Signature T Si Tower

lanco Hills_Hyderabad

521/05 Architectural Thesis:10thsem_2010 Bachelor of Architecture National Institute of Technology Patna

Anand Saurabh

S i g n a t u r e Towe r
lanco Hills_Hyderabad

Content

1. INTRODUCTION 2. SITE ANALYSIS

4. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS 5. LITERATURE STUDY
I. TURNING TORSO General information Architectural concept Structural concept Steel spine Floor Plan Construction Photos Conclusion

Site in context of world Site in context of India Site in context of Hyderabad Site Location Plan Site Feasibility Plan Site Access & View Site Plan(zoning) Site Plan (Norms) Site Contour Plan & Details Site Photographs Climate of Hyderabad I .PLANET GODREJ General Information Location Plan Site Plan Vehicular movement Entertainment Zone Facilities Floor Plan Stack Diagram Service Elevation Study II. THE IMPERIAL TOWER General Information Location Plan Area Chart Facilities & landscaping Pinnacle Design Construction Photo Recent Photo

3. CASE STUDY

6. DESIGN CONSIDERATION
Fire Saftey Refuge Floor Mechanical Floor Facade Wind consideration

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S i g n a t u r e Towe r
Signature Tower
is a proposed 90 floors skyscraper at Lanco hills hyderabad , which will hills, be used for residential purpose. •Lanco Hills is one of the world’s largest mixed development projects. Designed to change the very skyline of Hyderabad. •Lanco Hills is planning an unique world within, offering convenient access to homes, premium office spaces, breath-taking vistas, landscaped gardens, entertainment, hotels, leisure and shopping in one destination.
lanco Hills_Hyderabad

Intr roduct ion

Residential towers: - Signature tower of 90 level high being the one of the world tallest
Site:Site: Manikonda village village, Hyderabad(Andhra Pradesh) Type and use:- Residential(for signature tower) Developers:Developers: Lanco Group Area:-100 acres Cost of the project:-5500 crore
residential tower & surrounded by 16 towers up to 30 level high.

Club house:‐ Four home theatres, a world-class spa and gym, with an Olympic-sized swimming 5 star deluxe hotel IT Park Business Class Hotel 2 Office Tower Serviced Apartment Mall
pool, party areas, multi-cuisine restaurants, well-appointed suites for guests, children’s library, play areas, outdoor games area are some of the features.

In this short interval of 4 months, it would be a herculean task to design all the proposed buildings. So, I would confine myself while designing the following: •Site plan of Residential zone •Detailed Drawing of Signature Tower

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Intr roduct ion

A skyscraper is a tall, continuously habitable building. •There is no official definition or height above which a building may clearly be classified as a skyscraper even a building of 80 meters (262 feet) may be considered a skyscraper if it protrudes above its built environment and changes the overall skyline. •The tallest building symbolizes national prestige in the form of The economic status, growth, technological prosperity and modernity.

•The size of skyscrapers allows for high-density work and living spaces, reducing the amount of land given over to human development •Mass transit and commercial transport are economically and environmentally more efficient when serving high-density development than suburban or rural development. •The total energy expended towards waste disposal and climate control is relatively lower for a given number of people occupying a skyscraper than that same number of people occupying modern housing l i d h i
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Why Skysc raper W
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SITE ANALYSIS

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Site analy ysis

•Today Skyscraper are the place where business can stand &world growing population can find home. •Skyscraper is icon for the city, community or entire country. •Hong Kong(china) has over half the top 100 high rise building in the world i.e. height over 200 m. g g •India is most populous country after China which has a population of more than 1,000,000,000 residing over a land area of around 2,973,190 sq km 2 973 190 sq.km.
Rank 1 2 3 Building City Dubai Taipei Shanghai UAE Taiwan China Country 828 m 509 m 492 m Height 2,717 2 717 ft 1,671 ft 1,614 ft Floors 160 101 101

Built 2010 2004 2008

Burj Khalifa Taipei 101 Shanghai World Financial Center International Commerce Centre Petronas Tower

4

Kowloon

Hong Kong SAR, PRC

483 m

1,584 ft

118

2009

5

Kuala Lumpur

Malaysia

452 m

1,483 1 483 ft

88

1998

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Site analy ysis

List Of skyscraper in India
Towers Imperial Tower I Imperial Tower II Planet Godrej Ashok Towers 1 RNA Mi Mirage Oberoi Woods Tower Location Mumbai Mumbai Mumbai Mumbai Mumbai M bi Mumbai height 249 metres (817 ft) 249 metres (817 ft) 181 metres t (594 ft) 193 metres (633 ft) 180 metres (591 ft) 170 metres (558 ft) Floors 60 60 51 49 40 40 Year of completion 2010 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009

N

APIIC(Andhra Pradesh State Industraial Corporation) is planning to make a compact bussiness distric like manhattan.

APIIC has initially proposed to build 60 floors twin tower. Teams were sent to study the petrona & sears tower. Based on their report , a single trade tower of 90 floors with surrounding 16 towers upto 30 floors was approved approved.
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•Hyderabad is the capital and the most populous city of the South india State Andhra Pradesh. •It is known as the "City of Pearls" and the "City of Nizams". •Hyderabad has developed into a major hub for the Information technology industry in India. •The cit has been classified as an A 1 cit iin city bee a A-1 city terms of development priorities, due to its size, population and impact. •At present , the 16 storey Babu khan Estate, At built in 1987 is the tallest commercial building followed by 13 storey haj house in hyderabad . Site Distance from:from: Samsabad Airport - 30 km Begumput Airport - 18 km Railway Station - 21 km Hitech City - 5 km Golconda Fort - 12 km Charminar - 20 km Hussain Sagar - 14km

Site analy ysis

L Locatio Pla on an

N

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Site analy sis y

F Feasibi lity P lan

N

Distance from:‐ Samsabad Airport Begumput Airport Railway Station Hitech City Golconda Fort Charminar Hussain Sagar

IT sectors & other Office area are located within a radii of 5 km. Luxurious residential tower at Lanco hills offers ‘Walk to work culture’ for nearby IT sectors, far from old city traffic & congestion.
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Site analy ysis

Access to site is through:-

A CCESS & VIE WS

•80’ wide Mumbai road(NH9) •150’ wide Jawahar lal nehru expressway •Lanco group constructed a 50’ road for access to site. •80’ Road is proposed from site to mumbai road(NH9)

N

This tower will have view of Hitech city at N, golconda fort at SE, wipro, infosys, financial distric etc at NW due to virtue of its height.
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Site analy ysis

246 m

206 m

75 m

N

Site Area =100 acres(18 million sq ft.) Cost = 5500 crore Residential zone=22 acres Area for Signature tower=1.6 acre
(As per Zoning of lanco groups)

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Site analy ysis

Height of building:- 680 m from mean sealevel (600 m from ground) is approved F.A.R. – no restriction Set Back –16 m from all side

N

Signature Tower
ATKINS is consulted for wind load on signature tower. J JACOB consultancy is consulted for flight path of world planes y g p p . Architects :- Abhi Kalpan(Mumbai) – for master planning DP Architect- Singapore

Fire Saftey Norms:– •generally follows N B C N.B.C. •Fire floors (Refuge Floor) with fire retard elements. •G.B. Menon ( fire advisor for government of India) is cosultated for this project.

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Site analy sis y

The city lies in the Deccan Plateau and rises to an average height of 540 m above the sea level The city lies at 17.366 N latitude and 78.476 E 17 366° 78 476° longitude. The city’s soil type is mainly red sandy with areas of black cotton soil. •Hyderabad is blessed with a unique landscape – spectacular rock formations which are about 2,500 million years old. •There is barely any vegetation at th site Th i b l t ti t the it
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N

Hyderabad falls in the seismic zone-I and is seismically least exposed to earthquakes. p q
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Site analy sis y

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Climate of Hyderabad
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Site analy ysis

•The average temperature in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India is 25.9 °C (79 °F). •The average temperature range iis 12 °C Th °C. •The highest monthly average high temperature is 40 °C (104 °F) in May. •The lowest monthly average low temperature is 15 °C (59 °F) in December. •Hyderabad,, Andhra Pradesh's climate receives an average of 764 mm (30.1 in) of rainfall per year,, or 64 mm (2.5 in) y g ( ) p y ( ) per month. •On average there are 81 days per year with more than 0.1 mm (0.004 in) of rainfall (precipitation) or 7 days with a quantity of rain, sleet, snow etc. per month. •The d i weather iis iin J Th driest h January when an average off 2 mm (0 1 iin) off rainfall ( i i i ) occurs across <1 days. h (0.1 ) i f ll (precipitation) d •The wettest weather is in July when an average of 165 mm (6.5 in) of rainfall (precipitation) occurs across 19 days. •The average annual relative humidity is 47.3% and average monthly relative humidity ranges from 27% in March to 70% in September. p •Average sunlight hours in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh range between 3.6 hours per day in July and 10.2 hours per day in February. •There are an average of 2877 hours of sunlight per year with an average of 7.9 hours of sunlight per day.
Hyderabad has a tropical wet and dry climate. The city is extremely hot in summer with temperature reaching 40 degrees Celsius. Winters are mild and pleasant while it is cool and breezy during the monsoon season. The monsoon rains lash the city between June & August and accounts for most of the city’s annual rainfall i.e. approx 90 cms.

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Site analy sis y

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Cli matic Grap h Of Hyde erabad d

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Sun Path Diagra P D am

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Site analy ysis

•It will be beneficial to orient the building in a way that the North facade gets maximum exposure and West side are g p protected from other buildings/building elements or trees. The •The plots/buildings should be laid in a way that the longer facade face North.

BUILDING RECIVING RADIATION

Top view
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3d view

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Variable V i bl Insolation,kWh/m²/ day Clearness, 0 ‐ 1 Temperature,°C Wind speed,m/s Precipitation,mm Wet days, d I 4.88 II 5.70 III 6.29 IV 6.64 V 6.40 VI 5.02 VII 4.43 VIII 4.31 IX 4.69 X 4.88 XI 4.88 XII 4.65

Site analy ysis

0.62

0.65

0.64 29.78 2.91 13 0.8

0.63 30.28 3.29 20 1.6

0.60 31.76 3.97 35 2.3

0.47 28.60 4.84 104 7.7

0.41 27.06 4.68 174 10.5

0.41 26.75 4.41 165 10.2

0.47 26.83 3.14 184 8.4

0.54 25.78 2.67 90 4.9

0.60 24.47 2.79 19 1.5

0.62 23.16 2.70 6 0.4

23.56 26.16 2.60 3 0.3 2.92 6 0.4

Predominant i d di ectio f o P edo i a t wind direction is from east to west and west to east in the city. So the b ildi blocks sho ld be laid iin the est a d est i cit building should way that there is enough passage for movement of East-West wind.

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CASE STUDY

lanco Hills_Hyderabad

Site analy ysis

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Case Stud y ( Planet Godrej ) e d

Planet Godrej
Simplex Mills, 30 Keshavrao Khadye Marg, Sant Ghadge Maharaj Chowk, Mahalaxmi, Mumbai ‐ 400 011, Maharashtra, India.

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Case Stud ( Planet Godrej ) e dy

Design •Designed by Singapore based DP Architects •Standing 48 stories tall •This five‐tower skyscraper is a stunning example of modern design. •The architectural layout of Planet Godrej ensures that each apartment has open views from every side of the building. •The design of the towers will ensure that Planet Godrej remains a landmark for years to come.

No. of Stories – 48 + 2 + 1 Architects – DP Architects, Singapore Location – Mahalaxmi, Mumbai Total area – 45.202 acres. Built up area ‐6.5 lakh sq ft; Cost‐ Rs 200 crore
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Case Stud ( Planet Godrej ) e dy

Location study
Proximity to site….. 1. The front view overlooks the Racecourse and the deep blue of the Arabian Sea. 2. The exquisite Haji Ali Mosque and other landmarks are also in sight from each apartment. 3. The rear view is equally remarkable and offers a glimpse of the Mumbai Zoo as well as, of the ocean and islands beyond.

1. Planet Godrej is ideally located in the heart of Mumbai. 2. Its location offers quick access to all the major landmarks of South Mumbai.

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Case Stud ( Planet Godrej ) e dy

The tower is actually five towers of 51 stories connected together, and are marketed as:

Celesta, Strata, Electra, Electra Aqua and Terra –

which I presume are being named after what the developer feels modern day subjects of the Roman Empire would presumably call the base elements.

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Case Stud ( Planet Godrej ) e dy

Ve h i c u l a r

movement
1. Visitors Parking 2. Entrance lobby 3. Drop off point

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Case Stud ( Planet Godrej ) e dy

Recreational zone
Children’s play area Featured Fountain Lawn Palm Grooves Featured Arch Wall Timber Decking Deck Club House

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1. There are open areas for residents to relax and unwind. 2 A swimming pool 3. a children’s pool and 4. 4 play area. area 5. Tennis courts, 6. a squash court, 7. a basketball court, 8. 8 a badminton court, court 9. a modern gym, and 10. a clubhouse.

Landscaping and Facilities in tower

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Case Stud ( Planet Godrej ) e dy

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Case Stud ( Planet Godrej ) e dy

Planning
• • • •

Built area 6.5 lakh sq ft Parking ‐2 basement & ground Level. 2 floors off entrance lobby. fl t l bb 47 floors of livable space with 264 Apartments

The Apartments
• • • • •

2 bedroom, 3 bedroom, 4 bedroom duplex and penthouse apartments.

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Stack Diagram g
Built up area ‐6.5 lakh sq ft;
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Case Stud y ( Planet Godrej ) e d

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Case Stud ( Planet Godrej ) e dy

Services.

1. Piped Natural Gas provision. 2. Well‐designed lobbies. 3. Each tower is serviced by 3 OTIS High speed automatic lifts. 4. An elaborate fire fighting system with smoke alarm and wet risers as per CFO norms. 5. Ground level covered car parking.

•Marble / Granite / Granamite in common areas, Lobbies etc. •Kotah on staircases.

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Case Stud y ( Planet Godrej ) e d

Elevation study
Voids to counter balance the wind effect

•External Finishes: Weather Shield / Sandtex or equivalent. •WINDOWS: Powder coated / anodized Aluminium Glazed windows.

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Case Stud y ( Planet Godrej ) e d

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Case Stud y e d

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Case Stud y ( The Imperial Tower) e d

The Imperial Tower
B. B B B. Nakashe Marg Tardeo Marg, Tardeo, Mumbai ‐34, Maharastra

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Case Stud ( The Imperial Tower) e dy

Facts about the building
1. The towers are built on former slum land where the current re‐development i f model of builders providing free land and rehabilitation to slum dwellers in exchange for rights for property development, was first put into practice on a big scale. 2 Th towers are ultra‐high end residentiall towers . l hi h d id i 2. The 3. The Imperial offers sea‐views by virtue of its height, and a resort‐like gardens and fountains on top of theparking‐structure podium, with hanging gardens that mask the structure itself.

Architects – Hafeez Contractor & Associates Developers ‐ Shapoorji Pallonji & Co Ltd./SD Corporation's No. Of Stories – 60 (Each 249 m High)

c a s e  s  t u d y  case s tudy Imperial Tower

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Case Stud ( The Imperial Tower) e dy

Location study

Surrounding area of "The Imperial" include :
1. Mumbai Central Railway Station is located jjust 0.4 kms away from the p j y y project. 2. The Villa Theresa School, Bombay International School and New Activity School are within 10 minutes driving distance 3. Ruia Girls College, Bhavan's College and Wilson College are within 2 kms 4. The Bhatia General Hospital,, Jaslok Hospital and Cumballa Hill p J p Hospital & Heart Institute are all within 1 km radius. 5. The Crossroads mall and Heera Panna Shopping Centre are located within 0.5 kms

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Case Stud ( The Imperial Tower) e dy

Area chart of building
•It includes construction of 14nos. Of rehabilitation 14nos buildings of G+10/14/16/21 comprising of around 2100 flats. •Each tower consists of 8 podium floors of car parking. •3 floors of lavish entrance lobby lobby. •49 liveable floors with 122 flats. •Service floors at lvl 10-11, 18, 29, 45, 54 -55. •56-57, 58-59 & level used for sky deck & communication purpose •Recreational facility at 23‐25 lvls.

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Case Stud ( The Imperial Tower) e dy

Landscaping
• Th IImperiall offers sea‐views by virtue off its height The i ff i b it it h i ht •A resort‐like gardens and fountains on top of the p g parking‐structure podium,with hanging gardens that mask p , g gg the structure itself.

Facilities
• • • • • • • •
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Indoor Swimming Pool Fully‐equipped health club & spa. Mini Theatre Restaurant Badminton & Squash Courts Children's Play Area Landscaped Garden 8 high speed lifts
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Case Stud ( The Imperial Tower) e dy

Pinnacle design
•Pinnacle is designed to signify the height & grandeur of tower. •It’s podium height is 5.3 ms •Steel pyramid of 14.8 ms Steel 14 8 •N top steel pinnacle of height 7.3m •Total height of 27.4ms. •Used as lightning conductor & can be used as telecom towers.

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Case Stud y ( The Imperial Tower) e d

Construction photos

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Recent photos p

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Case Stud ( The Imperial Tower) e dy

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C O M PA R AT I V E A N A L Y S I S

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Com parative an alysis m n s

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Com parative an alysis m n s

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L I T E R AT U R E S T U DY

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Literature Stud y ( Turning Torso ) e d

Turning Torso g o so
Malmo, Sweden

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Architect :- Santiago calatrava g
• • • • • • no of floors – 57 basement – 2 height – 190.4 mts 9 cubes of 5 floors each each floor: 1.6 deg each cube: 10 deg
Facts
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Lite rature Stud ( Turning Torso ) e dy

• • • • • • • •

Location : Malmo, Sweden Height: 190 m Stories: 54 building : mixed use 1st to 2nd cube :commercial space 3rd to 9th cube: residential space 147 luxary apartment ranging from 45sqm to 190 sqm y p g g q q cost : 235million US$

materials ate ials

• concrete core-shear walls • concrete floor slabs • steel spine p

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Lite rature Stud ( Turning Torso ) e dy

architectural concept
• designed to look like a turning human body • nine vertically stacked cubes • twisted 90 degrees from bottom to top • steell spine twists along with the structure t i t it l ith th t t similar to spine and ribs of the human body

Johnny Örbäck, former CEO of the Turning Torso contractor and B d Ch i d Board Chairman off the M l ö h Malmö branch of the co-operative housing association HSB, saw the sculpture in 1999 and contacted Calatrava to ask him to design a building using the same g g g concept.

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Structural concept
The central core is supported by a foundation slab, while at the corner of each floor is a concrete column supported by a pile foundation. The Torso's exoskeleton is effectively a steel truss erected on the outside of the building with the same clockwise rotation as the tower itself. Three high-speed Th ee hi h s eed lifts in the core of the building i co e b ildi service these apartments. They travel at 5m per second, so it only takes 38 seconds to get from g ground level to the 54th floor.
concrete floor slab 1ft thick cantilevered from the core concrete tube core ,r =10.6 mts
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Lite rature Stud ( Turning Torso ) e dy

concrete perimeter column

steel spine pin connected

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Lite rature Stud ( Turning Torso ) e dy

steel spine
• • • •

as exoskeleton for the structure reduces wind displacement acts as a reinforcing truss consists of 20 horizontal and 18 diagonal members known as cigars

lateral load transfer
steel spine perimeter walls i t ll cantilever floor slabs central core

foundation

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concrete perimeter p column
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Lite rature Stud ( Turning Torso ) e dy

vertically continuous perimeter walls

concrete floor slab cantilevered from core circular hallway concrete core

glass and aluminium facade
17 mts

Typical floor plan
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Construction process C i
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Lite rature Stud y ( Turning Torso ) e d

• self climbing slip forms • steel spine erected using air-driven winches • steel treated with special anticorrosive paint

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Lite rature Stud y ( Turning Torso ) e d

Conclusion

• example of a structure where steel exoskeleton is used as an efficient lateral bracing mechanism • central core in concrete is the main element responsible for transferring vertical loads towards the foundation.

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D E S I G N C O N S I D E R AT I O N

Literature Stud y ( Turning Torso ) e d

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Des ign Co onside ration n

The design and construction of skyscrapers involves creating safe, habitable spaces in very tall buildings. The buildings must support their weight, resist wind and earthquakes, and protect occupants from fire. They must also be conveniently accessible, even on the upper floors, and provide utilities and a comfortable climate for the occupants.

Fire Safety y
Fire Detection System •Automatic Fire detector •Smoke detection •Fire alarm Fire Control System •CO2 suppression system •Portable fire extinguisher •Sprinklers •Smoke Control Installation •Fire hydrant

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Des ign Co onside ration n

Fire Safety
Fire Stamp High Sprinkler Riser-used in staircase

Stair Pressurisation :- Its purpose is to limit smoke migration into the main egress route. lobby Pressurisation :- Relative safe area of refuge for occupant on the floor of fire origin.
lobby Extraction/Smoke Spill System Signage Public Address System Occ a t I te co P blic Add ess S ste & Occupant Intercommunication icatio Alarm Sequence Emergency power Halogen based Fire fighting system

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Refuge Floor

S i g n a t u r e Towe r
lanco Hills_Hyderabad

Des ign Co onside ration n

•Refuge floor is specially designed in high-rise buildings for the purpose of supplying a temporarily safe place for evacuees under emergency situations. •Under building code of Hongkong, china, australia etc, the provision of refuge floor has been a indispensible element of high rise building design . •Wind induced cross ventilation is an important design criterion of refuge floor , since it helps to prevent any smoke entering to become persistent state remained (logging) on the refuge floor. •Refuge floor should be provided at 20-25 stories . •There can be no occupied accommodation or accessible mechanical floor ,except fire services water tank & associated fire safety installation plant room ,at the same level at level. •Vertical shaft passing through a refuge floor shuldn’t open directly on floor . •On •O these floor , Steel plates underpin the co c ete floo i floo lates de i concrete flooring. •All the element and structural members is given a fire rating of 4 hours. •In some tall building, refuge floor take the form of commercial sky garden.

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Mechanical Floor/Mechanical penthouse/Service Floor p
•Mechanical Floor contain electric generator, chiller plant, intermediate water tanks & pump ,lift pit upper floor elevator & lift machine room for lower level elevator. •This layout of mechanical floor reflect the internal vertical zoning of elevator. •Usually the W pump h enough power to b pass a llevell .If the pump at U ll h Water have h by If h particular mechanical floor failed ,the pump can send water two level up . •This floor requires external vents or louvers for ventilation & heat rejection.. q j

S i g n a t u r e Towe r
lanco Hills_Hyderabad

Mechanical floor generally consisted of two floors & can be used for additional stabilizer element such as tuned mass damper.

Des ign Co onside ration n

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Mechanical Floor/Mechanical penthouse/Service Floor p

S i g n a t u r e Towe r
lanco Hills_Hyderabad

Des ign Co nsideration o n

•This floor requires external vents or louvers for ventilation & heat rejection. •Masking vent can be done by complex wall angle ( g y p g (Petrona tower), intricate ), lattice cladding(Jin Mao Bldg) or non glassed section that appear to be ornamented(Tapei 101).

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Mechanical Floor/Mechanical penthouse/Service Floor p
Upper level mechanical penthouse contain communication devices & window washing equipment & designed as simple box on roof or concealed inside a decorative spire.

S i g n a t u r e Towe r
lanco Hills_Hyderabad

Des ign Co onsideration n

•Custom ade Building Maintiance Units(BMU) sed fo clea i •C sto made B ildi Mai tia ce U its(BMU) is used for cleaning Facade of Burj Dubai. Its take 2 to 3 month to clean whole façade •a horizontal track has been installed on the exterior of Burj Khalifa at levels 40, 73 and 109. Pinnacle window washing unit is used for cleaning Facade of petrona tower tower.
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Facade
•The fresh air is supplied via ventilation units placed in front of the floor slabs. The air is conditioned separately on every storey and blown into the rooms. • The exhaust air is extracted through the façade cavity and exhausted either directly via ventilation units or first drawn through a heat exchanger.

S i g n a t u r e Towe r
lanco Hills_Hyderabad

Des ign Co onside ration n

•Stainless steel glass cladding. •Custom made shading device is used on facade

reflective glazing, and aluminium and textured stainless steel spandrel panels with vertical tubular fins are used .

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S i g n a t u r e Towe r
Structurall consideration for wind S id i f i d
Critical issues for design of high rise building in a region prone to significant wind & seismic effect typically iinclude:ld
lanco Hills_Hyderabad

• High base overturning and foundation design.(wind, seismic) • High shear capacity requirement near base.( seismic) • High gravity stress in vertical element( using high tensile materials) to minimize structural size for economic g g y ( g g ) structural design and to maximize net floor area. • Development of ductility of elements at the base of structure under high compressive gravity stress. (seismic) • Controlling lateral acceleration (wind) by shape of building. •C Controlling Storey drift. lli S d if • Ensuring ductile energy dissipation mechanism and preventing brittle failure.

•Shape of building to minimize wind load. •40 wind tunnell test iis conducted to confirm the shape. 40 i d d d fi h h

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