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Course 344

1xEV-DO
1xEV-DO
RF
RF Performance
Performance Optimization
Optimization
This course can be downloaded free from our website:

www.howcdmaworks.com/344.pdf
6-2007

Course 344 v1.1 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

344 - 1

344 Contents
Q 1xEV-DO Key Performance Indicators
Bad Packet Rate, Serving Data Rate, Reverse Link Statistics
Receive Power, Composite C/I
Mobile Transmit Power at Given Rate
Reverse Link Closed Loop Power Control
Latency and Throughput
Q Air Interface Review from Optimization Perspective
Q Backhaul Considerations
Q Optimizing the Air Interface
Coverage, Neighbor List, Search Windows and Offsets
Q Drive-Test Tools Summary and Examples
Q Setup issues
Q Forward Link Throughput Optimization
Detecting IP and RF issues
The role of RF interference in determining requested burst rate
6-2007

Course 344 v1.1 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

344 - 2

1xEV-DO
1xEV-DO
Key
Key Performance
Performance Indicators
Indicators

6-2007

Course 344 v1.1 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

344 - 3

Bad Packet Rate


Q Packet error rates in both directions should be comparable to
packet retransmission rates in 1xRTT
Q 5% is a typical target value; this chart shows excellent results

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Course 344 v1.1 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

344 - 4

Data Speed When Served


Q The average data
rate received
depends on:
dilution of
sector capacity
by multiple users
Reduction of
speed due to
poor RF channel
conditions
Q The distribution of
packet rates of one
user show the
effects of RF
impairments only

6-2007

Course 344 v1.1 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

344 - 5

Reverse Link Traffic Statistics

Q This summary shows reverse link transmit power, PER, and


average PER
Q Both Forward and Reverse link retransmitted bytes are shown,
along with the total data KB transmitter

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Course 344 v1.1 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

344 - 6

Receive Power
Q As in 1xRTT, receive power is not the primary quality indicator
Q It should be well above -100 dbm (coverage hole conditions) and
not higher than -40 dbm (intermod conditions)
Q Receive power is the I in C/I. C/I is more important than I alone
Q Receive power remains a vital clue to some types of interference
troubleshooting

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Course 344 v1.1 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

344 - 7

I0
AT Receiver

LNA

BW
~30
MHz.

x
LO

IF

-40
Rake
R
R

R
BW
1.25
S
MHz.
RX Level
(from AGC)

-90
-105

<<too weak

Q AT Receive Power
usually expressed in dBm
measured derived from
handset IF AGC voltage
broadband, unintelligent
measurement: includes all
RF in the carrier bandwidth
regardless of source, not
just RF from serving BTS

overload>>

I0, Total AT Receive Power

Q AT power is important, but its exact value isnt critical


too much received signal (-35 dbm or higher) could drive the
ATs sensitive first amplifier into overload, causing intermod and
code distortion on received CDMA signals
too little received signal (-105 or weaker) would leave too much
noise in the signal after de-spreading, resulting in symbol errors,
bit errors, packet errors, and other problems
6-2007

Course 344 v1.1 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

344 - 8

Mobile Transmit Power at Given Rate


Q When mobile transmit power is significantly higher than expected
for the location of the mobile and its vicinity, reverse link
interference may exist
Q Inspect the receive level indications from the base station, looking
for high receive power warnings
Both peak and average RF receive levels are useful, indicating
whether the problem is constant or intermittent
If the problem appears to be real RF interference, special
weak-signal detection techniques may be necessary to track it
down, just as in IS-95 CDMA

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Course 344 v1.1 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

344 - 9

Reverse Link Closed Loop Power Control


Q As in 1xRTT, Reverse Link Closed Loop Power Control is an
indication of general interference on either link
Q Interference on the uplink of the serving sector will make the sector
request higher power from each served mobile
Q Interference on the forward link at the mobile will raise the mobiles
receive power, causing it to want to transmit at lower power and
thereby forcing the serving sector to request the mobile to transmit
at higher power.
Q If higher-than-normal closed loop power control is observed,
inspect the other forward and reverse link RF parameters to
identify whether the interference is forward link or reverse link.

6-2007

Course 344 v1.1 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

344 - 10

Latency
Internet
VPNs

PDSN
Home Agent

PDSN/Foreign Agent

Backbone
Network
SECURE TUNNELS
Authentication
Authorization
Accounting

AAA

EVDO RF Environment

R-P Interface
AP
SEL

t1

EVM

DO RNC or FMS

EVDO IOS PPP

Coverage Holes
Pilot Pollution
Missing Neighbors
Fwd Pwr Ovld
Rev Pwr Ovld
Search Windows
Wireless
Island Cells
Mobile Device
Slow Handoff

Q Latency can occur because of RF channel congestion or from


IP network causes
RF overload can delay availability of supplemental channels
IP network congestion can delay availability of packets
Q Ping and loopback tests with local PDSN and servers can
identify whether problem is in backbone network
Q Does latency correlate with independent evidence of RF
congestion?
6-2007

Course 344 v1.1 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

344 - 11

IP Data Environment

IP Data Environment

Throughput
Internet
VPNs

PDSN
Home Agent

PDSN/Foreign Agent

Backbone
Network
SECURE TUNNELS
Authentication
Authorization
Accounting

AAA

CDMA RF Environment

R-P Interface
AP
SEL

t1

EVM

DO RNC / FMS

EVDO IOS PPP

Coverage Holes
Pilot Pollution
Missing Neighbors
Fwd Pwr Ovld
Rev Pwr Ovld
Search Windows
Wireless
Island Cells
Mobile Device
Slow Handoff

Q Throughput can be limited by RF and IP causes


Traditional RF problems limit capacity of the channel
Congestion in the IP network can limit speed of data available
Q Does low throughput correlate with independent RF indicators?
Q Does low throughput correlate with independent IP pings and tests?

6-2007

Course 344 v1.1 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

344 - 12

IP Data Environment

IP Data Environment

Composite C/I

Q Composite C/I is the primary indication of forward link quality


C/I drives the rate of the mobiles DRC requests for packets
Q Poor C/I can be the result of
pilot pollution caused by too many comparable signals being
present at the mobiles location
Interference from external RF sources on the forward link
6-2007

Course 344 v1.1 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

344 - 13

Ec/Io and C/I

AP

Relationship of
C/I and Ec/Io
For EV-DO Signals
mobile receive power

Power from
Serving Sector

Ec

Interference Power
from other cells

Io

Ec/Io, db

0
-10
-20
-30
-30

-20

-10

+10

Q There are two main ways of expressing


signal quality in 1xEV-DO
Q C/I is the ratio of serving sector power to
everything else
C/I determines the forward data rate
mobiles measure C/I during the pilot
burst period, then from it decide what
data rate to request on the DRC
Q Ec/Io is the ratio of one sectors pilot power to
the total received power
Q Ec/Io and C/I are related, and one can be
calculated from the other
Q EVDO Ec/Io is close to 0 db near a sector,
and ranges down to -10 at a cells edge
Q EVDO C/I can be above +10 db near a
sector, and -20 or lower at the edge

+20

C/I, db
6-2007

Course 344 v1.1 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

344 - 14

Relationship of Ec/Io and C/I in 1xEV-DO Systems


-30

-25

-20

-15

-10

-5

10

15

20

C/I,
db

-0.04
-0.14
-0.17
-0.21
-0.27
-0.33
-0.41
-0.51
-0.64
-0.79
-0.97
-1.19
-1.46
-1.76
-2.12
-2.54
-3.01
-3.54
-4.12
-4.76
-5.46
-6.97
-8.64
-10.41
-12.27

20
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
-6
-8
-10
-12

6-2007

-5

-10

Ec/Io, db

Ec/Io,
db

-15

-20

-25

-30

C/I, db

Course 344 v1.1 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

344 - 15

Statistical EVDO Indications


Q RF Connection failures
Mobile does not reach an assigned traffic channel
Q RF Connection Losses
Existing connection is lost due to failure of forward or reverse
link
Q RF Blocking
Due to MAC index, backhaul, or other congestion

6-2007

Course 344 v1.1 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

344 - 16

1xEV-DO
1xEV-DO Air
Air Interface
Interface Review
Review

6-2007

Course 344 v1.1 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

344 - 17

Forward Link Frame and Slot Structure:


Big Picture Summary
MAC

96

DATA

PILOT

64

DATA

MAC

400 chips

Slot 1024 chips

MAC

DATA

PILOT

SLOT

MAC

Slot 1024 chips

DATA

64

400 chips

400 chips

64

96

64

400 chips

FRAME
1 Frame = 16 slots 32k chips 26-2/3 ms

CONTROL
CHANNEL

USER(S) DATA CHANNEL

16-FRAME
CONTROL CHANNEL
CYCLE

16 Frames 524k chips 426-2/3 ms

Q Slots make Frames and Frames make Control Channel Cycles!


6-2007

Course 344 v1.1 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

344 - 18

Reverse Link Frame and Slot Structure:


Big Picture Summary
Slot 1024 chips

Slot 1024 chips

SLOT

DATA

1 Frame = 16 slots 32k chips 26-2/3 ms

FRAME
1 Subframe
holds
1 Subpacket

Subframe

Subframe

Subframe

Q Reverse Link frames are the same length as forward link frames
Q The mobile does not include separate MAC and Pilot bursts
Its MAC and pilot functions are carried inside its signal by
simultaneous walsh codes
Q There is no need for slots for dedicated control purposes since the
mobile can transmit on the access channel whenever it needs
6-2007

Course 344 v1.1 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

344 - 19

Rev. A Reverse Channel Sub-Frame Structure


RRI
DATA CHANNEL
DRC CHANNEL
ACK

DSC

ACK

DSC

ACK

DSC

ACK

DSC

AUXILIARY PILOT CHANNEL


PILOT CHANNEL

1 Slot

1 Slot

1 Slot

1 Slot

1 Sub-Frame

Q The mobile transmits sub-packets occupying four reverse link


slots, called a reverse link sub-frame.
Q If multiple subpackets are required to deliver a packet, the
additional subpackets are spaced in every third subframe until
done
6-2007

Course 344 v1.1 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

344 - 20

The 1xEV-DO Rev. 0 Channels


IN THE WORLD OF CODES
REVERSE CHANNELS

MAC

just like IS-95

DRCLock
RPC

MAC
Pilot
W016
RRI

Wx16 Control
Wx16 Traffic

MAC DRC

FORWARD

IC
FF

Walsh
code

Long PN offset

64

W24

Public or Private

Data

Access

ACCESS

W264 Rev Activity

Pilot W016

Long PN offset

W064 Pilot

A
TR

Access
Point
(AP)

Sector has a Short PN Offset

FORWARD CHANNELS

W0 W4
W1 W5
W816
W2 W6
W3 W7

ACK

W48

Data

W24

Access Channel
for session setup
from Idle Mode

Access
Terminal
(User
Terminal)
Traffic Channel
as used during
a data session

Walsh
code

Q These channels are NOT CONTINUOUS like IS-95 or 1xRTT!


They are made up of SLOTS carrying data subpackets to individual
users or control channel subpackets for everyone to monitor
Regardless of who owns a SLOT, the slot also carries two small
generic bursts containing PILOT and MAC information everyone can
monitor
6-2007

Course 344 v1.1 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

344 - 21

EV-DO Rev. A Channels


IN THE WORLD OF CODES

MAC

just like IS-95

64

DRCLock
RPC
ARQ

Wx16 Traffic

Auxiliary Pilot W2832

MAC

FORWARD

IC
FF

Walsh
code

W24

Access Channel
for session setup
from Idle Mode

Primary Pilot W016

MAC

Wx16 Control

Data

Long PN offset

W264 Rev Activity

Public or Private

ACCESS

Pilot W016

Access

W064 Pilot

Long PN offset

REVERSE CHANNELS

A
TR

Access
Point
(AP)

Sector has a Short PN Offset

FORWARD CHANNELS

RRI W416
DRC W816
DSC W1232
ACK W1232
Data

W12

Access
Terminal
(User
Terminal)
Traffic Channel
as used during
a data session

Walsh
code

Q The channels are not continuous like ordinary 1xRTT CDMA


Q Notice the differences between the MAC channels and the Rev. 0
MAC channels these are the heart of the Rev. 0/A differences

6-2007

Course 344 v1.1 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

344 - 22

Transmission of a Packet over EV-DO


Data from PDSN for the Mobile PACKET

Data Ready
DRC: 5

MP3, web page, or other content

AP

2048 bits

Turbo Coder
When the AP is ready, the first
subpacket is actually
+
+
+
+ +
D
D
D
+
transmitted in a slot.
+
+
+
The first subpacket begins with
+
+ +
D
D
D
+
a preamble carrying the
+
users MAC index, so the Symbols
user knows this is the
start of its sequence of
subpackets, and how
Block Interleaver
many subpackets are in
the sequence..
The user keeps collecting
subpackets until either:
1)
it has been able to
reverse-turbo decode the Interleaved Symbols
packet contents early, or
2)
the whole schedule of
subpackets has been
transmitted.

DRC
Modu- Preamble Payload Raw
C/I
Index Slots lation
Chips
Bits
kb/s
db
0x0 n/a QPSK
n/a
0
null rate
n/a
0x1 16 QPSK
1024
1024
38.4
-11.5
0x2
8
QPSK
512
1024
76.8
-9.2
0x3
4
QPSK
256
1024
153.6
-6.5
0x4
2
QPSK
128
1024
307.2
-3.5
0x5
4
QPSK
128
2048
307.2
-3.5
0x6
1
QPSK
64
1024
614.4
-0.6
0x7
2
QPSK
64
2048
614.4
-0.5
0x8
2
QPSK
64
3072
921.6
+2.2
0x9
1
QPSK
64
2048 1,228.8
+3.9
0xa
2 16QAM
64
4096 1,228.8
+4.0
0xb
1
8PSK
64
3072 1,843.2
+8.0
0xc
1 16QAM
64
4096 2,457.6 +10.3
0xd
2 16QAM
64
5120 1,536.0 in Rev. A
0xe
1 16QAM
64
5120 3,072.0 in Rev. A

Interleaver

Subpackets

SLOTS

6-2007

Course 344 v1.1 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

344 - 23

Backhaul
Backhaul and
and
Related
Related Considerations
Considerations

6-2007

Course 344 v1.1 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

344 - 24

Rate Limitations from Backhaul


Q Wireless sites are commonly connected using T-1s or E-1s,
depending on local availability
In the case of T-1s, the raw rate is 1.544 megabits/second.
Accounting for overhead, this translates into a maximum
steady throughput of roughly 400 to 450 kb/s per sector on
a 3-sector, 1-carrier EV-DO site.
If one sector is busy while the other two are only lightly
loaded, throughput of roughly 1 mb/s can be obtained on
one sector
However, early 1xEV-DO cards without support for multiple
ARQ instances can only achieve about 400 kb/s
throughput even without backhaul limitations
Q Solutions under study to relieve backhaul congestion include fiberbased ATM to the sites; multiple-T1s; sites linked by Cable
Modems, and other methods
6-2007

Course 344 v1.1 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

344 - 25

Optimizing
Optimizing the
the RF
RF Air
Air Interface
Interface

6-2007

Course 344 v1.1 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

344 - 26

Dealing With RF Coverage Anomalies


Q It is difficult to build a system without encountering a few coverage
holes and without having some sectors that cover more than
planned
The techniques for identifying and resolving these problems
are similar to IS-95 and 1xRTT, with a few modifications
Q Detection methods: Area sweeps with EV-DO PN scanners and
EV-DO terminals
If a sector is in the active set of mobiles in places beyond the
line joining its surrounding tier of sites, reduce its coverage
Site RF parameters, antenna downtilt, or antenna height
If a sector fails to cover its intended area, look for obvious
hardware or environmental reasons
Repair or correct any such impairments, and if
unsuccessful, look for other serving sectors
Reradiators are feasible for EV-DO, but setup is tricky

6-2007

Course 344 v1.1 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

344 - 27

Generating and Optimizing Neighbor Lists


Q After coverage of each sector has been studied and adjusted if
necessary, neighbor relationships are now stable
Q Initial neighbor lists can be generated from propagation prediction
modeling or even from drive-test results with AT or PN scanners
Q The most reliable way to groom neighbor lists is to use system
tools to collect route update requests from each sector. These
results can be analyzed in matrix form to determine the frequency
of requests for each surrounding sector
Sectors with more than 5% of requests are usually added
Sectors with less than 1% of requests are usually unnecessary
Watch out for sectors that are already neighbors of neighbors
and would be unnecessary
Watch out for special specific cases where unusual
relationships exist because of terrain and busy roadways

6-2007

Course 344 v1.1 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

344 - 28

Optimizing Search Windows


Q The pilot searcher of a mobile must be able to see the pilots of any
sectors it may encounter otherwise route update is impossible
Q Timing errors affect pilot searching. Sources include:
Timing delay from reference sector to mobile
This delay is unknown to the mobile, but it goes into the mobiles
reference timing without the mobiles knowledge
Timing delay from needed neighbor signal to the mobile
This delay is also unknown to the mobile, but it can shift the
apparent timing of the desired neighbor either ahead or behind
the timing the mobile expects
The worst-case error in timing is the propagation delay of a straight
line between reference sector and desired sector
Neighbor search window can be set to this level initially and possibly
reduced if accumulated data later allows
Q Active search windows float on their individual pilots and do not need to
be large enough to handle propagation delay. They only need to
accommodate delay spread, which is better measured than calculated.

6-2007

Course 344 v1.1 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

344 - 29

Search Window Offset


Search Window Offset
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Offset (PN chips)


0
+0.5 x WindowSize
+1.0 x WindowSize
+1.5 x WindowSize
- 0.5 x WindowSize
-1.0 x WindowSize
-1.5 x WindowSize
reserved

-1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 +0.5 +1.0 +1.5

Q Search window offsets make it possible to individually compensate


for the great distance of certain sectors from the service area of
another
The range of adjustment can effectively shift the center of the
search window by up to 1.5 times earlier or later than the
actual search window width

6-2007

Course 344 v1.1 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

344 - 30

Andrews Invex3G Tool


Q 100 MB ethernet connection to
PC
Q the eight card slots can hold
receivers or dual-phone cards
Q theres also room for two
internal PN scanners
Q Multiple Invex units can be
cascaded for multi-phone loadtest applications
Q Cards are field-swappable Users can reconfigure the unit
in the field for different tasks
without factory assistance

6-2007

Course 344 v1.1 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

344 - 31

Overview of Field Tool IP Test Capabilities

Application

Description

Purpose

Raw Upload

Uploads data with no overhead (no headers, no


handshaking beyond the normal TCP handshaking)

Testing uplink throughput

Raw Download

Downloads data with no overhead (no headers, no


handshaking beyond the normal TCP handshaking.)

Testing downlink throughput

Raw Loopback

A loopback (data is sent to the remote server which


returns the same data) application with no overhead (no
headers, no handshaking beyond the normal TCP
handshaking.)

Simultaneous exercise of the uplink and downlink

Ping (ICMP ECHO)

Ping does not use the TCP protocol, but rather uses the
connectionless and unreliable ICMP protocol. Sends
small echo request packets to a remote server, which
responds with an echo reply.

Determining round-trip-time between the user and the


remote server, as well as general link integrity (by
counting the number of missing echo reply packets).

A standard web page browse request.

If Raw Download is unavailable, testing downlink


throughput; modeling typical customer use.

A web-based upload (similar to how web-based email


sites allow users to upload files as attachments).

If Raw Upload is unavailable, testing uplink throughput.

FTP GET

A standard FTP file download. Many file downloads on


the Internet use FTP.

If Raw Download and HTTP GET are unavailable, testing


downlink throughput; modeling typical customer use.

FTP PUT

A FTP file upload. The file is generated by the Invex3G


platform and sent to the server.

If Raw Upload and HTTP POST are unavailable, testing


uplink throughput

Mail GET (POP3)

Retrieves all the mail for a given mailbox (e-mail


address) from an e-mail server. Note: does not delete
the e-mail messages from the mailbox.

Modeling typical customer use.

Waits a specified amount of time.

Testing idle timers, timeouts, etc.

HTTP GET
HTTP POST

Wait

6-2007

Course 344 v1.1 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

344 - 32

Agilent Drive-Test Tools


Q Agilent offers Drive-Test tools
Serial interfaces for up to four
CDMA phones or cards
A very flexible digital receiver
with several modes
Q PN Scanner
Fast, GPS-locked, can scan
two carrier frequencies
Q Spectrum Analyzer
Can scan entire 800 or 1900
mHz. Bands
Q Base-Station Over-Air Tester
(BOAT)
Can display all walsh channel
activity on a specific sector
Useful for identifying hardware
problems, monitoring
instantaneous traffic levels, etc.
Q Post-Processing tool: OPAS32
6-2007

Course 344 v1.1 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

344 - 33

1xEV-DO
1xEV-DO Setup
Setup Performance:
Performance:
Sessions
Sessions and
and Connections
Connections

6-2007

Course 344 v1.1 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

344 - 34

Session Configuration Parameters


Q In initial Session and Connection setup, the access channel and
control channel carry the messages
If L3 messages and RF indications are available, problems
usually can be identified
Q Check the access parameters
The range of powers should step through a range from the idlemode noise floor up to about 20 db above it
A smaller power range can result in missed probes
Check AP/BTS reverse receive levels, peak and average
looking for indications of interference
Ensure sector size and acquisition search windows are
adequate

6-2007

Course 344 v1.1 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

344 - 35

Long Setup Times and RF Failures


Q Long setup times, often seen as bad latency in VOIP and PTT
applications, can result when extensive probing occurs. This can
be the result of:
RF reverse link interference
External interference or rogue terminals
Incorrect Access Parameters, having mobiles start probing at
low RF levels

6-2007

Course 344 v1.1 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

344 - 36

Forward
Forward Link
Link
Throughput
Throughput Optimization
Optimization

6-2007

Course 344 v1.1 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

344 - 37

PDSN/Foreign Agent

Forward Link Scheduler


data
Buffer

User
Data Rate

R-P
Interface
AP
PCF SEL

t1
DO-RNC or FMS

EVM
EVDO device

Q The main bottleneck is forward link available C/I and timeslots


Q Each connected data User has a buffer in the PDSN/PCF complex
When data is in the buffer, a Data Ready message is sent to the mobile
The mobile then requests data from the desired sector on DRC/DSC
The scheduler fairly divides slots among the active users
Proportional Fairness applies, always trying to give slots to each user
when that users link is better than average
This substantially improves (40%+) both user and overall sector
throughput
QOS (Quality of Service) rules also may be implemented, giving
preference to some users and some types of traffic
6-2007

Course 344 v1.1 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

344 - 38

So S L O W ! !
Internet
VPNs

PDSN
Home Agent

PDSN/Foreign Agent

Backbone
Network
SECURE TUNNELS
Authentication
Authorization
Accounting

AAA

EVDO RF Environment

R-P Interface
AP
SEL

t1

EVM

DO-RNC / FMS

EVDO IOS PPP

IP Data Environment

IP Data Environment

Wheres My Data?!!

Coverage Holes
Pilot Pollution
Missing Neighbors
Fwd Pwr Ovld
Rev Pwr Ovld
Search Windows
Wireless
Island Cells
Mobile Device
Slow Handoff

Q Some sessions have long latency and slow throughput


Q Where is the problem? Anywhere between user and distant host:
Is the mobile users data device mis-configured and/or congested?
Is the AP congested, with few timeslots available?
Poor RF environment, causing low rates and packet retransmission?
Congestion in the local IP network (PCU, R-P, PDSN FA)?
Congestion in the wireless operators backbone (OSSN) network?
Congestion in the PDSN HA?
Congestion in the outside-world internet or Private IP network?
Is the distant host congested, with long response times?
6-2007

Course 344 v1.1 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

344 - 39

Finding Causes of Latency and Low Throughput


Test
Server
IP Data Environment

Internet
VPNs

PDSN
Home Agent

Test
Server
PDSN/Foreign Agent

Backbone
Network
SECURE TUNNELS
Authentication
Authorization
Accounting

AAA

EVDO RF Environment

R-P Interface
BTS

v SEL

t1

DO-RNC or FMS

EVDO IOS PPP

CE

IP Data Environment

Test
Server

Coverage Holes
Pilot Pollution
Missing Neighbors
Fwd Pwr Ovld
Rev Pwr Ovld
Search Windows
Wireless
Island Cells
Mobile Device
Slow Handoff

Q IP network performance can be measured using test servers


Q Problems between mobile a local test server? The problem is local
check RF conditions, stats: poor environment, SCH blocking?
if the RF is clean, investigate BSC/PCU/R-P/PDSN-FA
Q Local results OK, problems accessing test server at PDSN-HA?
problem is narrowed to backbone network, or PDSN-HA
Q Results OK even through test server at PDSN-HA
then the problem is in the public layers beyond.
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Pinging Network Nodes to test Latency


Q Simple ping commands from a command prompt line can detect
latency to and from particular servers
Q Notice in the example, the first ping in the second attempt is
delayed more than others because the user was in dormant state
immediately prior, and a new connection had to be established

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Using Tracert to Identify Delays


Q The command Tracert at the command prompt will show the
identification and timing details of all non-firewalled nodes in the
network.

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Forward Link Speed No Dominant Server

Q When there are many equal servers, the C/I values of each server
are very poor and the forward link data speed from any of the
servers is very low
Q This is the equivalent of pilot pollution in 1xRTT CDMA

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Forward Link Speed Very Dominant Server

Q When one server stands head and shoulders above the other
sectors, its C/I is excellent and it can deliver very fast data
Q However, if this server is overloaded with traffic, the mobile has no
alternative sector and the blocking will have a large impact

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Forward Link Speed Three Equal Servers

Q When three sectors are approximately equally strong, their C/I


values are medium-to-poor. Any of these sectors could deliver
data to the mobile at 307 Kb/s
Q If one of these sectors becomes saturated and puts up its DRC
Lock bit against our mobile, the mobile could choose another
sector and avoid most blocking
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Single User Traffic Statistics from Invex

Q The average bit speed obtained by a mobile on downlink is affected by:


RF conditions (this determines the instantaneous bit speed when a
slot is being sent to the mobile)
Fraction of time during which the mobile owns the sector
Q The above tabulation from the Andrew Invex tool shows the bit speed for
all slots to the mobile, allowing independent identification of RF problems
and traffic congestion effects due to others

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Reverse
Reverse Link
Link
Throughput
Throughput Optimization
Optimization

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Reverse Link Throughput Considerations

Q Reverse Link throughput is influenced by


Instantaneous RF conditions, dictating selected packet speed
and Hybrid-ARQ speedup, if any
Congestion on the reverse link, as indicated by the sector
limiting the available slots from the mobile
T-1 or other backhaul limitation, imposing ceilings on the
number of reverse packets which can be uploaded from an AP
to the AN

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Course 344 v1.1 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

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Reverse Link Rate Control in Rev. A


Q Discussion of Reverse Link rate control algorithm
Dependence on Observed C/I of serving sector
Bucket control mechanism
Q Available packet scheduling parameters vary by manufacturer
Q Extreme sensitivity to reverse link interference, like 1xRTT

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