TPM - 12 Step Approach

TPM - 12 Step Approach

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Definition of TPM
In early 70’s TPM focused on production sector aiming to maximize the equipment efficiency The new definition was set in 1989 aiming to create a corporate system that maximizes efficiency of production system ² Classical Definition: Total Productive Maintenance ² JIPM Defines it As : Total Perfect Manufacturing Leading to Total Production Management Leading to Total Profit Management
TPM - 12 Step Approach

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Effects of TPM
Effects of TPM always evaluated in terms of ² P - Production ² Q - Quality ² C - Cost ² D - Delivery ² S - Safety ² M - Morale Intangible effects
My Machine concept - First - Line operator owns the ² equipment ² Concept of Zero ² Clean Workplace
²
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Philosophy of TPM
Basic philosophy of TPM is Prevention & Participation by all departments & personnel, including top personnel to first-line operators Keeping the equipment in optimal condition with Visual control Make a clean workplace

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TPM & Concept of Loss
The concept of loss is basic to practicing TPM TPM aims at elimination or reduction of losses JIPM propounds 16 types of losses in manufacturing environment i.e. ² Equipment Efficiency related ² Human efficiency related ² Cost related 5

TPM - 12 Step Approach

16 LOSSES
Equipment Efficiency
Availability Related 1 Break Down loss 3 Tool change loss 5 Planned Maintenance Performance Related 6 Minor stops 7 Reduced speed Defect Related 8a Scrap 8b Rework
TPM - 12 Step Approach

2 Setup loss 4 Start up loss

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16 LOSSES
Human efficiency 9 Management Losses 10 Operating motion Loss 11 Line Organization loss 12 Loss due to failure to automate 13 Loss due to Adjustment & Measurement Cost Related 14 Yield Loss 15 Energy Loss 16 Die/Tool loss
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Overall Equipment Effectiveness
OEE is the indicator of effectiveness of machine

A composite factor considering Availability, Performance & Defect losses

It is tantamount to capability of equipment to deliver the maximum possible good output

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Step-wise implementation of TPM

Phases of TPM implementation Program ² Phase 1 - Preparation for Launch ² Phase 2 - Launch ² Phase 3 - Execution ² Phase 4 - Establish

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Step 1 - Resolve to introduce TPM
Top person along with senior management visits TPM practicing plants to see the effect of TPM Declaration by top person determination to introduce TPM at a gathering of managers, staff and all employees Publicity to the event in company newsletter Setting up an interim committee to organize for TPM introduction
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Step 2 - Introductory education and campaign
Introduction of TPM without proper training and education can lead to failure of the movement Organizing TPM awareness seminars for employees Poster and slogan contest Publishing articles on TPM in company newsletter Plant visits to TPM practicing companies

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Step 3 - TPM Promotional Organization & Model Machines
TPM is an activity which requires constant facilitation and tracking till a critical mass is achieved A full time promotional office called as “TPM Secretariat” is formed People who are trained as TPM Facilitators are part of this secretariat Steering committee is formed consisting of senior plant personnel
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Step 3 - TPM Promotional Organization & Model Machines
Plant in-charge is the chairman of TPM steering committee

Senior level manager is made in-charge of the secretariat

Specialized sub-committees are formed headed by senior person from the relevant area with representation from each department

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Model Machine Activity
Each unit selects a model machine/equipment Manager alongwith his engineers and staff work on the machine to ² Do initial cleaning ² Identify sources of contamination ² Take measures for containing the contamination ² Do Kaizens to reduce the losses Model machines are showcased to all the employees as proof of TPM’s effectiveness

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Step 4 - Setting TPM Policy and Targets
TPM is not the goal but means to achieve the goals Data on Benchmarks - benchmark is the status at the start of activity Stretched targets are set for each of the item Timelines are fixed within which targets are to be achieved Master plans are made for each sub-committee Tracking of progress is done wrt the master plan 15

TPM - 12 Step Approach

Step 5 - Preparation of Master Plan
Master Plan is prepared to create a schedule for all the 12 steps upto the stage of PM award qualification Master Plan talks about major activities such as- formation of sub-committees, their start date and end date etc. Each sub-committee makes its own master plan

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Step 6 - TPM Kick-Off
TPM Kick -Off is a memorable occasion in the TPM journey TPM is launched plant-wide with involvement of all employees Launch function is at a grand scale attended by employees, suppliers, dealers and crème - de- la - crème of the company Top person addresses all the employees TPM organization structure, TPM policy and targets are announced Union representatives commit employee support to TPM activity Presentations are made by Model machine teams to exhibit the success of TPM activity on model machines
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Step 7 - Program for improving OEE
(KK, Tools,JH,PM, & E&T)

Kobetsu Kaizen (Focused Improvement) ² Focuses on Increasing Production & reducing cost ² Reducing manpower and maximising output per person ² Cross functional teams take up projects to eliminate/reduce losses in the system

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Tools Sub-Committee
Tools focus is on ² Eliminating Production Loss due to non- availability of tools ² Reducing Tool Cost by ² Reducing Tool Inventory

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Methodology
Maintain bank and crib inventory levels based on consumption pattern and lead time. Achieve price reduction through ² Import substitution ² Reduction in prices ( where same tool is supplied at different rates) ² Absolute price reduction ² Variety reduction and hence price reduction ² Alternate cheaper source
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Methodology
Achieve enhancement in tooling life through ² Change in material ² Change in design ² Change in process ² Surface treatment such as coating ² Recycling and or salvaging Identify non moving tools and tooling and take action for disposal

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Jishu Hozen
Jishu Hozen (Autonomous maintenance) ² 70% of equipment failures are due to forced deterioration. ² JH focuses on elimination of forced deterioration caused by abnormalities like splashing of oil / coolant, ingress of machining chips on machine elements, settling of dust on electronic parts, exposure to heat, vibrations etc. • Through “Individuals preserving their own equipment” • By carrying out routine inspection, oiling & re-tightening /small repairs
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Step - 0 (1s & 2s)
1S is Seiri in Japanese language which means remove unwanted material from work place and dispose it off. 2S is Seiton in Japanese language which means place for everything and everything in it’s place. There is orderly arrangement of required material. After doing 2S, we can retrieve the required tooling in single touch pickup,in few seconds.

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Implementation of 1s-2s
Formation of circles Allocate areas to each circle Training to all Circle members Start 1S,2S movement Start Pick up movement Change to ‘’No drop’’ movement Maintain shop floor neat & clean Sustain
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Jishu Hozen
Step 1 ² Dis cover to discover ² Discover by cleaning ² Cleaning for inspection ² Inspection for repairs of malfunction of equipment. ² Discovery of areas where cleaning / inspection / lubrication is difficult ² Audit by Unit Head
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Jishu Hozen
Step 2 ² Eliminate source generating dirt/dust oil etc. ² Improve the places of hard to access for cleaning, lubricating and inspection to shorten the time required for the above Passing of the audit ² Cleaning / inspection / lubrication time reduction ² Break down reduced by 50 % ² Machine clean without cleaning

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Jishu Hozen
Step 3 ² Basic condition of activities to prevent equipment deterioration. (Cleaning, lubrication, tightening) ² Create visuals & write standards e.g. • Levels • Looseness • Tension • Lubrication • Gaps / clearances. • Vibration. • Noise • Temperature • Pressure
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Planned Maintenance
Planned Maintenance ² Achieve Zero breakdown ² Focus is on addressing natural deterioration ² Supports JH to tackle forced deterioration ² Aims at drastic reduction in Repair & Maintenance Cost by ² improving service life of parts and reducing time to repair

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Methodology
Step 1: Ranking and support to JH Step 2: Define role of operation division & Maintenance division Step 3: Zero Breakdown activity Breakdown classification using why why analysis Implement cause side countermeasure Use of PM inspection & MTBT concept Implement TBM activity Implement CBM
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Methodology
Step 4: Corrective maintenance Step 5: Maintenance MIS Step 6: Reduce Maintenance cost Step 7: E & T support Step 8: MP activity

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Planned Maintenance

Maintenance activities

Improvement activities Corrective maintenance Reliability MTBF

MAINTENANCE PREVENTION

Daily Jishu Hozen

Preventive Periodic (TBM)

Break down

Predictive

Maintainability (CBM) C rank machine MTTR Single bulb change of OHP Keep stock of spares

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Education & Training
Education & Training ² Focus on fostering excellence in Skill, Attitude and ability ² Eliminating breakdown, defects and accidents due to poor skill & knowledge ² Improving knowledge of operators & maintenance mechanics about equipment / components ² Promoting participation of all

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Methodology
4 Quadrant Skill Matrix Approach ² Classification of operators & technicians ² Defining skill requirements ² Preparation of syllabus and training material ² Pre-training test ² Developing training calendar ² Organizing training programs ² Post training evaluation ² Recording of competency levels ² Feedback and continuous review
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Specific Training Modules
Loss based training Cost awareness JH Step 4 on various machine subsystems such as Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Nuts and Bolts, Drives etc. Maintenance technician training

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Promoting TPM through events
Best JH Step 4 machine contest Kaizen conference TPM quiz Best Visual Control TPM Newsletter

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Step 8 - Development Management
Development management focuses ² To procure ‘maintenance free’ equipment by incorporating the improvements at the development stage of new equipment ² To establish system for ensuring reliability, maintainability operability & Jishu Hozenability ² To incorporate the improvements emanating from various Kaizens related to KK, JH, PM etc. into the new equipment ² Objective is to get easy - to - use facilities
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Step 9 - Establish Quality Maintenance System
Quality maintenance focuses on ² Setting conditions under which no defects will be generated ² Less emphasis on measuring and maintaining the quality characteristic of the job ² Emphasis on controlling the cause side parameters To achieve the goal of Zero Defect, Zero rework and Zero Customer complaints

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Methodology
Step 1 ² Gap analysis ² Stratification Step 2 ² Develop QA matrix Step 3 ² Identify 4 M conditions Step 4 ² Defect classification (a/b/c type) ² Why Why analysis ² PM analysis
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Methodology
Step 5 ² Implement Poka yoke/ kaizen / countermeasures ² Set 4 M conditions ² Derive Q components Step 6 ² Prepare cause side checklist Step 8 ² Standard operating procedure Step 9 ² Provide specific training to engineers / machine operators
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Step 10 - Improvement in Indirect Departments
This team focuses ² Reducing cost of buying of incoming material ² Optimizing material inventory ² Ensuring implementation of 1S,2S across entire plant ² Achieving optimum utilization of manpower

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Methodology
Material cost reduction is achieved through 16 criteria approach ² Price reduction ² Taxation ² Value engineering ² Packaging ² Handling & transportation etc.

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Methodology - Optimum Manpower Utilisation
Job analysis under ² Job elimination ² Job clubbing ² layout changes ² Reduction in mudas

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Step 11 - Establish system for Safety Health & Environment preservation

Focus on building shop-floor which is ² Clean ,Bright & Safe This is achieved by eliminating tasks which are ² Dirty ,Difficult & Dangerous Aim is to achieve ² Zero accident ² Zero pollution ² Zero health hazards
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Intangible benefits
Change in attitude
Leading to

Listening No doubting Doing We can achieve ZERO Forget the past glory Not enough Working together Commitment of all Involvement of workforce

Change in thinking style
Leading to

Change in Culture
Leading to

Happy and Motivated employees Ready to face challenges & Satisfy changing customer needs
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Step 12 - PM award qualification examination
After establishing framework for TPM implementation and achieving the results in each area, the plant appears for PM award by JIPM ² Pre-assessment audit ² Final certification audit Culminating the part I of TPM journey with ‘TPM Excellence Award”

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Beyond 12 Steps…...
12 Steps are part I of TPM which lays the foundation of TPM movement in any organization In part II objective is to reinforce and spread the movement deeply and widely towards the ultimate goal of world class manufacturing TPM is an ongoing journey encompassing the entire company for a cultural transformation in pursuit of excellence

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