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ABSTRACT

In this experiment an open-loop dynamic model between tank level and pump speed from
set response data was developed. Also, the transient behaviour of proportional-only level control
loops were studied. All of the appropriate switches and valves were set as required and the
PTC23 console was powered up. Feed tank A was approximately half filled and the feed pump
was then switched on. The water supply valve was opened and valve V1 was adjusted until
steady state was achieved. The necessary settings were configured on the computer before the
controller output underwent an increase of 10%, decrease of 10%, decrease of 10% and another
increase of 10% allowing time for steady state to be achieved between each setting. A
proportional band of 50% was entered and the setpoint was increased by 25mm and time was
allowed for steady state to be achieved. A new controller gain value was computed and using the
user specified parameter, θ=0.5 the setpoint was decreased by 25mm and the process variables
were permitted to line out. This step was repeated using θ=2.5. Approximately 1L of water was
dumped into the tank and the system was allowed to return to steady state. Valve V1 was closed
by a few turns and again the system was allowed to return to steady state. Data obtained was
saved and the system was shut down. An inversely proportional relationship was observed
between pump speed and tank level. An average velocity gain, Kavg of 0.325% increase in level
per min was obtained and actual closed loop time constants were 1.0 and 4.4 whereas the
theoretical values were 0.5 and 2.5. From the results obtained a proportional level controller will
be expected to exhibit offset following step changes in setpoint, pulse disturbances in inlet
flowrate and step disturbances in inlet flowrate.

APPARATUS

Figure 1. Apparatus used in the experiment.

The computer was then turned on. 6. 9. It was ensured that the flow control valve V1 and the pressure reducing valve PRV1 were fully opened (and that valves V2. especially the mimic diagram. Experimenter was then familiarized with the basic features of the Armsoft package. 8. The mimic diagram was opened and a value of 40 was entered in the "N1" box. Valve V1 was adjusted until the inflow balanced the effluent flowrate so that the vessel level was constant at approximately 50% of scale.2 feed vessels. 4. The PCT23 icon on the Windows desktop was double-clicked and experiment B . The PCT23 console was powered up. 7. process plant trainer (PCT23-MkII) . The 3 circuit breakers and the RCCB on the rear end was checked to ensure that they were in the up position. The flexible tubing was loaded into peristaltic pump N1 and the pump head was clamped onto the tubing. Personal computer Jug Water Peristaltic pump PROCEDURE 1. a holding tube arrangement and a hot water vessel. The water supply valve was gradually opened until a slow stream of makeup water began to flow into the feed tank. The supply valve was then closed. The water supply valve mounted on the south wall of the Reactions and Control laboratory was gradually opened. 5. V4 and V5 were closed). The variables "Run 1 Tank A Level L1 (mm)" and "Run @ Setpoint Term (Loop 1) (mm)" was plotted on the primary y-axis and "Run 1 Feed Pump Speed (N1) (%)" on the secondary y-axis. a 3 stage indirect plate heat exchanger. The range of the primary axis was set to 0-250mm and that of the secondary axis to 0-100%. "graph" then "Configure the graph data". The makeup water was allowed to flow into feed tank A until it was approximately half-full. graph and table functions available on the toolbar. V3. The data . 3."1 loop (level L1 to pump N1)" was set to load. The feed pump was switched on and the feed pump function switch was set to "USB I/O". The following were selected: "View".     Armfield Ltd. The following switches were set as follows:        All function switches to 'MANUAL' All control potentiometers to minimum (fully counter clockwise) Valve control switch for SOL1 to 'Divert' Valve control switch for SOL2 to 'FEED A' Valve control switch for SOL3 to 'STOP' Valve control switch for SOL4 to 'FILL A' Valve control switch for SOL5 to 'STOP' 2.

15. Approximately 1 litre of water was dumped into the tank and the system was allowed to return to steady-state operation. 1986): θ∨K ∨¿ 1 Kc = ¿ The user-specified parameter θ was interpreted as the desired closed-loop time constant (in minutes). 11. Steadystate was achieved and the data collection then ended. 19. 12. The controller output was increased by 10%.) A Proportional-only controller was configured by entering a proportional band of 50%. The controller output was increased from 40% to 50% and the water level was allowed to fall by 25mm (10% of scale). controller output was set to 0% (system was exited. A new value for the controller gain Kc was then computed by means of the IMC tuning rule (Rivera et al. (This was done to prevent the controller from "bumping" the process when it was switched from manual to automatic. 17. "Save As") in Formula One and Excel formats and these files were copied to a diskette. Controller output was decreased by 10% and the level was allowed to rise by 25mm. 18. 10. with engineering units (% increase in level per minute)/ (% increase in controller output). then the set point was increased by 25mm and "OK" was selected. Results were saved ("File".sampling for a sample interval of 2 seconds was configured and the data collection was commenced by clicking the green "Go" icon. The process was allowed to move to the new steady state. and integral time of 0 seconds and a derivative time of 0 seconds. 13. 14. Valve V1 was closed by a few turns but the inlet flow was not shut off completely. The system was allowed to run at this operating point for a few minutes. "Apply" was then selected and the controller was switched to automatic. K. The results of step 10 and 12 was used to derive an estimate of the overall velocity gain. PID 1 box was reopened and the corresponding proportional band was entered.) . The makeup water valve was closed and the controller was switched to manual. 16. The current value of L1 in the "set point" field was entered by Left-clicking on the PID 1 box on the mimic diagram. The controller output was then returned to 40%. Step 15 was then repeated for a different value of θ .. "OK" was clicked and the process variables were permitted to line out. The level set point was then decreased by 25mm.

00 sample time Figure 2.00 100 80 water level (mm) 30.00 120 40. The clamps on the peristaltic pump head was released to prevent distortion of the flexible tubing.20. Open loop data collected in steps 3(x) through 3(xiii).50 Time = 8. Velocity Gain. All controls on the console were set to minimum/OFF and all function switches to MANUAL.00 140 50. K = Final Process Variable−Initial Process Variable ∗100 Initial Process Variable Percentage c h ange∈Controller Output time From step 10 in the procedure: Final height = 102mm Initial Height = 127mm Percentage change in controller output = 40 .00 60 20. The console and computer were turned off.2mins .00 pump speed (%) pump speed 10. RESULTS/ CALCULATIONS 160 60.00 water 40 level 20 0 0.

2 K1 = 0.35mins K2= 135−110 ∗100 110 31−41 12.409 2 = 0.9−7.240% increase in level per min From step 12 in the procedure: Final height = 135mm Initial Height = 110mm Percentage change in controller output = 31-41 Time = 12.240+ 0.325% increase in level per min When the dynamics of the sensor/ transmitter and final control element are negligible.9-7.409% increase in level per min Kavg = K 1+ K 2 2 = 0.K1 = (102−127) ∗100 127 40−50 8.35 K2=0. the openloop response of the measured % level (PV) to changes in controller output (CO) can be modelled as ' d P V (t) = K CO' (t) dt .

COss = m where m is the percentage increase in CO(t) when t=0 d P V ' (t) = Km dt Separating Variables and integrating both sides: ∫ dPV'(t) = ∫Km dt PV'(t) = Km(t) + c where c is a constant Since the system was initially at steady state: PV'(0) = Km(0) + c c=0 PV'(t) = Km(t) recall: PV'(t) = PV(t) . .PVss CO'(t) = CO(t) . the transient response of the measured level follows a first-order linear differential equation with time constant θ .given that: PV'(t) = PV(t) . for step changes in setpoint under IMC proportional control.PVss PV(t) = Km(t) + PVss Therefore.

5 when θ = 0.5∨0.15 ¿ Proportional Band = 100 6.5 0. Closed loop data recorded in steps 3(xiv)-(xviii).26 100 Kc = .level and setpoint valuestank level set point pump speed Sample time Figure 3. Kc θ∨K ∨¿ 1 = ¿ Theoretical values of θ = 0.325∨¿ 1 Kc1 = = 6.15 = 16.5 and 2. Controller gain.

23 ¿ Proportional band = 100 1.5 2.30 .5∨0.23 = 81.325∨¿ 1 Kc2 = = 1.when θ = 2.

They ensure liquid flow to a pump . perhaps for washing down. and the level needs to be restored ready for the next wash cycle.if the vessel were to empty.632(140-168) = 150.30mm occurs at T3 = 10:21:02 Actual value of θ1 = T3 . θ Actual Value Theoretical value 1. T1 = 10:20:02 Final tank level.5 4. They allow plant operation to continue when some flows are temporarily disabled.10:20:02 = 1. liquid flow would be interrupted to the pump which may result in damage of the pump (if it remains in operation without flow) . Closed loop time constant. an application of such would be a hot water tank where water is removed.0 min Table 1.632 (L1 .SAMPLE CALCULATIONS: Actual value of θ1: Initial tank level. Actual and theoretical values of the closed loop time constant. L1 = 168mm Initial time.30mm 150.5 DISCUSSION There are many applications of level control in the chemical industry. 2.4 2.L2) = 168 + 0. L2 = 140mm Final time. T2 = 10:27:46 L1 + 0.0 0. Some advantages of including liquid inventories in the design of a chemical plant are: 1.T1 = 10:21:02 .

the tank level would be directly proportional to the pump speed). Hence. This allowed the pump speed to increase (remove water from the tank at a faster rate) as the tank level was increased. in this case: inlet flow = outlet flow. land or building space and maintenance 2.3. This rule states that Kc = . Steady state can be defined as a process which doesn't change with time. 1986) was used to compute a new value θ∨K ∨¿ 1 for the controller gain. achieving steady state. They can be costly to the company. Hence. Kc.e. For pulse disturbances in inlet flowrate. In order to accomplish the objectives of the experiment ( to develop an open-loop dynamic model between tank level and pump speed from step response data and to study the transient behaviour of proportional-only level control loops) steady state is required. an offset of 3mm is observed.money invested in feed stock rather than distributed as profit 3. An increase in θ upon the closed-loop response of the controlled level and manipulated flow rate would therefore lead to a large proportional band which gives a longer time period for the tank level to approach the set point.they can be placed between a disturbance source and a sensitive unit to reduce variation in stream properties and flow rate in input flows. Cost of material inventory . Direct action means that the process variable would vary directly proportional to the controller output (i. Allows the plant to operate more efficiently . relating the tuning parameter to the proportional band gives a proportional relationship whereas an increase in θ would lead to an increase in the proportional band. Reduces safety . an increase in θ would result in a decrease in the controller gain. θ.cost of vessels. during the experiment direct action was used as opposed to reverse action. when 1L of water was dumped into the tank. (the disturbance magnitude is significantly decreased) Some disadvantages of including liquid inventories in the design of a chemical plant are: 1.. In order to achieve this. The controller gain is then used to find the proportional band from the following equation: Proportional band = 100 Kc Now. therefore. Potential quality degradation from storing material 4. The IMC tuning rule was used to (Rivera et al.the net effect of any accident can be much worse when a large inventory of flammable or hazardous material is involved. an offset can be observed for step changes in the setpoint (decreasing the tank level by 25mm). The offset observed was approximately 4mm. This is shown in figure 2 around the 11:06:42 sample time where it can be observed . It can be observed from this ¿ equation that the controller gain is inversely proportional to the tuning parameter. the level controller was configured for direct action. With reference to figure 2.

Kavg of 0.5 respectively.0 and 4. from these results. the actual closed loop time constants were found to be 1. An average velocity gain. Actual closed loop time constants were 1. Hence.that set point and tank level lines do not meet.5 and 2.4 whereas the theoretical values were 0. therefore. Also. a proportional level controller would be expected to exhibit offset following: - step changed in set point pulse disturbances in inlet flowrate step disturbances in inlet flowrate With reference to table 1. the equipment used was appropriate for the illustration of the relevant engineering principles. PRECAUTIONS:   Water levels were read at eye level to the meniscus Calculations were done twice to ensure the correct value was found CONCLUSIONS      An inversely proportional relationship is observed between pump speed and tank level An open loop dynamic model between tank level and pump speed from step response data was developed.325% increase in level per min was obtained A proportional level controller will be expected to exhibit offset following step changes in setpoint. Even though an offset was shown in the results.5 implying that a longer time was taken for the water level to decrease by 63. The offset in readings may have been as a result of the equipment not being calibrated. for step disturbances in inlet flow rate (step 18 in the procedure). Also. an offset of 12mm is observed. Overall.2% of the overall decrease. pulse disturbances in inlet flowrate and step disturbances in inlet flowrate. the actual values are larger than the theoretical values. the actual tank level had a ±10mm difference from the tank level noted by the computer. it can be deduced that a longer time was taken for the water level to decrease by 63. A recommendation for this experiment would be to perform regular maintenance on the equipment as well as to ensure the equipment is properly calibrated. RECOMMENDATIONS .0 and 4.2% of the overall decrease.4 whereas the theoretical values were 0. with respect to figure 2.5 and 2. SOURCES OF ERROR:     Parallax error when reading the tank level Incorrect calculations Incorrect data may have been inputted into the computer Equipment was not calibrated resulting in inaccurate results.

Eng. (2014). 4. (1995).com/resources/steam-engineering-tutorials/control-applications/leveland-flow-control-applications. "Internal Model Control. Process Des.E. Rivera. 252-265 Laboratory Manual: CHNG 2009/2010. A longer time period should be allowed to ensure the process has attained steady state. M. PID controller design"... Chemical Engineering Laboratory (2014-2015) APPENDIX See attached CD for results. Ind. Retrieved from Spirax Sarco: http://www.asp Marlin. Process Control: Designing Processes and Control Systems for Dynamic Performance. & Dev. D. REFERENCES Level and Flow Control Applications.spiraxsarco. McGraw-Hill. New York. T. Chem. Morari and S. 25.    Equipment should be regularly cleaned and maintained Equipment should be calibrated Internet should be provided in the lab so that the results can be emailed to the students. . Skogestad (1986).