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# Rachel Amabel Lianto

Ivan Pattiasina
Extended Mathematics 10
Tide Modeling Investigation Report
Introduction
Tides are calculated and measured every hour. It shows short-tem changes in the height of the
surface of the ocean in a place. The gravitational force of the moon, sun, and the motion of the
rotation of the earth determine the short-term change in height of the tides. The wavelength is
half the circumference of the Earth; tides are the longest of all waves. They are never free of the
forces that allow them to occur. Therefore, they are known as forced waves.
Greek navigator and explorer, Pytheas, first founded the calculation of tidal motion. He was the
first to write about the correlation between the position of the mood and the height of the tide.
From his research, he found that the position of the moon, located in a certain place, determines
and shows the tidal movement of the ocean. Pytheass theory was then supported by Isaac
Newtons Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. Newtons analysis of gravitation
shows the movement of planets, moons, and other parts in gravitational field(s). He concluded
tht the pull of gravity between two bodies is equal to the masses of the bodies. However, it is
somewhat equal to the square of the distance between the two things. It is concluded that as the
distance increases, the gravitational pull weakens in a fast pace.
Although the gravitational movement of the moon causes the main cause of change of height in
tides and the sun, as taken in by the ocean, the cube of the distance from the Earths core to the
center of the tide-generating object, also causes the force that generates the tides.
Grindstone Island, Data recorded by 27th December 2003 using Atlantic Standard Time
(AST)
Time
(AST)
Heigh
t (m)

00.0
0
7.5

01.0
0
10.2

02.0
0
11.8

03.0
0
12.0

04.0
0
10.9

05.0
0
8.9

06.0
0
6.3

07.0
0
3.6

08.0
0
1.6

09.0
0
0.9

10.0
0
1.8

11.00

Time
(AST)
Heigh
t (m)

12.0
0
6.9

13.0
0
9.7

14.0
0
11.6

15.0
0
12.3

16.0
0
11.6

17.0
0
9.9

18.0
0
7.3

19.0
0
4.5

20.0
0
2.1

21.0
0
0.7

22.0
0
0.8

23.0
0
2.4

26.0
0
10.2

## SECOND DAY (28.01.03)

27.0 28.0 29.0 30.0 31.0
0
0
0
0
0
11.6 11.6 10.5 8.5
6.0

32.0
0
3.5

33.0
0
1.7

34.0
0
1.2

35.0
0
1.2

Time
(AST)
Heigh
t (m)

24.0
0
5.0

25.0
0
7.9

4.0

Time
(AST)
Heigh
t (m)

36.0
0
4.4

37.0
0
7.2

38.0
0
9.7

39.0
0
11.3

40.0
0
11.8

41.0
0
11.1

42.0
0
9.4

43.0
0
7.0

44.0
0
4.4

45.0
0
2.2

46.0
0
1.0

47.0
0
1.3

## The graph shows that the x -axis represents

the height of the tide seen in Grindstone
Island. The y -axis represents the time
using the Atlantic Standard Time. Through
plotting the table onto a graph, the graph
shows the maximum (15,12.3) and minimum
(21,0.7) of the data. The data represents the
first day.

## Data representing the values between

the maximum and the minimum. (For
the first day, 27th)
Time
(AST)
Height
(m)

15.00

16.00

17.00

18.00

19.00

20.00

21.00

12.3

11.6

9.9

7.3

4.5

2.1

0.7

Calculation:
A. Amplitude (A)
MaximumMinimum

2
12.30.7 11.6
=
2
2
= 5.8
B. Vertical Shift (D)
Maximum+ Minimum

12.3+ 0.7
2
13

2
6.5

C. Frequency (B)
1
T
2
( x upx low )
2115
6 isthe half of the period .
1
T 2
2
6 2
12
Therefore ,the frequencyis
2

b
2

12

## D. Horizontal Shift (C)

Because the vertical shift is 6.5 (D), therefore, to find the horizontal shift, the time and height has
to have values that range to 6.5.
From the table above, it shows that when it is 11.00, the height of the tide is 4.0. By 12.00, the
height is 6.9.
Both times show the values that reach 6.5. Therefore, the
(12,6.9).
x l o w+

## x y coordinates are (11,4.0) and

d y low
( x upx low )
y up y low

11+

6.54.0
(1211)
6.94.0

11+

2.5
1
2.9
3

11+0.862069
11.862069
E. Function
[ b ( xc ) ] +da cos[b ( xc ) ]+ d
a sin
a = 5.8

0.523599
b=
6
c = 11.862069
d = 6.5
Therefore, the equation would be made upon the values from each variable.
sine :5.8 sin [ 0.523599 ( x11.862069 ) ] +6.5
cosine :5.8 cos [ 0.523599 ( x11.862069 ) ] + 6.5
The used function will be from the sine function.
Variables
The variables in the graph are the time and the height. The variables represent the x and y on the
plotted graph. The x represents each hour and the y represents the height of the tide.
Parameter
The parameters of the graph are based upon the calculation done to find the amplitude, vertical and
horizontal shift, and the period/frequency. The amplitude is represented by the variable a, the
period/frequency represented by b, the horizontal shift represented by c, and the vertical shift
represented by d.
a = 5.8

0.523599
b=
6
c = 11.862069
d = 6.5
Constraints
After testing out the function on Graphmatica, the function shows that the curve of the function does
not follow the dotted plot. The shape of the curve is placed near the curve of the dotted plot, but is not
as accurate as it should be. The found formula is very specific in terms of the decimal point numbers.
Therefore, when the modification is applied, random numbers cannot be sprouted to modify the
formula because it would be too complicated.

Function (Part 1)
To finally show the curve of the graph, the function of the graph has to be decided. The function has to
be decided accordingly to the shape of the graph. The graph that represents the tide shows that the
curve starts after the 0 from the y-axis.
Based on
finding the two
functions for
sine and cosine,
the graph shows
the
characteristics
of a cosine
function graph.
The reason why
the cosine is
used is because
the graph shows
that the curve
starts after the
(0,0)
coordinates
from the y-axis.
After inserting
the function, the
curve of the
graph shows
that it does not
dotted points. It
is seen that the
curve does not
meet the points
of the dotted
plot. Therefore,
have to be made in order for the function to suit the dotted plot. Therefore, the function originally
found its error.
Modification
Time

Height

Manual

Error

Graphmatic
a

Error

7.5

10.2

11.8

12

10.9

8.9

6.3

3.6

1.6

0.9

10

1.8

11

12

6.9

13

9.7

14

11.6

15

12.3

16

11.6

17

9.9

18

7.3

19

4.5

20

2.1

21
22

0.7
0.8

T
6.91872387
7
9.75505832
8
11.7192025
3
12.2848656
3
11.3004786
5
9.02980729
9
6.08127612
3
3.24494167
2
1.28079747
2
0.71513437
4
1.69952134
9
3.97019270
1
6.91872387
7
9.75505832
8
11.7192025
3
12.2848656
3
11.3004786
5
9.02980729
9
6.08127612
3
3.24494167
2
1.28079747
2
0.71513437
4
1.69952134

%
T
%
7.75034830 7.69798972 2.63986294
8
1
7
4.36217325 10.2768765 0.75369133
7
2
9
0.68472433 11.9297275
6
1 1.09938565
12.2416648 2.01387347
2.37388022
2
7
3.67411606 11.1343898 2.15036574
8
7
9
1.45850897 8.88583689 0.15913605
3
1
6
6.06040938 3.80302560
3.47180757
7
2
9.86273132 3.36731064 6.46359326
7
2
9
19.9501580 1.48252844
2
3 7.34197231
20.5406251 0.87915711 2.31587563
5
9
2
5.58214730 1.70864735 5.07514696
2
5
9
0.74518246 3.76279093
5
9 5.93022652
0.27136053 6.52598257 5.42054235
5
8
3
0.56761162 9.30464064 4.07586962
6
7
2
1.02760800 11.4013013 1.71291953
3
3
2
0.12304368 12.2896872 0.08384360
8
4
8
2.58208059 11.7468068 1.26557666
1
9
5
8.78982526 9.90892730 0.09017477
7
3
8
16.6948476 7.23736989 0.85794667
3
3
4
27.8901850 4.40271541 2.16187969
6
4
5
39.0096442 2.11648319 0.78491393
1
3
6
2.16205337 0.95253449 36.0763566
9
7
7
112.440168 1.20302909 50.3786366

23

9
6
3
2
3.97019270 65.4246958 2.80509097 16.8787907
2.4
1
9
8
3
14.8933136 6.63841242
6.5
4
8 6.6472336

Before applying the modifications to the function, calculations have to be made to find out the
error percentages from both manual counting, in which represents the original function found.
The error percentage calculated from Graphmatica uses the function given by the application and
it shows a different function, when compared with the original calculated function. This shows
the difference between the given shape of the dotted plot by the original function and the
function that Graphmatica has calculated. The table below shows that the found formula is
incorrect by 6%

Modification Process
# Trial
Modified value of Horizontal shift (C)
Trial 1

Evaluation

## The green highlight shows th

modified formula. The
horizontal shift (C), is
modified because it is
believed that the position of
the curve relies on the
horizontal shift. However, it
shows that modified
functions curve is further
away from the dotted plot. A
up closer look shows the
curve of the first modified

## formula. This shows that the

formula still needs to modify
within the range of found
modified calculations. The
table below shoes that the
manual T, which is the
original functions vertical
shift value.

Time

Height

7.5

10.2

11.8

12

4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

Manual
T
3.34109359
7
6.19645145
4
9.13314489
8
11.3642892
9

10.9 12.2920513
11.6678378
8.9
4
9.65890640
6.3
3
6.80354854
3.6
6
3.86685510
1.6
2
1.63571070
0.9
6
0.70794869
1.8
8
4 1.33216216
3.34109359
6.9
7
6.19645145
9.7
4
9.13314489
11.6
8
11.3642892
12.3
9
11.6 12.2920513
11.6678378
9.9
4
9.65890640
7.3
3
6.80354854
4.5
6
3.86685510
2.1
2
0.7 1.63571070

Error
%
55.4520853
7
39.2504759
4
22.6004669
6
5.29758921
6
12.7711128
6
31.0993015
8
53.3159746
5
88.9874596
2
141.678443
8
81.7456339
9
60.6695167
5
66.6959460
1
51.5783536
7
36.1190571
8
21.2659922
5
7.60740411
3
5.96595949
6
17.8569478
8
32.3137863
4
51.1899676
9
84.1359572
1
133.672958

Graphmatic
a
T
7.69207550
5
10.1713382
2
11.7517860
3
12.0384913
9

Error
%
2.56100672
7
0.28099788
1
0.40859295
2
0.32076157
8
0.54872844
10.9598114
1
8.78529021 1.28887403
1
9
6.05830441
5 3.83643786
3.46028230 3.88104716
2
3
1.64042628 2.52664294
7
2
1.05348804 17.0542276
9
9
1.84613366 2.56298163
9
6
3.82029422 4.49264446
1
6
6.48265989 6.04840733
4
4
5.48505268
9.16794989
3
3.40383616
11.205155
6
12.0852116 1.74624680
4
6
11.5882083 0.10165240
2
1
9.83833788 0.62284964
5
6
7.27286378 0.37172898
4
8
4.53285522 0.73011615
7
8
2.30299467 9.66641308
5
5
1.14048710 62.9267293
9

6
5
1
0.70794869
66.9779724
22
0.8
8 11.5064127 1.33582378
8
44.4932433
18.3413883
23
2.4 1.33216216
5 2.84019332
5
48.2195852 6.62793592 9.00772236
6.5
8
6
6
Trial 2
= 5.8sin (0.6x -13.1) + 6.5
This time, the vertical shift
(B) is modified and the
horizontal shift is still 13.1, a
previously used for the first
trial. The modified vertical
shift is the baby blue
highlight. It is seen that the
modified formula is even
farther away from the dotted
plot. Thus, concluding that
this formula is not doable.
The table below shows that
the manual T is 5.9, which
shows a 0.6 difference from
the original functions vertica
shift.

10

Time

Graphmatic
Error
a
%
T
90.6652661 7.69207550
0.70010504
4
5
10.1713382
1.69343054 83.3977398
2
4.36582903 63.0014488 11.7517860
9
2
3
7.78375485 35.1353762 12.0384913
4
1
9
10.7532281 1.34653058
7
9 10.9598114
12.2369265 37.4935563 8.78529021
1
2
1
11.7165513 85.9770059 6.05830441
8
7
5
9.37388476 160.385687 3.46028230
3
9
2
1.64042628
6.02728752 276.70547
7
2.84582234 216.202482 1.05348804
6
9
9
0.94086655 47.7296356 1.84613366
8
6
9
0.97787601 75.5530995 3.82029422
9
3
1
2.94392225 57.3344600 6.48265989
9
2
4
6.15220876
2 36.5751674 9.16794989
9.48198875 18.2587176
2
6 11.205155
11.7700742 4.30833920 12.0852116
8
8
4
12.2171712
11.5882083
4 5.3204417
2
7.74844242 9.83833788
10.6670958
2
5
7.66133391 4.94977960 7.27286378
1
8
4
4.24988467 5.55811831 4.53285522
6
2
7
1.62446545 22.6445019 2.30299467
9
3
5
0.70221072 0.31581827 1.14048710
Manual
T

Height

7.5

10.2

11.8

12

10.9

8.9

6.3

3.6

1.6

0.9

10

1.8

11

12

6.9

13

9.7

14

11.6

15

12.3

16

11.6

17

9.9

18

7.3

19

4.5

20
21

2.1
0.7

Error
%
2.56100672
7
0.28099788
1
0.40859295
2
0.32076157
8
0.54872844
1
1.28887403
9
3.83643786
3.88104716
3
2.52664294
2
17.0542276
9
2.56298163
6
4.49264446
6
6.04840733
4
5.48505268
3
3.40383616
6
1.74624680
6
0.10165240
1
0.62284964
6
0.37172898
8
0.73011615
8
9.66641308
5
62.9267293
11

8
4
5
1
1.80529059 125.661324
66.9779724
22
0.8
3
1 1.33582378
8
4.54836752 89.5153133
18.3413883
23
2.4
1
7 2.84019332
5
5.96831569 64.6576551 6.62793592 9.00772236
6
6
6
6
Trial 3
= 5.8*sin ( 0.5 x -12) + 6.5
This time, the vertical shift is
changed to the original
vertical shift, which is 0.5
However, the horizontal shift
is changed to a lower number
It is changed to a lower
number because the first trial
shows that if the horizontal
shift (C), was increased, the
curve would lean more to the
dotted plan. However, if the
horizontal shift was increased
curve of the graph would lean
away from the dotted plan, in
which shows no accuracy.
The orange highlight shows
that when the horizontal shift
is changed to 12.0, it follows
the graphs dotted plot.
However, it is not entirely a
perfect match. From this, we
can conclude that this is the
modified formula. The table
below shows that the manual
T counted does not differ
much from the original
formulas vertical shift, whic
is 6.5 The manual percentage
error, with calculations done
on Excel, show that the third
modified formula is 6% error
When the third formula is
compared to the other two
formulas, the final formula
makes more sense because it
shows accurate and reliable
results, unlike the other two
formulas. The first two

12

## formulas are 48.2% error and

64.6% error. It is expected
that the formulas would show
an error percentage of below
20%. Therefore, it makes the
first two formulas unreliable
and inaccurate.
Time

Height

Manual
T

7.5

10.2

11.8

12

10.9

8.9

6.3

3.6

1.6

0.9

10

1.8

11

8.12060989
10.5921338
9
12.0617607
9
12.1696746
8
10.8894544
7
8.53454272
1
5.68150395
3
3.02886156
4
1.22607492
4
0.71452907
8
1.61946828
8
3.71933187
6

12

6.9

13

9.7

14

11.6

15

12.3

16

11.6

17

9.9

6.5
9.28066812
4
11.3805317
1
12.2854709
2
11.7739250
8
9.97113843
6

Error
%
8.27479852
7
3.84444988
5
2.21831180
5
1.41395568
7
0.09674795
6
4.10626156
6
9.81739756
7
15.8649565
5
23.3703172
2
20.6078802
6
10.0295395
5
7.01670309
8
5.79710144
9
4.32300903
2
1.89196800
1
0.11812258
3

Graphmatic
a
T
7.69207550
5
10.1713382
2
11.7517860
3
12.0384913
9

Error
%
2.56100672
7
0.28099788
1
0.40859295
2
0.32076157
8
0.54872844
10.9598114
1
8.78529021 1.28887403
1
9
6.05830441
5
3.83643786
3.46028230 3.88104716
2
3
1.64042628 2.52664294
7
2
1.05348804 17.0542276
9
9
1.84613366 2.56298163
9
6
3.82029422 4.49264446
1
6
6.48265989 6.04840733
4
4
5.48505268
9.16794989
3
3.40383616
11.205155
6
12.0852116 1.74624680
4
6
11.5882083 0.10165240
1.4993541
2
1
0.71857005 9.83833788 0.62284964
9
5
6
13

18

7.3

19

4.5

20

2.1

21

0.7

22

0.8

23

2.4

7.31849604
7
4.46545727
9
2.11054552
7
0.83032531
8
0.93823920
7
2.40786611
2
6.56752541
2

## 0.25337050 7.27286378 0.37172898

3
4
8
0.76761601 4.53285522 0.73011615
3
7
8
0.50216796 2.30299467 9.66641308
3
5
5
18.6179025 1.14048710 62.9267293
1
5
1
17.2799008
66.9779724
7
1.33582378
8
0.32775465
18.3413883
4
2.84019332
5
6.61492322 6.62793592 9.00772236
5
6
6
MODIFIED FORMULA:

## Resource/Graphical Software and Sinusoidal regression.

Using the Curve-It option in Graphmatica allows users to see the value of the regression from the
formula calculated by the software. The formula calculated by the software shows an accurate
shape that follows the curve of the dotted plan.
The modified formula is represented by the red highlight and the formula calculated by the software is
represented in neon green. You can see that the curve of the modified function does not entirely follow
nor match the curve of the graph. However, it shows that it reflects the curve. The formula calculated
by the software is much more accurate because it follows the curve of the tidal movement. The
sinusoidal regression, or formerly known as the formula calculated by the software, shows that the
modified formula is accurate, but not entirely supporting the graph and dotted plan itself because the
curve shown from the modified formula does not support the original function nor the formula
calculated from the software.

14

H
4
T 0
5
-

Recorded Data
Taken Before the
27th, 2003

## The tidal range

between the time
frame of 16:01 and
22:36 is calculated by
subtracting the height
of the tide from both
time frames. It would
then show:
5.8 (0.7)
6.5 m
This shows that
during the time frame
between 16:01 and
Tim 01.0 02.0 03.0 04.0
01.0 02.0 03.0 04.0
22:36, the
e
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
gravitational
(AS
attraction between
T)
the oceans tide and
Heigh 10.2 11.8 12.0 10.9
11.2 12.5 13.0 11.4
the movement of the
t (m)
moon, because it was
before and after the
sunset, has weakened
because the reason
grows larger.
However, as the height of the tide during 22:36 is a negative number, shows that the tide barely
reached a meter, and has gone down deeper into the ocean instead of showing a wave.
Tides entering the water area where the tidal range is no longer important, undergo a
transformation, in which are the exact multiple of the parent wave, are called over tides. Like
mentioned before, the speed frequency of an over tide is the exact multiple of the parent wave.
The parent wave undergoes a transformation in their frequency. In time-series plots, over tides
appear to stay the same, or will not change; they do not move relative to their parent waves
frequency. However, they dismantle their parent wave and set a permanent tidal violations. An
example is when the duration of a rising and falling tide is compared.
27th December 2003, Nova Scotia 01:00-04:00
Suppose there was a strong wind that hit the ocean from 01:00-04:00, in which the tidal range
starts from 10.2m to 10.9m. If the height during that time frame were increased, then it would be
possible that the maximum value of the tide range would change. Therefore, it would also change
the original form of the manually calculated function. It would change the entire form

15

calculation. However, if the graph were to use the finalized modified function from the first day,
it would look like this:

It appears that the graph does not show any significant changes to the new dotted points for the
timeframe between 01:00 to 04:00. It also shows that the function can still be applied to the new
dotted plan. In fact, it shows a better and much more accurate result than the other graphs with
the original dotted points.
DAY 2 (28-10-03)
Time 24.0
(AST 0
)
Heigh 5.0
t (m)

25.0
0

26.0
0

## SECOND DAY (28.01.03)

27.0 28.0 29.0 30.0 31.0
0
0
0
0
0

32.0
0

33.0
0

34.0
0

35.0
0

7.9

10.2

11.6

11.6

10.5

8.5

6.0

3.5

1.7

1.2

1.2

Time 36.0
(AST 0
)
Heigh 4.4
t (m)

37.0
0

38.0
0

39.0
0

40.0
0

41.0
0

42.0
0

43.0
0

44.0
0

45.0
0

46.0
0

47.0
0

7.2

9.7

11.3

11.8

11.1

9.4

7.0

4.4

2.2

1.0

1.3

16

## From the x points starting from 24.0 to

47.0, it shows that the dotted plans
curve does not entirely follow the
pattern from the first 23 x coordinates.

17

## The graph shows that the curve

does not necessarily fit into the
dotted plot with the continuation
of coordinates from the second
day. Therefore, modifications
modified formula.

2nd Modification
y=5.8 sin [ 0.5 ( x0.4 ) ] +6.5
The 1st modified formula shows that when the horizontal shift is decreased to a value below 1, it
shows that the curve is starting to follow the pattern of the dotted plan, in which is represented
by the color navy blue.

18

## 1st Trial Percentage Calculation

The modification shows that the
formula is manually 41.7% and
102.02% error and from the
calculations from Graphmatica, the
formula is 6.6% and 6.7% error. This
shows that the formula is still far from
being able to accurately fit the curve of
the graph.

2nd Trial
y=5.8 sin [ 0.5 ( x0.01 ) ]+6.5

19

This modifications shows a much more accurate result because the modified formulas curve is
closer to the graph. Thus, it gives off a more accurate result.
However, after testing two different formulas with both days, it is clear that the first formula, in
which is, y=5.8 sin [ 0.5 ( x12 ) ] +6.5 , is far more accurate because it follows the curve of
the tidal range. Therefore, no modification is needed.

## 1st & 2nd Percentage Calculations

1st:
Time

Height

7.5

10.2

11.8

12

10.9

8.9

6.3

3.6

1.6

0.9

10

1.8

11

12

6.9

13

9.7

14
15

11.6
12.3

Manual
T
5.34771788
1
8.21401719
9
10.6606653
3
12.0886374
8
12.1483162
6
10.8250902
3
8.44293127
1
5.58507497
4
2.95122423
3
1.18623756
7
0.72224526
9
1.67284883
5
3.80530735
9
6.59752062
3
9.36585743
7
11.4325324

Error
%
28.6970949
1
19.4704196
2
9.65537858
3
0.73864562
8
11.4524427
4
21.6302273
1
34.0147820
8
55.1409715
84.4515145
3
31.8041740
9
59.8752628
5
58.1787791
2
44.8506179
8
31.9843234
8
19.2598496
8
7.05258211

Graphmatic
a
T
7.69207550
5
10.1713382
2
11.7517860
3
12.0384913
9

Error
%
2.56100672
7
0.28099788
1
0.40859295
2
0.32076157
8
0.54872844
10.9598114
1
8.78529021 1.28887403
1
9
6.05830441
5 3.83643786
3.46028230 3.88104716
2
3
1.64042628 2.52664294
7
2
1.05348804 17.0542276
9
9
1.84613366 2.56298163
9
6
3.82029422 4.49264446
1
6
6.48265989 6.04840733
4
4
5.48505268
9.16794989
3
3.40383616
11.205155
6
12.0852116 1.74624680
20

16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23

Time

11.6 12.2915514
11.7325966
9.9
4
9.89251971
7.3
9
7.22183565
4.5
6
2.1 4.37442105
2.04742230
0.7
3
0.81056986
0.8
6
0.96668835
2.4
1
6.68265955
5

Manual
Error
T
%
2.47755450 69.5269466
5
8
2
50.9615941
7.9 4.97325561
8
7.84275698
1.2
6 33.1273648
10.3835046
11.6
2 13.7915564
11.9734348 9.29929800
11.6
8
7
12.2232773 38.6290694
10.5
9
6
11.0718619 79.5802789
8.5
9
8
8.80109532 148.355917
6
4
3
5.96694026 270.407123
3.5
9
9
3.26329682 245.534308
1.7
7
6
1.35211120 27.4456924
1.2
5
6
2.2 0.7013083 77.9746480

Height

24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35

7
5.96165002
7
18.5110771
3
35.5139687
5
60.4852368
1
108.305764
3
192.488900
5
1.32123320
2
59.7213187
3
41.6902589
9

4
11.5882083
2
9.83833788
5
7.27286378
4
4.53285522
7
2.30299467
5
1.14048710
5
1.33582378
2.84019332
6.62793592
6
Graphmatic
a
T
5.27767885
8
8.03919339
1
10.4346804
8
11.8655478
2
11.9742455
4
10.7336118
7
8.45366049
9
5.70411325
5

6
0.10165240
1
0.62284964
6
0.37172898
8
0.73011615
8
9.66641308
5
62.9267293
1
66.9779724
8
18.3413883
5
9.00772236
6

Error
%
3.70238476
8
1.36464108
7
78.2600040
3
2.21289852
4
3.43344530
1
2.62485250
5
0.73554764
8.21907625
6

3.17203616
20.49774
1.49015306 23.3163257
9
2
1.07873852 6.73674853
6
6
2.04059816 3.98504577
21

36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47

4
1.47022735 72.6439497
4.4
9
8
58.7354609
7.2 3.47061018
2
6.21269328 43.0384631
9.7
3
2
24.8788012
11.3 9.02511909
4
11.2193076 3.18017796
11.8
8
5
12.2580451 24.4414875
11.1
5
6
11.8870123 63.2075147
9.4
6
1
10.1970510 125.871018
7
6
5
252.329906
4.4 7.60192272
9
4.73700526 513.788309
2.2
9
1
2.30373041 120.988329
1
5
4
0.89784870 80.9310256
1.3
5
2
6.76295713 102.027843
3
5

9
4.13537930
7
6.83963105
5
9.47760598
4
11.3901181
4
12.0992626
1
11.4278360
2
9.54361668
1
6.91743959
2
4.20554262
8
2.08558363
1.08730501
1
1.46015995
5
6.70557242
7

6
3.83508251
1
3.71514376
2
1.91718978
9
0.73266778
3
2.57985008
5
3.31147495
4
1.96735178
9
1.83467574
1
9.25987487
8
16.3451957
3
10.9131263
3
6.67333144
1
9.09056978
9

2nd:
Time
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

Height
7.5
10.2
11.8
12
10.9
8.9
6.3
3.6
1.6
0.9
1.8
4
6.9
9.7

Manual
T
6.471000121
9.255183577
11.364802
12.28334723
11.78592736
9.994328115
7.347195478
4.492639842
2.129555981
0.836509241
0.93008256
2.387365925
4.851565546
7.719359412

Error
%
13.71999839
9.262906104
3.688118612
2.361226948
8.127773942
12.29582151
16.62215045
24.79555116
33.09724883
7.054528773
48.32874668
40.31585186
29.68745586
20.41897514

Graphmatica
T
7.692075505
10.17133822
11.75178603
12.03849139
10.9598114
8.785290211
6.058304415
3.460282302
1.640426287
1.053488049
1.846133669
3.820294221
6.482659894
9.16794989

Error
%
2.561006727
0.280997881
0.408592952
0.320761578
0.548728441
1.288874039
3.83643786
3.881047163
2.526642942
17.05422769
2.562981636
4.492644466
6.048407334
5.485052683
22

14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23

Time

11.6
12.3
11.6
9.9
7.3
4.5
2.1
0.7
0.8
2.4

Height

10.28861157
11.93027948
12.24242559
11.14862564
8.916680003
6.093046822
3.369049971
1.411618883
0.700000956
1.408425077
6.639901099

Manual
T
3.36344431
4
6.08640177
4
8.91062250
5
11.1446387
7
12.2414854
8

24

25

7.9

26

1.2

27

11.6

28

11.6

29

10.5 11.9326163
10.2936531
8.5
8
7.72587145
6
9
4.85795364
3.5
6
2.39206604
1.7
8
0.93194395
1.2
2
0.83507616
2.2
9

30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38

4.4 2.12517931
4.48639113
7.2
4
7.34060463
9.7
6

11.3050727
3.005857902
5.538151599
12.61238016
22.14630142
35.40104048
60.43095101
101.6598405
12.49988045
41.31562178
23.98714384

Error
%
57.7150825
4
40.0483964
9
24.0776570
1
7.44877180
8
11.7584778
1
35.3632145
2
67.2277582
5
118.488587
7
201.095459
9
148.730888
8
50.7883176
5
74.6304513
2
63.1518925
2
48.2634923
2
33.3150893
9

11.205155
12.08521164
11.58820832
9.838337885
7.272863784
4.532855227
2.302994675
1.140487105
1.33582378
2.84019332
6.627935926

Graphmatic
a
T
5.27767885
8
8.03919339
1
10.4346804
8
11.8655478
2
11.9742455
4
10.7336118
7
8.45366049
9
5.70411325
5
3.17203616
1.49015306
9
1.07873852
6
2.04059816
9
4.13537930
7
6.83963105
5
9.47760598
4

3.403836166
1.746246806
0.101652401
0.622849646
0.371728988
0.730116158
9.666413085
62.92672931
66.97797248
18.34138835
9.007722366

Error
%
3.70238476
8
1.36464108
7
78.2600040
3
2.21289852
4
3.43344530
1
2.62485250
5
0.73554764
8.21907625
6
20.49774
23.3163257
2
6.73674853
6
3.98504577
6
3.83508251
1
3.71514376
2
1.91718978
9
23

39

11.3

40

11.8

41

11.1

42

9.4

43

44

4.4

45

2.2

46

47

9.98900880
5
11.7831819
4
12.2838478
7
11.3684261
3
9.26104387
8
6.47766179
1
3.69974887
7

1.6074351
0.71299184
1.3
5
6.74380395
5

11.3901181
4
12.0992626
1
11.4278360
2
9.54361668
1
6.91743959
2
4.20554262
8

17.0422995
1.68080701
7
24.7021210
7
56.1035937
6
105.070858
9
198.793672
2
365.608824
5 2.08558363
1.08730501
33.951415
1
88.6333948 1.46015995
2
5
78.0704385 6.70557242
3
7

0.73266778
3
2.57985008
5
3.31147495
4
1.96735178
9
1.83467574
1
9.25987487
8
16.3451957
3
10.9131263
3
6.67333144
1
9.09056978
9

Reflectio
n
The method used and the calculations have reflected upon finding the original
function and also the modifications. The results make sense because the calculations did show
accuracy, within after starting the modification process. However, the modified function does not
entirely and fully support the image of the dotted graph. Rather, the calculations or sinusoidal
regression shows that the amplitude is actually 5.525. The sinusoidal regression reflects the use
of the sine function, but the values of the horizontal and vertical shift are completely different
than what has been manually calculated with the given maximum and minimum value.
After combining the datas for the two days together, a few trials of modification to
the formula has been done. However, results show no sign of any significant change. There has
also been no sign of the graph following the curve of the dotted plan. Therefore, the final
modified formula, in which is, y=5.8 sin [ 0.5 ( x12 ) ] +6.5 , was used and it showed an

24

accurate result. Although it does not entirely follow the curve of the tide, it is the closest result
that is accurate and reliable.
If the accuracy of the result were to be rated from a scale of 1 to 10, the accuracy of
the result would be an 8 to 8.5. It is believed that the degree of accuracy ranges around that
number because the original function itself was nowhere near the curve of the dotted plan. When
the modifications were made, however, it showed an accurate result, although not entirely. When
the manual and Graphmatica percentage error was calculated using the mathematical functions
on Excel, it showed that the original formula was 14.9% error, almost 15%. The expected error
percentage was to be below 20% because if it were to be more than 20%, than the calculation is
almost entirely incorrect and unreliable. However, as final calculations were made, the error
percentage showed that the function y=5.8 sin [ 0.5 ( x12 ) ] +6.5 , has 6.6% manual error and
9.008% within the Graphmatica error.
The results suggest that this can be helpful in real life to determine the pattern of the
oceans tidal range, based on the gravitational movement of the sun and the mood. If we were to
take it for a real life example, the results would be very useful to determine if it would be a good
day to go sailing or not. Because when the wind is too strong, that would mean that the tidal
range is affected because of it. Therefore, the results are used to further predict the next set of
tidal range for the next day or two.

## MLA Works Cited

Tide Analysis. Virginia Institute of Marine Sciences, TC Tutorial Tide Analysis.
Garisson, Tom S. Tides. Essentials of Oceanography. Brooks Cole: 2012. Print.
Sterling, Mary Jane. Measure Tidal Change Using a Trigonometry Graph. Trigonometry for
Dummies. Web. Tuesday, November 24th, 2015.

25

26