.8
2.4
Height
10.28861157
11.93027948
12.24242559
11.14862564
8.916680003
6.093046822
3.369049971
1.411618883
0.700000956
1.408425077
6.639901099
Manual
T
3.36344431
4
6.08640177
4
8.91062250
5
11.1446387
7
12.2414854
8
24
25
7.9
26
1.2
27
11.6
28
11.6
29
10.5 11.9326163
10.2936531
8.5
8
7.72587145
6
9
4.85795364
3.5
6
2.39206604
1.7
8
0.93194395
1.2
2
0.83507616
2.2
9
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
4.4 2.12517931
4.48639113
7.2
4
7.34060463
9.7
6
11.3050727
3.005857902
5.538151599
12.61238016
22.14630142
35.40104048
60.43095101
101.6598405
12.49988045
41.31562178
23.98714384
Error
%
57.7150825
4
40.0483964
9
24.0776570
1
7.44877180
8
11.7584778
1
35.3632145
2
67.2277582
5
118.488587
7
201.095459
9
148.730888
8
50.7883176
5
74.6304513
2
63.1518925
2
48.2634923
2
33.3150893
9
11.205155
12.08521164
11.58820832
9.838337885
7.272863784
4.532855227
2.302994675
1.140487105
1.33582378
2.84019332
6.627935926
Graphmatic
a
T
5.27767885
8
8.03919339
1
10.4346804
8
11.8655478
2
11.9742455
4
10.7336118
7
8.45366049
9
5.70411325
5
3.17203616
1.49015306
9
1.07873852
6
2.04059816
9
4.13537930
7
6.83963105
5
9.47760598
4
3.403836166
1.746246806
0.101652401
0.622849646
0.371728988
0.730116158
9.666413085
62.92672931
66.97797248
18.34138835
9.007722366
Error
%
3.70238476
8
1.36464108
7
78.2600040
3
2.21289852
4
3.43344530
1
2.62485250
5
0.73554764
8.21907625
6
20.49774
23.3163257
2
6.73674853
6
3.98504577
6
3.83508251
1
3.71514376
2
1.91718978
9
23
39
11.3
40
11.8
41
11.1
42
9.4
43
44
4.4
45
2.2
46
47
9.98900880
5
11.7831819
4
12.2838478
7
11.3684261
3
9.26104387
8
6.47766179
1
3.69974887
7
1.6074351
0.71299184
1.3
5
6.74380395
5
11.3901181
4
12.0992626
1
11.4278360
2
9.54361668
1
6.91743959
2
4.20554262
8
17.0422995
1.68080701
7
24.7021210
7
56.1035937
6
105.070858
9
198.793672
2
365.608824
5 2.08558363
1.08730501
33.951415
1
88.6333948 1.46015995
2
5
78.0704385 6.70557242
3
7
0.73266778
3
2.57985008
5
3.31147495
4
1.96735178
9
1.83467574
1
9.25987487
8
16.3451957
3
10.9131263
3
6.67333144
1
9.09056978
9
Reflectio
n
The method used and the calculations have reflected upon finding the original
function and also the modifications. The results make sense because the calculations did show
accuracy, within after starting the modification process. However, the modified function does not
entirely and fully support the image of the dotted graph. Rather, the calculations or sinusoidal
regression shows that the amplitude is actually 5.525. The sinusoidal regression reflects the use
of the sine function, but the values of the horizontal and vertical shift are completely different
than what has been manually calculated with the given maximum and minimum value.
After combining the datas for the two days together, a few trials of modification to
the formula has been done. However, results show no sign of any significant change. There has
also been no sign of the graph following the curve of the dotted plan. Therefore, the final
modified formula, in which is, y=5.8 sin [ 0.5 ( x12 ) ] +6.5 , was used and it showed an
24
accurate result. Although it does not entirely follow the curve of the tide, it is the closest result
that is accurate and reliable.
If the accuracy of the result were to be rated from a scale of 1 to 10, the accuracy of
the result would be an 8 to 8.5. It is believed that the degree of accuracy ranges around that
number because the original function itself was nowhere near the curve of the dotted plan. When
the modifications were made, however, it showed an accurate result, although not entirely. When
the manual and Graphmatica percentage error was calculated using the mathematical functions
on Excel, it showed that the original formula was 14.9% error, almost 15%. The expected error
percentage was to be below 20% because if it were to be more than 20%, than the calculation is
almost entirely incorrect and unreliable. However, as final calculations were made, the error
percentage showed that the function y=5.8 sin [ 0.5 ( x12 ) ] +6.5 , has 6.6% manual error and
9.008% within the Graphmatica error.
The results suggest that this can be helpful in real life to determine the pattern of the
oceans tidal range, based on the gravitational movement of the sun and the mood. If we were to
take it for a real life example, the results would be very useful to determine if it would be a good
day to go sailing or not. Because when the wind is too strong, that would mean that the tidal
range is affected because of it. Therefore, the results are used to further predict the next set of
tidal range for the next day or two.
25
26