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GUIDELINES

FOR

BOARD EXAM
(CLASS-XII)

b) : a < b}. We have. R is not symmetric. R is not reflexive. So. R = {(a. R is not symmetric. We have. 2 < (–3)2 and –3 < 12 but 2 £/ 12 i. Þ (a. c) Î R. ƒ(x1) = ƒ(x2) Þ 2x1 = 2x2 Þ x1 = x2 So. Then. 2) Ï R. we have a < a. è2 2ø 2 è2ø So. b) Î R and (b. : Show that the relation R on the set R of all real numbers. where a. x2 Î R such that ƒ(x1) = ƒ(x2). b Î R.e. –3) Î R and (–3. 1) Î R but (2. R = {(a.1 : Prove that ƒ : R ® R. b) : a < b2} is neither reflexive nor symmetric nor transitive. ç . If it can not be avoided. Show that the relation R on R defined as R = {(a. : We observe the following properties of ƒ : Injectivity : Let x1. (a. (2. b) : a < b} is reflexive and transitive but not symmetric. (2. Symmetry :We observe that 2 < 3 but 3 £/ 2 i.e. b) Î R and (b. 1 Que. b) : a < b2}. b Î R.e. Sol. 3) Î R but (3. Functions : Graphical representation of functions must be avoided. Then. Reflexivity: For any a Î R. Þ R is reflexive. Symmetry :We observe that – 1 < 3 2 but 3 £/ (-1)2 i. 2 5 æ5ö æ5 5ö Reflexivity: We observe that £ ç ÷ is not true. Then. then the full explanation of the graph must be done. –1) Ï R. otherwise we give a general proof. So. 1) Ï R. R is not transitive. Surjectivity : Let y be any real number in R(co-domain). where a. R is transitive. So. Therefore. c) Î R Þ a < b and b < c Þ a<c Þ (a. a) Î R for all a Î R.2 : Sol. is one-one and onto. 3) Î R but (3. c) Î R So. given by ƒ(x) = 2x. of 6 marks] 1. ÷ Î/ R . Ex.1 : Sol. defined as R = {(a. Transitivity : Let (a. Relations : In case of neither nor condition we take examples. Ex.. : 2. ƒ : R ® R is one-one. Transitivity : We find that Ex. ƒ(x) = y Þ 2x = y Þ x = y 2 3 . (–1.Guidelines for Board Exam CHAPTER-1 : RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS [In 2015.

æ x+y ö -p + tan -1 ç ÷ if x < 0. So.2 : Sol. for each y Î R (co-domain) there exists x = Î R (domain) such that ƒ(x) = y.xy ø if xy < 1 if x > 0. 3 ø 3 3 è 2 2 2p ö p öü æ æ -1 ì Now.F.and . So. Since ƒ(x) assumes only non-negative values. 42 of NCERT : We will not go in to the details of these values of x in the domain as this discussion goes beyond the scope of this text book.xy ø æ x+y ö p + tan -1 ç ÷ è 1 . : 2p ö 2p 2p p p æ as sin -1 ç sin ÷ ¹ does not lie between . which is determined.0) x y CHAPTER-2 : I.0) (1.T.1 : cot–1(cotq) = q. Show that the function ƒ : R ® R. ì st ï1 ï ïï For example : tan -1 x + tan -1 y = í2nd ï ï ï3rd îï 3. Focus on existence of a value. è 1 . Sol. 1 Que.1) ƒ(–1) x ƒ(1) (–1. ƒ : R ® R is onto. is neither one-one nor onto. p). defined as ƒ(x) = x2. 4 . Ex. always exist in the principal value branch (range) Ex.T. no negative real number in R (co-domain) has its pre-image in domain (R). : y (–1. of 4 marks] 1.Guidelines for Board Exam y æyö æ yö Î R for y Î R such that ƒ ç ÷ = 2 ç ÷ = y . We observe that ƒ(–1) = ƒ(1) So. 2 This mean that each element in co-domain has its pre-image in domain.F. y < 0 & xy > 1 è 1 . The principal value of I. for all q Î (0. [In 2015. 2 è2ø è2ø y Thus. Þ 2. ƒ is not one-one. These facts are evident from the graph of ƒ(x) as shown in Figure Clearly. æ x+y ö tan -1 ç ÷.xy ø 2nd and 3rd results go beyond the scope of text book. Consequently ƒ is not onto.÷ ý è 3 ø 3 øþ î è Þ pö 2p ö æ æ sin -1 ç sin ÷ = sin -1 ç sin ÷ 3 ø 3ø è è é 2p p öù æ êQ sin 3 = isn çè p . Hence. sin -1 ç sin ÷ = sin ísin ç p .3 ÷ø ú ë û [Q sin(p – q) = sinq] 2p ö p æ sin -1 ç sin ÷ = 3 ø 3 è Page no. ƒ : R ® R is bijection. y > 0 & xy > 1 .1) (1.

Represent the above information by matrices. So. x = CHAPTER-3 : MATRICES [In 2015.Guidelines for Board Exam p 2 Ex. Woman : 45 gm and Child : 33 gm. Focus on presentation of word problems.x = cos ( 2sin -1 x ) 2sin–1x = cos–1(1 – 2x2)] 1 x(2x – 1) = 0 Þ x = 0.H. x = p 2 x =2x 2 p + 2 sin -1 x 2 Þ sin -1 (1 . Ex. 2 [Q Þ 1 . Child : 1800 and for proteins in Man : 55gm. : The members of the two families can be represented by the 2 × 3 matrix M W C A é 4 6 2ù F= ê B ë 2 2 4úû and the recommended daily allowance of calories and proteins for each member can be represented by 3 × 2 matrix Calories Proteins M é 2400 55 ù ê F = W ê1900 45 úú C êë1800 33 úû The total requirement of calories and proteins for each of the two families is given by the matrix multiplication : é 2400 55 ù A é 24600 556 ù é 4 6 2ù ê FR = ê 1900 45úú = ê ú ê B ë15800 332 úû ë 2 2 4û ê ú 1800 33 ë û Hence. 2 women and 4 children in family B. There are 4 men. family A requires 24600 calories and 556 gm proteins and family B requires 15800 calories and 332 gm proteins.2sin -1 x = Þ æp ö 1 . we have LHS = sin–1(1 – x) – 2sin–1x 2 p 1 1 1 x = sin -1 .¹ R.sin -1 = .x ) .x ) .S. Sol.1 : There are two families A and B. of (1 + 4 + 4) = 9 marks] 1.x ) = Þ 1 . Woman : 1900. x = 0 satisfies the equation. 6 women and 2 children in family A and 2 men. The recommended daily allowance for calories is : Man : 2400. 5 . calculate the total requirement of calories and proteins for each of the two families.2sin -1 = .2sin -1 x = Sol. x = 0 is a root of the given equation. Hence.2 : Solve : sin -1 (1 . 2 Clearly. sin -1 (1 . : We have. 3 Que.x = sin ç + 2sin -1 x ÷ è2 ø –1 1 – x = cos{cos (1 – 2x2)} Þ 1 – x = (1 – 2x2) Þ Þ For. 2 2 2 6 1 is not a root of the given equation. Using matrix multiplication.

of 4+4+4 = 12 marks] 1. 2 -3 For example : D = 6 1 0 5 5 4 -7 -4 -3 Here firstly on applying R1 ® R1 – R2.h) = ƒ(a) h ®0 for diff... Do not use CRAMER'S RULE for solving a solution of the system of linear equations. we get D = 6 1 2.ƒ(a) -h Focus on second order derivative of parametric function. on applying C2 ® C2 – C1. Focus on applying only one either row or column operation at a time. Use matrix method (X = A–1B) CHAPTER-5 : CONTINUITY & DIFFERENTIABILITY [In 2015. |A| é 3 1ù Third type Question : If A = ê show that A2 – 5A + 7I = 0.. Hence find A–1. trans. dy = 3a sin 2 q cos q dq .(ii) 6 . x = acos3q . For example : If x = acos3q and y = asin3q. trans We write A = IA We write A = AI.ƒ(a) = LHD = lim h ®0 h ®0 h ƒ(a . In row ele.. 3 Que. In column ele.A–1 = A–1A = I]. Use limit for any type of discussion of continuity and differentiability (avoid the graph) for continuity (at a point x = a) RHL = lim ƒ(a + h) = LHL = lim ƒ(a .(i) .. then find the value of d2y p . (b) Second type question : Find the inverse matrix...Guidelines for Board Exam 2. (at a point x = a) 2. 2 at q = dx 6 Sol..... 3. y = asin3q dx = 3cos 2 q( . of 4 marks] 1. when area is given.. CHAPTER-4 : DETERMINANT [In 2015. 1 Que. h ®0 RHD = lim ƒ(a + h) .sin q) dq dy dy / dq = from dx dx / dq . Do not mix. row and column ele.. Read the question carefully based on finding the inverse matrix (There are three types of questions) (a) First type question : find the inverse matrix using elementary transformation. 1 0 5 1 4 -7 1 -6 4 4 -7 Focus on writting (±) sign.. in this case use f ormula A -1 = adjA and firstly check the existence of A–1 through |A| ¹ 0. we get D = 6 1 -4 Secondly.h) . trans. In this case for ú ë -1 2 û finding A–1 use property [A.

x 2 ) or dy =1 dx d 2 y dy d + .x 2 ) d æ dy ö 2 ç (1 .x 2 ) y12 = 1 (1 – x2). Step 2 : Let function properly.1 : Sol.tan q dx -3a cos 2 q sin q æ d2y ö 1 ç 2 ÷= è dx ø 3a.x ).2y1y2 + y (0 .sec 2 q´ 2 -3a cos2 q sin q dx dx Þ æ d2y ö ç 2÷ è dx øq= 1 = p 6 = 4 32 27a æ 3ö 1 3a ´ ç ÷ ´ è 2 ø 2 Proving questions based on second order derivative.x 2 ) (1 .sec 2 q ´ = . CHAPTER-7 : INTEGRAL [In 2015. Integrals of some particular function use directly : 1 1 x -a dx = log + C (x > a) 2 x -a 2a x+a (i) ò (iii) òx (iv) ò (vi) ò (ii) 2 1 1 a+x dx = log + C (x < a) 2 a -x 2a a-x ò 2 1 1 1 æxö æxö dx = tan -1 ç ÷ + C = . Ex.cos 4 q..x 2 ) = 0 2 dx dx dx d 2 y dy 2x (1 .e. apply oppropriate method which takes minimum time. Given that y = sin–1x. (1 .x 2 ) 2 .x ) 2 .x 2 . Þ 1 d2 y dq = . Then dx (1 . Step 4 : Differentiate the function and find critical point.sin q 3. i.a 2 | + C 7 .cot -1 ç ÷ + C 2 a +a a èaø èaø 1 1 x 1 æxö æxö dx = sec -1 + C (v) ò dx = sin-1 ç ÷ + C = .x =0 dx dx dy 1 = or We have y = sin–1x. Step 3 : Establish a relation between two variables. of 6 marks] Maxima and minima word problems : Attempt these question with following steps : Step 1 : Draw the required named figure. ÷ = 0 dx è dx ø So (1 .x 2 2 or d2 y dy Hence (1 . (1 . 1 Que. show that (1 . 1 Que.Guidelines for Board Exam dy 3a sin 2 q cos q = = . =0 dx dx 2 1 . we have y1 = 1.2x) = 0 (1 – x2)y2 – xy1 = 0 2 1 So Hence CHAPTER-6 : AOD [In 2015.x =0 dx dx 1 Alternatively.cos-1 ç ÷ + C 2 2 2 2 a a x x -a èaø èaø a -x 2 1 x +a 2 2 dx = log | x + x 2 + a 2 | + C (vii) ò 1 x -a 2 2 dx = log | x + x 2 . : d2 y dy If y = sin–1x..x 2 ) 2 . Step 5 : Use FODT or SODT for maximum and minimum . of 4+4+4 = 12 marks] Indefinite integration 1.

E. a a 0 0 for example : ò ƒ(x)dx = ò ƒ(a . where h and k are arbitrary constants. Sol. carefully. e. í1 + ç ÷ ý = r 2 ç 2 ÷ ïî è dx ø ïþ è dx ø 2 3. Focus on standard form of linear D. [CBSE 2015.E.) = ò Q. dy + py = Q (linear D. is homogeneous. Focus on taking square root in definite integration. y(I. = e ò . [In 2015. If we use properties of D.2sin ÷ for x Î ê 0. while applying substitution method 5. we take + ç 1 .)dx 8 ..Guidelines for Board Exam 2. 2. its I.F.x)dx 4. (for an idea try yourself ) Q. Use partial fraction method for integration of proper rational function (for this use table 7.E. ÷ and .2 sin ÷ dx + ò . of 6 marks] Attempt this question with following steps : Step 1 : Draw the required named figure.ç 1 .ç1 .E. Find the differential equation of the family of curves (x – h)2 + (y – k)2 = r2.2 Page No 317 NCERT) Definite Integration : 3.. p ú è 2ø 2ø è è3 û ë 3ø \ p/3 I= ò 0 6. and solution. dx Pdx I. p xö xö æ æ ç 1 . Step 4 : Find area by using suitable formula CHAPTER-9 : D. Find order and degree of D.) .2 sin ÷ dx è 2ø 2ø p/3 è Some question can be solved through many method but you need to select the method which takes minimum time. CHAPTER-8 : AOI [In 2015.F.(I.F. then write standard form of properties. è 2ø xö xö æ æp ù æ é pö In the given interval. Focus on limit. 6M] 3 2 æ d2 y ö ïì æ dy ö ïü Ans. Better practice required for formation of a D. Step 2 : Calculate intersection point of given curves Step 3 : Take the limit for bounded region and draw required vertical (Horizontal) strips. 1 Que.E.E.2 sin ÷ for x Î ç . 3 Que. of (1 + 1 + 6) = 8 marks] 1.g.2sin ÷ dx .F.I. Learn to show that D. 4. p For example : Evaluate : ò 0 2 xö æ ç 1 .

2.2 r Find a vector a of magnitude 5 2 .. with y-axis and an 4 2 acute angle q with z-axis.–1) B(2.b) r O ON = = 5b 1 1.. –1. uuur uuur A(1. Ex. Here l = cos p p 1 = and m = cos = 0 2 4 2 Therefore.7ˆj . .3) Side BA = .Guidelines for Board Exam CHAPTER-10 : VECTOR [In 2015.1´ OL L M ON = Sol. in syllabus.3 Sol.(1) Using vectors.1´ (2ar . Write the LM in the ratio 2 : 1 N [1] p p with x-axis.ˆi + 3ˆj . respectively. [1] S. making an angle of r a.12kˆ BA ´ BC = -1 3 -1 = ˆi(-15 + 6) . B(2.kˆ & [1] BC = 2iˆ + 6ˆj . l2 + m2 + n2 = 1 gives 1 1 + 0 + n2 = 1 Þ n = 2 2 r ˆ is given by Hence. 2 ø è 2 Ex. of (1+1+4) = 6 marks] uuur Do not calculate directly from coordinate geometry use vector sign AB or r r r r Ex. 3).. 3 Que. Sol. whose vertices are A(1.b and a + 2b position vector of a point N which divides the line segment externally.j(5 + 2) + k( 2 6 -5 uuur uuur 274 BA ´ BC = 81 + 49 + 144 Þ Now area of DABC is = 2.6) = -9iˆ . 2 -1 (2a–b) a+2b r r uuur 2 ´ (ar + 2b) . 1 274 2 [½] [1½] [1] 9 ... the required vector r = 5 2 (lˆi + mjˆ + nk) r 1 ˆö r æ 1 ˆ r =5 2ç i + 0j+ k ÷ = r = 5iˆ + 5kˆ ...1 : L and M are two points with position vector 2a .T.P. uuuur uuur uuur 2 ´ OM .5kˆ area of DABC = 1 uuur uuur BA ´ BC 2 ˆi ˆj kˆ C(4..5.–1). 5.2.–1.4) uuur uuur ˆ -6 . 4) and C(4. find the area of the triangle ABC.

z1) (x2. y2. z2) (x3 y3 z3) x . 3 Que.z1 z 2 . of 6 marks] 1. Bernoulli Trials. value)] dotted line. CHAPTER-13 : PROBABILITY [In 2015. 2 Que. variance and standard deviation accordingly NCERT Tex Book. for example : r r r r r r (a) Shortest distance between two skew lines r = a 1 + lb1 and r = a 2 + µb 2 r r r r (a 2 . Find the answer in vector form or cartesian form accordingly question. value) or ax + by < m (min. 1 Que. mean. See example No. Draw the named graph properly.z1 = 0 x 3 . 10 . 2. Focus on optimal value of unbounded region : To decide the optimal value of function we graph the inequality [ax + by > M (max.y1 y 2 .x1 y . then we save the time. 4 and 6. of (1 + 4 + 6) = 11 marks] 1. If we use standard results (formula) directly. Use formula's of Baye's theorem.z1 (other results shows in NCERT Page No. 2. = | b1 ´ b 2 | (b) Equation of a plane passing through three non collinear points (x 1.y1 z .Guidelines for Board Exam CHAPTER-11 : 3-D [In 2015. of (4 + 6) = 10 marks] 1.a1 ).D. 499 to 503) CHAPTER-12 : LPP [In 2015. y1.(b1 ´ b 2 ) r r S.y1 z 3 .x1 y3 .x1 is required plane = x 2 .

5 Q. 12. 10 Q. 23. 17 CHAPTER-3 : MATRICES Example Exercise # 3. 15.1 Exercise # 2. 9. 14 Q. 20.3 Exercise # 5.5 Miscellaneous Exercise Q. 13 Q. 5. 10 Q. 41. 12. 5 Q.5 Exercise # 4.2 Exercise # 5. 5. 37. No. 15. 13 Q. 14. No. 16. 6.T. No. 18 Q. 9.2 Exercise # 6. No. No. 5.1 Exercise # 3. 10 Q.6 Exercise # 5. 10 Q. 11. 14 Q. 48 Q. 17. No. 2. 18 11 . No. 22.1 Exercise # 6. No.3 Exercise # 4. No.1 Exercise # 1. 8. No. No.4 Miscellaneous Exercise # 1 Q. 11. 23 CHAPTER-6 : AOD Example No. 12. 38. 18. 12. 18 Q. 7. No. 45 Q. 12.2 Exercise # 3.7 Miscellaneous Exercise Q. 16. 2. 3. 16. 10. 19 CHAPTER-5 : CONTINUITY & DIFFERENTIABILITY Examples Exercise # 5. No. 12 Q. No. 3(iii). 13. No. No.3 Exercise # 6. No. 8. 15. Exercise # 1. 15 Q. 10. 16.1 Exercise # 5. No. 9. 16. 13. 24 Q.2 Exercise # 4. 11. 7. 18. 9. 9. 4. No. No. 10. 11 Q.2 Miscellaneous Exercise Q. No. 9. 14. 9. 15.4 Exercise # 4. 13 CHAPTER-4 : DETERMINANT Examples Exercise # 4. 2. No. 8. 32 Q. 15 Q. 15. 26. to 26 Q.4 Exercise # 6. Exercise # 6. 16. No. 24 Q.Guidelines for Board Exam IMPORTANT QUESTIONS OF NCERT TEXT BOOK CHAPTER-1 : RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS Example No. No. 10 Q. 10. 2.5 Exercise # 5. No. No. 20 Q. 5 (i).F Examples Exercise # 2. 12 CHAPTER-2 : I.2 Exercise # 1. No. 17. No. 1(iv). 14. No. 6. No. No. 6. 39. 10. 8. No. 16 Q. No.4 Exercise # 5. 11 Q.3 Miscellaneous Exercise Q. 11 Q. 12. 10. 7. 13. 45 (iii) Q. No. No. 3 Q. 13.3 Exercise # 1. 2 (i). No. 5. 12. 9. 15 Q. 7. 14. 24. 17. 11. 12. 19. 30 Q. No. 17 Q. 8. 7.5 Miscellaneous Exercise Q. No. (iv).

13. 7.2 Exercise # 7. 9. 6. 10. 15 Examples Exercise # 9. 19 Q.9. 7. No. 14 CHAPTER-9 : D. No. 4. No.5 Exercise # 9. 12. 24. No.14 Q. No. 6.1 Exercise # 11. 36.12 Q. 6. 6 Q. 5.4 Mise. 15. 26. 38 Q. 18.11 Miscellaneous Exercise CHAPTER-7 : INTEGRAL Q. 9. 4. 17.4 Exercise # 7. 24. No. 4. No. 7.36 Q. 20. No. 36. 22 Q. 6. 6. 9. No. 17.8 Exercise # 7. 10. No.3 Miscellaneous Exercise Q. 6. 9. Exercise Q. No. 9. 10. 4.E. 4. No.29.2 Exercise # 9.9. 9.9 Exercise # 7. 7.7. No. No.14 Q. 6. No. No. No. 13 Q. 10. 28 Q.11 Q. 12. 5 Q. 12 Q. 14. 15. 20. No.1 Exercise # 13. No.7 Exercise # 7. No. 13 Q. 24. No. 9. 18. 13 Q. 8.6.6 Miscellaneous Exercise Q.Guidelines for Board Exam Examples Exercise # 7. 5 Q.2 Miscellaneous Examples Q. 21.1 Exercise # 12.16 12 . 11. 12 16. No. 8.5 Miscellaneous Examples CHAPTER-11 : 3-D CHAPTER-12 : LPP CHAPTER-13 : PROBABILITY Q. No.17.4 Exercise # 13.6 Exercise # 7. 27.8. 43. 1. 4 Q. 30. No. 21.1 Exercise # 9. 10 Q. No. No. 43 Q. 28 Q. 6. No. 11. No. No. 6.12 Q. 14. 5.3 Exercise # 13.12. 19. 9. 10(ii). 4. 10 Examples Exercise # 13. 8. 12. 33. 18. 7. 19. 6. No.5 Exercise # 7.4 Exercise # 9. 5. 20 Examples Exercise # 12. 4. 5. No. 11 Q. No. 11. 20. 22. 15 Examples Exercise # 11. No. 9. 4. 5. No. 11. 11 Q. 10. 18. 13 Q. No. 21 Q.27. 40.13. 21. 9. 8. 5. No.3 Exercise # 7. 19. 5.24.2 Exercise # 10. No. 19 Q. 6(ii). 9 Q. 7. 8. No. No. No. 9 Q. 8 Q. 22 Q.2 Exercise # 11. 15. 21. 25 Q.10 Exercise # 7. 3. No. CHAPTER-10 : VECTOR Examples Exercise # 10. 7.2 Exercise # 13. 13. 37.2 Miscellaneous Examples Miscellaneous Exercise Q. 17 Q. 10.3 Exercise # 10. 18 Q. 22(ii). 10 Q. 16. 9. 15 Q. 16. 32.1 Exercise # 8. 44 CHAPTER-8 : AOI Examples Exercise # 8. 31. No. 10. 40. 10 Q. 6 Q. No. 39. 9 Q. No. 15. No.