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STATIC ANALYSIS ANDMODAL ANALYSIS OF

COMPOSITE MONO LEAF SPRING BY USING ANSYS


R. Ramanjaneyulu 1, M.Peeraiah2, K. Hemalatha3,A.Venugopal4
1

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Y. V. University, Proddatur, India,rrramanjaneyulu@gmail.com


Department of Mechanical Engineering, S.V. College of Engineering, Tirupati, India,shreepeeru@gmail.com
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, S.V. College of Engineering, Tirupati, India,@gmail.com
4
Department of Mechanical Engineering, S.V. College of Engineering, Tirupati, India,alurivenu@gmail.com

2,

BSTRACT
A spring is defined as an elastic body, whose function is to distort when loaded and
to recover its original shape when the load removed. Though there are many types of
springs, yet the following, according to their shape, are important is given by Helical
springs, Conical and Volute springs , Tensional springs, Laminated (or) Leaf springs,
Disc(or) Belleville springs. Leaf springs (also known as flat springs) are made out of flat
plates. The advantage of leaf spring over helical spring is that the ends of the spring may be
guided along a definite path as it deflects to act as a structural in addition to energy
absorbing device. Generally leaf springs are widely used in automobiles. Mainly two types
of leaf springs are present, they are Mono leaf springs and Multi leaf springs. A composite is
usually made up of at least two materials out of which one is the binding material, also called
matrix and the other is the reinforcement material. The advantage of composite materials
over conventional materials stem largely from their higher specific strength, stiffness and
fatigue characteristics, which enables structural design to be more versatile. ANSYS is
general-purpose finite element analysis (FEA) software package. Finite Element Analysis is
a numerical method of deconstructing a complex system into very small pieces (of userdesignated size) called elements. The aim of our project is to analyze the mono leaf spring
for various loads made up of different cross-sections with three different materials i.e., steel,
E- giass fiber and carbon fiber. Comparison is done for three materials of different crosssections of mono leaf springs.
1.

INTRODUCTION
1.
A
s
p
ri
n
g
f
u
n
c
ti
o
n

i
s
t
o
d
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o
rt
w
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a
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.
M
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d
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a
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r

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p
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c
a
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m
a
i
n
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x
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rt
f
o
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c
e
,
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o
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r
o
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fl
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x
i
b
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it
y
,

t
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s
t
o
r
e
o
r
a
b
s
o
r
b
e
n
e
r
g
y
.
2.
Types of springs
3.
1. Helical springs: Helical
springs are made of wire coiled in
the form of helix and are
primarily
intended
for
compressive or tensile loads. The
cross-section of wire from which
the spring is made maybe circular,
square or rectangular. The two
forms of helical springs are
compression helical spring and
tension helical spring Helical
springs are said to be closely
coiled, when the helix angle
Helical springs are said to be
closely coiled, when the helix
angle is very small(<10o), where
as in open coil helical spring the
helix angle is large.
4. A
d
v
a
n

t
a
g
e
:
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c
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n
s.
2.

Conical and Volute springs:


5.
The conical and volute
spring are special applications
where the spring rate increases in
increase in load .Another feature
of these types of springs is the
decreasing number of coils results
in an increasing spring rate. This
characteristic
is
sometimes
utilized in vibrations problems
where springs are used to support
to body that have varying mass.
6. 3
.
T
o
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:
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7. 4
.
L
a
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a
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d
o
r
L
e

a
f
s
p
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n
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s
:
8. T
h
e
l
a
m
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n
a
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d
o
r
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a
f
s
p
ri
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(
a
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s
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n
o
w
n
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fl
a

t
s
p
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n
g
)
c
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)
o
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d
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a
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m
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il
e
s.
9.
5. Disc Springs:
10.
These springs consists of
a number of conical disc shield
together by a central bolt or tube
These springs are used in
applications where high spring
rates and compact spring units are
required.
11. 1
.
1
.
L
e
a
f
s
p
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:
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1
.
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f
s
p
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n
g
s
2
.
M
o

n
o
l
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a
f
s
p
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n
g
s.
12. 2
.
C
o
n
s
t
r
u
c
ti
o
n
o
f
l
e
a
f
s
p
r
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g
:
13.
S
e
m
i
e
ll

i
p
ti
c
a
l
l
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a
f
s
p
ri
n
g
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d
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g
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a
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d
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a
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y
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m
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h
i
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l
e
.
F
o
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c
a
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s
a

l
s
o
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s
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a
r
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w
i
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y
u
s
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d
f
o
r
r
e
a
r
s
u
s
p
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n
s
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n
.
14. S
e
m
i
e
ll
i

p
ti
c
a
l
l
e
a
f
s
p
ri
n
g
s
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o
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s
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l
a
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s.
t
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s
e
b
l
a
d
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s
v
a
r
y
i
n
l
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n
g
t
h
.
T
h
e
c
o
m
p
o
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it
e
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p
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i

s
b
a
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d
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a
b
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a
m
o
f
u
n
if
o
r
m
s
tr
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n
g
t
h
.
15. 2
.
3
A
n

a
l
y
s
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s
o
f
l
e
a
f
s
p
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n
g
c
h
a
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a
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s
ti
c
s
:
16. T
h
e
f
u
n
c
ti
o
n
o
f
a
l
e

a
f
s
p
ri
n
g
m
a
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a
n
a
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17.
m
ax

=
S
b

F.l
M MY
=
=
Z
I
b
1
18.
m

v
e
n
b
y
,

ax

6 F .l
b h2

19. M
a
x
i
m
u
m
d
e
fl
e
c
ti
o
n
,
o
b
t
a
i
n
e
d
a
t
t
h
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f
r
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e
e
n
d
i
s
g
i

20.

m
ax

=
3

Fl
F .l
=
3
3 EI
bh
3E
12
S
b

l2
Eh
21.

m
ax

2
3

S
b

l2
Eh
22. W
h
e
r
e
,
E
I
s
t
h
e
E
l

a
s
ti
c
m
o
d
u
l
u
s
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f
t
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p
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m
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ri
a
l.
S
i
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t
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f
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p
ri
n
g
i

s
s
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m
il
l
a
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s
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p
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rt
e
b
b
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a
m
.l
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s
c
o
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d
b
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m
o
f
l
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t
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f
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g
t
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L
(
2
l)
a
n
d
a
c
e
n
tr
a
l
l
o
a
d

o
f
W
(
2
F
).
T
h
e
w
i
d
t
h
a
n
d
t
h
i
c
k
n
e
s
s
o
f
p
l
a
t
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s
(
o
r
b
e
a
m
)
m
a
y

b
e

a
n
d

r
e
s
p
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c
ti
v
e
l
y
.
F
o
r
t
h
i
s
c
a
s
e
,
m
a
x
i
m
u
m

i
n
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s
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s
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d
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I
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23.
m
ax

WL
h
4
MY
2
=
=
I
b h3
12

24.
m
ax

b
e
n
d

6 Fl
b h2

S
i
m
il
a
rl
y
,
m
a
x
i
m
u
m
d
e
fi
l
a
ti
o
n
a
t
t
h
e
c
e
n
t
e
r
i
s

m
ax

=
2 F( 2l)3 4 F l 3
W L3
=
=
48 EI 48Eb h 3 Eb h3
12

25. F
r
o
m
t
h
e
a
b
o
v
e
t
w
o
a
n
a
l
y
s
i
s
w
e
c
a
n
c
o
m
e
t
o
c
o
n
c
l
u
s
i
o
n
t
h

a
t
t
h
e
s
i
m
p
l
y
S
u
p
p
o
rt
e
d
b
e
a
m
o
f
l
e
n
g
t
h
L
(
2
l)
s
u
b
j
e
c
t
e
d
t
o

a
l
o
a
d
W
(
2
F
)
m
a
y
b
e
tr
e
a
t
e
d
a
s
D
o
u
b
l
e
c
a
n
ti
l
e
v
e
r
b
e
a
m
f
it
t
e

d
s
i
d
e
b
y
s
i
d
e
a
n
d
l
o
a
d
e
d
a
t
it
s
e
n
d
s.
26. 2
.
4
D
E
S
I
G
N
O
F
L
E
A
F
S
P

R
I
N
G
:
27. S
i
n
c
e
t
h
e
l
e
a
f
s
p
ri
n
g
i
s
c
o
n
s
tr
u
c
t
e
d
b
y
c
e
rt
a
i
n
n
u
m
b

e
r
o
f
f
u
ll
l
e
n
g
t
h
L
e
a
v
e
s
a
n
d
o
t
h
e
r
b
y
g
r
a
d
u
a
t
e
d
l
e
n
g
t
h
l
e

a
v
e
s,
it
i
s
d
e
s
i
g
n
o
n
t
h
e
b
a
s
i
s
o
f
c
o
m
b
i
n
e
d
s
tr
e
n
g
t
h
a
n
d
d
e
fl

e
c
ti
o
n
c
h
a
r
a
c
t
e
ri
s
ti
c
s
o
f
b
o
t
h
f
u
ll
l
e
n
g
t
h
a
n
d
g
r
a
d
u
a
t
e
d
l

e
a
v
e
s.
F
=
L
o
a
d
a
p
p
li
e
d
a
t
t
h
e
e
n
d
o
f
t
h
e
s
p
ri
n
g
.
F
f

=
l
o
a
d
s
h
a

r
e
d
b
y
f
u
ll
l
e
n
g
t
h
l
e
a
v
e
s.
F
g

=
l
o
a
d
s
h
a
r
e
d
b
y
t
h
e
g
r
a
d
u
a
t
e

d
l
e
a
v
e
s
a
l
o
n
g
w
it
h
m
a
s
t
e
r
l
e
a
f
N
=
t
o
t
a
l
n
u
m
b
e
r
o
f
l
e
a
v
e
s.

N
f

=
n
u
m
b
e
r
e
x
tr
a
f
u
ll
l
e
n
g
t
h
l
e
a
v
e
s
N
g

=
n
u
m
b
e
r
o
f
g
r
a
d
u
a
t

e
d
l
e
a
v
e
s
i
n
c
l
u
d
i
n
g
m
a
s
t
e
r
l
e
a
f
b
=
w
i
d
t
h
o
f
e
a
c
h
l
e
a
f
t
=

t
h
i
c
k
n
e
s
s
o
f
e
a
c
h
l
e
a
f
l
=
h
a
lf
l
e
n
g
t
h
o
f
l
e
a
f
s
p
ri
n
g
o
r
l
e

n
g
t
h
o
f
c
a
n
ti
l
e
v
e
r
W
=
t
o
t
a
l
l
o
a
d
tr
a
n
s
m
it
t
e
d
t
o
t
h
e
a
x
l
e
o
f

v
e
h
i
c
l
e
A
l
s
o
,
W
=
2
F
;
F
=
F
f

+
F
g;
N
=
N
f

+
N
g;
F
ir
s
t
c
o
n
s
i
d
e
r
t
h
e

h
a
lf
p
o
rt
i
o
n
o
f
t
h
e
fi
r
s
t
g
r
o
u
p
o
f
t
h
e
l
e
a
f
s
p
ri
n
g
w
h
i
c
h
l
o
o
k

s
li
k
e
a
c
a
n
ti
l
e
v
e
r
b
e
a
m
c
o
n
t
a
i
n
i
n
g
N
g

n
u
m
b
e
r
o
f
g
r
a
d
u
a
t
e

d
l
e
a
v
e
s
i
n
c
l
u
d
i
n
g
m
a
s
t
e
r
l
e
a
f.
s
i
n
c
e
t
h
e
l
o
a
d
i
s
a
p
p
li
e
d

a
t
t
h
e
f
r
e
e
e
n
d
o
f
t
h
e
m
a
s
t
e
r
l
e
a
f,
i
n
o
r
d
e
r
t
o
fi
n
d
o
u
t
t
h
e
i

n
d
u
c
e
d
s
tr
e
s
s
a
n
d
d
e
fl
e
c
ti
o
n
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h
e
l
e
a
v
e
s
a
r
e
a
s
s
u
m
e
d
t
o
b
e
a

r
r
a
n
g
e
d
i
n
s
u
c
h
w
a
y
t
h
a
t
t
h
e
y
c
a
n
b
e
tr
e
a
t
e
d
a
s
a
tr
i
a
n
g
u
l
a

r
p
l
a
t
e
.
F
o
r
t
h
i
s
t
h
e
i
n
d
i
v
i
d
u
a
l
l
e
a
v
e
s
a
r
e
s
e
p
a
r
a
t
e
d
a

n
d
t
h
e
m
a
s
t
e
r
l
e
a
f
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
d
a
t
t
h
e
c
e
n
t
e
r
.t
h
e
n
t
h
e
s
e
c
o
n

d
l
e
a
f
i
s
c
u
t
l
o
n
g
it
u
d
i
n
a
ll
y
i
n
t
o
t
w
o
h
a
l
v
e
s
,
e
a
c
h
o
f
w
i
d
t

h
(
b
/
2
)
a
n
d
p
l
a
c
e
d
o
n
e
a
c
h
s
i
d
e
o
f
m
a
s
t
e
r
l
e
a
f.
T
h
e
s
a
m
e
m
e

t
h
o
d
i
s
a
d
o
p
t
e
d
f
o
r
o
t
h
e
r
a
l
s
o
.
t
h
e
r
e
s
u
lt
a
n
t
i
s
a
p
p
r
o
x
i

m
a
t
e
l
y
a
tr
i
a
n
g
u
l
a
r
p
l
a
t
e
o
f
t
h
i
c
k
n
e
s
s
(t
)
a
n
d
a
m
a
x
i
m
u
m
w

i
d
t
h
a
t
t
h
e
s
u
p
p
o
rt
a
s
(
N
g

*
b
)
t
h
e
m
a
x
i
m
u
m
s
tr
e
s
s
p
r
o
d
u
c
e
d

a
t
t
h
e
fi
x
e
d
e
n
d
i
s
g
i
v
e
n
b
y
28. S
bg

t
6 F g .l
M MY
2
=
=
=
2
Z
I
1
( N g b ) t 3 12 N g b t
Fg. l .

29. T
h
e
m
a
x
i
m
u
m
d
e
fl
e
c

ti
o
n
p
r
o
d
u
c
e
d
a
t
t
h
e
f
r
e
e
e
n
d
o
f
tr
i
a
n
g
u
l
a
r
p
l
a
t
e
i
s
g
i
v
e
n

b
y
30.

=
3

Fg l
=
2 EI
S
bg

l2
Et
31. S
i
m
il
a
rl
y
,
t
h
e
s
e
c
o
n
d
g
r
o
u
p
o
f
l
e
a
v
e
s
i.

F g .l
6 Fg l
=
=
3
3
N gb t
E Ngbt
2 E(
)
12

e
.
t
h
e
e
x
tr
a
f
u
ll
l
e
n
g
t
h
l
e
a
v
e
s
c
a
n
b
e
tr
e
a
t
e
d
a
s
r
e
c
t
a
n
g
u
l

a
r
p
l
a
t
e
o
f
t
h
i
c
k
n
e
s
s
(t
)
a
n
d
u
n
if
o
r
m
w
i
d
t
h
(
).
t
h
e
m
a
x
i
m

u
m
i
n
d
u
c
e
d
b
e
n
d
i
n
g
s
tr
e
s
s
a
t
fi
x
e
d
e
n
d
,
32.

Nf b

F
t
( f . l)( ) 6 F
2
f
=
1
3
N
b
f t
(N f b)t
12
MY
f=
=
I
33. T
h
e
d
e

fl
e
c
ti
o
n
a
t
t
h
e
f
r
e
e
e
n
d
(i
.
e
.
l
o
a
d
p
o
i
n
t)
i
s
g
i
v
e
n
b
y

35. S
i
n
c
e
t
h
e
l
e
a
f
s
p
ri
n
g
i
s
t
h
e
c
o
m
b
i
n
e
d
f
o
r
m

o
f
f
u
ll
l
34.
e
F f . l3
F f . l3
4 F f l3
2
l2 n
f=
=
=
= max
3
3 EI
1
3
Et g
3 E[ ( N f b ) t 3 ] E N f b t
t
12
h
l

e
a
v
e
s
a
n
d
g
r
a
d
u
a
t
e
d
l
e
a
v
e
s,
t
h
e
d
e
fl
e
c
ti
o
n
p
r
o
d
u
c
e
d
i
n
b
o

t
h
t
y
p
e
s
o
f
l
e
a
v
e
s
a
r
e
s
a
m
e
.
36.

i.
e
.

g=f

(o
r)

2 l2
l2
f = g
3 Et
Et
37.

3
f= g
2
38. F
r
o
m
t
h
e
a

b
o
v
e
e
q
u
a
ti
o
n
w
e
c
a
n
u
n
d
e
r
s
t
a
n
d
t
h
a
t
w
h
e
n
t
h
e
l
e
a
f
s
p
ri
n
g

i
s
d
e
fl
e
c
t
e
d
,
t
h
e
f
u
ll
l
e
n
g
t
h
l
e
a
v
e
s
a
r
e
m
o
r
e
s
tr
e
s
s
e
d
t
h
a

n
g
r
a
d
u
a
t
e
d
l
e
a
v
e
s
b
y
5
0
%
.
d
u
e
t
o
t
h
i
s
e
x
tr
a
s
tr
e
s
s
t
h
e
li
f
e

o
f
f
u
ll
l
e
n
g
t
h
l
e
a
v
e
s
a
r
e
r
e
d
u
c
e
d
c
o
m
p
a
ri
n
g
t
o
t
h
e
li
f
e
o
f
g

r
a
d
u
a
t
e
d
l
e
a
v
e
s
w
h
i
c
h
i
s
u
n
d
e
s
ir
a
b
l
e
a
n
d
h
e
n
c
e
t
h
e
s
tr
e
s

s
i
n
d
u
c
e
d
i
n
b
o
t
h
t
y
p
e
s
o
f
s
p
ri
n
g
s
a
r
e
m
a
d
e
e
q
u
a
l
b
y
p
r
o
v
i

d
i
n
g
a
s
p
e
c
i
a
l
a
r
r
a
n
g
e
m
e
n
t
i
n
t
h
e
s
p
ri
n
g
.
S
u
p
p
o
s
e
t
h
e
n
i

p
p
i
n
g
i
s
n
o
t
a
d
o
p
t
e
d
,
t
h
e
n
s
tr
e
s
s
e
s
i
n
d
u
c
e
d
i
n
f
u
ll
l
e
n
g
t

h
l
e
a
v
e
s
a
n
d
g
r
a
d
u
a
t
e
d
l
e
a
v
e
s
a
r
e
d
if
f
e
r
e
n
t
a
n
d
t
h
e
y
m
a
y

b
e
c
a
l
c
u
l
a
t
e
d
a
s
f
o
ll
o
w
.
39. F
o
r
s
u
c
h
c
a
s
e
,

40. i.
e
.

3
f= g
2

6 Ff l
Nf bt

41. C
a
n

=
2

3 6F
2 Ng b

45.

c
e
ll
i
n
g
c
o
m
m
o
n
p
a
r
a
m
e
t
e
r
s,
w
e
g
e
t

Or

F g=

46. N
o
w

=
B
e
n
d
i
n
g
s
tr
e
s
s
i
n
g
r
a
d
u
a
t
e
d
l
e
a
v
e
s

42.

Ff 3 Fg
=
Nf 2Ng
43. i.e
.

FF g 3 F g
=
Nf
2Ng

44.

F=

2 Ng
3 Nf +2 N

3 fg.Nf
3 N f +2 N g
+ F g=F g
2 Ng
2Ng

]
47.

6 Fgl
Ngbt

6
N g bt2 3

48. A
n
d
F

49.

3
3
12 F
g=
2
2
2 b t (3 N f +

=
b
e
n
d
i
n
g
s
tr
e
s
s
i
n
d
u
c
e
d
i
n
f
u
ll
l
e
n
g
t
h
l
e
a
v
e
s,

50. D
e
fl
e
c
ti
o
n
,
w
h
i
c
h
i
s
c
o
m
m
o
n
t
o
f
u
ll
l
e
n
g
t
h
a
n
d
g
r
a
d
u

a
t
e
d
l
e
a
v
e
s
i
s
g
i
v
e
n
b
y
51.
=

2 g l 2 g l 2

3 Et
Et

52.
2

2l
18 Fl
3 Et b t 2 ( 3 N f + 2 N g )

53.
3

12 F l
3
Eb t (3 N f +2 N g )

54.
W
e
h
a
v
e
k
n
o
w
n

t
h
a
t
t
h
e
r
e
i
s
a
m
e
t
h
o
d
t
o
e
q
u
a
li
z
e
t
h
e
s
tr
e
s
s
i
n
a
ll
t
h
e
l
e
a
v

e
s
b
y
p
r
o
v
i
d
i
n
g
a
g
a
p
c
a
ll
e
d
n
i
p
,i
n
b
e
t
w
e
e
n
f
u
ll
l
e
n
g
t
h
a
n
d

g
r
a
d
u
a
t
e
d
l
e
a
v
e
s,
b
e
f
o
r
e
j
o
i
n
i
n
g
ti
g
h
tl
y
b
y
t
h
e
c
li
p
p
i
n
g
b

o
lt
s,
a
n
d
if
t
h
e
c
li
p
b
o
lt
s
a
r
e
ti
g
h
t
e
n
e
d
,
t
h
e
f
u
ll
l
e
n
g
t
h
a
n
d
g
r

a
d
u
a
t
e
d
l
e
a
v
e
s
w
il
l
b
e
n
d
i
n
o
p
p
o
s
it
e
d
ir
e
c
ti
o
n
s
a
n
d
t
h
e
i
n
it

i
a
l
s
tr
e
s
s
d
u
e
t
o
t
h
i
s
b
e
n
d
i
n
g
m
a
y
b
e
r
e
li
e
v
e
d
o
r
i
n
c
r
e
a
s
e

d
i
n
o
r
d
e
r
t
o
e
q
u
a
li
z
e
t
h
e
s
tr
e
s
s
i
n
b
o
t
h
t
y
p
e
s
o
f
l
e
a
v
e
s.
T
h

e
v
a
l
v
e
o
f
n
i
p
(
C
),
c
li
p
p
i
n
g
l
o
a
d
a
n
d
t
h
e
c
o
m
m
o
n
s
tr
e
s
s
i
n
a
ll

t
h
e
l
e
a
v
e
s
m
a
y
b
e
o
b
t
a
i
n
e
d
f
r
o
m
t
h
e
f
o
ll
o
w
i
n
g
r
e
l
a
ti
o
n
s.

55.

W
e
k
n
o
w
t
h
a
t
g=

57.

6 F g .l
Ngbt
58.

6 Fg . l
Ng b t2

6 Ff l
Nf b t

W
h
e
r
e
F
=
F
g

a
n
d

+
F
f=

6 Ff l
Nf b t

a
n
d
N
=
N

56.
I
n
t
h
i
s
c
a
s
e
s
i
n
c
e

+
N
g
59.

g= f

,
w
e
m
a
y
,

i.
e
.

60. H
e
n
c
e
t
h
e
s
tr
e
s
s
i

Ff Fg F
= = .
N f Ng N

F
N

n
d
u
c
e
d
i
n
a
ll
l
e
a
v
e
s,
61.
=

e
fl
e
c
t
e
d
,
t
h
e
n
i
p
,
6 Fl
Nb t 2

62. W
h
e
n
t
h
e
l
e
a
f
s
p
ri
n
g
i
s
m
a
x
i
m
u
m
d

C= g f

63. (
g
r
a
d
u
a
t
e
d
l
e
a
v
e
s
w
il
l
d
e
fl
e
c
t
m
o
r
e
t

h
a
n
t
h
e
f
u
ll
l
e
n
g
t
h
l
e
a
v
e
s
b
y

thevalveofC

64.
3

C=

6 Fgl
4 Ff l

3
3
N g Eb t N f Ebt

65.

6 F l3
4 F l3
2 F l3

=
NEb t 3 NEb t 3 NEb t 3

66. T
h
e
l
o
a
d
t
o
b
e
a
p

p
li
e
d
o
n
t
h
e
c
li
p
b
o
lt
s
t
o
c
l
o
s
e
t
h
e
g
a
p
i
s
d
e
t
e
r
m
i
n
e
d
b
y
t
h
e

f
a
c
t
t
h
a
t
t
h
e
g
a
p
i
s
e
q
u
a
l
t
o
t
h
e
i
n
it
i
a
l
d
e
fl
e
c
ti
o
n
o
f
t
h
e
f

u
ll
l
e
n
g
t
h
l
e
a
v
e
s
a
n
d
g
r
a
d
u
a
t
e
d
l
e
a
v
e
s.
67. k
n
o
w
t
h
a
t
C= fi + gi
68. i.
e

.
3

( F2 ) l + 6( F2 ) l
b

2F l
=
NEb t 3 N f Eb t 3
69.
2 F 2 Fb 3 F b
=
+
N
Nf
Ng
70.
2F
2
3
=F b [ + ]
N
Nf Ng
71.
Fb =
72. B
y
e
q
u
a
ti
n
g
t
h
i
s
c
li
p
p
i
n
g
l
o
a
d
(
F
b)
t
o

2F Nf Ng
N (2 N g +3 N f )

N g Ebt 3

t
h
e
t
e
n
s
il
e
r
e
s
i
s
ti
n
g
s
tr
e
n
g
t
h
o
f
b
o
lt
,
i.
e
.

( 4 ) d s

2
c t

w
h
e
r
e
st
i
s
t
h

e
a
ll
o
w
a
b
l
e
t
e
n
s
il
e
s
tr
e
s
s
f
o
r
t
h
e
b
o
lt
m
a
t
e
ri
a
l,
t
h
e
d
i
a
m
e
t
e

r
o
f
t
h
e
b
o
lt
m
a
y
e
v
a
l
u
a
t
e
.
T
h
e
r
e
l
a
ti
o
n
s
h
i
p
b
e
t
w
e
e
n
t
h
e
r

a
d
i
u
s
o
f
c
u
r
v
a
t
u
r
e
,
c
a
m
b
e
r
a
n
d
s
p
a
n
i
s
g
i
v
e
n
b
y
t
h
e
e
q
u
a

ti
o
n
a
s
2

2 RY Y =l1
W
h
e
r
e
R
=
r
a
d
i
u
s
o
f
c
u
r
v
a
t
u
r
e
Y
=
C
a
m
b
e
r
L
1

=
h
a
lf

s
p
a
n
o
f
s
p
ri
n
g
S
i
n
c
e

i
s
v
e
r
y
s
m
a
ll
c
o
m
p
a
r
e
d
t
o

R
,
t
h
e
v

a
l
v
e
o
f
Y
2

c
a
n
b
e
n
e
g
l
e
c
t
e
d
a
n
d
h
e
n
c
e
R=
a
n
d
c
a
m
b
e
r
i
s
t
a

l 21
2Y

k
e
n
e
q
u
a
l
t
o
t
h
e
m
a
x
i
m
u
m
d
e
fl
e
c
ti
o
n
o
f
t
h
e
s
p
ri
n
g
.
L
e
t

e
t
h
e
t
o
t
a
l
n
o
.
o
f
l
e
a
v
e
s
i
n
c
l
u
d
i
n
g
m
a
s
t
e
r
l
e
a
f.
T
h
e
n
o
.
o

f
l
e
a
v
e
s
n
o
t
h
a
v
i
n
g
e
y
e
s
i
s
(
N
1
)
L
e
t
2
l1
=
s
p
a
n
l
e
n
g
t
h
o
f
s

p
ri
n
g
.
a
=
w
i
d
t
h
o
f
b
a
n
d
w
h
i
c
h
i
s
n
o
t
h
a
v
i
n
g
s
p
ri
n
g
a
c
ti
o
n
a
n

d
h
e
n
c
e
k
n
o
w
n
a
s
i
n
e
ff
e
c
ti
v
e
l
e
n
g
t
h
T
h
e
n
2
l
=
E
ff
e
c
ti
v
e
l
e
n
g

t
h
=
2
l1
a
F
o
r
a
l
e
a
f
s
p
ri
n
g
h
a
v
i
n
g
o
n
e
f
u
ll
l
e
n
g
t
h
l
e
a
f
e
x
c
l

u
d
i
n
g
t
h
e
m
a
s
t
e
r
l
e
a
f,
t
h
e
l
e
n
g
t
h
o
f
a
ll
l
e
a
v
e
s
a
r
e
c
a
l
c
u
l

a
t
e
d
a
s
f
o
ll
o
w
s
73. L
e
n
g
t
h
o
f
s
m
a
ll
e
s
t
l
e
a
f
=

i
n
e
ff
e
c
ti
v
e
l
e
n

Effectivelength
N 1

g
t
h

o
f
t
h
ir
d
l
e
a
f
=

74.
(i
.
e
.
fi
r
s
t
l
e
a
f
)

2l
1+a
N 1

75.
L
e
n
g
t
h
o
f
n
e
x
t
l
e
a
f
=

L
e
n
g
t
h

2l
3+a
N 1

S
i
m
il
a
rl
y
76. L
e
n
g
t
h
o
f
(
N
1
)t
h

2l
2+
N 1

l
e
a
f
=

77. I
n
g
e

2l
( N 1)+
N 1

n
e
r
a
l,
t
h
e
l
e
n
g
t
h
o
f
a
n
y
l
e
a
f,
s
t
a
rt
i
n
g
f
r
o
m
s
m
a
ll
e
s
t
l
e
a
f
i

s
o
b
t
a
i
n
e
d
a
s

,
w
h
e
r
e

v
a
ri
e
s
f
r
o
m
1
t
o
(
N
1
).
78. T
h
e
l
e
n

2l
r +a
N 1

g
t
h
o
f
n

e
d
=
i
n
s
i
d
e
d
i
a
m
e
t
e
r
o
f
e
y
e

th

l
e
a
f
w
h
i
c
h
i
s
m
a
s
t
e
r
l
e
a
f
79.
=

2l
( N1 ) + a+ ( d +t ) 2
N 1

80. =
2
l1
+

(
d
+
t)
2
W
h
e
r

t
=
t
h
i
c
k
n
e
s
s
o
f
m
a
s
t
e
r
l
e
a
f.
S

i
m
il
a
rl
y
,
f
o
r
a
l
e
a
f
s
p
ri
n
g
h
a
v
i
n
g
t
w
o
f
u
ll
l
e
n
g
t
h
l
e
a
v
e
s
e
x

c
l
u
d
i
n
g
t
h
e
m
a
s
t
e
r
l
e
a
f,
t
h
e
l
e
n
g
t
h
o
f

rt
h

l
e
a
f
s
p
ri
n
g
f
r
o

m
s
m
a
ll
e
s
t
l
e
a
f
i
s
g
i
v
e
n
b
y
L
e
n
g
t
h
o
f

rt
h

l
e
a
f
=
=

v
a
ri
e
s
f
r
o
m
1
t
o
(
N
2
).
t
h
e
(
N
2
)t
h

,
(
N
1
)t
h

2l
r +a
N 2

W
h
e
r
e

a
n
d
N
th

l
e
a
v
e
s

a
r
e
h
a
v
i
n
g
e
q
u
a
l
l
e
n
g
t
h
s,
w
it
h
a
n
e
x
tr
a
l
e
n
g
t
h
f
o
r
e
y
e
s
o
f
m

a
s
t
e
r
l
e
a
f
(
N
th

).
81. 3
.
D
E
S
I
G
N
I
N
G
P
R
O
C
E
D
U
R
E
F
O
R
L
E
A
F
S
P
R
I

N
G
:
82.
1. From the available data, note the
loads to be supported, no. of springs
required, space available and other
working conditions.
83.
2. Then choose a suitable material
for the leaf spring and assume its design
yield stress in bending. Usually the
materials used for leaf springs are silicon
steel and chromium manganese steel and
the allowable stress is ranging from 400 to
600 n/m2.
84.
3. Based on the requirement, adopt
pre stressing method if required. Usually
this pre stressing or nipping is preferable
so as to make all the leaves to be equally
stressed. Generally among all the leaves,
adopt at least two leaves including master
leaf as full length leaves and consider
other leaves as graduated leaves.
85.
4.Determine the stress induced in
the corresponding leaves and also find out
the deflection produced using proper
equations. Similarly, evaluate the width
and thickness of leaves. Find out the
length of leaves, camber, clipping load,
the radius of curvature etc. using proper
relations. Draw a neat sketch of leaf
spring.
86.
87.
3.1 DIMENSIONS OF TAKING
LEAF SPRINGS:
88.

89. F
o
r

c
e
a
ct
i
n
g
o
n
s
p
ri
n
g
is
:
2
0
0
0
n

90. 4
.
T
H
E
O
R
I
T
A
L
C
A
L
C
U
L
A
T
I
O
N
S
:
91. 4
.

1
A
N
A
L
Y
S
I
S
O
F
M
O
N
O
L
E
A
F
S
P
R
I
N
G
W
I
T
H
R
E
C
T
A
N
G
U
L
A
R
C
R
O
S
S
S
C
E
T
I
O
N

92. S
T
E
E
L
M
A
T
E
R
I
A
L
:
R
E
A
C
T
I
O
N
F
O
R
C
E
S
A
T
N
O
D
E
1
(
N
1
):
93. F
X

=
0
F
Y

=
2
0
0
0
94. T
a
k
i
n
g
m
o
m
e
n
t
s
a
b
o
u
t
n
o
d
e
1
(
N
1
):
95. M
z

=
2
5
0

2
0
0
0
M
z

=
5
0
0
0
0
0
96. M
o
m
e
n
t
o
f
i
n
e
rt
i
a
o
f
a
r
e
c
t
a
n
g
u
l
a
r
b
e
a
m
:
97.
=
b
d
3
/

1
2
=
(
5
0

1
5
3
)
/
1
2
=
1
4
0
6
2
.
5
m
m
4

98. D
e
fl
e
c
ti
o
n
o
f
t
h
e
c
a
n
ti
l
e
v
e
r

b
e
a
m
w
it
h
p
o
i
n
t
l
o
a
d
a
t
t
h
e
f
r
e
e
e
n
d
:
=
(
W
L
3
)
/
(
3
E
I
)
=
(
2
0
0
0


2
5
0
3
)
/
(
3

1
0
5

1
4
0
6
2
.
5
)
=
3
.
7
m
m
99. S
tr
e
s
s
:
=
(
6
W
L
)/
(
b
d
2
)

100.
=
(
6

2
0
0
0

2
5
0
)/
(
5
0

1
5
2
)
101.
=266
.
6
6
N
/
m
m
2

102.
4.2
S
q
u
a
r
e
c
r
o
s
s

s
e
c
ti
o
n
:
103.
REA
C
T
I
O
N
F
O
R
C
E
S
A
T
N
O
D
E
1
(
N
1
):
104.
FX =
0
F
Y

=
2
0
0
0

105.
Taki
n
g
m
o
m
e
n
t
s
a
b
o
u
t
n
o
d
e
1
(
N
1
):
106.
Mz =
2
5
0

2
0
0
0
M
z

=
5
0
0
0
0
0

107.
Mo
m
e
n
t
o
f
i
n
e
rt
i
a
o
f
a
S
Q
U
A
R
E
b
e
a
m
:
108.
=
b
d
3
/
1
2
=
(
2
7
.
3
8

2
7
.

3
8
3
)
/
1
2
109.
=468
3
3
.
0
5
m
m
4

110.
Defl
e
c
ti
o
n
o
f
t
h
e
c
a
n
ti
l
e
v
e
r
b
e
a
m
w
it
h

p
o
i
n
t
l
o
a
d
a
t
t
h
e
f
r
e
e
e
n
d
:
=
(
W
L
3
)
/
(
3
E
I
)
111.
=
(
2
0
0
0

2
5
0
3
)

/
(
3

1
0
5

4
6
8
3
3
.
0
5
)
112.
=1.1
1
m
m
113.
Stres
s
:
=
(
6
W
L
)/
(
b
d
2
)
114.
=(6

2
0

0
0

2
5
0
)/
(
2
7
.
3
8

2
7
.
3
8
2
)
115.
=
1
4
6
.
1
5
N
/
m
m
2

116.
4.3T
r
a
p
e
z
i
u
m

c
r
o
s
s
s
e
c
ti
o
n
:
117.
REA
C
T
I
O
N
F
O
R
C
E
S
A
T
N
O
D
E
1
(
N
1
):
118.
FX =
0
F
Y

=
2
0

0
0
119.
Taki
n
g
m
o
m
e
n
t
s
a
b
o
u
t
n
o
d
e
1
(
N
1
):
120.
Mz =
2
5
0

2
0
0
0
M
z

=
5
0
0
0

0
0
121.
Mo
m
e
n
t
o
f
i
n
e
rt
i
a
o
f
a
T
R
A
P
E
Z
I
U
M
b
e
a
m
:
122.
= h3
(
3
a
+
b
)/
1
2

=
1
8
.
7
5
3
(
(
3

3
0
)
+
5
0
)/
1
2
=
7
6
9
0
4
.
2
9
m
m
4

123.
Defl
e
c
ti
o
n
o
f
t
h
e

c
a
n
ti
l
e
v
e
r
b
e
a
m
w
it
h
p
o
i
n
t
l
o
a
d
a
t
t
h
e
f
r
e
e
e
n
d
:

=
(
W
L

/
(
3
E
I
)
124.
=
(
2
0
0
0

2
5
0
3
)
/
(
3

1
0
5

7
6
9
0
4
.
2
9
)
125.
=0.6
7
7
m
m

126.
Stres
s
:
=
(
6
W
L
)/
h
2
(
3
a
+
b
)
127.
=(6

2
0
0
0

2
5
0
)/
1
8
.
7
5
2
(
(
3

3
0
)
+
5
0
)

128.
=
6
0
.
9
5
N
/
m
m
2

129.
4.4
A
n
a
l
y
s
i
s
o
f
m
o
n
o
l
e
a
f
s
p
r
i
n
g
w
it
h
e
g
l

a
s
s
fi
b
e
r
m
a
t
e
r
i
a
l:
130.
2.7.2
.
1
R
E
C
T
A
N
G
U
L
A
R
C
R
O
S
S
S
C
E
T
I
O
N
:

131.
REA
C
T
I
O
N
F
O
R
C
E
S
A
T
N
O
D
E
1
(
N
1
):
132.
FX =
0
F
Y

=
2
0
0
0
133.
Taki
n
g
m
o
m
e
n
t

s
a
b
o
u
t
n
o
d
e
1
(
N
1
):
134.
Mz =
2
5
0

2
0
0
0
M
z

=
5
0
0
0
0
0
135.
Mo
m
e
n
t
o
f
i
n
e

rt
i
a
o
f
a
r
e
c
t
a
n
g
u
l
a
r
b
e
a
m
:
136.
=
b
d
3
/
1
2
=
(
5
0

1
5
3
)
/
1
2
137.
=
1
4

0
6
2
.
5
m
m
4

138.
Defl
e
c
ti
o
n
o
f
t
h
e
c
a
n
ti
l
e
v
e
r
b
e
a
m
w
it
h
p
o
i
n
t
l
o
a
d

a
t
t
h
e
f
r
e
e
e
n
d
:
=
(
W
L
3
)
/
(
3
E
I
)
=
(
2
0
0
0

2
5
0
3
)
/
(
3

8
0

1
0
3

1
4
0
6
2
.
5
)
=
9
.
2
5
m
m
139.
Stres
s
:
=
(
6
W
L
)/
(
b
d
2
)
140.
=(6

2
0
0
0

2
5
0
)/
(
5
0


1
5
2
)
141.
=266
.
6
6
N
/
m
m
2

142.
4.5S
q
u
a
r
e
c
r
o
s
s
s
e
c
ti
o
n
:
143.
REA
C
T
I
O
N
F
O
R

C
E
S
A
T
N
O
D
E
1
(
N
1
):
144.
FX =
0
F
Y

=
2
0
0
0
145.
Taki
n
g
m
o
m
e
n
t
s
a
b
o
u
t
n
o
d
e
1

(
N
1
):
146.
Mz =
2
5
0

2
0
0
0
M
z

=
5
0
0
0
0
0
147.
Mo
m
e
n
t
o
f
i
n
e
rt
i
a
o
f
a
S
Q
U
A
R

E
b
e
a
m
=
b
d
3
/
1
2
=
(
2
7
.
3
8

2
7
.
3
8
148.
=
4
6
8
3
3
.
0
5
m
m
4

149.
Defl
e
c
ti
o

n
o
f
t
h
e
c
a
n
ti
l
e
v
e
r
b
e
a
m
w
it
h
p
o
i
n
t
l
o
a
d
a
t
t
h
e
f
r
e
e
e
n
d
:
=
(

W
L
3
)
/
(
3
E
I
)
=
(
2
0
0
0

2
5
0
3
)
/
(
3

8
0

1
0
3

4
6
8
3
3
.
0
5
)
150.
=2.7
m
m

151.
Stres
s
=
(
6
W
L
)/
(
b
d
2
)

=
(
6

2
0
0
0

2
5
0
)/
(
2
7
.
3
8

2
7
.
3
8
2
)
152.

=
1

4
6
.
1
5
N
/
m
m
2

153.
4.5C
i
r
c
u
l
a
r
c
r
o
s
s
s
e
c
ti
o
n
:
154.
REA
C
T
I
O
N
F
O
R
C
E
S

A
T
N
O
D
E
1
(
N
1
):
155.
FX =
0
F
Y

=
2
0
0
0
156.
Taki
n
g
m
o
m
e
n
t
s
a
b
o
u
t
n
o
d
e
1
(
N

1
):
157.
Mz =
2
5
0

2
0
0
0
M
z

=
5
0
0
0
0
0
158.
Mo
m
e
n
t
o
f
i
n
e
rt
i
a
o
f
a
C
I
R
C
U
L
A

R
b
e
a
m
:
159.
=

d
4
/
6
4
=

3
0
.
9
4
/
6
4
=
4
4
7
6
2
.
3
m
m
4

160.
Defl
e
c
ti
o
n
o
f
t

h
e
c
a
n
ti
l
e
v
e
r
b
e
a
m
w
it
h
p
o
i
n
t
l
o
a
d
a
t
t
h
e
f
r
e
e
e
n
d
:
=
(
W
L
3
)
/

(
3
E
I
)
161.
=
(
2
0
0
0

2
5
0
3
)
/
(
3

8
0

1
0
3

4
4
7
6
2
.
3
)
162.
=2.9
m
m
163.

S
t
r
e

s
s
:
=
3
2
W
L
/

D
3
164.

=
(
3
2

2
0
0
0

2
5
0
)/
(

3
0
.
9
3
)
=
1
7
2
.
6
2
N
/
m
m
2

165.
4.6
T
r
a
p
e
z
i
u
m
c
r
o
s
s
s
e
c
ti
o
n
:
166.
REA
C
T
I
O
N
F
O
R
C
E
S
A
T
N
O
D
E
1
(

N
1
):
167.
FX =
0
F
Y

=
2
0
0
0
168.
Taki
n
g
m
o
m
e
n
t
s
a
b
o
u
t
n
o
d
e
1
(
N
1
):
169.
Mz =
2
5
0

2
0
0
0
M
z

=
5
0
0
0
0
0
170.
Mo
m
e
n
t
o
f
i
n
e
rt
i
a
o
f
a
T
R
A
P
E
Z
I
U
M
b
e
a
m
:

171.
=
h
3

(
3
a
+
b
)/
1
2

=
1
8
.
7
5
3
(
(
3

3
0
)
+
5
0
)/
1
2
=
7
6
9
0
4
.
2
9
m
m
4

172.
Defl
e
c
ti
o
n
o
f
t
h
e
c
a
n
ti
l
e
v
e
r
b
e
a
m
w
it
h
p
o
i
n
t
l
o
a
d
a
t
t
h
e
f
r
e
e

e
n
d
:
=
(
W
L
3
)
/
(
3
E
I
)
=
(
2
0
0
0

2
5
0
3
)
/
(
3

8
0

1
0
3

7
6
9
0
4
173.
=
1

.
6
9
m
m
174.
Stres
s
=
(
6
W
L
)/
h
2
(
3
a
+
b
)
175.
= (6

2
0
0
0

2
5
0
)/
1
8
.
7
5
2
(
(
3

0
)
+
5
0
)
176.
=
6
0
.
9
5
N
/
m
m
2

177.
4.7A
n
a
l
y
s
i
s
o
f
m
o
n
o
l
e
a
f
s
p
r
i
n
g
w

it
h
c
a
r
b
o
n
fi
b
e
r
m
a
t
e
r
i
a
l:
178.
R
e
c
t
a
n
g
u
l
a
r
c
r
o
s
s
s
e
c
ti
o
n
:

179.
REA
C
T
I
O
N
F
O
R
C
E
S
A
T
N
O
D
E
1
(
N
1
):
180.
FX =
0
F
Y

=
2
0
0
0
181.
Taki
n
g
m
o
m
e
n
t

s
a
b
o
u
t
n
o
d
e
1
(
N
1
):
182.
Mz =
2
5
0

2
0
0
0
M
z

=
5
0
0
0
0
0
183.
Mo
m
e
n
t
o
f
i
n
e

rt
i
a
o
f
a
r
e
c
t
a
n
g
u
l
a
r
b
e
a
m
:
184.
=
b
d
3
/
1
2
=
(
5
0

1
5
3
)
/
1
2
=
1
4
0
6
2

.
5
m
m
4

185.
Defl
e
c
ti
o
n
o
f
t
h
e
c
a
n
ti
l
e
v
e
r
b
e
a
m
w
it
h
p
o
i
n
t
l
o
a
d
a
t
t

h
e
f
r
e
e
e
n
d
:
186.
=
(
W
L
3
)
/
(
3
E
I
)
=
(
2
0
0
0

2
5
0
3
)
/
(
3

1
5
0

1
0
3


1
4
0
6
2
.
5
)
=
4
.
9
m
m
187.
Stres
s
=
(
6
W
L
)/
(
b
d
2
)
188.
= (6

2
0
0
0

2
5
0
)/
(
5

1
5
2
)
=
2
6
6
.
6
6
N
/
m
m
2

189.
2.7.3
.
2
S
Q
U
A
R
E
C
R
O
S
S
S
E
C
T
I
O
N
:
190.
REA
C
T

I
O
N
F
O
R
C
E
S
A
T
N
O
D
E
1
(
N
1
):
191.
FX =
0
F
Y

=
2
0
0
0
192.
Taki
n
g
m
o
m
e
n
t
s
a
b
o

u
t
n
o
d
e
1
(
N
1
):
193.
Mz =
2
5
0

2
0
0
0
M
z

=
5
0
0
0
0
0
194.
Mo
m
e
n
t
o
f
i
n
e
rt
i
a
o

f
a
S
Q
U
A
R
E
b
e
a
m
=
b
d
3
/
1
2
=
(
2
7
.
3
8

2
7
.
3
8
3
)
/
1
2
195.
=468
3
3
.
0
5
m
m
4

196.
Defl
e
c
ti
o
n
o
f
t
h
e
c
a
n
ti
l
e
v
e
r
b
e
a
m
w
it
h
p
o
i
n
t
l
o
a
d
a
t
t
h
e
f
r
e
e

e
n
d
:
=
(
W
L
3
)
/
(
3
E
I
)

197.
=
(
2
0
0
0

2
5
0
3
)
/
(
3

1
5
0

1
0
3

4
6
8
3
3
.
0
198.
=1.4
8
m
m
199.
Stres
s
:
=
(
6
W

L
)/
(
b
d
2
)
200.
= (6

2
0
0
0

2
5
0
)/
(
2
7
.
3
8

2
7
.
3
8
2
)
201.
=
1
4
6
.
1
5
N
/
m
m
2

202.
4.8
c
i
r
c
u
l
a
r
c
r
o
s
s
s
e
c
ti
o
n
:
203.
REA
C
T
I
O
N
F
O
R
C
E
S
A
T
N
O
D
E
1
(
N

1
):
204.
FX =
0
F
Y

=
2
0
0
0
205.
Taki
n
g
m
o
m
e
n
t
s
a
b
o
u
t
n
o
d
e
1
(
N
1
):
206.
Mz =
2
5
0

0
0
0
M
z

=
5
0
0
0
0
0
207.
Mo
m
e
n
t
o
f
i
n
e
rt
i
a
o
f
a
T
R
A
P
E
Z
I
U
M
b
e
a
m
:

208.
=

d
4
/
6
4
=

3
0
.
9
4
/
6
4
=
4
4
7
6
2
.
3
m
m
4

209.
Defl
e
c
ti
o
n
o
f
t
h
e
c
a
n
ti
l
e

v
e
r
b
e
a
m
w
it
h
p
o
i
n
t
l
o
a
d
a
t
t
h
e
f
r
e
e
e
n
d
:
=
(
W
L
3
)
/
(
3
E
I
)

210.
=
(
2
0
0
0

2
5
0
3
)
/
(
3

1
5
0

1
0
3

4
4
7
6
2
.
211.
=1.5
5
m
m
212.

S
tr
e
s
s

W
L
/

D
3

213.
=
(
3
2

2
0
0
0

2
5
0
)/
(

3
0
.
9
3
)
214.

=
1
7
2
.
6
2
N
/
m
m
2

:
=
3
2

215.
4.8T
r

a
p
e
z
i
u
m
c
r
o
s
s
s
e
c
ti
o
n
:
216.
REA
C
T
I
O
N
F
O
R
C
E
S
A
T
N
O
D
E
1
(
N
1
):

217.
FX =
0
F
Y

=
2
0
0
0
218.
Taki
n
g
m
o
m
e
n
t
s
a
b
o
u
t
n
o
d
e
1
(
N
1
):
219.
Mz =
2
5
0

2
0
0
0

M
z

=
5
0
0
0
0
0
220.
Mo
m
e
n
t
o
f
i
n
e
rt
i
a
o
f
a
T
R
A
P
E
Z
I
U
M
b
e
a
m
:
221.
=
h
3

(
3
a
+
b
)/
1
2
=
1
8
.
7
5
3
(
(
3

3
0
)
+
5
0
)/
1
2
222.
=769
0
4
.
2
9
m
m
4

223.
Defl
e
c
ti
o
n
o

f
t
h
e
c
a
n
ti
l
e
v
e
r
b
e
a
m
w
it
h
p
o
i
n
t
l
o
a
d
a
t
t
h
e
f
r
e
e
e
n
d
:
=
(
W
L

/
(
3
E
I
)
=
(
2
0
0
0

2
5
0
3
)
/
(
3

1
5
0

1
0
5

7
6
9
0
4
.
2
9
)
224.
=0.0
9
m
m

225.
Stres
s
:
=
(
6
W
L
)/
h
2
(
3
a
+
b
)
226.
=
(
6

2
0
0
0

2
5
0
)/
1
8
.
7
5
2
(
(
3

3
0
)
+
5

0
)
227.
=
6
0
.
9
5
N
/
m
m
2

228.
5.
G
e
n
e
r
i
c
s
t
e
p
s
t
o
s
o
l
v
i
n
g
a
n
y
P
r
o
b

l
e
m
i
n
A
N
S
Y
S
229.
L
i
k
e
s
o
l
v
i
n
g
a
n
y
p
r
o
b
l
e
m
a
n
a
l
y
ti
c
a
ll
y
,

y
o
u
n
e
e
d
t
o
d
e
fi
n
e
(
1
)
y
o
u
r
s
o
l
u
ti
o
n
d
o
m
a
i
n
,
(
2
)
t
h
e
p
h
y
s
i

c
a
l
m
o
d
e
l,
(
3
)
b
o
u
n
d
a
r
y
c
o
n
d
it
i
o
n
s
a
n
d
(
4
)
t
h
e
p
h
y
s
i
c
a
l
p

r
o
p
e
rt
i
e
s.
Y
o
u
t
h
e
n
s
o
l
v
e
t
h
e
p
r
o
b
l
e
m
a
n
d
p
r
e
s
e
n
t
t
h
e
r
e
s

u
lt
s.
I
n
n
u
m
e
ri
c
a
l
m
e
t
h
o
d
s,
t
h
e
m
a
i
n
d
if
f
e
r
e
n
c
e
i
s
a
n
e
x
tr
a
s
t

e
p
c
a
ll
e
d
m
e
s
h
g
e
n
e
r
a
ti
o
n
.
T
h
i
s
i
s
t
h
e
s
t
e
p
t
h
a
t
d
i
v
i
d
e
s
t

h
e
c
o
m
p
l
e
x
m
o
d
e
l
i
n
t
o
s
m
a
ll
e
l
e
m
e
n
t
s
t
h
a
t
b
e
c
o
m
e
s
o
l
v
a
b

l
e
i
n
a
n
o
t
h
e
r
w
i
s
e
t
o
o
c
o
m
p
l
e
x
s
it
u
a
ti
o
n
.
B
e
l
o
w
d
e
s
c
ri
b
e
s

t
h
e
p
r
o
c
e
s
s
e
s
i
n
t
e
r
m
i
n
o
l
o
g
y
s
li
g
h
tl
y
m
o
r
e
a
tt
u
n
e
t
o
t
h
e
s

o
ft
w
a
r
e
.
B
u
il
d
G
e
o
m
e
tr
y
:
C
o
n
s
tr
u
c
t
a
t
w
o
o
r
t
h
r
e
e
d
i
m
e
n
s
i
o

n
a
l
r
e
p
r
e
s
e
n
t
a
ti
o
n
o
f
t
h
e
o
b
j
e
c
t
t
o
b
e
m
o
d
e
l
e
d
a
n
d
t
e
s
t
e

d
u
s
i
n
g
t
h
e
w
o
r
k
p
l
a
n
e
c
o
o
r
d
i
n
a
t
e
s
y
s
t
e
m
w
it
h
i
n
A
N
S
Y
S
.
D

e
fi
n
e
M
a
t
e
ri
a
l
P
r
o
p
e
rt
i
e
s
:
N
o
w
t
h
a
t
t
h
e
p
a
rt
e
x
i
s
t
s,
d
e
fi
n
e
a

li
b
r
a
r
y
o
f
t
h
e
n
e
c
e
s
s
a
r
y
m
a
t
e
ri
a
l
s
t
h
a
t
c
o
m
p
o
s
e
t
h
e
o
b
j
e

c
t
(
o
r
p
r
o
j
e
c
t)
b
e
i
n
g
m
o
d
e
l
e
d
.
T
h
i
s
i
n
c
l
u
d
e
s
t
h
e
r
m
a
l
a
n

d
m
e
c
h
a
n
i
c
a
l
p
r
o
p
e
rt
i
e
s.
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
M
e
s
h
:
A
t
t
h
i
s
p
o
i
n
t
A
N

S
Y
S
u
n
d
e
r
s
t
a
n
d
s
t
h
e
m
a
k
e
u
p
o
f
t
h
e
p
a
rt
.
N
o
w
d
e
fi
n
e
h
o
w
t
h
e

m
o
d
e
l
e
d
s
y
s
t
e
m
s
h
o
u
l
d
b
e
b
r
o
k
e
n
d
o
w
n
i
n
t
o
fi
n
it
e
p
i
e
c
e
s.
A

p
p
l
y
L
o
a
d
s
:
O
n
c
e
t
h
e
s
y
s
t
e
m
i
s
f
u
ll
y
d
e
s
i
g
n
e
d
,
t
h
e
l
a
s
t
t

a
s
k
i
s
t
o
b
u
r
d
e
n
t
h
e
s
y
s
t
e
m
w
it
h
c
o
n
s
tr
a
i
n
t
s,
s
u
c
h
a
s
p
h
y
s
i

c
a
l
l
o
a
d
i
n
g
s
o
r
b
o
u
n
d
a
r
y
c
o
n
d
it
i
o
n
s.
O
b
t
a
i
n
S
o
l
u
ti
o
n
:
T
h

i
s
i
s
a
c
t
u
a
ll
y
a
s
t
e
p
,
b
e
c
a
u
s
e
A
N
S
Y
S
n
e
e
d
s
t
o
u
n
d
e
r
s
t
a
n
d

w
it
h
i
n
w
h
a
t
s
t
a
t
e
(
s
t
e
a
d
y
s
t
a
t
e
,
tr
a
n
s
i
e
n
t

e
t
c
.)
t
h
e
p
r
o

b
l
e
m
m
u
s
t
b
e
s
o
l
v
e
d
.
230. Present the Results: After the
solution has been obtained, there are many
ways to present ANSYS results, choose
from many options such as tables, graphs,
and contour plots.
231.
6.
M
O
D
A
L
A
N
D
S
T
A
T
I
C
A
N
A
L

Y
S
I
S
232.
6.1
M
O
D
A
L
A
N
A
L
Y
S
I
S
233. Modal analysis is
used to determine the vibration
characteristics (natural frequencies
and mode shapes) of a structure or a
machine component while it is
being designed. It can also serve as a
starting point for another, more
detailed, dynamic analysis, such as a
transient dynamic analysis, a
harmonic response analysis, or a
spectrum analysis. Modal analysis is
used to determine the natural
frequencies and mode shapes of a
structure. The natural frequencies
and mode shapes are important
parameters in the design of a
structure for dynamic loading
conditions. The general process for a
modal analysis consists of these
primary
steps:
1.Build
the
model.2.Apply loads and obtain the
solution.3.Expand
the
modes.4.Review the results.

234.

235.
Fig
6
.
1
:
m
o
n
o
l
e
a
f
s
p
ri
n
g
o
f
R
e
c
t
a
n
g
l
e
a
r
e
a
o
f
c
r
o

s
s
s
e
c
ti
o
n
236.
6.3
S
T
A
T
I
C
A
N
A
L
Y
S
I
S
O
N
L
E
A
F
S
R
I
N
G
S
:
6
.
3
.
1
F
o

r
R
e
c
t
a
n
g
u
l
a
r
a
r
e
a
o
f
c
r
o
s
s
s
e
c
ti
o
n
:
6
.
3
.
2
F
o
r
s
t
e
e
l
m
a
t

e
ri
a
l:
237.

F
i
g
.
6
.
2
:
V
o
n
M
is
e
s
S
tr
e
s
s
P
l
o
t
o
f
S
t
e
e
l
M
o

n
o
L
e
a
f
S
p
ri
n
g
238.
6.3.4
F
o
r
E
G
l
a
s
s
fi
b
e
r
m
a
t
e
ri
a
l:
239.

240.
Fig.
6

.
3
:
V
o
n
M
is
e
s
S
tr
e
s
s
P
l
o
t
o
f
E
g
l
a
s
s
fi
b
e
r
M
o
n
o
L
e
a
f
S
p
ri
n
g

241.
6.3.5
F
o
r
C
a
r
b
o
n
fi
b
e
r
m
a
t
e
ri
a
l:
242.

243.
Fig.
6
.
4
:
V
o
n
M
is
e
s
S
tr
e

s
s
P
l
o
t
o
f
C
a
r
b
o
n
fi
b
e
r
M
o
n
o
L
e
a
f
S
p
ri
n
g
244.
6.3.6
F
o
r
S
q
u
a
r
e
a
r
e
a

o
f
c
r
o
s
s
s
e
c
ti
o
n
:
F
o
r
s
t
e
e
l
m
a
t
e
r
i
a
l:
245.

246.
Fig.
6
.
5
:
V

o
n
M
is
e
s
S
tr
e
s
s
P
l
o
t
o
f
S
t
e
e
l
M
o
n
o
L
e
a
f
S
p
ri
n
g
247.

248.
Fig.
6
.
6
:
D
e
fl
e
c
ti
o
n
P
l
o
t
o
f
S
t
e
e
l
M
o
n
o
L
e
a
f
S
p
ri
n
g
249.
6.3.7
F
o
r
E
G

l
a
s
s
fi
b
e
r
m
a
t
e
r
i
a
l:
250.

251.
Fig.
6
.
7
:
V
o
n
M
is
e
s
S
tr
e
s
s
P
l
o

t
o
f
E
g
l
a
s
s
fi
b
e
r
L
e
a
f
S
p
ri
n
g
252.
For
C
a
r
b
o
n
fi
b
e
r
m
a
t
e
r
i
a
l:

253.

254.
Fig.
6
.
8
:
D
e
f
o
r
m
e
d
a
n
d
U
n
d
e
f
o
r
m
e
d
P
l
o
t
o
f
C
a
r
b
o
n

fi
b
e
r
M
o
n
o
L
e
a
f
S
p
ri
n
g
255.

256.
Fig.
6
.
9
:
V
o
n
M
is
e
s
S
tr
e
s
s
P

l
o
t
o
f
C
a
r
b
o
n
fi
b
e
r
M
o
n
o
L
e
a
f
S
p
ri
n
g
257.
6.3.8
F
o
r
C
i
r
c
u
l
a
r
a
r
e
a
o

f
c
r
o
s
s
s
e
c
ti
o
n
:
258.
For
s
t
e
e
l
m
a
t
e
r
i
a
l:
259.

260.
Fig.
6
.
1
0
:
D
e

f
o
r
m
e
d
a
n
d
U
n
d
e
f
o
r
m
e
d
P
l
o
t
o
f
S
t
e
e
l
M
o
n
o
L
e
a
f
S
p
ri
n
g

261.

262.
Fig.
6
.
1
1
:
V
o
n
M
is
e
s
S
tr
e
s
s
P
l
o
t
o
f
S
t
e
e
l
M
o
n
o
L
e
a
f

S
p
ri
n
g
263.

264.
Fig.6
.
1
2
:
D
e
fl
e
c
ti
o
n
o
f
S
t
e
e
l
M
o
n
o
L
e
a
f
S
p
ri

n
g
265.
6.3.9
F
o
r
E
G
l
a
s
s
fi
b
e
r
m
a
t
e
r
i
a
l:
266.

267.
Fig.
6
.
1
3
:
D
e
f

o
r
m
e
d
a
n
d
U
n
d
e
f
o
r
m
e
d
P
l
o
t
o
f
E
g
l
a
s
s
fi
b
e
r
M
o
n
o
L
e
a
f
S
p
ri

n
g
268.

269.
Fig.
6
.
1
4
:
V
o
n
M
is
e
s
S
tr
e
s
s
P
l
o
t
o
f
E
g
l
a
s
s
fi
b

e
r
L
e
a
f
S
p
ri
n
g
270.
For
C
a
r
b
o
n
fi
b
e
r
m
a
t
e
r
i
a
l:
271.

272.
Fig.
6
.
1
5

:
D
e
f
o
r
m
e
d
a
n
d
U
n
d
e
f
o
r
m
e
d
P
l
o
t
o
f
C
a
r
b
o
n
fi
b
e
r
M
o
n
o
L
e
a
f

S
p
ri
n
g
273.

274.
Fig.
6
.
1
6
:
V
o
n
M
is
e
s
S
tr
e
s
s
P
l
o
t
o
f
C
a
r
b
o
n
fi

b
e
r
L
e
a
f
S
p
ri
n
g
275.
6.3.9
F
o
r
T
r
e
p
i
z
o
i
d
a
l
a
r
e
a
o
f
c
r
o
s
s
s
e
c
ti
o
n
:

276.
For
S
t
e
e
l
M
a
t
e
r
i
a
l:
277.

278.
Fig.
6
.
1
7
:
D
e
f
o
r
m
e
d
a
n
d
U
n
d
e
f

o
r
m
e
d
P
l
o
t
o
f
S
t
e
e
l
M
o
n
o
L
e
a
f
S
p
ri
n
g
279.

280.
Fig.
6
.
1
8
:
V
o

n
M
is
e
s
S
tr
e
s
s
P
l
o
t
o
f
S
t
e
e
l
m
o
n
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285.
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6
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344.
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360.
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316.
317.

327.

328.
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330.
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349.

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312.
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346.
347.

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332.
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362.
363.

364.
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386.

391.
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393.

394.

395.

396.
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398.
399. *
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SETS
ON
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401. SET
TIME/
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6.3
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f
s
p
ri
n
g
.
423.
BIB
L
I

O
G
R
A
P
H
Y
1. Theory ofMachines- Khurmi
424.
2
.
A
T
e
x
t
B
o
o
k
o
f
M
a
c
h
i
n
e
D
e
s
i
g
n
425.
S.M
d
.
J
a

l
a
l
u
d
e
e
n

3.
Composite Materials - V.
426.
Raghavan
4.
Material Science And
Metallurgy-O.P Khanna
5.
ANSYS-11.0 for engineers
and designers -Prof. Sham Tickoo