# MAE4700/5700

Finite Element Analysis for
Mechanical and Aerospace Design
Cornell University, Fall 2009
Nicholas Zabaras
Materials Process Design and Control Laboratory
Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
101 Rhodes Hall
Cornell University
Ithaca, NY 14853-3801

CORNELL
U N I V E R S I T Y

MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (9/1/2009)
1

Intro to FEM: The direct approach
• Consider a linear spring with `nodes’ 1 and
2:
F
F
1

2

o

o

1

2

• The force on the spring at node 1 is: F1 = k (δ1 − δ 2 )
• Similarly the force at node 2: F2 = k (δ 2 − δ1 )
F1 = k (δ1 − δ 2 ) = − F2

• We can re-write the above equations in
matrix form as: ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎡ k − k ⎤ ⎧δ1 ⎫
⎨ ⎬=⎢
⎩ F2 ⎭ ⎣ − k

CORNELL
U N I V E R S I T Y

⎨ ⎬

k ⎦ ⎩δ 2 ⎭

MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (9/1/2009)
2

The direct approach
F1

F2
o

o

1

2

⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎡ k − k ⎤ ⎧δ1 ⎫
⎨ ⎬=⎢
⎨ ⎬

⎩ F2 ⎭ ⎣ −k k ⎦ ⎩δ 2 ⎭

Stiffness matrix

Displacement
vector

• We can generalize this equation for a linear
spring as: ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎡ k11 k12 ⎤ ⎧δ1 ⎫
⎨ ⎬=⎢
⎩ F2 ⎭ ⎣ k21

⎨ ⎬
k22 ⎦⎥ ⎩δ 2 ⎭

kij: force on ith node induced by a unit displacement in the jth node

CORNELL
U N I V E R S I T Y

MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (9/1/2009)
3

Direct method
• Let us consider the analysis of the following
loaded system of linear springs (each with 2
nodes)
1
1

2

2

4
3

4

F

3

• This system has 4 linear spring elements
and there are 4 global nodes.
• Node 1 is fixed but node 4 can slide under
We are interested to compute the nodal displacements δ1, δ2, δ3, δ4

CORNELL
U N I V E R S I T Y

MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (9/1/2009)
4

Direct method

F

• We know the behavior of each `element’, e.g.
⎧⎪ F ⎫⎪ ⎡ k
⎨ (1) ⎬ = ⎢ (1)
⎪⎩ F2 ⎪⎭ ⎣⎢ k21
(1)
1

(1)
11

k ⎤ ⎧⎪δ ⎫⎪
(1) ⎥ ⎨ (1) ⎬
k22 ⎦⎥ ⎪⎩δ 2 ⎪⎭
(1)
12

(1)
1

Element

Local
Node

Global
Node

1

1
2

1
2

δ1(1)

Displacement of local node 1 of element 1

δ 2(1)

Displacement of local node 2 of element 1

CORNELL
U N I V E R S I T Y

MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (9/1/2009)
5

Direct method

F

• For `element’ 2:
⎧⎪ F ⎫⎪ ⎡ k
⎨ (2) ⎬ = ⎢ (2)
⎪⎩ F2 ⎪⎭ ⎢⎣ k21
(2)
1

(2)
11

⎤ ⎧⎪δ ⎫⎪
(2) ⎥ ⎨ (2) ⎬
k22 ⎦⎥ ⎪⎩δ 2 ⎪⎭
(2)
12

k

(2)
1

Element

Local
Node

Global
Node

2

1
2

2
3

δ1(2)

Displacement of local node 1 of element 2

δ 2(2)

Displacement of local node 2 of element 2

CORNELL
U N I V E R S I T Y

MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (9/1/2009)
6

Direct method

F

• For `element’ 3:
⎧⎪ F ⎫⎪ ⎡ k
⎨ (3) ⎬ = ⎢ (3)
⎪⎩ F2 ⎪⎭ ⎣⎢ k21
(3)
1

(3)
11

k ⎤ ⎪⎧δ ⎪⎫
(3) ⎥ ⎨ (3) ⎬
k22 ⎦⎥ ⎪⎩δ 2 ⎪⎭
(3)
12

(3)
1

Element

Local
Node

Global
Node

3

1
2

2
3

δ1(3)

Displacement of local node 1 of element 3

δ 2(3)

Displacement of local node 2 of element 3

CORNELL
U N I V E R S I T Y

MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (9/1/2009)
7

Direct method

F

• For `element’ 4:
⎧⎪ F ⎫⎪ ⎡ k
⎨ (4) ⎬ = ⎢ (4)
⎪⎩ F2 ⎪⎭ ⎣⎢ k21
(4)
1

(4)
11

δ1(4)
δ 2(4)

CORNELL
U N I V E R S I T Y

⎤ ⎪⎧δ ⎪⎫
(4) ⎥ ⎨ (4) ⎬
k22 ⎦⎥ ⎪⎩δ 2 ⎪⎭
(4)
12

k

(4)
1

Element

Local
Node

Global
Node

4

1
2

3
4

Displacement of local node 1 of element 4
Displacement of local node 2 of element 4
MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (9/1/2009)
8

Connectivity matrix

F

• Connectivity matrix T:
⎡1 2 2 3 ⎤
T =⎢

2
3
3
4

Global nodes
of element 2

e=2
One column for
each element

CORNELL
U N I V E R S I T Y

MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (9/1/2009)
9

Summary

F
⎪⎧ F ⎪⎫ ⎡ k
⎨ (1) ⎬ = ⎢ (1)
⎪⎩ F2 ⎪⎭ ⎢⎣ k21

k ⎤ ⎧d1 ⎫

(1) ⎥ ⎨
d
k22 ⎥⎦ ⎩ 2 ⎭

(2)
(2)
⎪⎧ F1 ⎪⎫ ⎡ k11
⎨ (2) ⎬ = ⎢ (2)
⎪⎩ F2 ⎪⎭ ⎢⎣ k21

⎧⎪ F1(3) ⎪⎫ ⎡ k11(3)
⎨ (3) ⎬ = ⎢ (3)
⎪⎩ F2 ⎪⎭ ⎣⎢ k21

k12(3) ⎤ ⎧d 2 ⎫

(3) ⎥ ⎨
d
k22 ⎦⎥ ⎩ 3 ⎭

⎧⎪ F1(4) ⎪⎫ ⎡ k11(4)
⎨ (4) ⎬ = ⎢ (4)
⎪⎩ F2 ⎪⎭ ⎢⎣ k21

(1)
1

(1)
11

(1)
12

k12(2) ⎤ ⎧d 2 ⎫

(2) ⎥ ⎨
d
k22 ⎦⎥ ⎩ 3 ⎭
k12(4) ⎤ ⎧d3 ⎫

(4) ⎥ ⎨
d
k22 ⎥⎦ ⎩ 4 ⎭

• We use d1 , d 2 , d3 , d 4 from now on to denote the global
degrees of freedom.
• Let us re-write each of these equations to include in the
displacement vector all nodal displacements of our system

CORNELL
U N I V E R S I T Y

MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (9/1/2009)
10

Local to global transformation

F
(1)
(1)
⎪⎧ F1 ⎪⎫ ⎡ k11
⎨ (1) ⎬ = ⎢ (1)
⎪⎩ F2 ⎪⎭ ⎣⎢ k21

k12(1) ⎤ ⎧d1 ⎫

(1) ⎥ ⎨
d
k22 ⎦⎥ ⎩ 2 ⎭

Global node
displacements

⎪⎧ F ⎪⎫ ⎡ k
⎨ (2) ⎬ = ⎢ (2)
⎪⎩ F2 ⎪⎭ ⎣⎢ k21
(2)
1

(2)
11

CORNELL
U N I V E R S I T Y

⎤ ⎧d 2 ⎫

(2) ⎥ ⎨
d
k22 ⎦⎥ ⎩ 3 ⎭
(2)
12

k

⎡ k11(1)
⎢ (1)
⎢ k21
⎢0

⎣⎢0

k12(1)
(1)
k22

0
0

0 0 ⎤ ⎧d1 ⎫ ⎧ F1(1) ⎫
⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ (1) ⎪
0 0 ⎥ ⎪d 2 ⎪ ⎪ F2 ⎪
⎨ ⎬=⎨

d
0 0 ⎪ 3 ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪

0 0 ⎦⎥ ⎪⎩d 4 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪0 ⎪⎭

0 0 ⎤ ⎧d1 ⎫ ⎧0 ⎫
⎡0 0

⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ (2) ⎪
(2)
(2)
⎢ 0 k11 k12 0 ⎥ ⎪d 2 ⎪ = ⎪ F1 ⎪
⎢ 0 k (2) k (2) 0 ⎥ ⎨d3 ⎬ ⎨ F (2) ⎬
21
22

⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎪
0
0 0 ⎦⎥ ⎩⎪d 4 ⎭⎪ ⎪⎩0 ⎪⎭
⎣⎢ 0
MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (9/1/2009)
11

Local to global transformation

F
(3)
(3)
⎪⎧ F1 ⎪⎫ ⎡ k11
⎨ (3) ⎬ = ⎢ (3)
⎪⎩ F2 ⎪⎭ ⎣⎢ k21

⎪⎧ F ⎪⎫ ⎡ k
⎨ (4) ⎬ = ⎢ (4)
⎪⎩ F2 ⎪⎭ ⎣⎢ k21
(4)
1

(4)
11

CORNELL
U N I V E R S I T Y

k12(3) ⎤ ⎧d 2 ⎫

(3) ⎥ ⎨
d
k22 ⎦⎥ ⎩ 3 ⎭

⎤ ⎧d3 ⎫

(4) ⎥ ⎨
d
k22 ⎦⎥ ⎩ 4 ⎭
(4)
12

k

0 0 ⎤ ⎧d1 ⎫ ⎧0 ⎫
⎡0 0

⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ (3) ⎪
(3)
(3)
0
k
k
0
11
12

⎥ ⎪d 2 ⎪ = ⎪ F1 ⎪
⎢0 k (3) k (3) 0 ⎥ ⎨d3 ⎬ ⎨ F (3) ⎬
21
22

⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎪
0
0 0 ⎦⎥ ⎪⎩d 4 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩0 ⎪⎭
⎣⎢0
⎡0
⎢0

⎢0

⎣⎢0

0
0

0
0

0

k11(4)

0

k21(4)

0 ⎤ ⎧d1 ⎫ ⎧0 ⎫
0 ⎥ ⎪⎪d 2 ⎪⎪ ⎪⎪0 ⎪⎪

= ⎨ (4) ⎬

(4) ⎨
k12 ⎥ ⎪d3 ⎪ ⎪ F1 ⎪

(4) ⎪
k22 ⎦⎥ ⎩d 4 ⎭⎪ ⎪⎩ F2(4) ⎪⎭

MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (9/1/2009)
12

Assembly:

[ K ] = ∑ [ K ]( e ) ,[ F ] = ∑ [ F ]( e )
e

e

F

⎡ k11(1)
⎢ (1)
⎢ k21
⎢0

⎢⎣0

k12(1)

0

k22(1) + k11(2) + k11(3)

k12(2) + k12(3)

(3)
k21(2) + k21

(2)
k22
+ k22(3) + k11(4)

0

k21(4)

0 ⎤ ⎧d1 ⎫ ⎧ F1(1)
⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ (1)
(2)
(3) ⎪
0 ⎥ ⎪d 2 ⎪ ⎪ F2 + F1 + F1 ⎪
⎬ = ⎨ (2)
(4) ⎥ ⎨
(3)
(4) ⎬
d
k12 ⎪ 3 ⎪ ⎪ F2 + F2 + F1 ⎪

(4) ⎥ ⎪ d ⎪

k22 ⎦ ⎩ 4 ⎭ ⎪⎩ F2(4)

• What contributes to the global stiffness component
Kij, i.j=1,4?
9Elements between nodes i and j.

CORNELL
U N I V E R S I T Y

MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (9/1/2009)
13

Assembly:

[ K ] = ∑ [ K ]( e ) ,[ F ] = ∑ [ F ]( e )
e

e

F

⎡ k11(1)
⎢ (1)
⎢ k21
⎢0

⎢⎣0

k12(1)

0

k22(1) + k11(2) + k11(3)

k12(2) + k12(3)

(3)
k21(2) + k21

(2)
k22
+ k22(3) + k11(4)

0

k21(4)

0 ⎤ ⎧d1 ⎫ ⎧ F1(1)
⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ (1)
(2)
(3) ⎪
0 ⎥ ⎪d 2 ⎪ ⎪ F2 + F1 + F1 ⎪
⎬ = ⎨ (2)
(4) ⎥ ⎨
(3)
(4) ⎬
d
k12 ⎪ 3 ⎪ ⎪ F2 + F2 + F1 ⎪

(4) ⎥ ⎪ d ⎪

k22 ⎦ ⎩ 4 ⎭ ⎪⎩ F2(4)

• What contributes to the global stiffness component
Kii,, i=1,4?
9Elements that share node i.

CORNELL
U N I V E R S I T Y

MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (9/1/2009)
14

Assembly:

[ K ] = ∑ [ K ]( e ) ,[ F ] = ∑ [ F ]( e )
e

e

F
⎡ k11(1) k12(1)
⎧ F1(1)

0
0 ⎤ ⎧d1 ⎫
⎢ (1)
⎥ ⎪ ⎪
⎪ (1)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(2)
(3)
(2)
(3) ⎪
0 ⎥ ⎪d 2 ⎪
⎪ F2 + F1 + F1 ⎪
⎢ k21 k22 + k11 + k11 k12 + k12
⎨ ⎬ = ⎨ (2)
⎢0
(2)
(3)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(4) ⎥
(3)
(4) ⎬
d
k21 + k21
k22 + k22 + k11 k12
⎪ F2 + F2 + F1 ⎪

⎥ ⎪ 3⎪
⎪ F (4)

d 4 ⎪⎭
⎢⎣0
0
k21(4)
k22(4) ⎥⎦ ⎪⎩N
⎩
2

⎭ 

Displacement
Global stiffness matrix

CORNELL
U N I V E R S I T Y

vector of global
nodes

MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (9/1/2009)
15

Assembly:

[ K ] = ∑ [ K ]( e ) ,[ F ] = ∑ [ F ]( e )
e

e

F

⎡ k11(1)
⎢ (1)
⎢ k21
⎢0

⎢⎣0

k12(1)

0

k22(1) + k11(2) + k11(3)

k12(2) + k12(3)

(2)
(3)
+ k21
k21

(2)
+ k22(3) + k11(4)
k22

k21(4)

0

0 ⎤ ⎧d1 ⎫ ⎧ F1(1)
⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ (1)
(2)
(3) ⎪
0 ⎥ ⎪d 2 ⎪ ⎪ F2 + F1 + F1 ⎪
⎬ = ⎨ (2)
(4) ⎥ ⎨
(3)
(4) ⎬
d
k12 ⎪ 3 ⎪ ⎪ F2 + F2 + F1 ⎪

(4) ⎥ ⎪ d ⎪

k22 ⎦ ⎩ 4 ⎭ ⎪⎩ F2(4)

• What is the total force acting on
nodes
2
and
3?
(2)
(3)
(4)
F2(1) + F1(2) + F1(3) = 0
(2)
F
1
2
F2(1)
F1(3)

CORNELL
U N I V E R S I T Y

F2 + F2 + F1
F2(2)

F2(3)

3

=0

F1(4)

MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (9/1/2009)
16

Assembly:

[ K ] = ∑ [ K ]( e ) ,[ F ] = ∑ [ F ]( e )
e

e

F
⎡ k11(1)
⎢ (1)
⎢ k21
⎢0

⎢⎣0

k12(1)

0

k22(1) + k11(2) + k11(3)

k12(2) + k12(3)

k21(2) + k21(3)

k22(2) + k22(3) + k11(4)
(4)
k21

0
F1(1)

(4)
2

F

4

and

F2(4)

F

F2(4) = F = applied force (known)

CORNELL
U N I V E R S I T Y

0 ⎤ ⎧d1 ⎫ ⎧ F1(1) ⎫
⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪

0 ⎥ ⎪ d 2 ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪
⎬=⎨

(4) ⎥ ⎨
d
0
k12 ⎪ 3 ⎪ ⎪

(4) ⎪
(4) ⎥ ⎪ d ⎪

F
k22 ⎦ ⎩ 4 ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎭

?
Fr

F1(1)
1

F1(1) = Fr = reaction force (unknown)
MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (9/1/2009)
17

Assembly:

[ K ] = ∑ [ K ]( e ) ,[ F ] = ∑ [ F ]( e )
e

e

F

⎡ k11(1)
⎢ (1)
⎢ k21
⎢0

⎣⎢0

k12(1)

0

k22(1) + k11(2) + k11(3)

k12(2) + k12(3)

(2)
+ k21(3)
k21

k22(2) + k22(3) + k11(4)

0

k21(4)

0 ⎤ ⎧d1 ⎫ ⎧ Fr ⎫
⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪
0 ⎥ ⎪ d 2 ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪
⎬=⎨ ⎬
(4) ⎥ ⎨
k12 ⎪d3 ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪

k22(4) ⎦⎥ ⎩⎪d 4 ⎭⎪ ⎪⎩ F ⎭⎪

• We have 4 equations with 5 unknowns: d1 , d 2 , d3 , d 4 , Fr
• We have not yet used the boundary condition: d1 = 0

CORNELL
U N I V E R S I T Y

MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (9/1/2009)
18

Displacement calculation

F
(1)
⎡ k22
0 ⎤ ⎧ d 2 ⎫ ⎧0 ⎫
+ k11(2) + k11(3) k12(2) + k12(3)
⎢ (2)
⎪ ⎪ ⎪
(3)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(4) ⎥ ⎪
k
k
k
k
k
k
d
+
+
+
⎢ 21
21
22
22
11
12 ⎥ ⎨ 3 ⎬ = ⎨0 ⎬
⎪ ⎪F ⎪
(4)
(4) ⎥ ⎪
⎢0
d
k
k

⎭ ⎩ ⎭
4
21
22 ⎦

• This 3x3 system of eqs can be solved for: d 2 , d3 , d 4
• Once you do that, how do you compute the reaction
force at node 1?

CORNELL
U N I V E R S I T Y

MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (9/1/2009)
19

Reaction force calculation
F

before the application of the boundary condition:
⎡ k11(1)
⎢ (1)
⎢ k21
⎢0

⎢⎣0

k12(1)

0

k22(1) + k11(2) + k11(3)

k12(2) + k12(3)

k21(2) + k21(3)

k22(2) + k22(3) + k11(4)

0

⎡⎣ k11(1) k12(1)

CORNELL
U N I V E R S I T Y

k21(4)

0 ⎤ ⎧d1 ⎫ ⎧ Fr ⎫
⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪
0 ⎥ ⎪ d 2 ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪
⎬=⎨ ⎬
(4) ⎥ ⎨
k12 ⎪d3 ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪

k22(4) ⎥⎦ ⎪⎩d 4 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ F ⎭⎪

⎧d1 ⎫
⎪d ⎪
⎪ 2⎪

0 0 ⎦ ⎨ ⎬ = Fr ⇒ Fr = k11(1) d1 + k12(1) d 2 = k12(1) d 2
⎪d3 ⎪
⎪⎩d 4 ⎪⎭

MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (9/1/2009)
20

Non-zero displacement at node 1:

δ1 = α

F

⎡1
⎢ (1)
⎢ k21
⎢0

⎢⎣ 0

0

0

k22(1) + k11(2) + k11(3)

k12(2) + k12(3)

k21(2) + k21(3)

(3)
k22(2) + k22
+ k11(4)

0

CORNELL
U N I V E R S I T Y

(4)
k21

0 ⎤ ⎧d1 ⎫ ⎧α ⎫
⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪
0 ⎥ ⎪ d 2 ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪
system
=

x
4
4

of Eqs
k12(4) ⎥ ⎪d3 ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪

(4) ⎪ d ⎪
k22 ⎥⎦ ⎩ 4 ⎭ ⎪⎩ F ⎪⎭

MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (9/1/2009)
21

Non-zero displacement at node 1:

δ1 = α

F
(1)
(1)
⎡ k22
0 ⎤ ⎧d 2 ⎫ ⎧−k21
+ k11(2) + k11(3) k12(2) + k12(3)
α⎫
⎢ (2)

⎪ ⎪
(3)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(4) ⎥ ⎪
k
k
k
k
k
k
d
0
+
+
+
=

⎬ ⇒ 3 x3
⎢ 21
21
22
22
11
12 ⎥ ⎨ 3 ⎬
⎪ ⎪F

(4)
(4) ⎥ ⎪
⎢0
d
k
k

21
22 ⎦ ⎩ 4 ⎭

system
of Eqs

• The reaction force can be computed as before:
⎡⎣ k11(1) k12(1)

CORNELL
U N I V E R S I T Y

⎧α ⎫
⎪d ⎪
⎪ 2⎪

0 0 ⎦ ⎨ ⎬ = Fr ⇒ Fr = k11(1) α + k12(1) d 2
⎪d3 ⎪
⎪⎩d 4 ⎪⎭

MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (9/1/2009)
22

Consider k

(e)
ii

= k, k

(e)
ij

=k

(e)
ji

= −k , for all elements e, i.e. K

(e)

⎡k − k ⎤
=⎢

k
k

F
⎡3k − 2k 0 ⎤ ⎧d 2 ⎫ ⎧0 ⎫
⎢ −2k 3k − k ⎥ ⎪d ⎪ = ⎪0 ⎪ ⇒

⎥⎨ 3⎬ ⎨ ⎬
⎢⎣0 −k
k ⎥⎦ ⎪⎩d 4 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ F ⎪⎭
Symmetric
stiffness

⎧d1 ⎫ ⎧0

⎪d ⎪ ⎪

F
/
k
⎪ 2⎪ ⎪

=
⎨ ⎬ ⎨

d
F
k
3
/
2
⎪ 3⎪ ⎪

⎪⎩d 4 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩5F / 2k ⎪⎭

• The reaction force can then be computed as:
Fr = k12(1) d 2 = −k F = − F !
k

CORNELL
U N I V E R S I T Y

MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (9/1/2009)
23

Revisiting the assembly process
[ K ] = ∑ [ K ]( e ) ,[ F ] = ∑ [ F ]( e )
e

e

• In the equations above, we imply that the
element stiffness [ K ] and load vectors [ F ]
are already written in the expanded global
node format.
• How do we write the above assembly
process if we want to use element
stiffness [ K ]' expressed in the local node
format?
(e)

(e)

(e)

CORNELL
U N I V E R S I T Y

MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (9/1/2009)
24

Revisiting the assembly process

• Recall that e.g. element 1 in local format:
⎧⎪ F1(1) ⎫⎪ ⎡ k11(1) k12(1) ⎤ ⎧⎪δ1(1) ⎫⎪
(1)
(1)
[
K
'
]{
d
}

⎨ (1) ⎬ = ⎢ (1)

(1)
(1)
k21 k22 ⎦⎥ ⎩⎪δ 2 ⎭⎪
⎩⎪ F2 ⎭⎪ ⎣⎢

N
[ K '(1) ]

{d (1) }

• We can write the
following
transformations:
d

⎧ 1⎫
⎪d ⎪
(1)

δ
1
0
0
0

2⎪
(1)
{d (1) } ≡ ⎨ 1(1) ⎬ = ⎢
⎨ ⎬ = [ L ]{d },

⎩⎪δ 2 ⎭⎪ ⎣0 1 0 0 ⎦ ⎪d3 ⎪
⎪⎩d 4 ⎪⎭
[ L(1) ]T

⎧ F1(1) ⎫ ⎡1

⎪ ⎢
⎪ F2(1) ⎪ ⎢0

⎬=
⎪0 ⎪ ⎢ 0
⎪0 ⎪ ⎢⎣0

0

1
0
0

⎥ ⎧ F (1) ⎫
⎥ ⎪⎨ 1 ⎪⎬ = [ L(1) ]T {F (1) }
⎥ ⎩⎪ F2(1) ⎭⎪

• Note that the matrix
scatters the nodal
forces into the global nodal form

CORNELL
U N I V E R S I T Y

MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (9/1/2009)
25

Revisiting the assembly process

• But we have seen that from equilibrium of
each node: ⎧ F ⎫ ⎧0 ⎫ ⎧0 ⎫ ⎧0 ⎫ ⎧ F ⎫
(1)
1

r

⎪ (1) ⎪ ⎪ (2) ⎪ ⎪ (3) ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪ ⎪
⎪ F2 ⎪ ⎪ F1 ⎪ ⎪ F1 ⎪ ⎪
⎪ ⎪0

⎬ + ⎨ (2) ⎬ + ⎨ (3) ⎬ + ⎨ (4) ⎬ = ⎨
⎪0 ⎪ ⎪ F2 ⎪ ⎪ F2 ⎪ ⎪ F1 ⎪ ⎪0
⎪0 ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪ ⎪ F (4) ⎪ ⎪⎩ F

⎭ ⎩
⎭ ⎩
⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎭

⎬ ≡{f }

⎪⎭

• If we call the applied external force vector
simply { f },we can summarize the above as:
L ] {N
F } = {N
f}
∑ [N
(e) T

e

CORNELL
U N I V E R S I T Y

4x2

(e)

2 x1

4 x1

MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (9/1/2009)
26

Revisiting the assembly process

⎧⎪ F1( e ) ⎫⎪ ⎡ k11( e )
{F } = ⎨ ( e ) ⎬ = ⎢ ( e )
⎪⎩ F2 ⎪⎭ ⎣⎢ k21
(e)

k12( e ) ⎤ ⎧⎪δ1( e ) ⎫⎪
(e)
(e)
[
K
'
]{
d
}

(e)
(e)
k22 ⎦⎥ ⎩⎪δ 2 ⎭⎪

and the transformations:

⎧d1 ⎫
⎧⎪δ1( e ) ⎫⎪ ⎡1 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎪⎪d 2 ⎪⎪
(e)
=
[
]{d }
L
⎨ (e) ⎬ = ⎢

⎪⎩δ 2 ⎪⎭ ⎣0 1 0 0 ⎦ ⎪d3 ⎪ 

⎪⎩d 4 ⎪⎭
{d ( e ) }

4

(e) T
(e)
[
L
]
{
F
}={f }

e =1

• Combining these 3 Eqs gives: ∑[ L ] [ K ' ]{d } = { f } ⇒
K ] = ∑ [N
L ] [
K
'
][N
L ]
∑[ L ] [ K ' ][ L ]{d } = { f } ⇒ { f } = [ K ]{d }, where [N
(e) T

(e)

(e)

e

(e) T

(e)

(e)

e 

(e) T

4x4

e

4x2

(e)

2x2

(e)

2x4

K

CORNELL
U N I V E R S I T Y

MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (9/1/2009)
27

Revisiting the assembly process

• Let us verify

[ K (1) ] = [ L(1) ]T [ K '(1) ][ L(1) ]

Element stiffness in global
node format

⎡1
⎢0
(1)
[K ] = ⎢
⎢0

⎣0

0⎤
1 ⎥ ⎡ k11(1)
⎥⎢
(1)
0 ⎥ ⎣⎢ k21

0⎦

Stiffness in local
node format

⎡ k11(1)

k12(1) ⎤ ⎡1 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎢ k21(1)
=

(1) ⎥ ⎢
k22 ⎦⎥ ⎣0 1 0 0 ⎦ ⎢0

⎣⎢0

Transformation matrix from
local to global node
format

⎡ k11(1)
k12(1) ⎤

k22(1) ⎥ ⎡1 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎢ k21(1)
⎢0 1 0 0 ⎥ = ⎢

0

⎦ 0

0 ⎥⎦
⎢⎣0

k12(1) 0 0 ⎤

(1)
k22
0 0⎥
0 0 0⎥

0 0 0 ⎦⎥

• This is indeed what we used before!
CORNELL
U N I V E R S I T Y

MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (9/1/2009)
28

Revisiting the assembly process

∑[ L

] {F } = { f }

(e) T

e

(e)

[ K ] = ∑ [ L( e ) ]T [ K '( e ) ][ L( e ) ] 

e

[ K ]{d } = { f }

[ K (e) ]

• We remind you that
is the e-element
stiffness in global nodal notation and [ K ]
the e-element stiffness in local element
nodal notation.
[ K (e) ]

'( e )

CORNELL
U N I V E R S I T Y

MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (9/1/2009)
29

Another example
1

4
2

1

2

4

3

3

• For the spring system above, compute the
– global stiffness and force vector
– partition the system and solve for the nodal
displacements
– compute the reaction forces

CORNELL
U N I V E R S I T Y

MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (9/1/2009)
30

An example
1

4
2

1

2

3

4
3

1

⎡ 3 − 3⎤ 1
[K ' ] = k ⎢
⎥3
3
3

(1)

4

3

⎡2 − 2⎤ 4
[K ' ] = k ⎢
⎥3
2
2

(3)

1

2

⎡3 + 1 0
⎢0
1

[K ] =
⎢ −3
−1

0
⎣ −1

CORNELL
U N I V E R S I T Y

3
1

[K

4

⎡1 − 1⎤ 1
]=k⎢
⎥4
1
1

'(2)

3

2

⎡1 − 1⎤
[K ' ] = k ⎢

1
1

(4)

3

−3
−1

3
2

4

−1
0

3 + 2 +1 − 2 ⎥

−2
1+ 2⎦

1
2
3
4

MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (9/1/2009)
31

An example
1

1

2

0
⎡4
⎢0
1

k
⎢ −3 − 1

0
⎣ −1

4

4

−3
−1
6
−2

3

3

−1
0
−2
3

⎤ ⎧d1 ⎫ ⎧r1

⎥ ⎪d ⎪ ⎪r

⎥ ⎨ 2 ⎬ = ⎨ 2 ⎪⎬
⎥ ⎪d3 ⎪ ⎪50 Nt ⎪
⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪
⎦ ⎩ d 4 ⎭ ⎩0
⎭⎪

• We partition and apply BCs:
⎡6
k⎢
⎣ −2

CORNELL
U N I V E R S I T Y

2

d1 = d 2 = 0

− 2 ⎤ ⎧d3 ⎫ ⎧50 Nt ⎫ ⎧d3 ⎫ 1 ⎧10.7143⎫
⎨ ⎬=⎨
⎬⇒ ⎨ ⎬= ⎨
⎬ Nt

3 ⎦ ⎩ d 4 ⎭ ⎩0
⎭ ⎩d 4 ⎭ k ⎩7.1429 ⎭
MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (9/1/2009)
32

An example
1

4
4

1

2

0
⎡4
⎢0
1

k
⎢ −3 − 1

0
⎣ −1

3

2

−3
−1
6
−2

3

−1
0
−2
3

⎤ ⎧d1 ⎫ ⎧r1

⎥ ⎪d ⎪ ⎪r

⎥ ⎨ 2 ⎬ = ⎨ 2 ⎪⎬
⎥ ⎪d3 ⎪ ⎪50 Nt ⎪
⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪
⎦ ⎩ d 4 ⎭ ⎩0
⎭⎪

• Compute the reaction forces:
⎡ −3
k⎢
⎣ −1

CORNELL
U N I V E R S I T Y

− 1 ⎤ ⎧d3 ⎫ ⎧r1 ⎫
⎨ ⎬= ⎨ ⎬⇒

0 ⎦ ⎩d 4 ⎭ ⎩r2 ⎭

⎧r1 ⎫ ⎧−39.286 ⎫
⎨ ⎬=⎨
⎬ Nt
⎩r2 ⎭ ⎩−10.714 ⎭

MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (9/1/2009)
33