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GalileoGalilei:Exploringthe

Universe,EncounteringResistance

NebiyuAbreha
HistoricalPaper
1505Words

Alltruthsareeasytounderstandoncetheyarediscoveredthepointistodiscoverthem.
GalileoGalilei

IhaveabigheartforexplorationIlovetodiscoversomethingnewchangethelivesof
manyforeverandthat'sexactlywhatGalileoGalileididinhisastonishingdiscoveriesofspace.
Thefatherofastronomy.Anindividualwhoshapedupourknowledgeofspaceasweknowit.
Todaykidsarelearningandadmiringwhathehaddiscoveredsolongago.Butmoreimportantly
GalileodidntletreligiongetinthewayofmakinghisdiscoverieseventhoughhisIdeaswerent
popularintheeyesofthepublicevenwhenhegotcountlesslythreatsfromtheCatholicchurch.

GalileowasborninPisa,ItalyonFebruary,151564,firstofsevenchildrenbyVincenzo
GalileiandGiuliaAmmannati.Hisfatherwasawellknownlutenistandcomposerwhowanted
hissontohaveacareerinmedicine.In1581GalileobeganstudyingattheUniversityofPisa,
wherehisfatherhopedhewouldstudymedicine.AslegendsaysGalileobeganhisstudysofthe
pendulumwhilehewatchedasuspendedlampswingbackandforth,backandforthinthe
cathedralofPisa.Despiteitallitwasnottill1602thatGallileomadehismostmemorable
discoveryaboutthePenldulm.AlsoathistimeintheUniversityofPisaGalileolearnedaboutthe
AncientGreekscientist,AristotlehequestionedAristotlesapproachtophysicsliketheIdeaof(a
heavierobjectfallsfasterthanalighterobject).SoGalileowenttotheleaningtowerofPisato
dohisownexperimentbydroppingtwoballswithdifferentweightsfromthesameheightand
bothofthemlandedatthesametimedisprovingAristotletheorybutthatisonlythevergeof
whatGalileodidinhislifetime.Galileobehavedrudelytohiscolleaguesandstaff,notagood
maneuverforajuniormember.SooncehesaidMenarelikewineflasks,
lookat....
bottleswith
thehandsomelabels.Whenyoutastethem,theyarefullofairorperfumeorrouge.Theseare
bottlesfitonlytopeeinto!WithoutasurprisetheUniversityofPisadecidednottorenew
Galileoscontract.

Youcannotteachamananythingyoucanonlyhelphimfinditwithinhimself.

GalileoGalilei

In1592,GalileowasdelegatedprofessorofmathematicsattheuniversityofPadua.
Whileteachingthereheoftenvisited,anareacalledtheArsenalwherevenetianshipswere
dockedandloaded.GalileowasfascinatedbythenauticaltechnologyattheArsenalsuchasthe
sector(cannonlikeintroducedinabout1325).EventhoughGalileowasnevermarried,hehada
conciserelationshipwithMarinaGamba,awomanhemetononeofhisseveraltripsto
Venice.GalileoandMarinalivedtogetheringalileoshomeandhadthreechildren
together.Galileo'stwodaughters(VirginiaandLivia)wereputintoconventswheretheybecame
respectfullySisterMariaCelesteandSisterArcangela.In1610GalileomovedfromPaduato
FlorenceandtookajobascourtoftheMedicifamily.GalileolefthissonVincenzowithMarina
inPadua.

Galileowasaninventorbyhearthehadinventedmanythingsinhislifetimesuchasthe
pump(adevicethatraisedwaterbyonlyusingonehorse)andthehydrostaticbalancebut,his
mostfamousinventionwasthetelescopeaninventionthatopenedoureyestoseetheheavenly
bodies.Galileomadehisownfirsttelescopein1609itwasmodeledbasedonothersaround
Europethatcouldmagnifythreetimesasmuchasthehumaneyecansee.Laterintheyear
Galileomadeanothertelescopethatcouldmagnifytwentytimesasmuchasthehumaneyecan
see,thistelescopewasanoutstandingachievement.Galileoputshistelescoperighttoworkhe
usedhistelescopetolookatthemoon,hesawthatthemoonwasntaperfectsmoothsphereit
hadaroughsurfacewithmanycraters.ManyobjectedGalileosfindingsandsomeeven
threatenedhim,butGalileostuckuponhisdiscoveries.

IfIwereagainbeginningmystudies,IwouldfollowtheadviceofPlatoandstartwithmathematics.
GalileoGalilei

Galileomademanydiscoveries,somethatsupportedtheCopernicussystem(thetheoryin
whichthesunisthecenterofmotionratherthantheEarth).OnedayGalileousedhisTelescope
tolookatJupiter,buttheimagesweretoobrightandtooblurrysoGalileomadesome
adjustments.Onceagain,GalileolookedJupiterheobservedfourfixedstarssoclosetoJupiter
lateronbecomingfourratherthanthree.GalileoexpectedforJupitertomovefromeasttowest
andleavethethreelittlestarsbehind.HesawallthreestarstothewestofJupiterandinsteadof
Jupitermovingtothewestitmovedtotheeast.Galileowasinterestedinthisformationand
revieweditmanytimes.AfterafewweeksofobservingJupiterandthefourfixedstarsGalileo
concludedthatJupiterhadfourmoonsratherthanfixedstarsandpublishedhisfindingsina
bookcalledthe
SidereusNuncis.

AtthetimeoftheseventeenthcenturytheCatholicchurchwasabigfactorinEuropean
life.Thecatholicchurchhadpower,itcouldpreventanyonethingthatjeopardizedittoneverdo
soagain.TheProtestantReformationhadcausedthechurchtoberesponsiveintheviewsthat
peopleupholdthatmayhaveanegativeadverseeffectagainstthem.Forthisveryreasonthe
churchsetupaHollyofficereferredmoreastheInquisition.TheInquisitionhadabranchinall
catholicdominatedcountriestoexaminepotentiallythreateningteachings.Bytheeyesofthe
church,Galileowasnotonlycommittingdesecrationbutalsoirritatingthechurchbyrepeatinga
theoryalreadyposedbyanotherscientistnamedNicolasCopernicusaThecatholicchurch
declaredthatGalileocantbeadevotedcatholicandascientistallatthesametime.Afterwhathe
hadfoundhewantedtoshowtheworld,presenttoeveryonehistheories.Thecatholicchurch
believedthattheearthwasinthemiddleoftheuniverseandeverythingelserevolvedaroundit.
ThechurchthoughtofGalileoasheretic.Galileodidn'tstopthoughhekeptwritinglettersto
explainhistheoriestotheworld.Theinquisitioneventuallyfoundthislettersandtheywerereally
angry.

TheBibleshowsthewaytogotoheaven,notthewaytheheavensgo.
GalileoGalilei

Everyonedidn'tsupportGalileoorworryforhimexceptforhisdaughterMariaCeleste
shehadwrotesomanyletterstoherfatheralwaysshowdeepconcernIreadallofwhatIcould
findshecaredforhishealth,shecaredforhim.MariaCelestedoessometimespleadforGalileo
tostoptalkingandsharinghisIdeasfortheInquisitioniswatchingandlisteningforanythreats
againsttheirbeliefs.Galileodidn'tlistentothewarningsforheisnotacowardforonlyacoward
isafraidtospeakhismind.GalileowassummonedbythePopetoahearingforwritingletters
abouthissocalledabsurdtheories,Galileorefusedtoforhewastoooldandtooilltotravelto
Romebutthechurchdemanded.Theinquisitionpromisedtheytorture,Galileounlesshe
admittedhewaswrongabouthistheories,butitwasn'ttilllongafterthatitwasacceptedtruth.
Galileowasforcedtoconfessthatitwasamistakeandhetotallymadethistheoryupoutof
scratch.Sayinghistheoryiswrongandmadeupwasn'twhatGalileowantedtodo,buthehadto
sohecanquicklysavehislife.AstheguardsescortedGalileooutofthecourtroomhecouldnt
helpbutmutterbuttheearthdoesmovebutluckyforhimthejudgedidnothear.Lateron
GalileoendedupPublishingabookcalledDialogueontheGreatWorldSystemswhichspoke
ofhistheoriesasapunishmentGalileowasguardedathishouseoutsideofFlorenceunder
housearrestforlife.In1638,theInqusiitionallowedtomovetohishomeinFlorencesohiscloser
tohisdoctors,buthewastotallyblindbythetime.In1642hediedoutofillnessathishomea
sadendingtoaninspirationalscientist.
Galileo'sdiscoveriesandinventionssetoutapathformoreastronomerstomakeother
marvelousdiscoveries.AfterGalileosdeathmanypeopleusedtherefractingtelescopetolook
intoouterspaceandsincebeenmademanydiscoveries.Todaywecanlaunchsatellitesintospace
likeApollo13andmanyotherstoexploredeepspaceandgethighresolutionpicturesofplanets
andouterspacewecanevenwatchasstarsexplode.Todaywecansendroverstoplanetslike
marstoexploretheterrainandtoexploretheatmosphere.Astecnologyadvances,new
discoverieswillbemadeandmaybesomedaytherewouldbespacecoloniesturningwhatused
tobefictionintoreality.