You are on page 1of 27

INTRODUCTION OF

BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING

Cabatay, Rexter C.
ChE-5201

Biochemical Engineering:
has usually meant the extension of
chemical engineering principles to systems
using a biological catalyst to bring about
desired chemical transformations.

DEFINITIONS
Biotechnology
- Traditionally, implies the use or
development of methods of direct genetic
manipulation for a socially desirable product.
- Broadly, Commercial techniques that
use living organisms, or substances from those
organism, to make or modify a product
(Congress of the United States, 1984)

Definitions
Fermentation
- Traditionally, defined as the process for the
production of alcohol or lactic acid from glucose.
- Broadly, defined as an enzymatically controlled
transformation of organic compound (Websters
New College Dictionary)

The roles of a biochemical engineer for


commercial realization of biotechnology:
Scale-up, design, optimal operation and control
of bioreactors
Design and operation of downstream
processing equipment
Fermentation plant design

BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
5000
to 10,000 BC: yogurt, cheese and soy products,
HISTORY
wine and beer.

In early 20th century: pure bakers yeast were being


produced in tanks and sold.
In world war I: fermentation was used to produce
chemicals needed for war.
World War II: antibiotics production became on the
commercial scale.
1970s: recombinant DNA technology

CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANISMS
1. According to Structure
Procaryotes with nuclear envelopes
Eucaryotes without nuclear envelopes

2. According to Carbon Source


Autotrophs uses cabon dioxide
Heterotrophs uses fancier carbon compounds

3. According to Energy Source


Chemotrophs from breaking down substrate
Phototrophs obtain energy from light

CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANISMS
4. According to final electron acceptor
Aerobes uses molecular oxygen
Anaerobes do not need oxygen but instead use nitrates,
sulfides and carbon dioxide
Facultative Anaerobes able to grow in the presence or
absence of molecular oxygen
Microaerophiles need only little amount of oxygen

5. According to Temperature
Psychrophiles- 20 C to +10 C.
Mesophiles- 20 and 45 degrees C
Thermophiles- a type of extremophile that thrives at relatively
high temperatures, between 41 and 122 C.

BIOMOLECULES
MACROMOLECULES

BUILDING
BLOCKS

INTERMEDIATE
S

Lipids

Fatty Acids

Acetate Malonate

Polysaccharides

Monosaccharides

Phosphopyruvate
malate

Nucleic Acids

Nucleotides

Ribose carbomyl
phophates

Proteins

Amino Acids

A-keto acids

LIPIDS
Soluble in non-polar solvents. Energy storage,
signal transmission
a.Fatty Acids COOH with long chain H-C
b.Glycerolipids (glycerides) fatty acids attached
to a glycerol backbone
c.Phosphoglycerides formation of lipid monolayer
d.Steroids hormones

CARBOHYDRATES
Organic compounds that are aldehydes and
ketones with many OH groups. Serves as shortterm energy storage, precursors for building
polymers
a.Monosaccharides
b.Disaccharides
c.Polysaccharides (Starch, Cellulose)
d.Hemicellulose short, branched polymers of
pentoses and hexoses
e.Lignin

NUCLEIC ACIDS (RNA AND


DNA)
Information biopolymers that contains all the
cells hereditary information
DNA stores genetic information
RNA reads and implements the genetic
information
Messenger RNA (mRNA) formed in nucleus, carries
message from DNA to another part of the cell
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) found in ribosome, reads the
message of mRNA
Transfer RNA (tRNA) found in cells cytoplasm and
translate the genetic code at the ribosome

PROTEINS
Amino acids joined together by peptide bonds.
Also called polypeptides
Amino acids have isoelectric point at which
specific point, it exhibits no net charge

ENZYME TECHNOLOGY
Enzyme proteins produced by living cells and
acts as biological catalysts for many biochemical
reactions
Steps in an Enzymatic Reaction
Enzyme and substrate combine to form a
complex
Complex goes through a transition state- not
quite substrate or product yet
A complex of the enzyme and product is formed
Finally the enzyme and product separate

GENERAL CLASSES OF ENZYMES


1. Oxido-Reductates oxidizes or reduce substrate
by
transferring
hydrogen
or
electrons
(dehydrogenases, oxidases, peroxidases)
2. Transferases removes groups (excluding
hydrogen) and transfer them to acceptor molecules
(excluding water) (kinases transfer of phosphate
group)
3. Hydrolases for hydrolytic reactions (proteases)
4. Lyases remove groups from the substrate by
hydrolysis to form double bonds or conversely, add
groups to the double bond (aldolases, pectinases)

GENERAL CLASSES OF ENZYMES


5. Isomerases catalytic isomerizations. Causes
isomerization to the substrate, rearrangement
of the bond structure.
6. Ligases
or
Synthetases

cause
condensation of two molecules by splitting a
phosphate bond

THEORIES ON ENZYMESUBSTRATE COMPLEX


1. Emil Fischers Lock and Key Model

Have complementary molecular geometries


Enzyme is pictured as conformationally rigid
Explains the specificity of enzyme

2. Koshlands Induced Fit Hypothesis


Conformation can change as the substrate approaches and starts to
bind
Structure is maintained by weak IMF
Approach of the substrate is viewed as perturbation.

3. Michaelis Menten Theory


Enzyme activity depends on substrate concentration
Popular model for enzyme kinetics
Plot of reaction velocity and substrate concentration

BIOREACTOR
CONFIGURATIONS FOR CELL
CULTIVATION
Batch Reactor (BR)
Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR)
Plug Flow Reactor (PFR)

STERILIZATION
Main objective is to kill contaminating microorganisms and to
ensure mono-septic conditions after inoculation
Methods of Sterilization:
1. heat (wet or dry)
2. radiation (UV, X- and gamma rays)
3. chemical agents (ethylene oxide)
4. mechanical separation

RULES OF THUMB FOR


STERILITY LEVEL

Sterility requirements are higher in the


food/canning industry to ensure the
destruction of a highly resistant spore,
Clostridium botulinum

REGULATION AND
ORGANIZATION
In pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry,
Primary concern: to produce a product of consistently
high quality in amounts to satisfy the medical
needs of the population.
Secondary concern: to reduce the manufacturing cost.
A future biochemical engineer needs to understand the
regulatory climate in which many bioprocess
engineers work.