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MATHEMATICS

for Queensland

YEAR 11B

K. Bolger R. Boggs R. Faragher J. Belward

253 Normanby Road, South Melbourne, Victoria, Australia


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First published 2001
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National Library of Australia
Cataloguing-in-Publication data:
Mathematics for Queensland year 11B: a graphics calculator
approach.
ISBN 0 19 550852 1.
1. Mathematics. I. Bolger, Kiddy.
510
Cover design by Sylvia Witte
Typeset by Raksar Nominees Pty Ltd
Printed through Bookpac Production Services, Singapore

FOREWORD

Mathematics education has undergone revolutionary changes in the last decade. Until the late
1980s mathematics education focused on skill development. The skill development across the
various areas of mathematics was largely disjointed and skills seemed to be an end in themselves.
Such mathematics education always produced the standard question from students, where are
we ever going to use this?
Modern mathematics education emphasises modelling, problem solving and applications, and
the use of higher technologies. The QBSSSS Mathematics B syllabus, published in 2001,
reflects this change.
This textbook, with the students CD, the website and the accompanying mailing list, have
been produced to meet the requirements of this syllabus in the four categories of:
Knowledge and procedures
Modelling and problem solving
Communication and justification
Affective
The text material relating to the first three of these categories incorporates the contexts:
Application, Technology, Initiative and Complexity.

The fabric of this text has been woven based on five principles and reflects the authors philosophy
of mathematics education.

1. Problem solving, mathematical modelling, and applications are


essential to the understanding of mathematics
A wide variety of mathematical modelling is central to the text. The modelling approach is
introduced once students have encountered linear functions and is further developed with
other classes of functions.
Problem solving strategies are developed in all topics. It should be noted that skills are not
treated in isolation, and are introduced in the text as required. Nevertheless, skill development
is still regarded to be fundamental to the successful study of mathematics. An Appendix contains material to enable students to maintain basic knowledge and procedures.

2. Functions underpin the mathematics


Students are exposed to a catalogue of elementary functions. The functions serve as a bridge
between the mathematics and the situations they model. The study of functions is supported
by graphics calculator technology. The various ways in which graphics calculators can represent a function help students to develop a deeper understanding of functions. In particular,
geometry of functions is used to enhance the algebraic understanding.

3. Graphics calculators support the understanding and learning of


mathematics
The QBSSSS Mathematics B syllabus 2001 has introduced graphics calculators or higher technology throughout the course. The text offers a variety of investigations and applications using graphics calculator technology, which have been trialled by students in the classroom.

Although the graphics calculator activities in this book have been trialled by students using
CASIO FX 7400, CASIO 9850, TI 82 and TI 83 calculators, the activities may also be carried
out on any calculator with similar functionality.

4. Statistics and the use of real-life datasets


In the past, statistics has largely been taught using contrived data. The authors view is that
students should study statistics using real data sets wherever possible. Modelling data with
elementary functions is introduced using graphics calculators, linking algebra with the notion
of regression. To this end, material on the measures of r and r2, together with an explanation
of residual plots, has been included for the sake of completeness.

5. Mathematics books should be readable


A mathematics text, like any other book, should be very readable. This text has been written
with this principle in mind, enabling students to learn independently by studying the text and
working through the numerous examples on their own.
The materials have been trialled for two years with students, working in the classroom and at
home, and feedback from students indicates that the text has met this objective.

Interactive Students CD

The complete textbook with links from the detailed contents list
Exercises linked to the answers
Words you should know linked to the glossary
Web page links
End of chapter test worksheets
Chapter revision worksheets
Cumulative review worksheets

Website

mathematics-for-queensland.com

The website supports this textbook and contains additional resources including:

Work programs
Assessment instruments
Resources such as grid paper masters, worksheets and teaching ideas
Further graphics calculator activities, investigations, modelling activities and problems
Worked solutions to selected exercises and problems
Web page links

Mailing list
The mailing list allows teachers using this textbook to maintain a dialogue with the authors
and other teachers who are using the text. This dialogue will include syllabus discussion, the
exchange of assessment instruments, teaching ideas and professional support.
To subscribe to the mailing list, send an email to: MathsB-subscribe@yahoogroups.com.
You can also subscribe from the website.
Email address for list members: MathsB@yahoogroups.com

Key to the Icons in the text and on the CD


INVESTIGATION
Investigations provide opportunities to both develop and apply concepts.
They encourage explorations involving planning, working with others and
decision making.

SPREADSHEET APPLICATION
Activities to make use of computer spreadsheet software (written for MS
Excel) in many applications involving calculation and graphing.
Spreadsheets are linked from the text to the CD.

GRAPHICS CALCULATOR APPLICATION


Another application of technology where appropriate for calculation and
graphing.

HISTORICAL NOTE
Brief discussions of relevant historical facts related to the topic at hand.

MODELLING AND PROBLEM SOLVING


The use of mathematical knowledge and procedures in the modelling and
solution of life-related situations.

WORDS YOU SHOULD KNOW


Important words and terminology used in the text and included in the
glossary. The words and terminology are linked to the glossary on the CD.

CHAPTER SUMMARY
An outline of the important ideas and formulae from the chapter.

CHAPTER TEST, REVISION SETS AND REVISION


EXERCISES
Are reproduced as student worksheets on the CD and are accessible by
clicking on the icon.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION TO FUNCTIONS
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.

Relations
Functions
Exercises, problems, investigations and models
Gradient of a straight line
Linear functions
Equations of linear functions
Communication and justification
Graphing linear functions
Direct variation
Problem solving
Chapter 1 Revision Set
Chapter 1 Test (Knowledge and procedures)
Extended modelling activity

2. QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.

A mathematical model of a chook pen


Surds
Review of quadratic expressions
Solving quadratic equations
Graphing quadratic functions
Transformations of the quadratic function
Transformations of other functions
Modelling using quadratic functions
Problem solving
Chapter 2 Revision Set
Chapter 2 Test (Knowledge and procedures)
Extended investigation (Absolute value functions)
Extended modelling activity (Eraser toss)

3. EXPLORING DATA
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
K.
L.

Data
Some terminology
Collecting data
Recording data
Visualising data
Quantitative data
Displaying quantitative data
Stemplots
Summarising data - measures of the centre
Summarising data - measures of spread
Boxplots
Problem solving
Chapter 3 Revision Set
Chapter 3 Test (Mathematical techniques)

4. MODELLING DATA WITH FUNCTIONS


A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.

A first model (the regression line)


Least squares regression line
Measuring the 'fit' of a linear model
Residuals and the residual plot
Least squares regression line revisited
Problem solving
Chapter 4 Revision Set
Chapter 4 Test (Knowledge and procedures)
Extended modelling activity

9
10
12
18
21
26
28
34
36
38
43
44
45
46

47
48
50
58
64
73
76
80
83
85
88
89
90
90

91
92
95
99
103
105
113
114
116
123
126
132
140
141
143

145
146
148
149
152
159
165
166
167
168

TABLE OF CONTENTS

5. TRIGONOMETRY
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.

Similar triangles
Trigonometric ratios
Angles of any magnitude
Circular functions
Radian measure
Area of triangles
The sine rule
The cosine rule
Applications of the sine and cosine rules
Problem solving
Chapter 5 Revision Set
Chapter 5 Test (Knowledge and procedures)

6. REVISION EXERCISES FOR CHAPTERS 1 TO 5


A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Review of Chapter 1
Review of Chapter 2
Review of Chapter 3
Review of Chapter 4
Review of Chapter 5

7. INDICES AND LOGARITHMS


A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.

A review of index notation - a mathematical shorthand


Operations with powers
Indices other than natural numbers
Logarithms
The laws of logarithms
Solving log equations
Change of base of a logarithm
Applications of indices and logarithms
A further application of logarithms
Problem solving
Chapter 7 Revision Set
Chapter 7 Test (Knowledge and procedures)
Extended modelling activity (Piano keys)

8. POLYNOMIALS
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.

Definition of a polynomial
Evaluating polynomials
Operations with polynomials
Zeros of a polynomial
Graphs of polynomials
Composition of functions
Transformations of polynomials
Applications and modelling using polynomials
Problem solving and modelling
Chapter 8 Revision Set
Chapter 8 Test (Knowledge and procedures)

9. FURTHER FUNCTIONS AND RELATIONS


A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.

Reciprocal functions
Continuous and discontinuous functions
Inverse variation
Circles as relations
Finding points of intersection of lines, parabolas and circles
More on relations and mapping
Problem solving and modelling

169
170
171
178
180
184
188
191
195
199
203
205
206

207
208
210
213
217
218

221
222
223
226
231
236
238
238
240
244
249
250
251
252

253
255
257
258
263
264
268
271
274
278
279
280

281
282
284
286
290
296
299
301

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter 9 Revision Set


Chapter 9 Test (Knowledge and procedures)
Extended modelling activity (The cost of running a car)

10. RATE

302
303
304

305
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.

Rates
Average rates of change
Distance, displacement, speed and velocity
Variable rates of change
Finding the gradient function
Problem solving
Chapter 10 Revision Set
Chapter 10 Test (Knowledge and procedures)
Extended investigation (Local linearity)

11. INSTANTANEOUS RATES OF CHANGE


DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
K.
L.
M.

Instantaneous velocity
The concept of a limit
The gradient of a curve
The gradient of any function at any point
Differentiation by rule
The second (and higher) derivatives
Velocity and acceleration as derivatives
Equations of tangents and normals
Differentiation of composite functions
Differentiation of products
Differentiation of quotients
Functions, derivatives and graphs
Problem solving
Chapter 11 Revision Set
Chapter 11 Test (Knowledge and procedures)

12. REVISION EXERCISES FOR CHAPTERS 7 TO 11


A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Review of Chapter 7
Review of Chapter 8
Review of Chapter 9
Review of Chapter 10
Review of Chapter 11

APPENDIX 1 (Maintaining basic knowledge


and procedures)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.

Measurement
Percentage
Basic algebraic procedures
Rational numbers (fractions)
Linear equations
Formulae
The rule of Pythagoras
Coordinate geometry
Sigma notation

306
310
311
317
321
321
322
323
324

325
327
330
334
339
341
345
346
348
350
355
357
360
365
367
368

369
370
372
374
377
380

385
386
395
398
401
409
414
418
422
424

APPENDIX 2 (Chapter 3 survey on statistics)

426

APPENDIX 3 (Glossary)

429

ANSWERS

441

CHAPTER

Introduction to
functions

SUBJECT MATTER
l
l
l
l
l

concepts of function, domain and range


mappings, tables and graphs as representations of
functions and relations
graphs as a representation of the points whose
coordinates satisfy an equation
distinction between continuous and discrete
functions
practical applications of linear functions, including
direct variation and linear relationships between
variables
introduction to modelling, problem solving and
investigations

10

INTRODUCTION TO FUNCTIONS (Chapter 1)

HISTORICAL NOTE

Coordinate geometry allows the power of algebra to be applied to problems in


geometry. The person credited with this discovery is Rene Descartes.
While Descartes was at the Jesuit school of La Fleche in Anjou, he was
of delicate health and hence was allowed to spend his mornings in bed.
It is said that he discovered coordinate geometry one morning while
lying in bed watching a fly crawl across the ceiling, and wondering
how the flys path could be described mathematically.
In honour of Descartes discovery, the number plane is often referred
to as the Cartesian plane. The story is probably not true, but does give
you a good excuse for lying in bed on the weekends!

RELATIONS

The season has ended, and it is your job to organise the Sports Presentation Dinner. A caterer tells
you that the cost of serving a three course meal is $200 (for the hire of the hall, staff wages, etc)
plus $10 per head.
The total cost of the dinner depends upon the number of people attending. How can we describe
the relationship between the number of guests and the total cost?
Mathematicians have devised a number of different methods for showing such relationships.

The two variables for this problem are the Number of


Guests and the Cost. The conventional mathematical term
for a relationship between two or more variables is a relation. We want to describe the relation between the Number
of Guests and the Cost of the Dinner.
One way of presenting the relation is as a table. The logical
order for labelling the columns is to put the Number of
Guests in the first column, and the Cost in the second column, since you need to know how many guests there will
be before you can determine the cost of the dinner. Getting
the correct order of the columns is important. As the Cost
of the Dinner depends upon the Number of Guests, the
Cost is said to be the dependent variable, while the Number of Guests is called the independent variable. The independent variable is always the first column of the table (or
first row, if the table is laid out horizontally) and the dependent variable is the second column.
A second way of displaying a relation is as a set of ordered
pairs. Notice that the order in which the numbers are written is important. (0, 200) means that even if no guests
arrive, the cost is still $200. On the other hand, (200, 0)
implies that there are 200 guests, and the dinner is totally
free! The first number in the ordered pair is always the independent variable, and the second number is the dependent
variable.

Table
No. of guests
0
5
10
..
.

Cost
200
250
300
..
.

30
..
.

500
..
.

Ordered pairs
(0, 200), (5, 250), (10, 300),
...... (30, 500), ...

Mappings
0

200

250

10

300

30

500

INTRODUCTION TO FUNCTIONS (Chapter 1)

A third way to show a relation is as a mapping.


The arrows of a mapping always go from the
independent variable to the dependent variable.
There are two common methods of displaying a
mapping, as shown in the figures alongside.
Plotting the ordered pairs on a number plane, we
can display the relation as a graph. The variables
are:
n = number of guests
c = cost, in dollars

200

10

250

11

30

300

500

Cost of sports dinner


cost

1500

1000

By convention we put the independent variable


(in this case, Number of Guests) on the horizontal axis and the dependent variable (Cost) on the
vertical axis. Note that where possible all graphs
should include a title, and labels on the axes.

500

n
50

100

150

number of guests

For this graph, the points lie in a straight line, so this relation is said to be a linear relation.
Note that the graph was drawn as a continuous straight line and not as a series of points. Do you
think it is appropriate? We will be discussing this question shortly.
We can also represent this relation as an algebraic equation, using the above variables.
The equation for this relation is c = 10n + 200
Can you see that this equation correctly represents the situation? If not, check it for yourself by
substituting the values 0, 5, 10 .., 30, .. for n and calculating the value of c. They should match
those values found in the table.

EXERCISE 1A
1 For each of the following situations
i decide which is the independent and which is the dependent variable.
Show the relation as a
ii table
a

iii set of ordered pairs

iv mapping

v graph

vi

equation

A plumber charges a $60 callout fee, plus $40 an hour. What is the relation between the
total charge and the number of hours charged by the plumber?

b A syndicate won $6000000 in Powerball. What is the relation between the number of
people in the syndicate and the amount that each person receives?
c

A cabinet maker is building a round outdoor table. What is the relation between the
diameter of the table and the area of the top of the table?

d Which of the representations of a relation (table, ordered pairs, mapping, graph and
equation) can you show on a graphics calculator?

12

INTRODUCTION TO FUNCTIONS (Chapter 1)

DOMAIN AND RANGE


What is the possible number of guests that may attend the sports dinner? The worst possible case
is that no one turns up, while the maximum number of guests is the capacity of the hall, say 150
guests. Any number of guests between 0 and 150 is possible, so the set of all possible values of
the independent variable (Number of Guests) is the set of whole numbers from 0 to 150.
The set of all possible values of the independent variable is called the domain.
The set only includes whole numbers because we cannot have a fraction of a guest.
The total cost of the evening will range from $200 (if no one turns up) to a maximum of $1700, if
the hall is filled.
The set of all possible values of the dependent variable is called the range.
In this case, the range is the values that the cost may have, which is the multiples of $10 from $200
to $1700 inclusive.
We can also state the domain and range in another way, using set notation, as follows:
domain: f0, 1, 2, ..., 150g

range: f200, 210, 220, ..., 1700g.

FUNCTIONS

For this sports dinner, each value of the domain maps to exactly one value in the range. Another
way of saying the same thing is: if you tell me the Number of Guests (a value in the domain), we
can give you the Cost (a value in the range).
Relations with the property, that for every value in the domain there is exactly one value in
the range, are called functions.
The concept of a function is important, so we will explain it yet another way. If you ask a question
such as, What is the time?, you expect an answer and only one answer. You would be unhappy
with no answer at all, or the answer, The time is now 1:00 pm and 1:20 pm. Similarly, when
you give a number in the domain, and apply a rule to that number, you should expect exactly one
answer back. That in essence is what is meant by a function.
Most, but not all, of the relations that you will study in this course will be functions. In fact, if
someone described Mathematics B by saying it is the study of functions, they would not be too
far wrong, that is how important functions are in this course.
We will discuss functions in more detail when we meet our first relation that is not a function, in
Chapter 8.

THREE WAYS TO REPRESENT A FUNCTION


From the many ways to represent a function, three of them; a table, a graph and an equation, are
the most important. When studying a particular group of functions, a significant set of problems is
how to get the table and graph from the equation, the table and equation from the graph, and the
graph and equation from the table. Because a graphics calculator can represent functions in all of
these ways, it is an important tool in the study of mathematics.

INTRODUCTION TO FUNCTIONS (Chapter 1)

13

REPRESENTING A FUNCTION USING AN EQUATION FUNCTION


NOTATION
Mathematicians are able to be concise by carefully choosing how they express ideas in mathematics.
Function notation is a good example of this.
Here is a problem, expressed in words, I have a rule: take any number and square it, then
multiply the answer by 3, now add on 4 times the number, and finally take 16 away from the last
total. Apply this rule to the number 2..
Here is the same problem expressed in function notation. Note how concise it is.
f(x) = 3x2 + 4x 16; find f (2).

This particular function is given the name f , while the independent variable is given the name
x. We use letters of the alphabet to name functions, usually f , g, and h.
This rule is a function, since for any number in the domain, you can apply the rule and you always
get exactly one answer. The notation f (2) is a concise way of writing apply the rule named f
to the number 2.

We can evaluate the function when x = 2 as follows: f (2) = 3(2)2 + 4(2) 16, which
equals 12. So the value of f (2) is 12. We write f(2) = 12. The order of operations that
you learned in the junior school ensures that everyone will do the sequence of operations in the
same order. What is the domain of this function?
When the domain is not given, we assume that the domain is the largest possible set of numbers.
For this function, we can substitute any real number for x and get a unique answer, so the domain
of f is all real numbers.
We write this as x 2 R , where the symbol 2 reads is an element of and the symbol R stands
for the set of all real numbers.

EXAMPLE 1.1
For the function f(x) = 3x 5, find the value of
a f (1)
b f (3)
c f(0)
a
c

f (1) = 3 (1) 5
= 8
f (0) = 3 0 5
= 5

f (a)

f (3) = 3 3 5
=4

f (a) = 3 a 5
= 3a 5

EXERCISE 1B.1
1

a For the function f (x) = 4x 3, find the value of


i f(1)
ii f(3)
iii f(0)

iv

f (b)

b If g(x) = 2x + x 12, find


i g(1)
ii g(2)

iv

g(1 + a)

iii

g(1 12 )

c If p(x) = x + 5x + 6, show that p(2) = p(3)


2

d If h(x) = x3 , show that h(a) = h(a)

14

INTRODUCTION TO FUNCTIONS (Chapter 1)

Given the function

Given the function

Given the function

y = 2x 5,

y = 3x + 1,
y = 4

3 For the function f(x) =


b

1
2 x,

find

find

find

y, when x = 3

ii

x, when y = 3

y, when x = 2

ii

x, when y = 0

y, when x =

ii

x, when y =

1
2

1
2

2
+ 1, find the value of
x

f (2)

a
b

Given the function g(x) = x3 4x2 x, find i g(3) ii g(3) iii g(0)
Given the function h(x) = 100 x4 , find i h(0) ii h(2) iii h(2)

a
b

Is y = 4 a function? Justify your answer.


Is x = 3 a function? Justify your answer.

f(3)

f ( 12 )

f(0)

6 Which of the following relations is a function? Explain your answers.


a f(1, 2), (1, 3), (2, 4), (3, 5), (4, 6)g
b f(2, 3), (3, 3), (4, 3), (5, 3)g
c
-2
3
1
-4
2
5

4
1
3
9

7 Geoff was running laps around a track, and timing each one.
a His results are given in the table below. Is this a function? Explain.
Lap number
Time (sec)

2
69

3
70

4
72

5
71

6
72

Here is the same data, with time as the independent variable. Is this a function? Explain

Many functions cannot be expressed as an


equation. The price of a BHP share on the
share market is one example. For any time
in the past, we can tell you the share price.
We can draw a graph that shows the price
of the share, say for the last thirty days.
However there is certainly not an algebraic
equation that allows us to calculate the
price of the share, given the date and time.
There are too many factors that affect the
share price to allow us to determine the
share price so exactly. In this course,
though, most of the functions that we will
study can be expressed as equations.

71
5

72
6

BHP shares

25

Price ($)

20
15
10
5
Date

1/02/01

72
4

1/12/00

70
3

1/10/00

69
2

1/08/00

71
1

1/06/00

Time (sec)
Lap number

1/04/00

1
71

INTRODUCTION TO FUNCTIONS (Chapter 1)

15

CONTINUOUS AND DISCRETE VARIABLES


Let us consider the Sports Dinner graph once again. Did you get the urge to draw a straight line
through the points on the graph?
A line through the points implies that all real numbers from 0 to 150 are in the domain, including
such numbers as fractions, square roots, and even pi.
While you may be happy to have pie for sweets, it is not possible to have pi, or 12 or 1.6 as the
number of guests. So, you should not draw that line, since the number of guests is a discrete
variable.
A discrete variable can only take on certain distinct values, which are usually (but not
always) whole numbers.
A continuous variable, on the other hand, can take on any value between the smallest
and largest possible values.

For example, length is a continuous variable. Given the right measuring instrument, it is possible
to measure lengths to a very high degree of accuracy.
Here is a simple test for determining if a variable is discrete or continuous.
Ask yourself, do I count the variable or do I measure it? I count the number of people on an
aeroplane, therefore that is a discrete variable. I measure the weight of crocodiles (very carefully,
I might add), so weight is a continuous variable.
Why would a mathematician draw a line through those points?
Well, partly for convenience, as it is much easier to draw one line than to plot 151 points. Also
there are some powerful mathematical tools that you will learn to use, that only apply to continuous
variables.
While the mathematician knows the variable is discrete, it is often useful to treat the variable as if
it were continuous.

EXAMPLE 1.2
Which of the following variables are discrete and which are continuous?
a the number of boats in a boat yard
b the height of students in this class
c shoe sizes
a The number of boats can only be a whole number, so the variable is discrete.
We also know the variable is discrete since we count the number of boats.
b The height of a person is continuous. During the time that a student grows from 150
cm to 151 cm, his or her height takes on every value in between 150 and 151, even
though we might round off the height when writing it down. And the variable is
continuous since we measure the height of students.
c Although shoes sizes can take on fractional values, such as 12 , they are still
discrete, as they cannot
p take on every value. Try asking the shoe salesperson
for a shoe with size 99, for instance!

16

INTRODUCTION TO FUNCTIONS (Chapter 1)

EXERCISE 1B.2
1 Write in your own words the definitions of
a variable
b relation
d dependent variable
e domain
g function
h discrete variable

c
f
i

independent variable
range
continuous variable

2 Which of the following variables are discrete and which are continuous?
a number of passengers on a bus
b temperature at any time during the day
c number of mangoes picked from a mango tree
d the length of a piece of string
e the volume of water remaining in the bath after the plug has been pulled out
f the time to fly from Brisbane to Rockhampton
g the number of students studying 11 Mathematics B at your school each year
3 Justin and Candace disagree about whether the
time a person is infectious after he or she contracts the flu is discrete or continuous. Justin
says discrete, since we count the number of
days a person is infectious. Candace says, continuous, since time is measured. With whom
do you agree? Why?

EXAMPLE 1.3
The cost of renting a car in Rockhampton is $80 a day plus $0.50 per kilometre. You rent a
car for one day, and intend to drive no more than 400 kilometres.
a Which is the dependent variable and which is the independent variable?
b Explain why the relation between rental cost and distance driven is a function.
c Is the independent variable discrete or continuous?
d Represent the function as
i a table
ii a set of ordered pairs
iii a mapping
iv a graph
v an equation
e State the domain and the range of the function.

a The rental cost depends on the distance driven, so rental cost is the dependent
variable. The independent variable is the distance driven.
b The independent variable is distance driven, and the dependent variable is cost of
renting the car. For every distance in the domain, there is exactly one cost in the
range, so the relation is a function.
c Distance driven is a continuous variable. Note that we often round off the distance
to the nearest kilometre, or maybe the nearest 0.1 kilometre.
Note: Rounding off a continuous variable to the nearest whole kilometre does not
make it a discrete variable.

17

INTRODUCTION TO FUNCTIONS (Chapter 1)

iii

Table:
Distance driven Rental cost
0 km
$80
10 km
$85
20 km
$90
30 km
$95
..
..
.
.
400 km
$280

ii

iv

100

200

300

Graph:
y
250
200
150

Partial Mapping: (not every value


has been shown)
0

ordered pairs:
(0, 80), (10, 85),
(20, 90), .... (400, 280)

100

400

50

x
100

200

300

400

$80 $130 $180 $230 $280

Equation:

Let c = rental cost, in dollars and d = distance driven, in km


then c = 0:5d + 80

e domain: 0 6 d 6 400
range: 80 6 c 6 280
If we drive the maximum distance of 400 km, the cost is $(80 + 0:5 400), or $280.

EXERCISE 1B.3
1 Each of
i
ii
iii
iv

the following situations can be represented as a function. In each case:


Which is the dependent variable and which is the independent variable?
Are the variables discrete or continuous?
Represent the function as: a table, a set of ordered pairs, a graph, an equation.
State the domain and the range of the function.

a The weekly rent for a unit is $120 per week. You rent the unit for up to one year.
b The cost of producing ID cards for up to 200 year 11 students is $460 for the hire of the
equipment and the photographers fee, plus 25 cents per card.
c The amount of tread on a new tyre is 15 mm. The tread wears away uniformly at a rate
of 1 mm every 3000 km. A tyre becomes illegal once the amount of tread reaches 4 mm.

d The closing price of the All


Ordinaries Index for the week
starting February 5 is given in
the table alongside.
e Each point in the graph shows
the length of the metacarpal
bone (a bone in the hand) for
one person, and the height of
the person.

Date
Feb 5 Feb 6 Feb 7 Feb 8 Feb 9
Closing price 3126:7 3178:2 3167:0 3104:8 3137:9
Height v metacarpal bone length
180
175
170
165
160
155

height (cm)

metacarp (mm)
30

40

50

60

18

INTRODUCTION TO FUNCTIONS (Chapter 1)

EXERCISES, PROBLEMS, INVESTIGATIONS


AND MODELS

Now it is time to step back for a bit, and take a broader look at our study of mathematics.
Suppose we have a mathematical question in front of us. We have seen similar ones before or we
have been taught the standard way to tackle this type of question. We may not know the answer
from looking but we know the procedure to follow to find the solution. This may involve using
textbooks to look up a formula or using a graphics calculator to sketch a graph.
Mathematical questions for which the method of solution is known are called exercises. By doing
exercises we learn and improve our mathematical skills.
There are other types of mathematical questions where we do not know how to answer the question
when we first look. A number of strategies might come to mind which could help us make a start,
but none immediately suggests the solution.
Specific questions where the method of solving them is not immediately known are called problems.
At times we may be studying an interesting topic, but do not yet have specific questions to be
answered. Or we may have a specific question, but we need to gather some data first. This requires an investigation. While investigating, we might draw diagrams, look for patterns and make
conjectures. Often while doing an investigation, new problems arise for which there is no obvious
method.
Alternatively, one step in solving a problem may be investigating an intriguing pattern. Investigations and problem solving are intertwined.
A mathematical model is just a way of representing a real-life situation mathematically. A function can be considered to be a mathematical model if it mimics a real situation. Ideally the model
captures the important features of the real-life problem, but is simple enough to use for predictions
and further study.
A mathematician once said, All models are wrong. Some are useful.. By this he meant that
real-life problems are complex, and it is usually not possible to capture all of this complexity in a
single model. However some models can capture enough of the complexity to be useful for making
predictions.
We will now look at each of these in more detail.

PROBLEM SOLVING
Throughout this course, you will have opportunities to solve problems. You may find it helpful to
rule up a Thinking Column to go alongside where you are working. Try to record what you are
doing, what you think you might try, conjectures you have, patterns you spot, when you are stuck
and so on. After a while, you will start to develop a collection of strategies that are helpful. This
column is also useful for recording what you are doing or what you were about to try if you need
to stop work, perhaps at the end of a lesson.
When you begin to solve a problem, you can expect not to know what the solution is. There are
ways you can make a start, though. Many people find trying a few specific examples to be a way
of understanding the problem. After you have tried enough examples, you might begin to spot
patterns or be able to make conjectures about the question.

INTRODUCTION TO FUNCTIONS (Chapter 1)

19

Spotting patterns is easier if you have chosen examples in a systematic way. Sometimes this process
is described as guess and check but this is not a good name. Guessing suggests you do not know
what you are doing. A much more accurate term is systematic specialisation. If you are systematic
in your choice of specific examples and you record your data (results) in a systematic way such as
in a table, you are more likely to spot underlying patterns.
When solving a problem, there are often many ways you can proceed. Do not be surprised if your
path to the solution is different from others in your class.
If you need help, you will need to explain to your group or your teacher what you have already
tried. Otherwise, they will not know what path you are on and therefore how you are seeing the
problem.
Once you have found a solution, you will need to convince yourself that you have solved the
problem. Then try convincing a friend. Finally, you need to refine your argument or modify your
solution until you could convince anyone.
Here is a problem for you to try. It is called a pattern problem.
Look at this matchstick pattern:

a How many matchsticks are needed to make the 10th pattern and the 1000th pattern?
b What is the rule for finding the number of matchsticks to make the nth pattern?
c Arrange the matchsticks to demonstrate how you see the pattern building. Compare your
pattern with others in your class. You may be surprised at the variety of ways people see
the patterns.
d Justify your rule in terms of the arrangements of the matchsticks.
A solution to this problem is given at the end of the chapter. But do not read it until you have
tried to solve the problem, and discussed it with your classmates. The best way to learn to solve
problems is to tackle them yourself!

INVESTIGATIONS
Throughout this book are Investigations, similar to the one below. You should do all of the
Investigations in this course, even if your teacher does not require you to do so. Doing them will
help you to think about and understand the mathematics you are learning. Try this one right now.
The calculator symbol means that your graphics calculator will be useful here.

GRAPHICS CALCULATOR ACTIVITY

LINEAR FUNCTIONS
1 A linear function is a function whose graph is a straight line. Use a graphics calculator
to draw each of the following functions. Which are linear functions?
3
a y = x+1
b y = x2
c y =4x
d y=
x
p
e y=3
f y = 12 x 6
g y = x+1
2 Can you tell which functions are linear and which are not, just by looking at the
equations? How can you tell?

20

INTRODUCTION TO FUNCTIONS (Chapter 1)

3 Test your theory on these functions:


a

y = 5 2x

y = x3

y = 23 x 1

y=

p
4x 1

y =6

y=

1
x

y = 2

2x 1
1x

4 Write down a rule for deciding if a function is linear or not, by looking at the equations.
5 Once a pattern is noted, a mathematician then tries to determine why the pattern exists.
Can you see why your rule in question 4 always gives a linear function?

MODELLING
Have a look at the diagram. What do you see? Different people see
different things - some a patchwork quilt, some a climbing frame, while
others a radioactive symbol. Lots of people start counting triangles. Did
you find yourself noticing the triangles or counting? Many situations
appear to have no mathematics involved at all and yet mathematics can
be used to investigate and understand these situations better.

The process of using mathematics to help understand a situation is called mathematical modelling.
This is an important part of this course and you will find many opportunities to develop your skills.
Mathematical modelling can be very simple - in fact, we have looked at a model already. However,
many other situations can lead to very complex models which require a great deal of development.
The Consortium for Mathematics and its Applications (COMAP) in the United States has developed
the following structure which is useful for describing a mathematical modelling process. The steps
involved are general stages which may help you plan your activity. You may need to refine each of
the stages. It is important to note that mathematical modelling is a cyclic process - you will need
to revise your model (sometimes often) after you have evaluated it.
The following diagram shows the basic steps involved.
STEP 1 - IDENTIFY THE SITUATION
Notice something that you wish to understand.
Pose a well defined question indicating exactly
what you wish to know.

STEP 4 - EVALUATE AND REVISE


THE MODEL
Return to the original situation and see if
the results of the mathematics make sense.
Do they help to explain the situation better?

yes
Use the model until
new information
becomes available or
assumptions change.

no
Reconsider the
assumptions you
made in step 2 and
revise them to be
more realistic.

STEP 2 - SIMPLIFY THE SITUATION


Determine the assumptions on which your model
will rest. List the key features and relationships
among those features you want to consider.
Note features and relationships you choose to
ignore for now.
Remember: keep it simple, you can make the
model more complex later.

STEP 3 - BUILD THE MODEL


Interpret in mathematical terms the features and
relationships you have chosen.
This might involve
- defining variables and their type
- writing equations
- drawing shapes
- gathering data
- measuring objects
- calculating probabilities. Add to this list as you
move through this course.

INTRODUCTION TO FUNCTIONS (Chapter 1)

MODELLING ACTIVITY
Let us go back to see how these modelling steps could have been used in the
development of our model for the sports dinner.
Step 1:

Step 2:

Step 3:

Step 4:

21

We wanted to know more about the cost of the dinner. The question could have
been How does the number of guests affect the total cost of the dinner? Other
questions are also possible.
We only considered one type of dinner guest - ignoring concessional entry, free
entry, etc. Make a list of key features of the situation. These might include size,
type of venue, seating arrangements, decorations, entertainment etc. Describe any
connections, for example, if you plan to have dancing, you need a dance floor, which
will affect the seating arrangement. Now go through your list and tick the ones we
have considered in our model. Mark the ones we have ignored up to this point.
At the beginning of this chapter, we looked at interpreting our model in mathematical
terms. We defined variables (number of guests and cost) and their type (what were
they?). Go back over the information at the beginning of the chapter and make a
list of the procedures used.
Look back at the various ways we modelled the dinner. Which did you find most
helpful in understanding the situation?

Before you can effectively develop mathematical models, you need to have mastered the required
knowledge and procedures. This is covered in the next sections of this chapter, after which modelling
will be re-visited.

GRADIENT OF A STRAIGHT LINE

LINEAR FUNCTIONS
A linear function is a function whose graph is a straight line. One way to decide if a function is
linear or not is to draw the graph of the function. However drawing graphs is tedious. Is there a
better way? Think about the problem of the cost of the sports dinner. Could you have decided from
the statement of the problem that the graph of the function was a straight line?
If no-one comes to the dinner, you must still pay $200 for the
hire of the hall. On the graph, this corresponds to the point with
coordinates (0, 200). If one person attends, the corresponding
point on the graph is (1, 210). If two attend this is represented
by the point (2, 220), and so on. Note that for each additional
person, the total cost rises by a fixed amount, $10.
It is because of this fixed change that the graph of the function
is a straight line. We could plot each point as follows: first
plot the point on the y-axis, i.e., when x = 0. Then to plot
the rest of the points, just follow this pattern - across 1, up 10;
across 1, up 10; across 1 up 10; and so on.

230

cost ($)

225
220
215
210
205
200

2
3
number of guests

GRADIENT
The gradient of a straight line is a measure of the steepness of the line as you move from
left to right across the Cartesian plane.

22

INTRODUCTION TO FUNCTIONS (Chapter 1)

You may recall that

gradientAB = m =

rise
run

where m is the variable commonly used to represent


gradient.

y
B

(!x\' \\@x)
rise

A
(!z\\' \\@z)

run

If the coordinates of point A are (x1 , y1 ) and the coordinates of point B are (x2 , y2 ), then
the gradient of the line joining A and B is given by
gradient =

Mathematicians often write this as

y2 y1
x2 x1

y
, where represents the change in.
x

So, y is the change in y (the rise), and x is the change in x (the run).
If a graph falls as you move from left to right, the gradient is negative, since the rise is negative.
For a straight line
gradient = m =

y2 y1
rise
y
=
=
run
x2 x1
x

All of these different ways of representing the gradient are important, so you need to know them
all.

EXAMPLE 1.4
Find the gradient of the line joining the points A(3, 1) and B(2, 5).
It does not matter which point is called (x1 , y1 ) and which is called (x2 , y2 ).
We will do it both ways, just to show it.
Let A have coordinates (x1 , y1 )
and B have coordinates (x2 , y2 ).
Then m =
=
=

y2 y1
x2 x1

5 1
2 3
6
5

= 65

Let A have coordinates (x2 , y2 )


and B have coordinates (x1 , y1 ).
Then m =
=
=

y2 y1
x2 x1

1 5
3 2
6
5

= 65

23

INTRODUCTION TO FUNCTIONS (Chapter 1)

EXERCISE 1D.1

y
D

1 From the diagram alongside, find the


gradient of the line joining

a
c
e
g

A and B
B and C
E and H
H and E

b
d
f
h

A and C
F and I
B and F
E and G

-2

2
-2

the gradient of the line joining


(5, 1) and (3, 0)
(3, 1) and (5, 0)
(4, 8) and (2, 3)
(0, 0) and (2, 8)
(1, 4) and (1, 7)
(3, 12 ) and (1, 2)
(a, b) and (c, d)

b
d
f
h
j
l
n

-4

2 Find
a
c
e
g
i
k
m

(2, 3) and (7, 4)


(3, 5) and (1, 7)
(5, 5) and (3, 1)
(2, 3) and (3, 3)
(3:6, 1:9) and (2:4, 3:8)
(3, 23 ) and (1, 12 )
(m, 0) and (0, n)

a On grid paper, draw four lines, each with a gradient of 2.


b On the same grid paper, draw four lines, each with a gradient of 12 .
c What do you notice about these lines?

4 You can plot points using a graphics calculator by putting the x-coordinates into List 1 and the
y-coordinates into List 2, and then drawing a scatterplot of List 2 vs List 1.
a Plot these points on your graphics calculator: (6, 2), (3, 2), (1:5, 2), (0, 2), (4, 2)
What can you say about the gradient of a line that passes through points whose ycoordinates are the same?
b Plot these points on your graphics calculator: (1, 5), (1, 2), (1, 0), (1, 1),
(1, 3 12 )
What can you say about the gradient of a line that passes through points whose xcoordinates are the same?
5 On grid paper, draw two oblique lines that are parallel to each other. Calculate the gradient
of each line. Make a conjecture about parallel lines. Can you explain why your conjecture is
true?
Note: Oblique lines are lines that are neither horizontal nor vertical.
6 On grid paper, draw two oblique lines that are perpendicular to each other (not horizontal or
vertical lines). Calculate the gradient of each line. Make a conjecture about perpendicular
lines. Can you explain why your conjecture is true?

24

INTRODUCTION TO FUNCTIONS (Chapter 1)

PARALLEL LINES

If two lines are parallel, they have the same gradient.


From the figure, mp = mq .

The little p and little q are examples of subscript


notation. The notation mp means the gradient of
line p. We say m sub p.

run

rise

To show that line p is parallel to line q, show that


the gradient of line p = the gradient of line q.

rise
x

run

EXAMPLE 1.5
If A is the point (3, 4), B is (4, 5), M is (1, 8) and N is (6, 1), show that AB is
parallel to MN.
In questions of this type, it is helpful to plot the points first.
mAB =
=

y2 y1
x2 x1

mMN =

5 4
4 3

9
7

97

y2 y1
x2 x1

9
7

97

6
4

1 8
6 1

-2

-4

Since mAB = mMN , then AB jj MN.


y

Collinear points are points which lie on the same


straight line. From the figure, if mAB = mBC , then
A, B and C are collinear.

C
B
A

To show that points A, B and C are collinear, show


that mAB = mBC .

EXAMPLE 1.6
Show that A(1, 4), B(1, 1) and C(5, 5) are collinear.

6
N

-2

COLLINEAR POINTS

mAB =

41
1 1
3
2

= 32

) Since mAB = mAC , then A, B and C are collinear.

mAC =
=

4 5
1 5
9
6

= 32

25

INTRODUCTION TO FUNCTIONS (Chapter 1)

PERPENDICULAR LINES
From the diagram, line p has a gradient of m since the
rise
rise is m, and the run is 1, and hence the
is
run
m
, or just m.
1
Now rotate line p by 90o in a clockwise direction, to
line q.
From the diagram, it is clear that the gradient of line q
1
is .
m

(1, m)
m

1
q

-1

(m,-1)

This quantity is called the negative reciprocal of m.


If line q is perpendicular to line p, then the gradient of line q is the negative reciprocal
of the gradient of line p.
1
Note that,
mp mq = m = 1,
m
lines is 1.

that is, the product of the gradients of perpendicular

If line q is perpendicular to line p, and the gradient of line p is m and the gradient of line q
is n, then mn = 1.

EXAMPLE 1.7
Prove that the points A(3, 2), B(3, 1) and C(0, 7) are the vertices of a right-angled triangle.
From the diagram, it appears that the triangle is rightangled at B. So we test the gradients of AB and CB.
mAB =
=

y2 y1
x2 x1

mCB =

1 2
3 3

=
)

mAB mCB =

1
2

2 = 1

71
03

= 2

1
2

y2 y1
x2 x1

6
=
3

3
=
6

B
-4

-2

-2

and so AB?CB

) A, B and C are the vertices of a right-angled triangle.

EXERCISE 1D.2
In these questions, remember to plot the points first.

1 Determine whether AB is parallel to CD, AB is perpendicular to CD, or neither.


a A(1, 4), B(5, 2), C(1, 2), D(3, 6)
b A(2, 0), B(8, 2), C(4, 2), D(2, 4)

26

INTRODUCTION TO FUNCTIONS (Chapter 1)

c
e

A(3, 2), B(1, 6), C(3, 0), D(0, 3)


A(2, 5), B(3, 5), C(6, 3), D(1, 3)

d
f

A(4, 8), B(7, 2), C(1, 1), D(2, 5)


A(2, 1), B(2, 3), C(5, 0), D(4, 0)

2 Given the points A(2, 0), B(4, 3), C(1, 1) and D(5, 1), show that AB is parallel to CD.
3 Given the points A(1, 2), B(3, 2), C(4, 1) and D(2, 4), show that AB is perpendicular
to CD.
4 Determine if the following points are collinear.
a (1, 1), (4, 5) and (2, 3)
b
c (2, 5), (6, 0) and (8, 4)
d
e (1, 2), (4, 6), (5, 6)
f
g A(3, 4), B(6, 5), C(0, 4)
h

(1, 1), (4, 0) and (7, 1)


(4, 1), (1, 2) and (5, 4)
(6, 6), (1, 0), (9, 12)
(a, b), (2a, 2b), (3a, 3b)

5 Show that the points H(1, 1), I(7, 3), J(3, 5) and K(3, 1) are the vertices of a parallelogram.
6 Show that the points A(1, 4), B(4, 1) and C(2, 1) are the vertices of a right-angled triangle.
7 Give the coordinates of another point R that is collinear with P(1, 3) and Q(2, 0). Justify
your answer.
8 Recall that the distance from A(x1 , y1 ) to B(x2 , y2 ) is given by
p
d = (x2 x1 )2 + (y2 y1 )2

a Show that A(1, 3), B(6, 3), C(3, 1) and D(2, 1) are the vertices of a rhombus.
b Show that AC is perpendicular to BD.

LINEAR FUNCTIONS

THE INTERPRETATION OF THE Y-INTERCEPT OF A LINEAR FUNCTION


Consider question 1 parts a, b and c in Exercise 1B.3. Renting for zero weeks costs zero dollars,
the amount of tread initially (with zero kilometres driven) is 15 mm and the fixed cost of producing
ID cards (the cost if no cards are purchased by the students) is $460.
In every case this value is represented graphically as the point where the graph crosses the y-axis,
known as the y-intercept.
The y-intercept is the value of the dependent variable when the independent variable has a value
of 0. When we are working with mathematical models, the y-intercept represents a real value, and
should be written with its units.
For the above examples, the y-intercepts are 0 dollars, 15 mm of tread and $460.

THE INTERPRETATION OF THE GRADIENT OF A LINEAR FUNCTION


The other important aspect of a linear function is how quickly the dependent variable changes. The
total rent increases by $120 per week. For each 8000 km driven, the tread wear is 1 mm, so the
1
tread wear is 8000
mm per kilometre driven. The variable cost of manufacturing ID cards is $0.25
per card.
The gradient of a linear function represents the rate of change of the dependent variable versus the
independent variable. In life-related problems, gradients have units.

INTRODUCTION TO FUNCTIONS (Chapter 1)

27

For the rent, the unit is dollars/week, for the tread wear it is (mm of tread lost) / (kilometre driven),
and for the ID cards it is $/card. Note that the unit of a gradient is a rate.

EXAMPLE 1.8
For each of the situations below:
i find the y-intercept
ii find the unit of the dependent variable
iii find the gradient. Include the units.

a A person in a car travelling west at a constant speed from Toowoomba observes that she
is 30 km from Toowoomba at noon. At 3 pm she observes another sign showing that she
is 300 km from Toowoomba.

i If we take noon to be our


starting time, that is
when t=0, then the
y-intercept is 30.
ii The unit of the dependent
variable is kilometre.
y2 y1
iii gradient =
x2 x1
300 30
=
30
270
=
3
= 90 km/h
i y-intercept is 10.
ii The unit of the dependent
variable is litre.
2:5 10
iii gradient =
25 0
7:5
=
25
= 0:3 litres/min

300

Travelling west

200
100

hours

Rate of spray

litres of pesticide

distance (km)

b A gardener is spraying his rose bushes with a pesticide. He is spraying at a constant rate.
He begins the job with 10 litres of pesticide in his spray pack and completes the task in
25 minutes. He notes that there are 2.5 litres remaining in the spray pack.

y
10

8
6
4
2

10

15

20

x
25
minutes

EXERCISE 1E
1 For each of the situations below:
i What is the independent variable?
iii Find the y-intercept.
v Find the gradient.

ii
iv
vi

What is the dependent variable?


What are the units of the dependent variable?
What are the units of the gradient?

a For each millilitre of ink, a pen will draw lines and curves for a total length of 300 metres.
b Sam can type at a rate of 32 words per minute.

28

INTRODUCTION TO FUNCTIONS (Chapter 1)

c Telstra will connect your rural property with a phone line for $800 plus $1500 per kilometre of telephone cable.
d A salesman receives a salary of $500 per week plus commission of 10% on his weekly
sales.
e A rule of thumb for converting degrees Celsius to degrees Fahrenheit is to double the
Celsius temperature and add 30 degrees.
f A printer takes 15 seconds to warm up, and then prints 10 pages per minute after that.
g Marcus has a mobile phone. He pays $5 per month and then pays 80 cents a minute for
every minute for his calls.

EQUATIONS OF LINEAR FUNCTIONS

One form of a linear equation is y = mx + c, where y is the dependent variable, x is the


independent variable, m is the gradient and c is the y-intercept.
To show this, consider a line passing through the point (0, c) with gradient m. Let point P with
coordinates (x, y) be any other point on this line.
mAP = m =
)
)

yc
x
mx = y c

yc
x0

@=m!+^
(!' @)

m=

and rearranging gives

(0' ^)

y = mx + c
This is called the gradient-intercept form of a straight line.
If a line has gradient m and passes through the point with coordinates (x1 , y1 ), its equation
is given by y y1 = m(x x1 )

This is called the point-gradient form of a straight line.


You will be asked to derive this formula, as an exercise.

EXAMPLE 1.9
a Find the gradient and y-intercept of i y = 2x 3 ii 2x 3y + 6 = 0
b Find the equation of the straight line that passes through (2, 3) with gradient
m = 34 .

c Find the equation of the straight line that passes through the points (3, 2) and
(2, 12).
d Find the equation of the line that passes through (3, 2) and is perpendicular
to the line with equation 2x + y 6 = 0
a

i The equation y = 2x 3 is in the form y = mx + c.


Therefore m = 2 and c = 3 by inspection.

INTRODUCTION TO FUNCTIONS (Chapter 1)

ii Re-write this equation so it is in the form y = mx + c.


2x 3y + 6 = 0
) 3y = 2x 6
)

y=

m=

fsubtract 2x and 6 from both sidesg

2
3x

+2

2
3

and c = 2.

fdivide both sides by 3g

b Substitute y = 3, x = 2 and m = 34 into y = mx + c and solve for c.


y = mx + c
3 = 34 (2) + c
3=

3
2

c=

3
2

fsubstituteg

fmultiply and simplifyg

+c

fsubtract

3
2

from both sidesg

Therefore the equation is y = 34 x + 32 .

Note that some students prefer to use y y1 = m(x x1 ).

c As the gradient is not given, we must first calculate the gradient.


y2 y1
m =
x2 x1
=

12 2
2 (3)

10
5

=2
Now use this gradient and either point to find the equation. Here we will use the pointgradient form of a straight line equation. Students often ask which point to use. The
answer is that it does not matter! They both give the correct equation.
Can you explain why?
Using the point (3, 2)

Using the point (2, 12)

y y1 = m(x x1 )
y 2 = 2(x 3)
y 2 = 2x + 6
Rearranging: 2x y + 8 = 0

y y1 = m(x x1 )
y 12 = 2(x 2)
y 12 = 2x 4
Rearranging: 2x y + 8 = 0

d 2x + y 6 = 0 can be rearranged to y = 2x + 6. Therefore, m = 2,


so the gradient of the line perpendicular to this one is the negative reciprocal of 2,
which is 12 .
Using the gradient-intercept form:

y = mx + c
2 = 12 (3) + c
2 = 32 + c
c = 12

Therefore the equation is y = 12 x 12 :

29

30

INTRODUCTION TO FUNCTIONS (Chapter 1)

EXERCISE 1F.1
1 For each equation below, write in the form y = mx + c. Give the gradient and y-intercept
of each.
a
d
g
j

y = 3x + 4
4y = 4x 5
3x + y 4 = 0
x=0

b
e
h
k

y2
=3
x

the x-axis

c
f
i
l

y = 2 5x
y = 3
x 2y + 1 = 0
3y 5x = 23
3y + 3
= 3
x4

y = 12 x
2x 3y = 0
2x + y 8 = 0
y = 1200x 4500

2x y + 3
= 3
x + 3y 2

2 If possible, graph the equations in question 1 using your graphics calculator. Choose an
appropriate viewing window by entering the domain and range. The best view is one which
shows the main features of the graph while using as much of the screen as possible.
3 Determine the equations of these straight lines.
a
b
c
d
e

gradient
2
1
2
3
1
2

passing through
(1, 3)
(2, 4)
(2, 5)
the origin
(2, 4)

f
g
h
i
j

gradient
undefined
a
3
2
1
3

passing through
(2, 3)
(a, 0)
(3, 1)
(2, 12 )
( 12 , 23 )

4 Determine the equations of the straight lines passing through these points.
a (2, 3) and (5, 6)
b (6, 7) and (4, 3)
c (1, 3) and (1, 1)
d (2, 1) and (3, 4)
e (6, 2) and (2, 3)
f (4, 2) and (2, 5)
5 Find the equation of the straight line parallel to y = 3x + 1 that passes through (1, 3).
Graph both lines with your graphics calculator.
6 Find the equation of the straight line that passes through (0, 3) and is perpendicular to
y = 3 13 x. Graph both lines.

SPECIAL CASES OF LINEAR EQUATIONS


If the straight line passes through the origin,
the y-intercept is zero, i.e., c = 0. So, the
equation of a line that passes through the origin
is y = mx.
Any linear function with an x-term, a y-term but
no constant term passes through the origin.
Now consider the horizontal line (parallel to the
x-axis) that passes through (0, 2). The gradient
is zero, i.e. m = 0 and the y-intercept is 2.

!=k

(0' ^)

(k' ^)

@=c

@=m!
x
(k' 0)

INTRODUCTION TO FUNCTIONS (Chapter 1)

31

The equation then becomes:


y = 0x + 2, which simplifies to y = 2
As a wily old Frenchman once said, it is usually more instructive to do the same problem two
different ways than to do two different problems. So, let us find the same equation in a different
way.
Consider the graph of the horizontal line that passes through (3, 2), (2, 2), (1, 2), (0, 2),
(1, 2) and (2, 2). Note that every point on this line has a y-coordinate of 2. The best way to describe
this line is y = 2.
In general,
the equation of the horizontal line that passes through the point (k, c) has the equation y = c.
Finally consider the vertical line passing through the points (3, 4) and (3, 2). We will try to find
the gradient of this line by substituting the points (3, 4) and (3, 2) into the equation:
m =

2
42
y2 y1
=
=
x2 x1
33
0

Since dividing by 0 is not possible, the value of the gradient is undefined. All is not lost however.
Note that every point on this line has an x-coordinate of 3. The best way to describe the equation
of this line is x = 3: It follows that
the equation of the vertical line that passes through the point (k, c) has the equation x = k.
Note that the gradient of a vertical line is undefined. This means that it does not have a value
which is a real number.

EXAMPLE 1.10
Find the equation of the line that passes through
a (3, 2) and (5, 2)
b (2, 1) and (2, 3)
A quick plot of the points shows both equations can be quickly found.

a Since the y-coordinate of both points is 2, this is a horizontal line with equation
y = 2.
b Since the x-coordinate of both points is 2, this is a vertical line with equation x = 2.

GENERAL FORM OF A LINEAR EQUATION


All of the above equations can be expressed by a single equation, called the general form of a
linear equation ax + by + c = 0.

32

INTRODUCTION TO FUNCTIONS (Chapter 1)

EXAMPLE 1.11
a Write 2x 3y + 1 = 0 in the form y = mx + c.

b Write y = 23 (x 1) in the general form.

c Write ax + by + c = 0 in gradient-intercept form.

a 2x 3y + 1 = 0
) 2x + 1 = 3y
) 3y = 2x + 1
) y = 23 x + 13
b

y = 23 (x 1)

y = 23 x

2
3

) 3y = 2x 2
2x 3y 2 = 0

fadd 3y to both sidesg


fre-arrangeg
fdivide both sides by 3g

fexpandg

fmultiply both sides by 3g


fre-arrangeg

ax + by + c = 0
) by = ax c
a
c
) y = x
b
b

So, the gradient of the line with general equation is

a
b

c
and the y-intercept is .
b

Summary:
You must know these different forms of a straight line equation.

y = mx + c

gradient-intercept form

y y1 = m(x x1 )

point-gradient form

y = mx

line through the origin

y=c

horizontal line through (k, c)

x=k

vertical line through (k, c)

ax + by + c = 0

general form of a linear equation

EXERCISE 1F.2
1 Write down the equations of the lines determined by the following information. Express your
answer in general form.
a
b
c
d

gradient
2
1
3
0

y-intercept
3
2
0
2

gradient

e
f
g
h

3
4
1
2

undefined
a

y-intercept
1
3
4

0
b

INTRODUCTION TO FUNCTIONS (Chapter 1)

33

2 Determine the equation of the straight line in general form passing through
a (3, 8) and (6, 8)
b (1, 3) and (1, 11)
c (2, 5) and (0, 8)
1 3
7
5
d ( 2 , 2 ) and ( 2 , 2 )
e (a, b) and (a, b)
f (2f , 2g) and (f, g)
3 Find the equations of the following lines.
a the x-axis
b the y-axis
c the line parallel to the x-axis, passing through (2, 3)
d the line parallel to the y-axis, passing through (2, 3)
e the line parallel to the x-axis, passing through (c, d)
f the line parallel to the y-axis, passing through (c, d)

4 Find the equation of the line in general form passing through the point (6, 1) which is
a parallel to the line y = 2x + 3
b perpendicular to the line y = 2x + 3
5 Find the equation in general form of the line that passes through (1, 3) and is
a parallel to the line 2x + 3y 6 = 0
b perpendicular to the line 2x + 3y 6 = 0

6 A, B, and C are the points (3, 4), (5, 0) and (1, 12) respectively. Find the equations of AB
and AC and show that AB is perpendicular to AC.
7 Find the equations of the sides of the triangle with vertices A(3, 6), B(2, 4) and C(1, 3).
8 It costs the XYZ Company $3000 to produce 20 gadgets and $5000 to produce 60 gadgets.
a Determine the linear cost equation.
b Determine the fixed costs.
c Find the cost of producing 100 gadgets.

9 If a widget is priced at $5, there will be a demand for 75 widgets. If the widgets are priced at
$10, there will be a decrease in demand to 50 widgets. Find
a the linear demand function
b the demand if the widgets are priced at $2.50 .
c At what price will the demand for the widgets decrease to zero?
10 On page 28, we derived the gradient-intercept form of the equation of a straight line. Using
this as a guide, derive the point-gradient form of the equation of a straight line.

INVESTIGATION 1

WHAT POINT SIZE ARE YOU?


Point size is a measure of the size of text. If the letter
T was as tall as you, what point size would it be?
What to do:
1 Using a word processor, print out the letter T, in various
point sizes. Measure the heights of the letters. Record the
point size and the height both in a table and on a graph.
Which is the independent variable?

34

INTRODUCTION TO FUNCTIONS (Chapter 1)

2 You should find that your points almost lie in a straight line, but do not lie exactly in a
straight line. Give a reason why this might be.
3 Draw the straight line that best fits the data. A good method is to draw a line such that
as many points as possible fall on the line, and half of the remaining points are above the
line and half are below.
4 Determine the equation of this line.
5 Use the equation to determine the point size of a letter T that is as tall as you.
6 Compare your equation to that of your classmates. Are they the same? Explain.
7 On page 28, we derived the gradient-intercept form of a straight line.
Using this as a guide, derive the point-gradient form of a straight line.

COMMUNICATION AND JUSTIFICATION

Again it is time to take a step back, this time to take a look at the Communication and Justification
criterion.

COMMUNICATION
Communication in a mathematical context has two facets - knowing your audience and expressing
your mathematics in a way that is appropriate for that audience. In this course, good communication
includes:
proper setting out of your solutions to exercises

The examples in this textbook and the worked solutions your teacher does in class
are good indicators of the setting out that is needed.

logical, clear and concise solutions to problems, investigations and modelling activities
Once you have figured out the mathematics, you should expect to have to write a
number of drafts before you are satisfied with how you have communicated your
solution. Think of your audience as being a Year 11 Mathematics B student from
another school who has not previously seen the question you are trying to answer.
Would he understand your solution? Can you make it clearer by including a diagram
or a worked example? Find such a student and ask him to read what you have written.
Did he understand it?

on assignments, a word-processed document with a title page containing the required


information, headers and footers, and no spelling or grammatical errors
A high quality of presentation, while not a mathematical concept, is crucial to
communicating mathematics effectively.

EXERCISE 1G.1
1 Re-read your solution to the Patterns problem posed on page 19. Now assume that your
audience is a Year 10 student who has just learned about linear functions. Re-write your
solution so you have communicated your solution to this student as effectively as you are able.

INTRODUCTION TO FUNCTIONS (Chapter 1)

35

JUSTIFICATION AND CONJECTURES


A conjecture is a statement that you believe to be true.
Justifying conjectures is an important part of communicating your mathematics to others. Once you
have developed a conjecture, you need to convince yourself that it is correct. After that, you should
try to convince a friend or others in your group. Often by explaining your ideas to others, you find
the parts where you are unsure or your thinking is unclear. Others can help with understanding and
finding just the right words. Sometimes friends will tell you places where they do not understand
your reasoning. In this part of the justification process, you may need to refine your conjecture or
your explanation.
When the convince a friend stage is complete, you will be ready to try to convince a sceptic. A
sceptic is someone who will not take what you are saying on trust. They will expect to be convinced
at every stage. Sceptics can be others in your class, your teacher or (if you are a mathematician)
the editorial panel of a mathematics journal.
Convincing a sceptic is very challenging. As you work through this course, you will have the opportunity to justify many conjectures. Justification is part of the development of mathematical proof.
Proofs are a specialised form of communication used by mathematicians. There are some formal
proofs in this text and more can be found on the accompanying CD. However, when you read
these, it is important to realise that before mathematicians were able to write the proofs in the
concise way they are presented, the same process of convincing themselves, a colleague and finally
a sceptic would have taken place with successive refinements of the language - both English and
mathematics.

EXERCISE 1G.2
1 In the Patterns problem, you made a conjecture about the rule for finding the number of
matchsticks in the nth pattern. Justify (or prove) that your rule is correct.

INVESTIGATION 2

EVEN FUNCTIONS
An even function is defined as one for which h(x) = h(x) for all x.
In this task, you will investigate even functions. Here are some ideas to help you start.

What to do:
1 Show that the following are even functions:
a

f (x) = x2

2 Show that a + bx2 + cx4


choose for a, b and c?

1
x2
is an even function. Does it matter what values you
g(x) = x4

h(x) = x2

3 What is special about even functions? What do they look like? Try graphing the
functions in 1 to look for patterns. Consider the symmetry of the graphs.
4 Make some conjectures about even functions.
5 Justify your conjectures.
Write a report on your investigation. In this report, pay special attention to how you
communicate your ideas.

36

INTRODUCTION TO FUNCTIONS (Chapter 1)

GRAPHICS CALCULATOR ACTIVITY


Here are examples of some of the functions that you will be studying in this
course. Use your graphics calculator to sketch the graph of each function. You
may need to change the viewing window so you can see the important features of each function.
For each type of function, make one or more conjectures about its graph.
Function name

Equation

Some facts

quadratic

y = x2 3x + 10

after linear functions, the most common


function

cubic

y = x3 2x2 x 1

a cubic is a special case of a class of


functions called polynomials

polynomial

y = 0:1x(x 4)(x 1)(x + 3)

this polynomial is called a 4th degree


polynomial

periodic

y = 4 sin(2x)

note the repetitive nature of the graph


of this function

exponential

y = 2x

exponential functions are very common


in biology

logarithmic

y = log(2x)

look for the log button on your calculator

GRAPHING LINEAR FUNCTIONS

H
By hand, using pen and paper

Three methods are commonly used to graph a linear function by hand if you know the equation:
Method 1:
Method 2:
Method 3:

Constructing a table, and plotting points


Using the gradient and y-intercept
Using the x-intercept and y-intercept

Consider the linear function 3x + y 6 = 0.


Method 1:
Rearranging gives y = 3x + 6.
Construct a table
x
0
3x + 6

2
0

3
3

Plot points and draw the line passing through the points.
Note that only two points are needed to plot the graph of
a linear function, but we generally plot three points, as
this allows us to pick up any errors.

3
3

37

INTRODUCTION TO FUNCTIONS (Chapter 1)

Method 2:
Rearranging gives y = 3x + 6

) m = 3, c = 6.

On a Cartesian plane first plot the y-intercept at (0, 6).


Now write the gradient as a fraction, i.e.,

3
rise
=
run
1

For every 1 unit horizontally, the line must fall 3 units


vertically.

In this case the graph passes through (0, 6), (1, 3), (2, 0),
etc. Draw a line through these points.
y

Method 3:
Two points are enough information to draw the straight line.
The x and y intercepts can be easily determined for the graph
of 3x + y 6 = 0.

For the x-intercept, y = 0, so 3x 6 = 0


x=2

For the y-intercept, x = 0, so y 6 = 0


y=6

On a Cartesian plane, plot the x-intercept at (2, 0) and the


y-intercept at (6, 0) and draw a line passing through them.
Using a graphics calculator
Before a graphics calculator can be used, the equation must
be expressed in the form y = mx + c. In this case plot the
equation y = 3x + 6:

EXERCISE 1H
1 Sketch these graphs by constructing a table, and plotting points. Check using a graphics
calculator.
a y = 3x + 1
b y = 5 3x
c y = 100x + 60
d y = 5 000 000x 2 000 000 e y = 0:03x + 1
f y=0
2 Sketch these graphs using the y-intercept and gradient.
a y =x3
b y = 12 x 1
d y = 40 000 5000x
e y = 0:006x + 0:002
3 Sketch these graphs using the two-intercept method.
a 2x + 3y = 12
b x 3y = 6
d 2x + y 8 = 0
e 12 x 2y = 1

c
f

y = 1000 2x
y = 0:007x + 0:002

c
f

x 5y = 3
1
1
3x 4y = 4

38

INTRODUCTION TO FUNCTIONS (Chapter 1)

4 For each of the following, construct the graph using the pen and paper method of your choice.
Check your graph using a graphics calculator.
a
y=x
b 2x y + 4 = 0
c y = 2
d

3x + 4y = 5

x+2=0

2x 4y
= 2
3
y = 15 000 3500x

k
n

y+2=0

4(2x + 3y) = 1

x=0

1
1
5x 3y

y = 0:02x + 9

y = 0:006x

2x 3y = 0
1
2
3x 3y

=0

=1

DIRECT VARIATION

I
Consider the table on the right, which gives data on
heights and shadow lengths of a group of people at
a particular time of day. In each case the length of
the shadow is half the height, so we can say shadow
length is proportional to height (in this case, the
proportion is one-half).

Person
Abby
Belinda
Cal
Dawn

Height (m)
1:6
1:5
2:1
1:3

Shadow (m)
0:8
0:75
1:05
0:65

If

h = the height of a person, and


s = the length of the shadow,
we write s / h which we say as
s is proportional to h or s varies directly as h.
We refer to such proportionality as direct variation.

If we plot height on the x-axis and shadow length on


the y-axis, we see that the points lie in a straight line
that passes through the origin.
We know that such a line has an equation of the form y = mx.
For this example, m =

1
2

so the equation is s = 12 h.

The factor 12 is called the constant of proportionality, and for direct variation is usually denoted
by the letter k.
If a variable y is proportional to x, we write y / x or y = kx, k 6= 0 where k
is called the constant of proportionality. The graph of this relation is a straight line
that passes through the origin, with gradient k.
Note that if y = kx then solving for k gives k =

y
.
x

EXAMPLE 1.12
The cost of buying stamps is directly proportional to the number of stamps purchased.
Complete the table.

Number of stamps
Cost

5
$2:75

12

$9:90

INTRODUCTION TO FUNCTIONS (Chapter 1)

The constant of proportionality k =

y
x

But, when x = 5, y = 2:75,

and so
If x = 12, y= 0:55 12
= 6:6
If y = 9:9 then
)
)

2:75
= 0:55
5
y = 0:55x

k=

Therefore, 12 stamps cost $6:60.

9:9 = 0:55 x
x = 9:9 0:55
x = 18

The completed table is

39

Therefore $9:90 buys 18 stamps.

Number of stamps
Cost

5
$2:75

12
$6:60

18
$9:90

EXERCISE 1I.1
1 Each of these situations below is an example of direct variation. For each:
i What is the independent variable?
ii What is the dependent variable?
iii Is the independent variable discrete or continuous?
iv Find the constant of proportionality.
v Write the relation between the variables in the form /.
vi Write the equivalent linear equation.
a James sells roses at the market. Each rose costs $1:50. Find his earnings if he sells n
flowers.
b Sara uses railway sleepers to edge her garden. Each sleeper is 1:8 metres long. Find the
total length of garden edging if Sara has n sleepers.
c Each millilitre of brandy contains 0:17 millilitres of alcohol. Find the amount of alcohol
in a drink that contains n millilitres of brandy.
2 The
a
b
c

circumference of a circle varies directly as the diameter.


Write the relation between the variables in the form /.
What is the constant of proportionality?
Write the equation in the form y = kx:

3 In the following, does one variable vary directly as the other?


a
b
x 2 4
6
x 1 5 9
y 4 16 36
y 3 5 7
d

x
y

0:01
0:06

0:04
0:24

0:05
0:30

1
4

3
4

3
2

x
y

2
6

x
y

0:3
2

4
12
1:2
8

8
24
1:5
10

40

INTRODUCTION TO FUNCTIONS (Chapter 1)

4 A spring is hung from a hook. The amount


the spring stretches is directly proportional
to the weight attached to the spring. Complete the table.

Weight (g)
Stretch (mm)

600
108

stretch

950
126

5 The resistance R, of a copper wire, varies directly as its length L.


a Write this as an equation, using k as the constant of proportionality.
b If R = 516 when L = 3, find the value of k.
6 In defining direct variation, we wrote:
If a variable y is proportional to x, we write y = kx, k 6= 0.
Why did we add the restriction, k 6= 0?
7 As well as answering true or false, justify your answer for each question below.
a
b
c
d

True or False:
True or False:
True or False:
True or False:

the diagonal of a square is proportional to its side length.


the area of a square is proportional to its side length.
the volume of a cube is proportional to the length of its edge.
the perimeter of any regular polygon varies directly as the length of the
side.

e True or False: the volume of a cylinder varies directly as its height.


f True or False: the volume of a cylinder varies directly as its radius.
8 Give a real life example of direct variation where k is negative.
What is the physical interpretation of k being negative?

EXERCISE 1I.2
1 The cost of hiring a car from Rent-a-Total-Wreck
is $20 a day plus 25c per kilometre. I decide to
rent a car for just one day, to drive around Central
Queensland and see the sights. I will drive for no
more than 6 hours at an average speed of 80 km
per hour. I am interested in the cost of renting the
car based upon the distance driven.
a Are the variables cost and distance driven
discrete or continuous variables?
Explain your answer.
b What is the independent variable? The dependent variable?
c Draw up a table showing the cost of renting a car for a day, based on how far I drive.
d What is the domain?
e What is the range?
f Draw a graph from this table.
g What is the value of the y-intercept?
h What does the y-intercept represent in this application?

INTRODUCTION TO FUNCTIONS (Chapter 1)

41

i Calculate the gradient. What are the units of the gradient?


j What does the gradient represent in this application?
k Find the equation that relates distance driven and cost.
2 The given graph indicates the total daily cost,
Instrument manufacturing costs
in dollars, to a factory manufacturing sciencost ($) C
tific instruments. With the present facilities
and staffing, the factory has a maximum ca2000
pability of 120 instruments per day. Use the
graph to answer the following questions.
a Are the variables total daily cost C and
1000
number of instruments manufactured I
discrete or continuous? Explain.
b Which is the independent variable?
I
The dependent variable? Explain your
30
60
90
120
choice.
number of instruments
c What are the domain and range of this
relation?
d What is the value of the y-intercept and what does it represent in this application?
e By choosing points on the graph, calculate the gradient.
f What does the gradient represent in this application?
g Find the equation relating the total cost and number of instruments produced.
3 Assume that the relationship between oven temperature and the time it takes to heat an oven
to a given temperature is a linear relationship. It takes 7 minutes and 20 seconds to preheat
to 180 degrees Celsius. It takes 10 minutes and 45 seconds to preheat to 250 degrees Celsius.
a What is the independent variable, and what is the dependent variable?
b Find a linear equation that relates these two variables.
c Hence find the initial temperature of the oven before preheating.
d In your opinion, how realistic is the assumption that the relationship is linear?
4 Since the beginning of March, a local reservoir has been losing water at a constant rate. The
Water Resources Department estimate that on 12th March, the reservoir held 200 million kL
of water, and on the 21st March it held 164 million kL.

Determine a linear equation relating Q, the volume of water remaining (in millions of kL),
and n, the number of days since the beginning of March (when the reservoir was full). Hence
find the maximum capacity of the reservoir.
5 Copy and complete this table for the function y =

x
y

1
30 x(39

10x2 + x4 ).

Plot the points on a number plane. What do you think the graph of this function looks like?
Use a graphing calculator to check your answer.
6 A recipe book suggests that the time required to cook a chicken is 20 minutes plus 25 minutes
for each kilogram of chicken.
a Represent this rule as a table, graph, and equation.
b How long does it take to cook a chicken that weighs 1.8 kg?
c The time required to cook a chicken is 1 hour. What does it weigh?

42

INTRODUCTION TO FUNCTIONS (Chapter 1)

MODELLING
1 Your friend is considering connection to the internet. He needs to decide
between two monthly plans offered by the Internet Service Provider and has
asked you for advice. Here are the two plans:
Easy User Plan:
$10 per month, plus $1.50 per hour
Heavy User Plan: $20 per month, plus $0:80 per hour.

Use mathematics to gain a deeper understanding of this situation. Develop a mathematical


model by working through the mathematical modelling steps. Use your model to help
you advise your friend.

2 After driving for 12 000 km, Jenny found the tread depth on her tyres to be 14 mm. After
driving a further 11 000 km, she checked her tread depth again and found it to be 10 mm.
Tyres are illegal once the tread depth reaches 4 mm. Pose a specific question concerning
this information. Develop a mathematical model to explore this situation further.
3 The table shows the cost involved in the
Number of items
5
15
25
production of an item. Use this table to
Cost
875 1025 1175
determine the cost of producing 28 items.
Take particular care to consider assumptions you are making. Evaluate the suitability of
your model.
4 In Australia we use the Celsius temperature scale, with the freezing point of water being
0o C and the boiling point being 100o C. In the USA the Fahrenheit scale is used, with
the freezing point of water being 32o F and the boiling point being 212o F.
Given that the formula for converting from one scale to the other is a linear equation,
find the formula for converting degrees Celsius to degrees Fahrenheit.

Solution to matchstick pattern problem


Pattern number
Number of matchsticks

1
1

2
3

3
5

4
7

5
9

...

a 10th pattern needs 19 matchsticks; 1000th pattern needs 1999 matchsticks.


b Number of matchsticks = 2 Pattern number 1.
c

The pattern in c is
which simplifies to
Therefore

Number of matchsticks = 1 + 2 (Pattern Number 1)


Number of matchsticks = 1 + 2 (Pattern Number 2)
Number of matchsticks = 2 Pattern Number 1

This agrees with our rule in b .

INTRODUCTION TO FUNCTIONS (Chapter 1)

43

PROBLEM SOLVING

EXERCISE 1J
1 If h(x) = x3 , show that h(a) = h(a). Is this true for all functions,
or is x 3 special in some way? Write a report of your findings and justify your
answer to the problem posed.
2 Write the equations of five lines that pass through (2, 1).
3 A student wishes to plot the image of an arrow on graph paper, and has arrived at the
following intervals to plot.
y = x + 5 1 x 4
y=1
3x4
x=4
1y3
By plotting the intervals, show how she needs to correct the domain and/or range to
make the arrow symmetrical.
y

4 Find the three functions needed to draw


this arrow. The grid squares are one unit
on each side.

Warning: Do not forget that a function


has both a rule and a domain.

5 A factory worker earns $20 per hour for the first 8 hours in a day, and time and a
half after that (i.e., his overtime wage is $30 per hour). No worker is allowed to work
more than 12 hours in a day.
The function for total daily earnings for a worker who works between 0 and 8 hours a
day is given by E(t) = 20t, where t is the time in hours.
Find the equation for total daily earnings for a worker who works between 8 and 12
hours in a day.
y

6 A builder is constructing a series of horizontal tunnels


on a building site. He is using an unmanned drilling
machine which is pre-programmed with a series of
grid co-ordinates and linear equations. The grid laid
on top of the site plan is shown below.
The machine must start at the point (0, 2) and travel
along y = 2x + 2 to the point (1, y). It then turns
clockwise 90o and travels to the point (x, 1). Finally
it travels vertically to point B on the boundary.
What are the coordinates for point B?

(1' @)

(0' 2)

(!' 1)

x
B
Note: This diagram is not to scale.

Challenge!

7 Find the equation of a line which is parallel to the line y = 12 x 3, and where the
distance between the two parallel lines is 5 units. Note that the distance between two
parallel lines is measured perpendicular to the lines.

44

INTRODUCTION TO FUNCTIONS (Chapter 1)

WORDS YOU SHOULD KNOW


Cartesian plane
continuous variable
dependent variable
discrete variable
domain
function

gradient
independent variable
investigation
linear relation
mapping
mathematical model
ordered pairs

problem solving
range
relation
variable
whole numbers
y-intercept

CHAPTER 1 REVISION SET


1

a Which of the following variables are discrete and which are continuous?
i the batting average of Steve Waugh
ii the number of participants in the Sydney Olympics
iii the mean annual rainfall for Brisbane in millimetres
iv the altitude of a communications satellite in kilometres
b Fill in the blanks below:
i The domain is the set of values of the ...... variable.
ii The range is the set of values of the ...... variable.

a Find the equation of the straight lines through each of the following pairs of points.
i (0, 2) and (4, 3)
ii (1, 3) and (2, 3)
b Determine whether the following sets of points are collinear or not.
i (0, 2), (12, 5) and (4, 3) ii (1, 3), (5, 7) and (2, 3).

a Find the gradient of the line whose equation is 2x + 3y + 4 = 0:


b Find the gradient of the line which is perpendicular to the line whose equation is
3y = 6x 5.

4 You have $100 in your money box and decide to save by putting $30 per fortnight into the
box. Find an expression for the amount s in dollars in your account after saving for 2n
weeks. Is the independent variable discrete? What is the range of the independent variable if
you save for exactly two years?
5

a Show that the three straight lines have the same y-intercept.
y+2
=2
i
ii y = 2x 8
iii 3y + 6x + 24 = 0
x3
b By evaluating the gradients and intercepts of these lines show that they do not intersect
in a common point.
i 2y = 3x + 6
ii y = 1:5x + 4
iii y = x 1

a Which of these equations has a graph which is a straight line?


1
1
=
i y = 2x 7
ii
iii y = x2
x
y

iv

y=

1
x+3

b A family of straight lines has equation y = 3x + c. When the graphs of these straight
lines are drawn for different values of c, what geometric property is observed?

INTRODUCTION TO FUNCTIONS (Chapter 1)

45

a You have to pay the local council a service fee of $25 for the water supply and 80 cents
per kilolitre of water used. Does the amount of water you pay for vary directly with the
amount used? Justify your answer.
b If you travel d kilometres for t hours at a constant speed v kilometres per hour, what
equation relates d, t and v? Do any of these variables vary directly with any of the other
two variables.

CHAPTER 1 TEST (KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES)


1 Find the gradient of each of the following lines:
a a line that passes through the origin and the point (2, 2)
b a line perpendicular to the line y = 12 x + 3
2 Find the equation of each of the following lines:
a the vertical line that passes through the point (2, 3)
b the line that passes through the points (2, 3) and (4, 1)
3 Show that the points (3, 5), (5, 1), (1, 2) and (3, 2) are the vertices of a rectangle.
4 A bamboo shoot is replanted when it reaches a height of 20 centimetres. For the next
7 days it grows 1.5 centimetres per day.
a The two variables are height, and days since re-planting. Which is the
independent variable and which is the dependent variable?
b Represent this function:
i as a table
ii as a mapping
iii as a graph
c State the domain. State the range.
d Is this function discrete or continuous? Briefly explain your answer.
e What is the value of the y-intercept?
f What does the y-intercept represent in this situation?
g Calculate the gradient.
h What are the units of the gradient, and hence what does the gradient represent
in this situation?
i Find the equation of this function.
5 Bill has $600, is saving nothing, and is spending $20 a week on his new girl friend,
Amber. His sister Sue only has only $100, but saves an additional $30 a week.
When will Sue have twice as much money as Bill?

46

INTRODUCTION TO FUNCTIONS (Chapter 1)

EXTENDED MODELLING ACTIVITY


1 Linear Models

You have learned how to model life-related


situations with linear models. In the figure
alongside are the graphs of six linear models associated with six different applications.
Match each graph with its appropriate application. Note that specific values of gradients and
y-intercepts are not needed for this activity.
a This graph models the number of hours
of life left in a photocopier after a given
number of hours of use.

A
F

B
C
D
E

b This graph models the cost of manufacturing a hose as a function of its length.
Assume the cost of fittings on the ends of the hose is fixed, and does not
depend on the hose length.
c This graph models the cost of producing a hose similar to that in b , except
this hose is of a higher quality than that used in b .
d This graph models the cost of producing a given length of hose of the same
quality as that in b , but without the fittings.
e This graph models the cost of a quantity of potatoes as a function of the weight
of the potatoes.
f This graph models the cost of a quantity of a less expensive variety of potatoes
as a function of the weight of the potatoes.
2 Space Junk

A problem confronting the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)


is the accumulation of space junk in orbit. The space junk is man-made, and
consists of discarded stages of rockets, assorted bits of rockets and satellites (for
example, from collisions with other space objects) and many small particles.
In 1990, rocket scientists estimated that a total of 1:8 million kilograms of space
junk was in orbit. They also estimated that the amount of junk added in 1991 would
be 0:8 million kilograms, and that would rise to 1:2 million kilograms of space junk
being added in 2000.
Assume that the increase in the amount of space junk added per year follows a
linear model, i.e., the weight of the space junk goes up by a constant amount each
year.
a Find the linear model to predict the weight of space junk in the year t, if t = 0
in 1990.
b Using this model, what will be the total weight of space junk in 2005?
c In what year does this model predict that there will be 5 million kilograms of
space junk?

CHAPTER

Quadratic
functions

SUBJECT MATTER
l
l

practical applications of quadratic functions


relationships between the graph of f(x) and the
graphs of f(x)+a, f(x+a) and af(x) for both
positive and negative values of the constant a
the absolute value function

48

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (Chapter 2)

HISTORICAL NOTE

Over 400 years ago, Galileo conducted


a series of experiments on the paths of
projectiles, attempting to find a mathematical description of falling bodies.
Two of Galileos experiments consisted of rolling a ball
down a grooved ramp that was placed at a fixed height
above the floor and inclined at a fixed angle to the horizontal. In one experiment the ball left the end of the
ramp and descended to the floor.
In a related experiment a horizontal shelf was placed at
the end of the ramp, and the ball would travel along
this shelf before descending to the floor.
In each experiment Galileo altered the release height
(h) of the ball and measured the distance (d) the ball
travelled before landing.
The units of measurement were called punti.

A A MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF A CHOOK PEN


Farmer Brown wishes to construct a rectangular chook
pen, using her barn for one of the sides. The other three
sides will be constructed out of 80 m of chicken wire.
(See the diagram)
She can make the pen long and thin, or short and fat, or
any rectangular shape in between, as long as she uses
exactly 80 m of chicken wire. She is keen to know
which rectangular shape will give her the maximum area.

barn

chook
pen
80 -2x

We can create a mathematical model for this problem. In Chapter 1, we looked at the steps
involved in developing the model.
Step 1:

Step 2:
Step 3:

Identify the situation.


What would be a well-defined question which would indicate exactly what Farmer
Brown wants to know?
Simplify the situation.
List the key features and relationships of this situation. Mark those we will ignore.
Build the model.

Let x represent the width of the chook pen. As there are two sides, each x metres long, and the
total length of chicken wire is 80 metres, then the length of the pen, L, is given by L = 80 2x.

49

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (Chapter 2)

The area of a rectangle is given by A = width length. For this problem


Expanding gives

A = x(80 2x)
A = 80x 2x

........ (1)

........ (2)

This is an example of a quadratic function.


Equation (1) is in factorised form while equation (2) is in expanded form.
From the equation, we
can make a table:

width (x)
area (A)

0
0

5
350

10
600

15
750

Draw a graph, by plotting the points and joining them


with a smooth curve.
Step 4:
Evaluate the model.
From either the graph or the table, note the following:
The maximum area is 800 m2 , and is obtained
by making the width of the pen, x = 20 m.
Both the table and the graph are symmetric
about this value.

20
800

800

25
750

30
600

35
350

40
0

10

20

30

40

600

400
200

Substituting into the formula for length: L = 80 2x


= 80 2 20
= 40
The pen should be constructed with a width of 20 m and a length of 40 m, to give a maximum
area of 800 m2 .
This makes sense in terms of the original situation. The model could be revised to include other
features, for example, adding a door, having a middle dividing fence, and so on. But the model is
sufficient for our purposes for now.

REVIEW OF TERMINOLOGY
axis of symmetry

The equation of a quadratic function is given by


y = ax2 + bx + c, where a 6= 0.
The graph of a quadratic function is called a parabola.
The point where the graph turns is called the vertex.
If the graph opens upward, the y-coordinate of the vertex
is the minimum, while if the graph opens downward, the
y-coordinate of the vertex is the maximum.
The vertical line that passes through the vertex is called
the axis of symmetry.
All parabolas are symmetrical about the axis of symmetry.
The point where the graph crosses the y-axis is the
y-intercept.

parabola

zero
y-intercept
minimum
vertex

The points where the graph crosses the x-axis (if they exist) should be called the x-intercepts, but
more commonly are called the zeros of the function.

50

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (Chapter 2)

SURDS

Before we continue our study of quadratic functions, we need to revise surds, as they will occur
often in this chapter.
p
Surds are expressions of the form a, where a is a rational number that is not a perfect square.
q
q
p
p
3
3
For example, 2 and
are
examples
of
surds.
Note
that
2
and
4
4 are both irrational
numbers.
An irrational number
p written in decimal form will never terminate and never repeat. Here are the
first 12 digits of 2:
p
2 1.41421356237
p
It is much simpler to label the place on the number line as 2 than give its decimal approximation.

OPERATIONS ON SURDS
In order to work with surds we need to understand their properties. Can we add, subtract, multiply
and divide surds? We will try these operations on some surds and examine the results.

INVESTIGATION 1

SURD OPERATIONS
Use a calculator to test which of the following are true:
p
p
p
p
12 + 3 = 12 + 3 = 15 ?
p
p
p
p
12 3 = 12 3 = 9 ?
p
p
p
p
12 3 = 12 3 = 36 ?
r
p
p
12
12
p
= 4 = 2
=
3
3

From the above investigation it appears that we can multiply and divide surds by simply multiplying and dividing the numbers under the radical, but we get a wrong answer when we add or subtract the numbers under the radical. We have not proven that we can multiply and divide surds. We
have only demonstrated that these operations hold for a particular group of numbers.
The rules that we have demonstrated are:
For any non-negative real numbers a and b,
p
p
p
a b = ab
r
p
a
a
p =
b
b
p
p
p
p
p
p
We have also shown that in general,
a + b 6= a + b and
a b 6= a b.

Here we have proven that in general we cannot add or subtract surds, at least by merely adding or
subtracting the numbers under the radical sign. A single counter-example is sufficient to prove
that we cannot add or subtract surds using this method.

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (Chapter 2)

EXAMPLE 2.1
Carry out the given operations.
p
p
p
p
a
2 18
b
3 6
p
p
p
24
p
e
36 2
f
6
a

p
p
2 18
p
= 36
=6
p
p
3 6
p
= 36
p
= 18
p
p
6 6
p
= 66
p
= 36
=6
p
p
p
2 5 10
p
= 2 5 10
p
= 100
= 10
p
p
36 2
p
= 36 2
p
= 18
p
24
p
6
r
24
=
6
p
= 4
=2
p
5
p
20
r
5
=
20
r
1
=
4
=

1
2

c
g

p
p
6 6
p
5
p
20

p
p
p
2 5 10

fSince 36 is a square number, we can simplify

p
36g

p
f 18 is an irrational number, and hence cannot be written
without the radical sign.g

fIn general

p
p
a a = a. This is a very useful fact.g

fWe can easily multiply three surds, or more.g

fDivision of surds is best written as a fraction.g

fYou need to know the square roots of common fractions.g

51

52

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (Chapter 2)

SIMPLIFYING SURDS
p
p
p
p
Use your calculator to confirm that p 72, 2 18, 3 8 and 6 2 are all the same number,
written in different form. Of these, 6 2 is said to be in simplest form, as it has the smallest value
under the radical.
p
p
p
a b = a b to simplify surds.
We can use the fact that
p
p
For example, 72 can be expressed as 6 2 as follows:
p
72
p
= 36 2
p
p
= 36 2
p
=6 2
To simplify a surd, write the surd as the product of two factors, where the first factor is the largest
perfect square that is a factor of the number.
In this example, 72 can be factorised as 72 1, 36 2, 24 3, 18 4, 12 6 and 9 8.

The largest factor of 72 that is a perfect square is 36, so we express 72 as 36 2. Then follow the
above steps to complete the process.

EXAMPLE 2.2
p
a
120

Simplify:

p
144

p
42

p
5 48

r
e

49
64

a The factors of 120 are 120 1, 60 2, 40 3, 30 4, 24 5, 20 6, 15 8 and


12 10. The largest factor that is a perfect square is 4.
p
So,
120
p
p
= 4 30
p
= 2 30
p
p
b
144 is a perfect square, so
144 = 12.
p
c 42 has no factors that are perfect squares (other than 1), so 42 is in simplest form.
d The factors of 48 are 48 1, 24 2, 16 3. We do not need to find any
more factors, as we have found that 16 is the largest factor of 48 that is a perfect
square.
p
So,
5 48
p
= 5 16 3
p
p
= 5 16 3
p
=54 3
p
= 20 3
r
49
e
64
p
49
=p
64

7
8

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (Chapter 2)

53

EXAMPLE 2.3
Find all solutions to the equations: a x2 = 9

x=

p
9

p
x= 9

a x2 = 9 has two solutions, x = 3 and x = 3. Do not forget to include the


second solution.
p
b x = 9 has only one solution, x = 3. By convention, the root symbol is taken to
mean the positive root.
p
c The negative root is symbolised as x = 9 which simplifies to x = 3.

Note: The correct setting out for solving x2 = 9 is

x2 = 9

p
) x= 9
) x = 3
Or you could write x = 3 or x = 3 in the last line.

EXERCISE 2B.1
1 Simplify
p
a
28
p
e
32
p
i
98
2 Simplify
p
a
147
p
e 5 50
p
i 4 128
3 Simplify
q
1
a
9
e

p
0:01

b
f
j
b
f
j

b
f

4 Simplify
p
p
a
3 7
p
p
d 2 62 6
p
p
g 2 27 4 3
p
p
p
j
23 32 6
5 Simplify
p
32
p
a
8
p
50
p
e
8

p
8
p
40
p
64
p
81
p
2 a2
p
3 4
q

k
c
g
k

p
0:04

e
h
k

16
25

p
32
4
p
12
p
2

p
54
p
45
p
2 18

h
l

p
2 8
p
3 x2
p
f6
q

p
8
p
8
p
48
p
24

p
25

p
2:25

q
1 79
c
f
i
l

p
27
p
700
p
4 9
p
3 54
p
4 10 000 000
p
4 8c3

81
4

p
p
3 2
p
p
2 32
p
p
5 82 7
p
p
p
8 2 3 5 10

p
p
6 6
p
p
2 33 2
p
p
18 2
p
p
p
2 6 3 2 2 3

d
h

p
3 6
p
10
p
4a
p
a

54

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (Chapter 2)

p
p
3 15
p
p
2 10

p
a2
p
a3

p
6a
p
8a

p
x = 100

6 Find the value(s) of x in simplest form if


p
a x2 = 100
b x = 100
e
7

x2 = 1

x2 = 0

p
a Show that ( ab)2 = ab.
p p
b Show that ( a b)2 = ab.
c Use these results to show that

x2 = 4

p
81
p
16
p
x = 100
p
x= 4

p
p p
ab = a b.

ADDING AND SUBTRACTING LIKE SURDS


p
p
p
While we cannot add or subtract 12 + p
3 to get p15 (such surds are called unlike surds),
we can add and subtract like surds such as 3 and 2 3 as follows:
p
p
p
p
p
p
3 + 2 3 = 3 + ( 3 + 3) = 3 3.
p
p
p
p
p
p
a n + b n = (a + b) n and a n b n = (a b) n

In general,
The expression

p
p
p
p
p
12 can be simplified as 2 3, so we can add 12 + 3 if we simplify 12 first.
p
p
12 + 3
p
p
=2 3+ 3
p
=3 3

One of the reasons why we simplify surds is to be able to add them.

EXAMPLE 2.4
Add or subtract these surds, if possible.
p
p
p
p
a
6 + 24
b
8 50
a

p
p
6 + 24
p
p
= 6+2 6
p
=3 6
p
p
12 + 18
p
p
= 2 3+3 2

c
b

p
p
12 + 18

p
p
5 20 + 4 45

p
p
8 50
p
p
=2 25 2
p
= 3 2

fThese are not like surds, therefore they cannot be added.g


p
p
fThe answer in simplest form is 2 3 + 3 2.g

p
p
5 20 + 4 45
p
p
= 52 5 + 43 5
p
p
= 10 5 + 12 5
p
= 22 5

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (Chapter 2)

55

SURDS AND ALGEBRA


A common use of surds is to simplify algebraic expressions that contain surds.

EXAMPLE 2.5
If a > 0, simplify
p
a
a2

p
9a2

p
p
3 4a + 5 9a

p
3 2a
p
2 3a

a Since squaring and taking the square root are inverse operations, the above
p
expression simplifies to a.
a2 = a
So,
p
p
An alternative approach is
b
9a2
9a2
p
p
2
= 9a
= (3a)2
p p
2
= 3a
= 9 a
c

= 3a
p
p
3 4a + 5 9a
p
p
=3 4a + 5 9a
p p
p p
=3 4 a + 5 9 a
p
p
= 6 a + 15 a
p
= 21 a
p
3 2a
p
2 3a
p p 1
p
3 2 a
= p p 1
fDivide out the common factor of a.g
2 3 a
p
3 2
= p
2 3

EXERCISE 2B.2
1 Simplify mentally
p
p
a 2 3+5 3
p
p
d 3 25 2

2 Simplify
p
p
p
a
63 67 6
p
p
d ( 7 2 7)

3 Simplify
p
p
a
12 + 12
p
p
d 4 17 + 3 17
p
p
g
12 27

b
e
h

p
p
p
5 6+4 6+ 6
p
p
4 2 + 7 2
p
p
( 5 + 2 5)
p
p
p
3 2 2( 2 + 5 2)
p
p
4 3+5 3
p
p
3 + 48
p
p
3 2+ 8

c
f

c
f

c
f
i

p
p
2 43 4
p
p
5 3 2 3
p
p
(3 2 + 2 2)
p
p
p
p
62 6+3 64 6
p
p
p
5 2+2 29 2
p
p
8 + 50
p
p
p
1+ 2 3

56

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (Chapter 2)

p
p
3 12 3

4 Simplify
p
p
a
5 + 20
p
p
d a 2+a 3
p
p
g
c3 + 4 c
5 Simplify
p
p
a 3 a+2 a
p
d
81a2
r
m2
g
25
p
p
j
4xy 9xy
p
4a
p
m
a

b
e
h
b
e
h
k
n

p
p
4 27 + 2 12
p
p
2 72 + 3 32
p
p
5 18 2 32
p
p
d e d e2
p
4a
p
a4
r
1 c2
2 16
p
p
( a) ( a)
p
a2
a

c
f

c
f
i
l
o

p
p
p
5 24 5 6 2 54
p
p
3 a2 a
p
p
a2 + 3 a2

p
4b2
p
16b
p
p
abc abc
p p p p
b b b b
p
ab
p
a

RATIONALISING THE DENOMINATOR


When studying trigonometry in your Year 10 mathematics class, you may have learned that
p
1
2
o
o
sin 45 = p or you may have learned that sin 45 =
.
2
2
Confirm using your calculator that these expressions are equivalent.
p
2
It is useful to be able to change from one form to the other. The expression
is said to have a
2
1
rational denominator, while p has an irrational denominator.
2
p
2
1
is called rationalising the denominator.
Changing from p to
2
2
This was anpimportant skill in the pre-calculator era, since dividing by 2 was much easier than
dividing by 2. Rationalising the denominator is still useful when working with exact values.
p
2
1
For example, multiply p by 1 where 1 is written as p .
2
2
1
p
2

p
2
1
=p p
2
2
p
1 2
p
=p
2 2
p
2
=
2

p
2
fas 1 = p g
2

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (Chapter 2)

In general,

to rationalise

a
p , multiply by
b

p
b
p
b

p
b
a
=p p
b
b
p
a b
p
=p
b b
p
a b
=
b

a
p
b

as follows:
p
b
fas 1 = p g
b

EXAMPLE 2.6
Rationalise the denominator.
2
a p
b
5
a

2
p
5

p
2
5
=p p
5
5
p
2 5
p
=p
5 5
p
2 5
=
5
b

3
p
3

p
3
3
p
p
=
3
3
p
3 3
p
=p
3 3
p
3 3
=
3
p
= 3
c

2
p
3 3
p
2
3
= p p
3 3
3
p
2 3
=
33
p
2 3
=
9

3
p
3

2
p
3 3

p
3 2
p
2 3

p
5
fWe multiply by 1 in the form p .g
5

fas

p
p
a a = ag

p
3
fWe multiply by 1 in the form p .g
3

fas

p
p
a a = ag

p
p
3
3 3
fWe only need multiply by p , not by p :g
3
3 3
fas

p
p
a a = ag

57

58

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (Chapter 2)

p
3 2
p
2 3
p
p
3
3 2
= p p
2 3
3
p
3 6
=
23
p
6
=
2

p
3
fWe multiply by 1 in the form p .g
3
fas

p
p
a a = ag

EXERCISE 2B.3
1 Rationalise the denominator. Simplify where possible.
a
e
i

3
p
6
p
7
p
3

1
p
3

5
p
2
p
3
p
6
p
3
p
4

1
p
2

p
12
p
3

6
p
6

3
p
3

6
p
3

3
p
15

2
p
3 3

2 Express with a rational denominator. Simplify where possible.


p
p
p
2 5
4 6
3 2
p
p
p
a
b
c
3
5
3
p
p
2 18
6
1+ 2
p
p
p
e
f
g
3 2
5 2
6
p
p
p
3 12
5 3
6 2
p
p
p
i
j
k
3
27
2

h
l

3 Rationalise the denominator. Simplify where possible.


a

1
p
a

2b
p
b

2
p
c

3c
p
3c

a
p
a
p
2a
p
3a

p
3+2 5
p
10
p p
6 2
p
8

p
a b
p
b a

b
p
a b

REVIEW OF QUADRATIC EXPRESSIONS

EXPANDING BINOMIALS
Recall that

(a + b)(c + d)
= a(c + d) + b(c + d)
= ac + ad + bc + bd

(a + b)(a b)
= a2 ab + ab b2
= a2 b2

(a + b)2
= (a + b)(a + b)
= a2 + ab + ab + b2
= a2 + 2ab + b2

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (Chapter 2)

Note:

59

a2 b2 is called the difference of two squares


(a + b)2 is called a perfect square

EXAMPLE 2.7
Expand
a

a (2x + 2)(x 3)

(2x + 2)(x 3)
= 2x(x 3) + 2(x 3)
= 2x2 6x + 2x 6
= 2x2 4x 6

(4x + 3)(4x 3)

(4x 3)2

fexpand the first factorg


fexpand each termg
fcollect like termsg

b We can expand as above, and get the answer 16x2 9.

But

(4x + 3)(4x 3)
= (4x)2 32
fdifference of two squares with a = 4x and b = 3g
2
= 16x 9

This is an example of an identity, a statement that is true for all values of a and b. We
suggest you expand the left-hand side (LHS) of this identity, and verify that it is true.
c We can expand by first writing the expression as (4x 3)(4x 3) and expanding
as usual. But we are better treating this as the expansion of a perfect square.
So, we have:

(4x 3)2
= (4x)2 + 2(4x)(3) + (3)2
= 16x2 24x + 9

fperfect square with a = 4x and b = 3g

EXERCISE 2C.1
1 Expand and simplify
a (x + 1)(x + 2)
d (r 3)(r + 6)
g (a 3)(a 3)

b
e
h

(y + 3)(y + 8)
(c 2)(c + 5)
(z + 5)(z 5)

c
f
i

(t + 3)(t 2)
(x 4)(x 2)
(k + 1)(k + 1)

2 Expand and simplify


a (x + 3)(x + 2)
d (2x + 3)(x 2)
g (9 x)(3 2x)
j 2(3x 1)(3x 1)

b
e
h
k

(x + 1)(x 6)
(3x 9)(2x 5)
(x a)(x + a)
(x + 5)2

c
f
i
l

(x 9)(x 11)
(x + 9)(2x 3)
(2x 2a)(3x 4a)
(x + 1)2 (x 3)

3 Expand using (a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2 .


a
e
i

(x + 2)2
(5x 7)2
(3y 2x)2

b
f
j

(3x 2)2
(3 2x)2
(6x 12 )2

c
g
k

(9 x)2
(x + 1)2
(100x + 1)2

d
h
l

(2a 3x)2
(1 5x)2
(3 4x)2

60

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (Chapter 2)

4 Expand using (a + b)(a b) = a2 b2 .


a
d
g

b
e
h

(x + 9)(x 9)
(2x + a)(2x a)
( 12 x + 1)( 12 x 1)

5 Expand using the most efficient


a (3x + 1)(3x 1)
d (1 t)2
g 3(x 5)(x + 5)
j d(d + 1)(d 1)

(x + 6)(x 6)
(2x + 2a)(2x 2a)
(x + 1)(1 x)

method available.
b (3r + 5)2
e (r 13 )2
h (r + 3)2
k (3x 4)(4x 3)

c
f
i

(9 x)(9 + x)
2(3x 1)(3x + 1)
(10x 3)(10x + 3)

c
f
i
l

(2x 4)(2x + 3)
(5 r)(3 + r)
(t + 4)(t 2)
(t + 1)(t 1)(t2 1)

FACTORISING QUADRATIC EXPRESSIONS OF THE FORM x2 + bx + c

EXAMPLE 2.8
Factorise the expression x2 x 12.
If it can be factorised easily, the answer is of the form (x + m)(x + n). How do we find the
two numbers m and n that give the correct factorisation? Here is a foolproof method.
Ask yourself, What two numbers multiply to give 12 (the constant term) and add to give
1 (the coefficient of x)?. If the answer is not obvious, list the factors of 12 in pairs, and
test each pair.

Factors of 12

OK?

Factors of 12

OK?

12 1

11

6 2

12 1

11

4 3

6 2

4 3

So, the two numbers are 4 and 3. Hence, x2 x 12 = (x 4)(x + 3).


One of your goals in Mathematics B should be to become efficient at doing basic algebra. You
should practise this technique until you can factorise expressions such as this by inspection (i.e.,
mentally). You will save time and make fewer mistakes if you learn to do this.

FACTORISING QUADRATIC EXPRESSIONS WHERE a 6 = 1

EXAMPLE 2.9
Factorise 2x2 + 7x + 3.
As factorising is the reverse process of expanding, the steps for factorising should be
those for expanding, but in reverse order. The solution is:
2x2 + 7x + 3
= 2x2 + 6x + x + 3
= 2x(x + 3) + 1(x + 3)
= (x + 3)(2x + 1)

frewrite 7x as 6x + xg
ffactorise the terms, in pairsg
fthe common factor is (x + 3)g

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (Chapter 2)

61

The tricky step here is re-writing 7x as 6x + x in the second line of the setting out. If we
had chosen 4x + 3x, for example, we would not have been able to complete the question.
You may wish to confirm this for yourself.
Here is a method of factorising quadratic expressions of the form ax2 + bx + c, if the
expression can be factorised nicely:

Multiply the coefficient of x2 by the constant term. In the example above: 2 3 = 6.

Ask yourself, What two numbers multiply to give 6 and add to give 7?.
In general, for the quadratic expression ax2 + bx + c, the question is,
What two numbers multiply to give a c and add to give b?.

Try to do the calculations mentally. If you cannot, list the factors of 6 in pairs and test
each pair. The factors that multiply to give 6 and add to give 7 are 6 and 1.
Rewrite 2x2 + 7x + 3 as 2x2 + 6x + 1x + 3 and proceed as shown above.

EXAMPLE 2.10
Factorise 4x2 10x 24:
First take out the common factor of 2.

4x2 10x 24 = 2(2x2 5x 12).

Now factorise the quadratic factor. What multiplies to give 24 and adds to give 5?
By inspection, or by making a table, the numbers are 3 and 8.
2x2 5x 12
= 2x2 + 3x 8x 12
= x(2x + 3) 4(2x + 3)
= (2x + 3)(x 4)

frewrite 5x as 3x 8xg
ffactorise the terms, in pairsg
ftake out the common factor of (2x + 3)g

The complete factorisation is 4x2 10x 24 = 2(2x + 3)(x 4):

Note that it would be possible to factorise 2x2 + 3x 8x 12 as x(2x + 3) + 4(2x 3).


This is not wrong, but it is not useful. As there is no common factor, we cannot proceed to the
final step. The third line of setting out needs to contain a common factor, in this case (2x + 3), in
order to factorise the expression fully.

EXERCISE 2C.2
1 Factorise completely
a
x2 + 5x + 6
d
x2 + 11x + 18
g
x2 + 2x 24
j
x2 6x + 9
m x2 4x + 4
p
x2 + 5x 36
s
r2 14r 32
2 Factorise completely
a x2 + 2ax + a2

b
e
h
k
n
q
t
b

x2 + 7x + 10
x2 + 2x 15
x2 x 12
x2 7x + 6
x2 15x + 14
t2 8t + 15
h2 + 12h + 36

x2 2ax + a2

c
f
i
l
o
r
u

x2 + 0x 4

x2 + 8x + 15
x2 9x 22
x2 + 4x 21
x2 + 9x + 18
x2 x 42
t2 10t + 24
s2 11s 60
d

x2 25

62

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (Chapter 2)

3 Factorise completely
a
2x2 9x 5
d
3x2 4x 15
g
10x2 + 13x 3
j
16x2 + 10x + 1
m 2x3 3x2 2x
p
12x3 26x2 10x

b
e
h
k
n
q

3x2 + 8x 3
2x2 11x + 12
12x2 + 2x 2
2x2 7x + 6
2x2 + 2x 24
6r2 21r 45

c
f
i
l
o
r

4x2 + 4x + 1
6x2 + 5x 4
12x2 18x + 6
21x2 4x 1
18x2 + 15x 12
12r2 2r 2

FACTORISING EXPRESSIONS OF THE FORM a2 b2

EXAMPLE 2.11
Factorise 16x2 36.
16x2 36
= 4(4x2 9)
= 4((2x)2 32 )
= 4(2x + 3)(2x 3)

fAlways look for a common factor first.g


fWe note that the factor 4x2 9 is of the form a2 b2
where a = 2x and b = 3.g
fdifference of two squaresg

You can check this by expanding the right-hand side (RHS).

EXERCISE 2C.3
1 Factorise completely
a a 2 b2
d
g
j
m
p

x2 16

9x2 16

5x2 7

x2 100
x2

1
9

2 Factorise completely
a 2a2 32
d x4 y 4
g 1 x4
j d2 + 8d + 12
3 Factorise completely
a
5y 10
d
x2 121
g
3p2 12p + 9
j
x3 25x
m 2d2 + 13d 7

h
n

x2 16

c2 25

4x2 16

x2

1
4

x2 1

y 2 1600
4x2 25

[(2w)2 9]

16x2 16

3x2 16

b
e
h
k

a4 16
(x 1)2 + 2(x 1) + 1
x4 + 5x2 + 6
12t3 25t2 30t

c
f
i
l

(x + 2)2 9
12a2 75b2
4a2 9a + 2
2x 4

b
e
h
k
n

16 4t
x2 11x + 28
2c2 2
3n2 6n + 3
1 100x2

c
f
i
l
o

4t + 2r 6s
t2 + 6t 27
36 4x2
a4 b2
x2 5x 6

4x2 c2
1 2
4t

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (Chapter 2)

2x2 7x 15
where x 6= 5,
x5
and g(x) = 2x + 3 where x 6= 5, are different forms of the same function?

4 How many ways can you demonstrate that f(x) =

Expand and simplify

Use the results in a to factorise completely


i x3 + 27
ii x3 + 64
3
iv 2x 16
v a6 b6

ii

(a + b)(a2 ab + b2 )

(a b)(a2 + ab + b2 )
iii

8x3 + 1

FINDING THE VALUES OF A QUADRATIC FUNCTION


As you learned in Chapter 1, the value of a function is found by substituting and evaluating.

EXAMPLE 2.12
Find the value of the function f (x) = 2x2 5x 3 for
a x=0
b x=3
a
c

f (0) = 2(0)2 5(0) 3


= 3

x = 12

f (3) = 2(3)2 5(3) 3


=0

f ( 12 ) = 2( 12 )2 5( 12 ) 3
=0

Note: If x = 0, the value of the function is just the constant term, which is also the
y-intercept on the graph.
For both 3 and 12 , the value of the function is 0.

INVESTIGATION 2

A FASCINATING DISCOVERY
This email from a student was sent to a maths education mailing list:
Recently, my Maths teacher and I found an interesting thing. Take the equation
of f(x)=x2, a standard, vertical parabola. Now, choose a point on the right
side, where the x values are greater than zero. Then choose a point on the left
side. Now draw a line joining these two points and find its y-intercept. The yintercept value is the negative of the product of the original two x values you
picked previously! This works with any two points along the parabola. My
question is how exactly does this work?

a Could you please help the student by answering his question?


b There is also a neat relationship to be discovered about the gradient of the line that joins
the two given points. See if you can find it.
c

For the above relationship, is it necessary for the two points to be in different quadrants?

63

64

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (Chapter 2)

EXERCISE 2C.4
1 Given
a f (x) = x2 + 2x 3
b f (x) = x2 3x 10
c f (x) = 2x2 11x 6

find:
find:
find:

i
i
i

ii
ii
ii

f (1)
f (5)
f (6)

f(3)
f(2)
f( 12 )

iii
iii
iii

f (0)
f (0)
f (0)

iv
iv
iv

f (a)
f (a)
f (2a)

2 Does the given point lie on the graph of the function?


a (2, 1); f (x) = x2 2x + 1
b (2, 10); f (x) = 6 2x 3x2
3 Does the given point lie above, below or on the graph of the function?
a (2, 6); g(x) = x2 3x 6
b (1, 3); g(x) = (x 3)(2x 3)
4 For each function, give the coordinates of five points that lie on that function. Check with
your graphics calculator.
a y = 2x2 x + 3
b y = 5 x 4x2
c y = (x + 1)(x 3)

SOLVING QUADRATIC EQUATIONS

A major part of the Mathematics B course is solving equations.


There are four common methods of solving quadratic equations of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0:

graphically
completing the square

factorising
quadratic formula

SOLVING FOR THE ZEROS OF A QUADRATIC FUNCTION


BY GRAPHING

EXAMPLE 2.13
Solve 2x2 5x 3 = 0 by graphing the function.
Using a graphics calculator, draw the graph of
y = 2x2 5x 3.
To find where this function has a value of 0, we need to find
where it crosses the x-axis, since y = 0 on the x-axis. From
the graph, it appears the solutions are x = 3 and x = 12 .

Your graphics calculator will also have a zeros menu


choice. Use this to confirm the above solutions.

SOLVING FOR THE ZEROS OF A QUADRATIC FUNCTION


BY FACTORISING
Recall that
if ab = 0, then either a = 0 or b = 0, or both a = 0 and b = 0.

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (Chapter 2)

65

EXAMPLE 2.14
Solve 2x2 5x 3 = 0 by factorising.
(x 3)(2x + 1) = 0
) x 3 = 0 or 2x + 1 = 0
)

x = 3 or x = 12

ffactorise the LHS of the equationg


fsince ab = 0 implies a = 0 or b = 0g

fsolve these two equations by inspectiong

As a check on the algebra, you should substitute these values back into the equation.
If they are the zeros of the function, the value of the function will be 0.

EXAMPLE 2.15
Solve 4x2 16 = 0 by factorising.
4x2 16
) 4(x2 4)
4(x + 2)(x 2)
) x+2
) x

=
=
=
=
=

0
0
0
0 or x 2 = 0
2 or x = 2

falways factorise out the common factor firstg


fusing a2 b2 = (a + b)(a b)g
fif 4ab = 0 then a = 0 or b = 0g
fsolve the equations by inspectiong

EXERCISE 2D.1
1 Solve by graphing
a

2x2 5x + 2 = 0

x2 + x 5 = 0

x2 + 2x 3 = 0

x2 + 6x + 9 = 0

x2 11x + 24 = 0

x2 4x 12 = 0

3x2 8x 3 = 0

x2 x 6 = 0

2 Solve by factorising
a
d
g

x2 8x + 16 = 0

4x2 + 8x + 3 = 0

x2 25 = 0

2x2 + 7x 4 = 0

9x2 12x + 4 = 0

3 Solve by factorising
a
d
g

x2 1 = 0

4x2 25 = 0

x2 100 = 0

2x2 50 = 0

4x2 64 = 0

x2 4 = 0

2x2 18 = 0

81x2 1 = 0

4 Solve by factorising
a
d
g
j

x2 2x 15 = 0

x2 + 7x + 10 = 0

x2 + 2x 24 = 0

2x2 + 10x + 12 = 0

x2 36 = 0

x2 + 2ax + a2 = 0

x2 16 = 0

12x2 + 2x 2 = 0

3x2 5x 2 = 0
x2 + 2x 15 = 0
16x2 16 = 0

18x2 + 15x 12 = 0

66

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (Chapter 2)

COMPLETING THE SQUARE


If you try to solve x2 + 2x 2 = 0 by factorising, you will need to find two numbers that
multiply to give 2 and add to give 2. You will not be able to to do it! There are not any integer
or rational solutions. The solution, if it exists, must be irrational.
Using a graphics calculator, the graph of the function y = x2 + 2x 2 shows there are two
roots, and they are approximately equal to 2:7 and 0.73.

Completing the square allows us to find the exact values for the roots. The method is based on the
identity: (x + a)2 = x2 + 2ax + a2 .

EXAMPLE 2.16
What has to be added to x2 + 2x to complete the square, i.e., to make an expression that
can then be written in the form (x + a)2 ?
A geometric solution:
Let x represent an unknown length. Then x2 + 2x
represents the area of the rectangle.

Now I want to make this into a square. Suppose we cut


the x 2 rectangle in half, and re-arrange the pieces as
shown.

x2

2x

x2

We need to add a piece in the lower right corner to


complete the square.

The piece that has to be added is a square with dimensions


11=1unit 2. The area of the large square is (x+1) 2.

x2

An algebraic solution:
Recall that a perfect square of the form (x + a)2

can be expanded to x2 + 2ax + a2 .

Now x2 + 2x is of the form x2 + 2ax, where a = 1.


To complete the square we need to add a2 , which in this case is 12 (which is 1).
The completed square is x2 + 2x + 1, which can then be written in factorised form as (x + 1)2 .
Study the above example until you can see the link between the geometric approach and the
algebraic approach.

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (Chapter 2)

67

EXAMPLE 2.17
Find the number that must be added to complete the square, then complete the square for
a x2 + 4x

x2 + 13 x

a x2 + 4x is of the form x2 + 2ax

We add a2 to complete the square:

b x2 + 13 x is of the form x2 + 2ax

so 2a = 4 and )
hence a2 = 22 = 4

so 2a =

hence a2 =
We add a2 to complete the square:

and )

1
3

1 2
6

a=

1
6

a=

5
4

1
36

x2 + 2ax + a2
1
= x2 + 13 x + 36
= (x + 16 )2
so 2a =

c 2x2 + 5x = 2(x2 + 52 x)

a=2

x2 + 2ax + a2
= x2 + 4x + 4
= (x + 2)2

hence a2 =
We add a2 to complete the square:

2x2 + 5x

and )

5
2

5 2
4

25
16

2(x2 + 2ax + a2 )
= 2(x2 + 52 x + 25
16 )
= 2(x + 54 )2

To complete the square follow this pattern:

a is half of the coefficient of x.


To complete the square we add a2 .
The resulting square term is (x + a)2 .

FINDING THE ZEROS OF A QUADRATIC FUNCTION BY


COMPLETING THE SQUARE
If solutions exist to a quadratic equation, then the technique of completing the square will find them.

EXAMPLE 2.18
Solve x2 + 2x 2 = 0 by completing the square.
x2 + 2x 2 = 0
)

x2 + 2x = 2

x2 + 2x + 1 = 2 + 1

fTranspose the constant to the RHS, so the LHS


is of the form a2 + 2a.g
fAdd 1 to both sides, to complete the square,
since 1 = (half of the coefficient on x)2 .g

68

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (Chapter 2)

fWrite the LHS as a square.g

(x + 1)2 = 3
)

p
x+1 = 3

x = 1

p
fIf X 2 = A, then X = A.g

p
3

fSubtract 1 from both sides.g

By convention we write the square root term last.


These are pthe exact solutions.
p If you substitute either
x = 1 + 3 or x = 1 3 into y = x2 + 2x 2
and evaluate the RHS, the value of the function will be 0.
p
Using a calculator,
1 + 3 is approximately 0.732
p
while 1 3 is approximately 2:732, which are the
approximate solutions we find by graphing as shown alongside.

2
1
-3

-2

-1

-1

-2
-3

y = x 2 + 2x - 2

EXAMPLE 2.19
Solve 2x2 + x 4 = 0 by completing the square.
2x2 + x 4 = 0
) 2x2 + x = 4
)
)

x +

1
2x

fTranspose the constant to the RHS.g

fWe can only complete the square if the coefficient of x2 is 1, so we divide both sides by 2.g

=2

x2 + 12 x + ( 14 )2 = 2 + ( 14 )2
)

(x + 14 )2 = 2 +

(x + 14 )2 =

fComplete the square on the LHS.g

1
16

fWrite RHS as an improper fraction.g

33
16

q
= 33
16

x+

1
4

x+

1
4

x = 14

x=

fThe LHS was of the form x2 + 2ax where


a = 14 . So we add ( 14 )2 to both sides.g

p
33
4
p
33
4

p
1 33
4

So, x = 1:186 or 1:686

p
fIf P 2 = Q, then P = Q.g
r
p
a
a
fSimplify the surd using
= p .g
b
b
fSubtract

1
4

from both sides.g

fWrite as a single fraction.


These are the exact solutions.g
fThese are the approximate solutions.g

EXERCISE 2D.2
1 Write the following as perfect squares.
a x2 + 2x + 1
b g 2 + 6g + 9
d a2 + a + 14
e m2 10m + 25

c
f

x2 14x + 49
x2 + 200x + 1000

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (Chapter 2)

2 Copy and complete these statements.


a (x + 2)2 = x2 + 4x + ::::::
c

(x 4)2 = x2 8x + ::::::

x2 + 10x + :::::: = (x + ::::::)2

x2 + ::::::x + 36 = (x + ::::::)2

x2 5x + :::::: = (x ::::::)2

(x 3)2 = x2 6x + ::::::

x2 + 10x + :::::: = (x + 5)2


x2 6x + :::::: = (x + ::::::)2
x2 + 3x + :::::: = (x + ::::::)2

3 Copy and complete the following to make a perfect square:


a a2 + 6a + ::::: = (a + :::::)2
b x2 10x + ::::: = (x :::::)2
c
e

4 Find
a
e
i

x2 18x + ::::: = (x :::::)2


a2 7a + ::::: = (a :::::)2

the number that must be added to complete the square. Then complete the square on
x2 2x
b x2 + 6x
c x2 5x
d x2 + x
2
2
2
2x + 10x
f 3x 6x
g 2x x
h 3x2 4x
4x2 16x

5 Solve by completing the square.


a x2 2x 2 = 0
b
2
d x 5x + 4 = 0
e
6 Solve by completing the square.
a
d
g

d
f

y2 + ::::: + 36 = (y + :::::)2
y2 + 5y + ::::: = (y + :::::)2

x2 4x + 1 = 0
x2 + 3x 3 = 0
2x2 3x 3 = 0

b
e
h

7 Solve by completing the square.


a x2 6x 4 = 0
b
2
d x 3x + 1 = 0
e
2
g 2x 6x + 3 = 0
h

x2 6x + 9 = 0
2x2 5x 3 = 0

c
f

x2 7x + 10 = 0
6x2 11x + 3 = 0

x2 + 2x 5 = 0
x2 5x + 1 = 0
2x2 6x 8 = 0

c
f
i

x2 + 6x + 5 = 0
x2 x 3 = 0
3x2 + 14x 5 = 0

x2 2x 1 = 0
x2 + 5x 3 = 0
3x2 x 1 = 0

c
f
i

x2 8x + 10 = 0
t2 t 5 = 0
x2 12 x 2 = 0

8 The graph of f(x) = x2 +2x+3 is alongside. It shows that the function f(x) has no
zeros. What is the result when you complete
the square on x2 + 2x + 3 = 0?

FINDING THE ROOTS OF A QUADRATIC EQUATION BY


THE QUADRATIC FORMULA
The roots of the quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, a 6= 0 are
p
b b2 4ac
given by the quadratic formula:
x=
2a

69

70

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (Chapter 2)

The derivation of this formula follows. It is not required that you know this derivation. It is included
to show that the quadratic formula is found by completing the square on ax2 + bx + c = 0:
Show that the roots of the quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, a 6= 0 are given by the
p
b b2 4ac
quadratic formula: x =
.
2a
ax2 + bx + c = 0
) ax2 + bx = c

b
a(x2 + x) = c
a

)
)
)

b
c
(x2 + x) =
a
a

b
c
b2
b2
(x2 + x + 2 ) = + 2
a
4a
a 4a

fsubtract c from both sidesg


ftake out a factor of ag
fdivide both sides by ag
fcomplete the squareg

(x +

b 2
b2
c
) = 2
2a
4a
a

fwrite LHS as a perfect square; reorder RHSg

(x +

b2
4ac
b 2
) = 2 2
2a
4a
4a

fwrite RHS with a common denominatorg

(x +
)
)
)

b 2
b2 4ac
) =
2a
4a2
r
b2 4ac
b
=
x+
2a
4a2
p
b2 4ac
b
p
=
x+
2a
4a2
p
b
b2 4ac
x+
=
2a
2a
p
b b2 4ac
+
) x=
2a
2a
p
2
b b 4ac
) x=
2a

fwrite RHS as a single fractiong


ftake the square root of both sidesg
fsurd of a quotient equals the quotient of surdsg
fsimplify denominatorg
fsubtract

b
from both sides of the equationg
2a

fwrite the RHS as a single fractiong

EXAMPLE 2.20
Find the solutions to 3x2 + x 1 = 0 using the quadratic formula.
a = 3, b = 1 and c = 1
p
b b2 4ac
Now x =
2a
p
1 (1)2 4(3)(1)
) x =
2(3)
p
1 13
) x =
6

flist the values of a, b and cg


fthe quadratic formulag
fsubstitutingg

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (Chapter 2)

So, the exact solutions are

p
1 + 13
6

and

71

p
1 13
.
6

The approximate solutions are x = 0:434 and x = 0:768.


We now have four methods of finding the roots of a quadratic equation. Which one should you
use?
If a = 1 and the roots are integers, the method that is easiest, fastest and least prone to error is
factorising.
If integer factors do not exist, and an exact solution is desired, then either completing the square
or the quadratic formula can be used.
The graphics calculator can be used for finding the zeros of almost all of the functions studied in
this course, and not just quadratic functions. It has the drawback of not providing exact answers,
and not providing much understanding, either.

EXERCISE 2D.3
1 Solve
a
d
g
j
m

using the quadratic formula.


x2 x 6 = 0
b
2
x 4x + 1 = 0
e
2
x + 3x 3 = 0
h
2x2 3x 3 = 0
k
2
9x 6x + 1 = 0
n

x2 + 4x 5 = 0
x2 + 2x 5 = 0
x2 5x + 1 = 0
2x2 6x 8 = 0
15x2 + 2x 8 = 0

c
f
i
l
o

2x2 5x 3 = 0
x2 + 6x + 5 = 0
x2 x 3 = 0
3x2 + 14x 5 = 0
3x2 + x + 1 = 0

2 Write in the form ax2 + bx + c = 0, and then solve using any method you wish.
a

x(x + 9) = 8

x2 = 3(2x 3)

3 2
4x

x2 + x = 14

18 = x(9 x)

x+2=

x2 + x 6 = 0

2x2 + 7x + 3 = 0

14 x =

5
4

5
x+3

3 Solve each quadratic equation by


i graphing
ii factorising
iii completing the square
iv quadratic formula
a

x2 + 4x + 3 = 0

THE DISCRIMINANT
The quadratic formula for ax2 + bx + c = 0 gives two solutions,
x=

b +

p
b2 4ac
2a

and x =

p
b2 4ac
.
2a

These values are the zeros of the quadratic function, i.e., they are the x-coordinates of the points
where the graph crosses the x-axis.

72

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (Chapter 2)

Now consider the following functions and their graphs:


a

y
1
-3

-2

-1

-1

y = x + 4x + 4

30

4
3

-2

20

-3

y = x2 + 2x - 3

40

-4

1
-4

-3

-2

-1

10
x

-2

-1

y = 4 x2 + 4 x + 9
1

The first graph has two zeros, the second has only one, and the third one has no zeros. How can
we reconcile this with the fact that the quadratic formula always appears to give two solutions? Let
us investigate. Finding the zeros of the above functions using the quadratic formula gives:
p
p
p
2 16
4 0
1 8
a x=
b x=
c x=
2
2
2
) x = 1 or x = 3
) x = 2
The first result shows two real solutions.
b
The second has only one real solution, 2. Note that this solution is given by , as the square
2a
root term is zero.
The last result has no real solutions, as the expression includes the square root of a negative number.
(As Mathematics C students will learn, it does have two solutions. These are not real numbers, but
what are called complex numbers.)
So, the algebra and the graphs are in complete agreement!
From the examples, it should be clear that the key to determining the number of solutions to the
quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 is the nature of the expression under the square root, which
is b2 4ac.

This is called the discriminant, and is often symbolised by the Greek letter (pronounced delta).

The above examples should make it clear that,


if ax2 + bx + c = 0, and we write = b2 4ac then
< 0 indicates that there are no real roots
b
= 0 indicates that there is one real root, which is
2a
> 0 indicates that there are two real roots. If both a and b are rational numbers and
is a perfect square not equal to 0, then the square root term simplifies to
a positive integer, and the two roots are both rational numbers.

EXAMPLE 2.21
Decide if each of the following quadratic equations has zero, one or two real roots, by examining the discriminant. If there are two roots, decide if they are rational or irrational.
a

3x2 x 4 = 0

3x2 2x + 4 = 0

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (Chapter 2)

73

a = (1)2 4(3)(4) = 49
Since is positive and a perfect square, there are two rational roots.
b = (2)2 4(3)(4) = 44
Since is negative, there are no roots of this equation.

EXERCISE 2D.4
1 Find
a
d
g

the discriminant of each of these quadratic equations.


x2 + 8x + 1 = 0
b x2 x + 7 = 0
2x2 + 5x 4 = 0
e 12 x 3x2 = 0
2
x 10x + 21 = 0
h 9x2 18x + 9 = 0

c
f
i

t2 + t 45 = 0
4c2 12c + 9 = 0
3x2 + 5x + 3 = 0

2 Determine if each of the following quadratic equations has zero, one or two real roots, by
examining the discriminant. If there are two real roots, determine if they are rational or
irrational.
a x2 6x + 9 = 0
b 2x2 2x + 4 = 0
c 3 x x2 = 0
d x2 + x + 7 = 0
e 9x2 + 6x + 1 = 0
f 5 2x x2 = 0
g 16 5t2 = 0
h 2x2 6 = 0
i 8x 3x2 = 0

GRAPHING QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS

Just as there are a variety of methods of solving quadratic equations, there are a variety of methods
of graphing quadratic functions. One of these is using a graphics calculator.

EXAMPLE 2.22
Sketch the graph of f (x) = x2 + 2x + 15 on your graphics calculator.
If you are using the standard window on your graphics calculator, you will probably not
see the graph.
Here is why: f(x) = x2 + 2x + 15
= (x2 + 2x + 1) + 14
= (x + 1)2 + 14
The smallest value that (x + 1)2 can be is zero
(when x = 1) so the smallest value of f (x) is 14.
For most graphics calculators that use the standard window, this is larger than Ymax . The graph is above the
viewing window.
If you change Ymin to 13 and Ymax to 16, you should
see the graph. Adjust the values of Xmin and Xmax so
the graph nicely fills the screen. One possible graph is
shown alongside.

74

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (Chapter 2)

The other methods that you should know are


graphing quadratic functions by making a table of values
graphing quadratic functions by finding the zeros, y-intercept and the coordinates
of the vertex
graphing quadratic functions by transformations of the function y = x2 .

The last two methods in particular are important, as they help us to understand the relationship
between a function and its graph. The zeros and the coordinates of the turning points of any function give us much information about the function. Learning to sketch a graph using transformations
helps develop a deeper understanding of the relation between a equation and its graph.

GRAPHING QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS BY MAKING A TABLE OF VALUES

EXAMPLE 2.23
Sketch the graph of y = 2x2 5x 3 by first making a table.
x
2x2

3
18

2
8

1
2

0
0

1
2

2
8

3
18

4
32

5x

15

10

10

15

20

(3, 30)

(2, 15)

(1, 4)

0
(3, 0)

(x, y)

30

15

In general this method has a few drawbacks.


Often we do not know the domain over which
we should be graphing. The interesting parts
of the graph may occur for values of x between 15 and 17, so plotting points between
3 and 4 is a waste of time. Also, because the
method is time-consuming, we tend to only
plot a few points, and guess that the function
is behaving itself in between those points.

(0, 3)

(1, 6)

(2, 5)
y

(4, 9)

y = 2x 2 - 5x - 3

25
20
15
10
5
-3

-2

-1

x
1

-5

EXERCISE 2E.1
1 Sketch the graph of each of these quadratic equations over the domain [3, 3] by first making
a table.
a y = x2 x 12
b y = 2x2 3x 2
c y = x2 x 6
2 Draw a table of values for
a y = x2
b

y = (x + 2)2

y = x2 + 2

y = 2x2

What do you notice? Predict what would happen if you changed the 2 to 3.

75

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (Chapter 2)

GRAPHING QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS BY FINDING ZEROS,


THE COORDINATES OF THE VERTEX AND THE Y -INTERCEPT
The interesting points of a graph are the zeros, the points where the graph reaches a maximum
or a minimum value, and the point where the graph crosses the y-axis (the y-intercept). So it is
common to determine and plot only these points, and then join them up with a smooth curve.
You already know how to find the zeros of a quadratic function. The y-axis has the equation x = 0,
so to find the y-intercept, we find the value of f (0), which is the constant term, c. So all that needs
to be found are the coordinates of the vertex. And this is easy, since the x-coordinate of the vertex
is midway between the two zeros. We can calculate this by adding the roots, and dividing by two.
We then find the y-coordinate of the vertex by substitution.

EXAMPLE 2.24
Sketch the graph of y = x2 + 4x 5:
We find the zeros to be x = 1 and x = 5 by factorising.

The y-intercept is the constant term, 5.

The x-coordinate of the vertex is the average of the zeros,


or (1 + 5) 2 = 2.

y = x 2 + 4x + 5

y
4
2

-4

-2

The y-coordinate of the vertex is found by substituting 2


for x:
f(2) = (2)2 + 4(2) 5

x
1

-2
-4
-6
-8

=485
= 9

INVESTIGATION 3

FINDING FORMULAS FOR THE COORDINATES OF


THE VERTEX
What to do:
1 The x-coordinate of the vertex of a quadratic function equals the arithmetic mean of
the two roots,
p
p
b + b2 4ac
b b2 4ac
x=
and x =
.
2a
2a

Show that the x-coordinate of the vertex is given by x =

b
.
2a

2 Find the expression for the y-coordinate of the vertex, simplified if possible.

b
2a
function has no roots.
The formula x =

for the x-coordinate of the vertex is particularly useful if the

76

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (Chapter 2)

EXAMPLE 2.25
Find the coordinates of the vertex of the function y = x2 4x + 5.
This function has no zeros, as = (4)2 4 1 5 = 4 which is < 0.
We can use x =
b
2a
4
=
2
=2

x =

b
2a

to find the x-coordinate of the vertex.

and

y = 22 4(2) + 5
=1

fsubstitutingg

y
8
6
4
2

The coordinates of the vertex are (2, 1).

Note that the graph opens upward and the vertex is


above the x-axis. It follows that there will be no zeros.

x
2

EXERCISE 2E.2
1 For each of the functions below, find the zeros, y-intercept and the coordinates of the vertex.
Then sketch the graph of the function using this information.
a
d

y = x2 + 2x 8
y = x2 25

b
e

y = x2 12x + 35
y = 4x2 1

c
f

y = x2 + 3x 10
y = 2x2 + 3x + 1

2 Find the y-intercept and the coordinates of the vertex of these functions, and where possible,
find the zeros. Check your answers using a graphics calculator.
a

y = x2 + 2x + 5

y = 3x2 5x 2

y = 2x2 3x + 6

3 What are the zeros, y-intercept and the coordinates of the vertex of these quadratic functions?
a
d

y = (x 4)(x + 2)

y = 2(x 2)(2x 5)

b
e

y = 3(x + 1)(x 3)
2

y = x 2dx + 4

c
f

y = (x 1)(x + 4)
y = ax2 + bx + c

F TRANSFORMATIONS OF THE QUADRATIC FUNCTION


GRAPHICS CALCULATOR ACTIVITY

TRANSFORMATIONS OF y = x2
Consider the equation y = Ax2

where A can be any real number.

For each value of A, we get a different graph. The equation y = Ax2 is said to define a
family of functions.
A variable such as A that gives rise to a family of functions is called a parameter.

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (Chapter 2)

A parameter transforms the graph of a function in a fundamental way.

What to do:
1 Investigate graphs of the family of functions y = Ax2 , by drawing the graphs of these
functions on a graphics calculator.
y = x2

y = 12 x2

y = 2x2

y = x2

y = 2x2

What effect does the magnitude of the parameter A have on the graph of the quadratic
function? What is the effect of the sign of A? Tables of values may help you spot
patterns.

2 Investigate graphs of the family of functions y = x2 + C, by drawing the graphs of


these functions on a graphics calculator.
y = x2

y = x2 + 1

y = x2 2

What are the effects of the constant term C on the graph of the quadratic function?

3 Investigate graphs of the family of functions y = (x B)2 , by drawing the graphs of


these functions on a graphics calculator.
y = x2

y = (x 3)2

y = (x + 2)2

What are the effects of the parameter B on the graph of the quadratic function?

4 Investigate functions of the type y = A(x B)2 + C. Do your conclusions still hold
when these transformations are combined?
5 Write a paragraph to summarise your findings.

EXAMPLE 2.26
Sketch the graph of y = x2 and the graph of the given function on the same set of axes.

y = 3x2 2

y = 2(x 1)2 + 3

a The graph of y = 3x2 2 is the graph of y = x2


transformed in two ways:

the vertex is shifted two units down, to (0, 2)


the graph is stretched vertically (or squeezed
horizontally, which has the same effect) by a
factor of 3.

b The graph of y = 2(x 1)2 + 3 is the graph of


y = x2 transformed as follows:
the vertex is shifted three units up, and 1 unit
to the right, to (1, 3)
the graph opens downward
the graph is stretched vertically (or squeezed
horizontally, which is the same thing) by a
factor of 2.

77

78

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (Chapter 2)

EXERCISE 2F.1
1 Sketch the graph of y = x2
a y = 3x2
d y = x2 5

and the graph of the given function on the same set of axes.
b y = 2x2
c y = 12 x2
e y = x2 + 1
f y = (x 2)2

2 Sketch the graph of y = x2


a y = 2x2 + 1
d y = (x + 2)2

and the graph of the given function on the same set of axes.
b y = 2(x + 1)2
c y = 3 x2
e y = 3(x 4)2
f y = (x 4)2 + 1

3 Sketch the graph of y = x2

and the graph of the given function on the same set of axes.

a
d

b
e

y = 2(x 3)
y = 12 (x + 2)2 4

y = 12 x2 4
y = 2(x + 2)2 + 2

c
f

y = 2(x + 3)2 1
y = 34 (x 1)2 3

EXAMPLE 2.27
Transform the function y = 3x2 4x + 1 into the form y = A(x B)2 + C.
Then sketch the function.
You will need to study this example carefully, as the algebra is more difficult than in previous
examples.
y = 3x2 4x + 1
= 3[x2 43 x + 13 ]

= 3[x2 2( 23 )x + ( 23 )2 ( 23 )2 + 13 ]
=
=
=
=

3[(x 23 )2 49 +
3[(x 23 )2 49 +
3[(x 23 )2 19 ]
3(x 23 )2 13

1
3]
3
9]

fTake out a factor of 3.g

fComplete the square.g

fWrite as a perfect square.g

fGet common denominator.g


fAdd fractions.g

fExpand to put into desired form.g

The vertex of the graph is at ( 23 , 13 ),


and the shape of the graph is that of
y = x2 stretched vertically by a factor of
3. The y-intercept is +1 (found from the
original equation).

EXAMPLE 2.28
Find the zeros of the above function, by setting y = 0, and solving for x.
3(x 23 )2

3(x
(x

1
3

=0

2 2
3)
2 2
3)

1
3
1
9

=
=

fSet y = 0.g
fAdd

1
3

to both sides of the equation.g

fDivide both sides by 3.g

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (Chapter 2)

2
3

= 13

x = 13 +
x = 1 or

p
fIf P 2 = Q then P = Q.g

2
3
1
3

The roots are x = 1 and x =

79

fAdd
1
3.

2
3

to both sides.g

fSimplifying the fractions.g

Note that since these roots are rational numbers, we could also have found the zeros by
factorising. We could also have used the quadratic formula with the original equation.

INVESTIGATION 4

A NOVEL METHOD OF SOLVING QUADRATIC EQUATIONS


We will solve the quadratic equation x2 2x 3 = 0 using yet another method.
What to do:

1 Rewrite the equation x2 2x 3 = 0 as x2 = 2x + 3.


2 Sketch on the same set of axes y = x2

and y = 2x + 3.

3 Find the coordinates of the points where these two graphs intersect. The x-coordinates
are the solutions to the original quadratic equation.
4 Explain why this method works.
5 Use this method with a graphing calculator to solve the equation
p
1 x2 2x2 + 1 = 0

EXERCISE 2F.2
1 For each quadratic function below, use completing the square to re-write the function in the
form y = A(x B)2 + C: Then sketch the graph of the function.
a y = x2 2x 2
b y = x2 + 6x + 8
c y = 2x2 4x + 6
2
2
d y = 2x + 4x + 7
e y = 2x 6x + 8
f y = 3x2 12x 8
2

a Use completing the square to re-write the function y = 2x2 13x 7 in the form
y = A(x B)2 + C:
b What are the coordinates of the turning point of the graph?
c What is the y-intercept of the graph of this function?
d Find the zeros of the equation.
e Sketch the graph, showing all relevant information.

3 Sketch the graphs of the following functions using your method of choice.
i the zeros
Find the coordinates of
ii the y-intercept
iii the vertex
a
d

y = 2x2 12x + 18
y = 4x2

b
e

y = x2 2x + 6
y = 3x2 4

c
f

y = x2 + 5x 1
y = 12 3x2

80

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (Chapter 2)

4 For each of the following quadratic functions, transform the function into the form
y = A(x B)2 + C. Sketch the function. Include the coordinates of the vertex and the
y-intercept in your sketch.
a y = x2 4x + 4
b y = x2 + x + 1
c y = 3x2 x 3
d y = 4 2x 12 x2
5 Each set of coordinate axes below contains the graph of f(x) = x2 , and the graph of g(x).
Determine the equation of g(x) from its graph.
a

-2

-4

-2

-2

-4

2
2

2
-2

x
-2

-2

-4

2
-4

-4

-2

-4

x
-4

x
-4

-2

x
-4

-2

-2

-2

-2

-4

-4

-4

6 Use a graphics calculator to sketch the following functions on the same set of axes. Describe
what you see. How could you have predicted this without having sketched the graphs of these
functions?
a y = x2 + x 2
b y = 2x2 + 2x 4
c y = 3x2 + 3x 6
d y = x2 x + 2
7 Give three quadratic functions whose zeros are 1 and 3. Check your answer using a graphics
calculator.
8 Give three quadratic functions whose vertex is at (3, 4).
9 Give three quadratic functions whose y-intercept is 2.

10 Give three quadratic functions whose graphs are concave down.

TRANSFORMATIONS OF OTHER FUNCTIONS

The concept of transformations is central in the study of functions.


For any function f(x), the graph of y = Af(x B) + C is the graph of y = f(x) shifted B
units to the right, C units up, and scaled by a factor of A in the vertical direction.
As an example, let us examine transformations of a function called the absolute value function.

81

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (Chapter 2)

THE ABSOLUTE VALUE FUNCTION


The absolute value function is an example of a piecewise function, which consists of two different
rules, each defined over a given domain.
The symbol used for the absolute value of x is jxj.
The function is defined as follows:

(
y = jxj =

if
if

x
x

x0
x<0

For example, j3j = 3, j2:57j = 2:57 and j0j = 0.

What is j 3j? By the definition, it is (3) which is 3.

Similarly, j 2:57j is 2.57.


3
3

2
2

1
1

0
0

1
1

2
2

y= x

We can sketch the graph of y = jxj by first making a table:


x
y

-4

-2

3
3

-2
-4

EXAMPLE 2.29
For each question, sketch the graph of y = jxj and the graph of the given function on the
same set of axes.
a y = 2jxj
b y = jxj + 1
c y = 12 jx + 2j 1
a

-2

-4

-2

-4

-4

-2

-2

-2

-2

-4

-4

-4

EXERCISE 2G
1 Write a paragraph explaining how the graph of y = A jx Bj + C is transformed as the
parameters A, B and C are changed. You may wish to use the absolute value function on
your graphics calculator to explore this family of functions.
2 Sketch the graph of y = jxj and the graph of the given function on the same set of axes.
a y = jxj + 2
b y = 2jx 3j
c y = 12 jx + 1j 3
3 Sketch the graph of y = jxj and the graph of the given function on the same set of axes.
a y = jxj
b y = 13 jx + 1j
c y = 2 12 jx + 1j

82

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (Chapter 2)

4 For each exercise, the graphs of f(x) = jxj and g(x) are given. State the equation for g(x).
a

-4

-2

-4

-2

-4

-2

-2

-2

-4

-4

-4

-2

-4

-2

-4

-2

-4

-2

-2

-2

-2

-4

-4

-4

1
is called the reciprocal function.
x
Make a table of values from x = 6 to x = 6, and use the table to sketch its graph.

5 The function f(x) =

1
6 For each question, sketch the graph of f (x) =
x
the same set of axes.
3
1
a f (x) =
b f (x) =
x
x+4

f (x) =

f (x) =

2
x

1
3
x+2

7 The graph of a function y = f (x) is given


alongside. Sketch the graph of each of the
functions given below. Sketch each graph on
its own number plane.
a y = 2f (x) + 3
b y=

and the graph of the given function on

12 f(x

2)

c y = 3f (x + 1) 5

x
-4

-2

2
-2
-4

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (Chapter 2)

83

MODELLING USING QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS

Quadratic functions arise in many real-life applications.


Area, the motion of a thrown object and revenue are just some of the situations where quadratic
equations are used.

EXERCISE 2H
1 A cricket ball is hit directly upwards at a speed
of 20 m/s. The height, h, of the cricket ball
above the ground after t seconds is given by the
equation: h = 20t 5t2 .

a List some of the assumptions that have been


made in choosing this model.
b The cricket ball will strike the ground when
the value of h is 0. Solve a quadratic equation to determine when the cricket ball will
strike the ground.
c Make a table and draw a graph that shows
the height of the cricket ball after t seconds.
d What is the maximum height that the cricket ball will reach?
e Estimate from your graph the height of the ball after 2.5 seconds.
f Calculate the height of the ball after 2.5 seconds, using the equation.
g When is the cricket ball exactly 15 metres above the ground? Answer this in two ways:
i estimate the answer from your graph
ii solve a quadratic equation by factorising
h When is the cricket ball exactly 10 metres above the ground? Answer this in two ways:
i estimate the answer from your graph
ii using the quadratic formula (to 2 decimal places)

2 The total cost of producing x pottery bowls per week is given


by: C(x) = 200 + 4x + 0:1x2 .
a What assumptions are made in using this model?
b What is the total cost of producing 100 pottery bowls?
c If the total cost is $496:40, how many bowls were
produced?
d What would be a sensible domain for this model?
3 The efficiency, E percent, of a particular brand of spark plug
is given by E = 400(x x2 ) where x represents the size
of the gap in millimetres.
a What size gap gives 100% efficiency?
b What gap sizes will give an efficiency of 90% or greater?

84

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (Chapter 2)

4 The height h, of an object that is thrown straight up at time t, is given by the following
function: h(t) = d + ut 12 at2 , where

h(t) = the height in metres


t = time in seconds
d = the initial height above the ground from which the object is thrown
u = the initial velocity in metres per second, and
a = the acceleration of the object due to the force of gravity.

Assume that the acceleration due to the force of gravity is 10 m/s2 .


An object is projected straight up from a platform situated 20 metres above the ground at a
speed of 50 m/s. Assuming the object reaches the ground (i.e., it does not strike the platform
on the way down), how many seconds after it is projected does it reach the ground?
5 A manufacturer of tricycles finds that the number of
tricycles sold, n, is related to the price per tricycle p,
by the equation p = 2n + 200.
a What price must be set to sell 30 tricycles?
b How many tricycles will sell if the price per tricycle is $150?
c Total revenue, R, from sales is calculated by:
R = (price per tricycle) (number of tricycles
sold).

d
e
f
g

What is the total revenue if the price per tricycle is $80?


Determine the formula for calculating total revenue R in terms of n, the number of tricycles
sold.
Graph the revenue function.
Determine from the graph the maximum sales
revenue.
How many tricycles must be sold in order to
maximise sales?

6 A roll of fence wire 1200 metres long is to be used to enclose and separate two identical
rectangular paddocks as shown.
a Let the length of each
happy cows
contented sheep
paddock be x, and the
width of the paddock be y.
Find an expression for the
total area of the two paddocks, in terms of x and y.
b Find an expression for the total length of fence wire needed to enclose the two paddocks,
in terms of x and y.
c Set this expression equal to 1200, and solve it for y.
d Use your answers to a and b to get an expression for the area in terms of x only.
e Use a graphics calculator to draw the graph of the function and to locate the coordinates
of the maximum value.
f Find the dimensions of each enclosure, so that the total area enclosed will be maximised.

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (Chapter 2)

7 Australia Post is conducting research into


the optimum distance between perforations
on a book of stamps. Too close and the
books of stamps may fall apart; too far
apart and the stamps will be hard to tear
out. Let x represent the distance between
perforations.
Based on their research the Post Office has
assigned a convenience value C, to various values of x. In particular, the value of C
is 0 when x = 0:4 (too close) and when
x = 1:8 (too far apart). The convenience
value is symmetric for values of x between
these two values, and rises to a maximum
value of C = 1.

85

x mm

a Find a quadratic model for the convenience value of the perforation distance
of books of stamps. Check that your
model gives C = 0 for x = 0:4 and
x = 1.8 and a maximum value of C = 1
between these two values.
b Are there models other than the quadratic model that meet these assumptions? Explain
your reasoning.

PROBLEM SOLVING

I
EXERCISE 2I
1

p
a Write down five rational expressions that simplify to 2.
p
p
b Solve without a calculator: Which is larger, 5 6 or 6 5?
(Hint: square both sides)
p
p
c What relation must hold between m and n if m n > n m?

2 Find three numbers, x, y, z, none of which are perfect squares, such that
p
p
p
x + y = z.

How many sets of such numbers can you find?


3 Give the equation of a quadratic function that passes through (1, 2).
Show your reasoning.
4 There are an infinite number of functions that have zeros at (3, 0) and (2, 0).
What are two of them? Explain your answer.
5 Solve for x:
6

qp
p
x=2

p
p
p
p p p
x + x + x = x x x. Find all values of x that make this equation true.

7 Find the number that exceeds its square by the greatest amount.

86

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (Chapter 2)

8 Green Globs was a popular maths computer game in


the early 1990s and is still available commercially.
The game board consisted of a number plane with
spots on it, as in the diagram. The object of the
game was to find the equation of a graph that passed
through as many spots as possible, and then to type
in its equation. The player received a point for every
spot that the graph passed through.

Find a quadratic equation whose graph passes through the three points in the diagram.
The lines are one unit apart.
9 You are an architect who has been commissioned to design a bridge. A simple scale
drawing of the bridge is shown. For aesthetic purposes, you make the arch in the shape
of a parabola. Find an equation of the parabolic arch. Use metres for the units.

scale 1:1000

10 Solve the following equation, setting out clearly and describing each significant step
p
p
(x2 x) = 2 x x
(Hint: to start, square both sides)
in your solution:
11 The diagram shows the graphs of f (x) = 12 x2
and g(x) = x + 4. A and B are points that can
slide along f(x) and g(x) respectively, between
x = 2 and x = 4, such that AB is always
parallel to the y-axis. Find the greatest length of
AB.

(x) = 0.5x 2

10

6
4

g(x) = x + 4
-4

12 A farmer wants to put some fish into his dam in


March, and then sell them at the end of the growing season, in November. Due to competition for
available food, the amount that each fish gains
in weight w, is a function of the number of fish
per cubic metre of water n, and is given by the
equation w = 60 25n where w is measured
in grams.
Determine the number of fish per cubic metre of
water that will maximise the total weight gain.

y
12

2
-2

x
2

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (Chapter 2)

A sculptor commisioned to design a monument


for the Longreach City Council has chosen a
parabolic shape that stands 15 m high with supports at 45o as shown in the diagram. For aesthetic reasons the sculptor chose the shape given
x2
by the function y = 15 .

Find the length of the support beam marked A.

13

45

14 A rectangular area of land bordering onto a


straight river bank is to be divided up into 6
identical rectangular paddocks as shown, using a total of 3600 m of fencing. The river
bank side is not to be fenced, and the total
area enclosed is to be the maximum possible.
Find
a the dimensions of the small paddocks
b the total area enclosed.
15
3 cm
x cm

2 cm
60 cm 2
y cm

x cm

river

An engineer designing a gutter for cyclonic conditions determines it requires a cross-sectional


area of 60 cm2 . His job is to find the minimum
width of metal that can be bent into the shape
that will meet the design specifications given in
the diagram.

Write an equation that expresses the width of the metal in terms of the variable x, and
then find the minimum width of metal required using a graphics calculator.
16 Given below is a fallacy, which is a mathematical argument that leads to an impossible
statement or a contradiction because of a subtle flaw in the mathematics reasoning. Give
the algebraic reason for each step of this argument, and then discuss where the flaw exists.

a=b
a2 = ab
2
a b2 = ab b2
(a + b)(a b) = b(a b)
a+b = b
2b = b
2=1

87

88

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (Chapter 2)

WORDS YOU SHOULD KNOW


axis of symmetry
coefficient
constant term
counter-example
difference of squares
discriminant
family of functions
identity
irrational number

maximum
minimum
parabola
parameter
perfect square
piecewise function
quadratic equation
quadratic formula
quadratic function

radical sign
rational number
revenue
root of an equation
surd
turning point
vertex
y-intercept
zero of a function

CHAPTER 2 REVISION SET


1

a Simplify
p
p
p
p
p
i
98
ii
8 32
iii 2 50 7 32
b Rationalise the denominator. Simplify where possible.
p
2 2
3a
p
i
ii p
a
6

2 Simplify
p
p
p
a
75 48 + 108
p
p
c 2 12 96
p
p
p
p
e (6 7 + 3 5)(6 7 3 5)

b
d
f

iv

p
16b4

p
p
p
5 7 8 28 + 4 63
p
(7 + 2 3)2
p
(1 + 2)3

3 Expand and simplify


a
c

2(2x 1)(5x + 1)
(2x + 1)(x 3) (x + 5)2

b
d

(3x + 2)(3x 2)
x(x 3) (3 2x)2

4 Factorise, then simplify: (x 1)2 4


5 Solve
a 4x2 4x 3 = 0 by factorising
b 10x2 x 3 = 0 using the quadratic formula
c 2x2 + 5x 12 = 0 by completing the square
6 By examining the discriminant, determine whether each of the following have two, one or
zero real roots.
a x2 + 4x + 9 = 0
b 2x2 5x 3 = 0
c 4x2 12x + 9 = 0
7 Transform the function y = 6x2 + x 2 into the form y = A(x B)2 + C. Hence
sketch the graph of y = 6x2 + x 2 by considering the transformation.

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (Chapter 2)

8 The number plane alongside contains the


graph of f (x) = x2 , and the graph of
g(x). Determine the equation of g(x)
from its graph.

@=g(!)
-4

@=(!)

-2

2
-2

9 Give the coordinates of two points that lie on the function y = 2x2 x + 6.
10 For what value of a would the function f(x) = a(x 1)2 + 2 pass through the point
(3, 10)?
11 A roll of fence wire 1800 metres long is to
be used to enclose and separate three identical
rectangular paddocks as shown.

Find the dimensions of each enclosure, so that


the total area enclosed will be maximised.

12 By considering the transformation of y = jxj, sketch the graphs of


a
d

b
e

y = jxj 3
y = jx + 2j

c
f

y = jx 3j
y = 2 jx + 1j 3

y = jxj + 2
y = 0:5 jx 1j + 2

CHAPTER 2 TEST (KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES)


1 Simplify
p
p
a 2 32 4 2

p
p
2 a 3 4a

2 Rationalise the denominator, and simplify


3 Expand and simplify
a (2x 2)(2x + 2)
4 Factorise completely
a x2 7x + 12

b
b

3
p
2 6

(3a 2x)2
c

6x2 7x 2

9x2 4c2

a4 1

5 f(x) = x2 + 3x 3. Find
a f(3)
b f (0)
6 Solve x2 6x 8 = 0 by
a graphing
c completing the square

b
d

factorising
quadratic formula

7 For the function y = x2 2x 3, find the zeros, y-intercept and the coordinates of
the vertex. Then sketch the graph of the function using this information.
8 Sketch the graph of f (x) = x2

and g(x) = 3(x + 1)2

on the same set of axes.

89

90

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (Chapter 2)

9 The total monthly cost of maintaining an inventory of x items in a warehouse is given


by: C(x) = 350 + 3:4x + 0:004x2
a What is the total monthly cost of maintaining an inventory of 400 items?
b If the total monthly cost is $1450, how large is the inventory?

EXTENDED INVESTIGATION

ABSOLUTE VALUE FUNCTIONS


When a keen student of mathematics plays around with an interesting mathematical situation,
questions arise naturally. Often a first step in answering such questions is gathering information,
and looking for patterns in the information. From the patterns, the student forms a conjecture.
The student then tests the conjecture to see if it appears to be true. If so, the next step is for
the student to justify or prove the conjecture - to satisfy herself that the conjecture must be
true. Finally, once she understands the solution to the problem well, she should communicate
her problem and its solution to others.
The absolute value function can give rise to some fascinating graphs. Draw the graphs of
functions such as those given below.
Y 1 = jxj
Y 2 = jxj + jx + 1j
Y 3 = jxj + jx + 1j jx 2j
Pose some questions, form some conjectures, and test to see if your conjectures appear to be
true. If so, try to justify your conjectures.
Here are a few hints, to get you started.
Start with a simple function. Make a small change to the function, and see how the
corresponding graph changes. Before moving on to a more complicated function, try
to fully understand the relationship between the equation and graph of this simple
function.
A good way to test a conjecture is to make predictions (if I change the 1 to a 2, I
expect the graph to ....) and check to see if your predictions are correct.

EXTENDED MODELLING ACTIVITY

ERASER TOSS
Materials: one metre stick, one eraser, seven white board markers and eight
Year 11 Mathematics B students.

Rule a line 3 metres long across the bottom of the white board and mark off every 50 centimetres, starting from one end. Rule a vertical line up from each of these marks.
Now one student will attempt to throw the eraser in an arc from one end of the line to the other.
Repeated throws might be necessary. The other students are each in charge of one vertical
line. They are to mark the position where the eraser crossed their line.
If this is done accurately, the points marked should lie on a parabola.
Find the equation of this parabola.
Check the location of the marked points against that predicted by the quadratic model.

CHAPTER

Exploring data

SUBJECT MATTER
l

identification of variables and types of variables


and data (continuous and discrete); practical applications of collection and entry of data
choice and use in context of appropriate graphical
and tabular displays for different types of data including pie charts, barcharts, tables, histograms,
stem-and-leaf plots and boxplots
use of summary statistics including mean, median,
standard deviation and interquartile distance as
appropriate descriptors of features of data in
context
use of graphical displays and summary statistics in
describing key features of data, particularly in
comparing data sets and exploring possible
relationships

92

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

HISTORICAL NOTE

The first graphical displays of information were charts and maps of the Earths
surface, which date back thousands of years. However, it was not until the 19th century
that numerical information or patterns were displayed graphically. An early example was the
map of central London, created by Dr John Snow in 1854, that showed the location of recent
deaths from cholera, as well as the locations of eleven public water pumps. The graphic clearly
showed that the deaths were centred around the Broad Street water pump. Dr Snow had the
pump handle removed. This simple action ended an epidemic that took over 500 lives.
yards
50

50

100

150

200

pump
de a t hs f ro m c ho l e ra
EET
STR
ORD
OXF

UG

A N
D E

RO

.
ST

D
A R
U
R

T
R
IN

T R

E T
R E
S T

E
S

T
E E

E T
R E
S T

BO

G
R E

. M
GT

L
AR

G
S
E

IT

R
G O L D E N
S Q U A R E

SA

VI
LL

RO

EW
BO

EN

ST

TS

RE

QUADRA

NT

ET

C
P I

LY
I L

DATA
Data are numbers that have meaning.

For example, 54, 67, and 98 are numbers, but if they represent the marks on your last three
Mathematics B examinations, they are data.
There is a story in data, and your job as a student of statistics is to find that story. If the situation
from which the data are gathered is interesting, then the story the data tell may be interesting too.

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

93

The tools that are available to help us learn what data can tell us can be broadly classified:

Graphical displays show the data pictorially.


Summary statistics describe a large set of data using just a few numbers, such as the
mean and the standard deviation.
Probability is the formal study of chance. It is an essential tool in making good
decisions based on the data.
Inferential statistics is a set of analytical tools that helps us makes decisions based on
data, and gives us a measure of the reliability of our decision.

In this chapter we will study graphical displays and summary statistics. Probability and an introduction to inferential statistics are studied in Year 12.

PATTERNS IN DATA
The first thing a statistician does with a dataset is look at the data - looking for patterns, departures
from patterns and unusual values. The data may be summarised in a table that shows counts and/or
percentages, or it may be displayed graphically, for example as a bar chart, pie chart or histogram.

EXERCISE 3A
1 The tables below contain a summary of data collected about a particular incident involving a
large number of people.
a Look at the data, and list all unusual patterns that you find. For example, one unusual
pattern is the difference in the overall female death rate (27 deaths per 100) and the overall
male death rate (80 deaths per 100).
b Use the patterns you have found to help you decide what this unusual incident might be.
Justify your answer using the data, and the patterns that you have noticed.

Economic
status
I (high)
II
III (low)
Other
Total

Economic
status
I (high)
II
III (low)
Other
Total

Data cross-tabulated by economic status and gender


Population exposed
Deaths per 100
Number of deaths
exposed to occurrence
to occurrence
Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both
180
145
325
118
4
122
65
3
37
179
106
285
154
13
167
87
12
59
510
196
706
422
106
528
83
54
73
862
23
885
670
3
673
78
13
76
1731
470
2201 1364
126
1490
80
27
67
Data cross-tabulated by economic status and age
Population exposed
Deaths per 100
Number of deaths
to occurrence
exposed to occurrence
Adult Child
Both Adult Child
Both Adult Child
Both
319
6
325
122
0
122
38
0
37
261
24
285
167
0
167
64
0
59
627
79
706
476
52
528
76
66
73
885
0
885
673
0
673
76
76
2092
109
2201 1438
52
1490
69
48
67

94

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

2 How well do you know Queensland? The graphs below are climate charts for eight locations
in Queensland. Match each location with its chart.

The locations are

Cairns
Longreach
Thursday Island

Coolangatta
Rockhampton
Toowoomba

Lady Elliot Island


Stanthorpe

Some information about climate and geography


The further north a town is located, the higher the temperature tends to be.
The further a town is from the sea, the more extreme are the differences in daytime and nighttime
temperatures.
Towns in northern Queensland have a monsoonal climate, with very pronounced wet and dry
seasons. Towns in western Queensland tend to receive less rain than those on the coast.
Note: The vertical scales on the charts are not all the same.

30

140

25

120
100

20

daily mean min. temp

40

20
J

0
D
month

35
30

140

30

100

120

25

25

100

80

20

80

20

15

60

10

40

20

daily mean max. temp

60

10

median rainfall

80

15

rainfall (mm)

temperature (degrees C)

The chart of Brisbane given below will help you interpret the charts.

J F M A M J

30
25
20
15
10
5
0

F M A M J

A S O N D

40

10

20

5
0

J A S O N D

35

60

15

450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0

F M A M J

J A

S O N D

30

140

25

120
100

20

80

15

60

10

40

5
0

20
J

F M A M J

A S O N D

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

60
50

15

20

10

10
F M A M

J A

S O N D

25

120
100

20

80

15

60

10
5
J F M A M J J A S O N D

5
0

140

30
20

30

35
25

40

30

F M A M J

J A S O N D

30

150

20
15

40
20

400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0

200

25

10

95

100
50

F M A M J

J A S O N D

Source: The original data is from the Bureau of Meteorology website.

SOME TERMINOLOGY

A population is the entire group of people or things in which a statistician is interested.


A unit or a case is one member of the population.
The particular characteristics of a population about which data are collected are called variables.
Here are some examples.
Population
wattle trees
home computers
Australian rivers
refrigerators
Mathematics B students

Variables
height, growth rate, colour of bark
system clock speed, amount of RAM
length, level of salinity
capacity, hours of operation before needing repair
gender, favourite movie, enjoyment of problem solving

The collection of data from every member of a population is called a census.


If data is only collected from some members of the population, it is called a sample.

For example, if we are interested in the attitude of the students in a Mathematics B class towards
problem solving, and we survey them to determine this, we have a census. On the other hand, if we
are interested in the weight of young koalas as they grow to maturity, we would work with a
sample, as we cannot capture and weigh every young koala in Australia.
Variables have values. For example, in my Mathematics B class, Sam is a female who rates her
enjoyment of problem solving as 9 out of 10, while Peter is a male who rates his enjoyment of
problem solving as 3 out of 10.

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EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

A single value is called a data value. A collection of data values is a called a dataset.
The collection of responses of my Mathematics B students about their attitude towards problem
solving forms a dataset.
A parameter is a number associated with a variable of a population.
The mean weight of 3 month old koalas is a parameter.
A statistic is the corresponding number associated with the sample.
For example, from our data we can say that the mean weight of three
month old koalas in our sample is 5.3 kilograms. The number 5.3 is
a statistic.
In inferential statistics we use a sample statistic, which is calculated from the data that have been
collected, to estimate a population parameter. The population parameter is what we really want
to know, but usually do not know, because we usually do not have data on all members of the
population.

TYPES OF VARIABLES
The height of trees, length of rivers and capacity of refrigerators are all numerical data for which
calculations such as differences and averages make sense. Data collected on such variables are
called quantitative data.
Quantitative data are either discrete or continuous. Variables associated with discrete data are
sometimes referred to as discrete variables and those associated with continuous data are often
referred to as continuous variables. You have already met these terms in Chapter 1. The number
of children in a family is discrete, as it can only take on whole number values. You cannot have
0.3 of a child. The height of these children is continuous. A child that grows from 1.2 m to 1.3
metres in a year must have been 1.23 m in height at some time during that year.
An effective way to distinguish between discrete and continuous data is:
if you count, the data is discrete
but if you measure, the data is continuous.

We count children, but we measure their heights.

On the other hand the gender of students is an example of categorical data, since the responses
can be categorized, as male or female.
The arithmetic operations on categorical data are counts, proportions and percentages. It makes
sense to say that there are 12 males in the class, or 12 out of 30 students are male or that 40% of
the class is male.

SAMPLING
The purpose of statistics is to be able to make a statement about
one or more variables of a population.
For example, a scientist working for the Great Barrier Reef
Marine Parks Authority wants to be able to make a statement
about the number of each species of fish at a certain reef. In
this example, the population is all of the fish on the reef, and
variable is the species.
Since it is impossible, practically speaking, to catch and record
the species of every fish on the reef, we must take a sample.

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

97

As the point of gathering data is to learn something about a population, a census is obviously
superior to a sample. But for most populations it is not practical, or even possible, to take a census.
So we usually have to sample, and then use that sample to draw conclusions about the population
from which the sample is drawn.
As another example, consider pineapples. One variable
is its sugar content, which is a major factor in determining its market value. The only way to measure the sugar
content of a pineapple is to either lop off the top and
measure the sugar content directly, or to paint it with
a special dye that changes colour, where the colour reflects its sugar content. Either way the pineapple can no
longer be sold. If you took a census of a pineapple crop,
you would know a great deal about its sugar content, but
there would be no pineapples left to sell. A census is
not practical.
These are extreme examples, but even when a census is possible, there are two reasons why it
usually is not done.
Collecting, recording and analysing data is a expensive, and b

time consuming.

If sampling will give a result almost as accurate as taking a census, and for far less cost, then
sampling is the preferred choice. But, if sampling is used, the size of the sample and deciding how
to select the sample are important issues, and issues that can only be addressed using knowledge
about statistics.
To keep this in perspective, if a census can be done, it should be done.
If the question to a Year 11 Mathematics B class is,
Over the weekend, would this class prefer to a have homework or b not have homework?,
a census, by a show of hands, is the best way of knowing the class decision.

EXERCISE 3B
1 A scientist is studying the pattern and frequency of
car accidents involving teenagers in the local community.
a For this study, identify the
i population
ii variables.
b State one parameter of the population.
c Should the scientist take a census or a sample?
Justify your decision.
2 The Student Council at your school wants to know
the students opinions about increasing the number
of school dances next year from four to six.
a For this study, identify the
i population
ii variables.
b State one parameter of the population.
c Should the Student Council take a census or a
sample? Justify your decision.

98

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

3 For each of the following:


i state a quantitative variable that may be of interest to a researcher
ii state a categorical variable that may be of interest to a researcher
a
b
c
d

voters in the seat of Mundingburra


planets in the solar system
fish on the reef at Lady Musgrave Island
students in your Mathematics B class

4 Determine if each of these variables is discrete (D) or continuous (C).

the number of cancer patients who survived for at least five years after treatment
the height of basketball players in the National Basketball League
the number of medals won by each country at the 2000 Olympics
the number of computers in each Queensland high school
the total cost of the computers in each Queensland high school
the rainfall in Ingham over the past twelve months
shoe sizes of Queensland Year 11 students
the number of pieces of luggage on the Monday to Friday 6:45 a.m. flight from Rockhampton to Brisbane
i the weight of the luggage on the Monday to Friday 6:45 a.m. flight from Rockhampton
to Brisbane
j the colour of the luggage on the Monday to Friday 6:45 a.m. flight from Rockhampton
to Brisbane

a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h

5 For these variables, decide if data are best collected on a population or a sample. Briefly
justify your decision.
a
b
c
d
e

favourite food sold at your schools tuckshop


length of holes on golf courses in Australia
species of fish on the Fitzroy Reef, north of Cairns
batting average of cricketers who played in the last Test match
voting intentions of voters in the seat of Mundingburra at the next election

6 For which of these questions is a census practical? Briefly explain your decision.
a A scientist is trying to determine the lifespan of the giraffe.
b A scientist is trying to determine if giraffes kept in wild animal parks live longer than
those kept in zoos.
c The P&C of your high school is interested in the students opinions of the school uniform.
d The P&C of your high school is interested in
the staffs opinions of the school uniform.
e A restaurant owner wants to know his customers opinions about the quality of the service and food.
f The Australian government needs to gather
data on a range of issues, including household
income, the number (and age and gender) of
people living in each house, and how people
travel to work.

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

99

COLLECTING DATA

There are four common methods of collecting data.


These are

a survey
an observation
an experiment
using available data.

A survey is a series of questions asked of a group of people, either orally, or on paper.


For example, pollsters ask voters their opinion on whether Australia should be a republic.
An observation is made when the researcher observes members of the population, and records data
on the variables of interest.
For example, a researcher observes and records the time of day and the species of wild animals
drinking from a waterhole in an African game park.
An experiment is performed when the researcher actively controls the data gathering process.
For example, an environmental scientist establishes three aquariums with different oxygen levels,
to determine the effect of differing levels of oxygen on the reproduction of aquatic snails.
Available data are data that were previously collected, and can be used to help answer the present
questions.

EXAMPLE 3.1
The residents of Emerald believe that the number of cases of leukemia in the region has risen,
and that the local aerial spraying of pesticides on cotton crops has caused this. One step in
determining if aerial spraying is causing leukemia is to collect data on the number of leukemia
cases in the region. Which method of collecting data: survey, observation, experiment or
using available data, is most appropriate? Justify.
As leukemia is a serious disease that requires the services of a hospital, the local hospital
would most likely have the information required.
The most appropriate method would be to use this available data.

GOOD DATA AND BAD DATA


The final outcome of most statistical studies is a decision, based on the data. To make that decision,
the data needs to be analysed, after they are collected. Before data are collected, the researcher
must think very carefully about exactly what questions he or she wants answered, what information
needs to be gathered to answer those questions, and how that information can best be collected.
If the wrong data are collected, or if the method of data collection is flawed, then no amount of
sophisticated statistical analysis of the flawed data can help to find good answers to the questions
being asked.

100

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

EXAMPLE 3.2
A news show host asked viewers, Do you think Australia should have the death penalty?.
Viewers were asked to dial one number for Yes and another for No. Assume that the news
show was trying to determine the percentage of the Australian population that was in favour
of the death penalty. Comment on this method of collecting data.
The results of this survey reveal nothing about the views of the Australian population.
This survey has two flaws:
Only people with a very strong view on the death penalty (which generally means
those in favour of the death penalty) will spend the time and the cost of the phone
call to register their views.
People can vote as many times as they wish, so a special interest group could skew
the results by voting multiple times.

Note:

The population parameter in this example is the percentage of the Australian population in
favour of the death penalty. Other studies have shown that this is about 50%. The sample
statistic is the corresponding percentage in the sample, which in a properly designed
survey should have been close to 50%. For this study, it was over 90%, which indicates
that this survey was not properly designed to give valid data about the population.

THE SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLE


The method of sampling in the above example is called a self-selecting sample. To obtain a sample
with a statistic that is a good estimator of the corresponding population parameter, a simple random
sample (SRS) is the most common choice.
In an SRS, every possible sample has an equal chance of being selected. It is equivalent to putting
slips of paper with the names of all members of the population into a hat, shuffling them up
thoroughly, and then picking the sample from the hat.
Such a sample is said to be unbiased.
A self-selecting sample is biased because only those with strong opinions are in the sample.

EXAMPLE 3.3
How would you obtain a SRS of size twenty-five from each of these populations?
a all students in your school

all voters in the seat of Keppel

a Here is one method that is reasonably efficient. In secondary schools, every student
has a unique student number. Say the student numbers range from 12 307 to 13 512.

Use your graphics calculator to generate forty random numbers between 12 307
and 13 512 inclusive and store them in List1. You need more than 25 numbers
because some numbers may be generated more than once, and some students
with numbers in this range may have left. Forty numbers should be sufficient.

Starting at the top of your list, use your schools student database to identify the
students with those student numbers. Ignore any duplicates. Do this until you
have selected 25 students currently enrolled.

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

101

b The electoral roll for Keppel contains the list of all voters in the electorate. To
generate a SRS, for each case, generate a random page number and then a random
number to select a person on that page. This process will need to be repeated until
you have a sample of size 25 voters.

Often it is impossible, practically speaking, to get a true SRS.


For example, a supermarket is conducting a customer survey to find out how they can improve
their service. Since they do not have a list of every customer, they do not have a list from which
they can select an SRS. The best they can do is to ask all customers who enter the store over, say,
a two-week period, to complete the survey. If they are successful in getting a significant response,
they should have collected some good data that will help them to improve their service.

BIASED SAMPLES
A sample is said to be biased if it systematically favours certain outcomes.
The self-selecting sample discussed earlier is an example of a biased sample. A biased sample
rarely gives useful data about the population it is supposed to represent, and hence is usually of
little value.
A researcher has to be aware of possible sources of bias, and design a method of data collection
that minimises bias (while staying within budget!).
When gathering data on people, removing all bias when choosing a sample is almost impossible.
For example, phone surveys are common, but exclude people who cannot afford a phone.
Mailing questionnaires to a randomly selected sample often results in a poor return rate, thus biasing
the sample towards those who had enough interest in the topic to respond. Many people refuse to
participate in such surveys, so they are excluded as well.

EXAMPLE 3.4
Explain why each of the following samples is biased. Then make a practical suggestion to
the researcher as to how they could obtain an unbiased (or less biased) sample.
a A researcher wants to know the opinion of Mackay shoppers about whether local
shops should be allowed to trade on Sunday if they wish. He surveys shoppers at a
Mackay shopping centre between 9:00 a.m. and 11:00 a.m. on a Monday morning.
b A researcher is trying to ascertain voting intentions in the next election, so he is
knocking on doors in a particular street, asking the residents about their voting
intentions in the next election.
a The survey excludes people who are at work on a Monday morning, and who may be
strongly in favour of Sunday trading, as that is a time when they are free to shop. To
obtain a less biased sample, the researcher could also survey shoppers on Saturday
morning, so people who work typical Monday to Friday hours are included in the
survey.
b People living in a particular suburb, because they tend to have common beliefs and
common concerns, tend to have common voting patterns. A preferable method of
gathering data about voting intentions is to conduct a phone survey of the residents
of that electoral division (though see the section above).

102

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

EXERCISE 3C
1 These questions require data to be collected before they can be answered. For each question,
which method of collecting data (survey, observation, experiment or using available data) is
most appropriate? Be prepared to defend your decision in class.
a There is a crossing near your school that some parents think is dangerous. How many
students use the crossing at the end of the school day?
b How many students at your school think that wearing the school uniform should be
optional?
c A friend of yours claims that he can tell, by taste alone, whether he is drinking Coke or
Pepsi. Can he really do this?
d The media claim that the percentage of female teenagers who smoke is increasing. Is this
true of female students in your school?
e A cricket fan has a theory that left-handed batsmen have on average a higher run rate
than right-handed batsmen. Is he correct?
f Mathematics B students are expected to become capable users of technology (graphics
calculator and/or computer) in their study of mathematics. Are students in this class
capable users of technology?
2 Explain how a SRS could be obtained in each case.
a An Internet Service Provider wants to survey fifty customers about the quality of the
service.
b A fruit and vegetable wholesaler is buying oranges, which come in large crates. She
needs to determine the percentage of damaged fruit, as this affects the price she pays for
the oranges.
c A biologist is studying the movement patterns of koalas in an area where it is proposed
a freeway be built.
3 Each of the following methods of collecting data will give a biased sample. State how the bias
will occur, and give an alternative method that will give an unbiased (or less biased) sample.
a In the campaign period prior to a state election, the Rockhampton Morning Bulletin
newspaper advertises each day a phone number for readers to ring to record who they
will vote for.
b A computer magazine conducts an annual survey on the reliability of the various brands
of computers, printers, etc. It includes a survey form in one issue of the magazine, and
asks readers to complete the survey and then mail it to the magazine.
c A Department of Transport researcher is gathering data on the use of boat ramps throughout
Queensland. Each day, from Monday to Friday, he observes and records the usage of one
ramp in the morning, and a different ramp in the afternoon.
4 In 1992, the youth radio station Triple J conducted a survey of its listeners about their views
on the decriminalisation of marijuana use. The results of the phone-in poll were:
9924 out of more than 10 000 callers (96%) favoured decriminalisation.
Only 389 believed that possession of the drug should be a criminal offence.
Many callers said that they were in favour of decriminalisation, even though they did
not use marijuana themselves.
Just prior to the poll, the Australian Capital Territory had decriminalised the use of marijuana.

Discuss possible sources of bias in this survey.

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

103

5 Mathematical modelling A number of students have complained to the Student Council (SC)
about the amount of litter on the school grounds, so the Council has decided to implement an
anti-littering campaign. To determine the effectiveness of the campaign, they need data on the
amount of litter both before and after the campaign. Since you are currently studying the collection and recording of data, the Student Council has asked your class to advise on how the
data should be collected. In advising the council, some questions that need to be considered are:

What exactly is litter? Does it include organic matter that will decompose, such as a
banana peel? How large must a piece of paper or plastic wrap be before it is classified
as litter?

For which areas of the school grounds does data need to be gathered? Is the SC only
concerned about the grounds near the classrooms, or should the school oval be included,
or should data be gathered about every square metre of the school grounds, even those
areas where students rarely go? The time and cost of gathering the data needs to be
considered.

Does the SC want to know the amount of litter in each area of the school, before and
after the campaign, or is it sufficient to just know an overall figure?

Which method, or methods, of collecting data (survey, observation or experiment) will


give the most accurate data?

Having considered the above, write a report with recommendations for the SC on how the litter
data should be collected. Be prepared to put forward your views in your next Mathematics B
lesson. Think about this as a mathematical model (see Chapter 1).

RECORDING DATA

Let us now assume that the data-gathering process was carefully designed, we have gathered our
data and we feel confident that we have obtained a simple random sample, or near enough. The
next step is to put the data into a spreadsheet file or a statistics program, or enter the data into lists
on a graphics calculator.
This should be a reasonably straightforward process, but there are some issues to consider.

Missing data
If you conduct a survey, it is highly likely that some people will leave questions unanswered,
or one of the plants in your biological experiment has died, so measuring its nitrogen uptake is
rather meaningless. You need to know how the statistics program you are using handles missing
data. Some programs, for example, treat a blank cell as a 0. The average of 3, 4, - , 5, where
the - represents a missing datum (the singular of data), is 4, but such programs would give the
average as 3.

Recording errors and transcription errors


Humans doing repetitive tasks make errors. It is easy to write down an incorrect number while
recording data, and easy to type in an incorrect number when putting the data into a computer
or graphics calculator. Some students find that working in pairs reduces such errors. After the
data has been entered, checking that the data has been recorded and entered correctly is a critical
step in statistical analysis.
In an email, a researcher wrote that she often uses graduate students to enter the data from her
research. As there is a large amount of numerical data to be entered, she has the same data
entered multiple times, by different graduate students, as there are always errors in data entry.
She then averages the values entered, and uses those averages in her analysis.

104

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

Inconsistent symbols
It is important that a consistent symbolism is used for data entry. Some years ago, one of the
authors collected data from a large sample of students, and had his Maths A class enter the data
into a database.
In the Gender field for males, the students entered M, m, male, Male, M and m (the
last two have a space before the letter). The database treated each of these as being different.

EXERCISE 3D
1 Yanna recorded the results of a survey on the number of CDs
owned by the girls in her class into an Excel spreadsheet.

Here are her results for the number of CDs


10 25 30 15 0 50 5 20 20 15
The fifth student Yanna asked did not know how many CDs
she owned, so Yanna wrote down a zero for her.
a If Yanna uses the spreadsheet to calculate the average
number of CDs, what will the result be?
b What is the correct average?
2 In 2000, a state Education Department gave a Mathematics test to a group of secondary students
to determine their mastery of basic mathematics. The funding for each school in the state was
partly based on how well the students of that school did on this test. If a student was absent
on the day of the test, the students result was recorded as a zero.
a Comment on this method of recording test results for absent students.
b Why might the Education Department have done this?
3 Enter these numbers into the first three lists of your
graphics calculator. Now calculate the total of each list
(your calculator can do this for you). Check your totals
against that given in the answers, and correct any errors.
Comment on how accurate you were in entering these
numbers.

0:8245
0:7723
0:0775
0:7301
0:2054
0:1898
0:7693
0:4311
0:8084
0:8330
0:2722
0:6047
0:2599
0:4948
0:2310
0:9102
0:1580
0:6802
0:7587
0:7571

0:7644
0:8639
0:7285
0:4231
0:6964
0:5592
0:1817
0:1287
0:7704
0:5124
0:1975
0:8615
0:0281
0:2117
0:8008
0:1652
0:4762
0:0279
0:2854
0:0481

0:1784
0:1095
0:1968
0:1729
0:1573
0:0329
0:4380
0:6198
0:6964
0:8954
0:3187
0:6510
0:9480
0:2931
0:9410
0:8349
0:6756
0:3510
0:4600
0:5607

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

105

4 You have just completed a large survey about the buying habits of teenagers, and have employed
the students in your Mathematics B class to enter the data into a spreadsheet. One of the
questions was How knowledgable are you about Internet shopping?.

The choices were:

very knowledgable
knowledgable
somewhat knowledgable
what is the Internet?
what is shopping?

Decide how you want this data to be entered into a spreadsheet, and then write a clear set of
instructions for the students doing the data entry.

VISUALISING DATA

A picture is worth a thousand words. This is true in statistics as well, though it might be phrased
as, A picture is worth a thousand data values. Visual displays show patterns that exist in a mass
of data. The historical note at the start of this chapter is one striking example. Here is another.

THE CHALLENGER DISASTER


On January 28, 1986 the space shuttle Challenger exploded. Seven astronauts died because two large rubber
O-rings leaked during takeoff. These rings had lost their
resiliency because of the low temperature at the time of
the flight. The air temperature was about 00 Celsius,
and the temperature of the O-rings about 6 degrees below that.
The link between O-ring damage and ambient temperature had been established prior to the flight. The engineers at Morton Thiokol Inc had recommended that
the flight be delayed. Unfortunately their argument was
not accepted by their management, and the launch proceeded with disastrous consequences. Might this scatterplot have helped?
damage index

O- ring damage index v temperature


12
10
8
6
4
2
0

10

15

20

25

30

temperature (C)

Data from previous flights


Temperature (o C) Damage index
12
11
14
4
14
4
17
2
19
0
19
0
19
0
19
0
19
0
20
0
21
4
21
0
21
4
21
0
21
0
22
0
23
0
24
4
24
0
24
0
26
0
26
0
27
0

106

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

COLUMN GRAPHS, PIE GRAPHS, TIME SERIES GRAPHS


AND SCATTER PLOTS
Most graphs of data in newspapers, textbooks and magazines, and on television, tend to be one of
four types:

Travelling to work

Travelling to work

200

car

150
100

bus

50

bike

walk

train

bus

method of travel

number of people

car

method of travel

number of people

Column graphs (which include horizontal bar graphs and picture graphs)

bike
walk
train
50

100

150
200
number of people

Travelling to work

150

method
car
bus
bike
walk
train

100
50

car

bus

bike

walk

train
method of travel

number
154
68
35
22
10

These graphs show (and compare) the frequency or relative frequency of data values in each
category.
Pie graphs and 100% bar graphs

Travelling to work

walk

train

Travelling to work

bike
car
bus

0%

car

20%

40%

bus

60%

bike

80%

walk

Pie graphs and 100% bar graphs show the percentage or relative size of each category.

100%

train

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

Time series graph

Time series graphs


show trends over
time. Showing more
than one line graph
on the same axes allows for two trends
to be compared.

'000

650

107

NEW MOTOR VEHICLE SALES

600

national
550
500
450
'000

45
40

our state

35

moving annual total car sales


MAY'94

MAY'95

MAY'96

Scatterplot

MAY'97

MAY'98

MAY'99

MAY'00

MAY'01

age (years)

Length of dugongs
3
2.5
2
1.5

length (m)
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

Scatterplots show the relationship between two variables.

Given some data and a question to be answered, your job is to decide how to best display the story
that the data have to tell. Often one of the above graph types will be useful. If so, use software (for
example, the graphing program in Microsoft Excel) to draw the graph.

EXAMPLE 3.5
For each of the following, state whether a column graph, pie graph, time series graph
or scatterplot would be most appropriate.
a The Student Council has collected data on the percentage of students in each year
level who smoke.
b A scientist has collected data on the number of road deaths in Queensland over the
last ten Easter long weekends.
c The Student Council has collected data on the sources of its income, and wishes to
know which fund-raising activities have been most successful.
a This data is best shown as a column graph. Column graphs can show the frequencies
of different categories, which is what is wanted here.
b The scientist is interested in the trend in road deaths, and a time series graph will
show this.
c This data is best displayed as a pie graph, which will show what percentage of total
income comes from each source.

108

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

GRAPHICAL EXCELLENCE
The column, pie and time series graphs above are very useful. They clearly display important
patterns in the data, but they are all one-dimensional. They only show a count, a percentage,
a trend or a relationship. It is instructive to view some graphs that are able to clearly show
relationships between multiple variables.
The graphs in the example and the exercises are from The Visual Display of Quantitative Information
by Edward R. Tufte, and the website Gallery of Data Visualisation
(http://www.math.yorku.ca/SCS/Gallery/).
This graph is considered by many to be the best graph ever drawn. It was drawn by Charles Joseph
Minard, a French engineer, in 1885 and shows the terrible fate of Napoleans army in Russia. It
combines a time series graph with a data map.

The grey band represents the march to Moscow. The width of the band shows the size of the army
(initially 422 000 men) at various stages on the march. Numbers are given at intervals, which
show the size of the army at that point. The black band represents the return journey. It is linked
to a temperature scale near the bottom of the map, as the severe cold of this Russian winter was
the cause of death of many of the soldiers. The map shows six variables: the size of the army at
different stages of the campaign, the location (considered as two variables), the direction the army
was travelling, the temperature during the retreat, and dates during the retreat.
Besides showing the movement of the main army, the graph also shows the movement of soldiers
sent to protect the rear and the flank of the army. It shows the horrible human cost of crossing the
Berezina River, and how the army finally struggled back to Poland, with only 4 000 men surviving
the march to Moscow.

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

109

EXERCISE 3E.1
1 For each of the following, state which graph or graphs (column graph, pie graph, time series
graph or scatterplot) would best display the data.
a The student council has data on the number of pieces of litter on the oval at the end of
each lunch hour for the past fortnight.
b A trade union wants to inform its members about how its budget is allocated for the next
financial year.
c Johann Kepler carefully gathered data on the orbital period of a planet (i.e., the number
of years it takes to revolve around the Sun) and the average distance that the planet is
from the Sun. He was hoping to find a relationship between the two.
d Prior to a new dam being built, an ecologist has gathered data on the number of each
species of animal currently living in the affected area.
e A cricket statistician has data on which part of the boundary Steve Waugh has hit each
of his fours in his Test career.
f A researcher has collected data on the monthly unemployment rate and inflation rate over
the past twenty years. He wants to know if there is a relationship between the two.
2 This graph, showing the life cycle of the Japanese beetle, is very rich in the information it
provides. Study this graph carefully. What does this graph tell you about the life cycle of the
Japanese beetle?
Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

3 Florence Nightingale is best known as the mother


of modern nursing. In statistical circles she is
also known as one of the early proponents, along
with Playfair, of the visual display of data. She
was the originator of the Coxcomb graph. This
graph was used to vividly show that the majority of deaths during the Crimean War were attributable to non-battle causes (largely poor sanitation) and hence were preventable.

a In this graph, the number of deaths is


proportional to the area. What proportion
of deaths in January 1855 was caused in
battle?
b Comment on the effectiveness of this graph.

Aug

Sept

Oct

Nov

Dec

Causes of mortality in the army in the East


April 1854 to March 1855

July

non-battle
battle

August

June
May
April 1854

September
October

March

November
February

December
January 1855

110

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

GRAPHICAL INTEGRITY
This graph shows road deaths in Tasmania from 1970 to 1994. It clearly shows how the number
of road deaths is decreasing, and the effects of three major policy changes: compulsory seatbelts,
random breath testing and speed cameras. This graph has graphical integrity. It tells the story of
road deaths in Tasmania clearly and honestly.

Tasmanian road deaths


140
120
100
80
60
after
compulsory
seatbelts

40
20
0

after 0.05
random
breath
testing

1972

after
speed
cameras

1983

1993

Graphical integrity means that the visual display must be honest in how it shows the data.

1981

1985

1989

Fuel economy standards


four cylinder cars (1981 2001)
Average distance travelled
(in kilometres per litre of fuel
highway driving)

8.8

9.6

10.4

10.9

1991

11.4

1993

11.9

1995

12.6

1997

13.4

1999

13.7

2001

The graph shows the fuel economy standards to be met by manufacturers of four cylinder cars from
1981 to 2001. The numbers on the right represent the standard for each year, in kilometres driven
per litre.
13:7
+ 1:56: Now the graph
From the data, the ratio of distances travelled per litre of fuel is
8:8
implies that the length of each horizontal line represents the standard for that year. Based on the
lengths of the lines representing 1981 and 2001, the ratio of line lengths is 78
7 + 11:1. The Lie
Factor quantifies the visual effect of misleading graphs:
Lie Factor =
For this graphic

Lie factor =

ratio depicted by the graphic


ratio in data
11:1
+ 7:1
1:56

The ratio of line lengths is 7:1 times as great as the ratio of their corresponding data values.

111

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

EXAMPLE 3.6
Study this graph carefully. Discuss why it is dishonest in its state-by-state comparison.

$
70 000

Basic parliamentary salaries

Interstate comparison October 1993


65 230
new salary

65 000
60 000
55 000
50 000
45 000
40 000

Fed. Qld NSW Vic. SA

WA

NT ACT Tas.

Compare the Federal and Tasmanian salaries.


(67 500)
= 1:44.
(47 000)

From the data, the ratio of Federal salaries to Tasmanian salaries is given by

By measuring the bars in the bar graph, the ratio of the height of the Federal salaries bar
to the height of the Tasmanian salaries bar is given by 28
7 = 4. The Lie Factor is given by:
ratio depicted by the graphic
ratio in data
4
=
1:44
= 2:78

Lie Factor =

The Lie Factor equals 2:78. An honest graph would have a Lie Factor equal to 1.

If you turn to the financial section of any issue of The Courier-Mail newspaper, and look for the all
ordinaries graph, you will see a time-series graph similar to the first graph below.

3260
3240
3220
3200
3180
3160
3140

date
01
1/
/0

/0

1/

01
24

01
23

/0

1/

01
22

/0

1/

01
21

/0

1/

01
20

/0

1/

01
19

1/
/0
18

/0

1/

01

3120

17

All Ords graph with this data


Date
Index
Jan 17
3240:7
Jan 20
3207:5
Jan 21
3189:4
Jan 22
3216:5
Jan 23
3163:9
Jan 24
3254:2
(y-scale from 3120 to 3280)

index

All ordinaries graph


3280

112

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

Even though the vertical scale starts at 3120 and not 0, this graph has graphical integrity. The
differences between this graph and the previous one are:

Line vs column graph


When viewing a column graph, the reader first sees and mentally compares the heights and areas
of the columns. This mental picture is not formed so readily with line graphs.

Seeing change
The primary purpose of the all ords graph is to show the change in the all ords index, as that is
what people who view the graph want to know. By restricting the range on the vertical scale,
the change is more apparent.

The audience
People who use all ords graphs know what the graph shows. If this graph was shown to a class
of Year 8 students, much care would have to be taken to ensure that the students realised that
the changes that the graph shows are in reality not as large as they appear.

EXERCISE 3E.2

THE SHRINKING FAMILY DOCTOR


Percentage of Doctors Devoted Solely to Family Practice

1 Calculate the Lie Factor for The


Shrinking Family Doctor graphic.
Note that this graphic uses area to
show one-dimensional data. The size
of the effect is given by the comparative areas of the doctors, and not their
heights. If the shapes are similar, as
they are here, the ratio of areas is the
square of the ratio of heights.

2
Height 1
Area ratio =
Height 2

1964
27%

1 : 3 167
6 694

Use the largest and smallest graphics


to determine the area ratio.

1990
12.0%

1 : 4 232
6 212

1:2 247 RATIO TO POPULATION


8 023

a Calculate the Lie Factor for this advertisement which claims


to show how the interest rate increases every
three months if you keep your money
in this account for up to a year .
b Note that the font
size increases as the
size of the doll increases. Why do you
think the advertisement was designed
this way?

1975
16.0%

4
4
4
60 %

55 %

first
3-month
period

second
3-month
period

90 %
third
3-month
period

00 %
fourth
3-month
period

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

Date
Jan 2
Jan 3
Jan 4
Jan 5
Jan 8
Jan 9

$US
55:45
55:63
56:48
55:59
57:03
56:81

113

This table shows the value of the Australian dollar from 2 January,
2001 to 9 January, 2001.
a Enter this data into your graphics calculator, and display it
using a y-scale from 53.5 to 57.5.
b Now change the y-scale so it is from 0 to 57.5:
c Comment on the effectiveness of the second graph.

1999
fees
4 This is a replica of a time series graph inUniversitys
tended to compare the change in the annual
annual
fees of a prestigious university with its rankfees
1965
ing amongst all universities.
Some statisticians think it has earned the title
The Worst Graph in the World, partly because
it gives a clear picture that is exactly opposite
1989
Universitys
to what was intended.
ranking
a What message do you think the graph is
1999
trying to convey?
year
b What message does it convey, at least at first glance?
c List the features (or lack of features) that put it in the running as The Worst Graph in the
World.
d Give some suggestions to the graphic artist who created this graph about how the graph
could be improved.

a By drawing a connected scatterplot on your graphics calculator, redraw the graphic for
Fuel Economy Standards on page 110 as a simple time series.
b What additional information does this graph show that the original graph did not?

QUANTITATIVE DATA

The remainder of this chapter is about the display and summarising of quantitative data.

CLASS ACTIVITY

GATHERING DATA FROM YOUR CLASS


For the student of statistics, there are two main sources of datasets - interesting
data collected by others, and data collected in class. Both sources should be
used. The datasets from outside the classroom highlight how statistics is used
in the real world, while data collected in the classroom are interesting because
they are about you. The survey for the class is as follows:
1 Guess the width of the room in metres.
2 Estimate the number of hours you spend watching TV in a typical week.
3 Estimate the number of hours you spend using a computer in a typical week.
4 Estimate the number of hours you spend on the telephone during a typical week.
5 Estimate the number of hours you spend doing homework and assignments in a typical week.
6 Estimate the amount of money you earn (or are given) in a typical week.
7 Estimate the number of hours you spend playing sport in a typical week.
8 Estimate the number of CDs that you own.

114

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

Instructions for carrying out surveys and the survey form (which can be photocopied for class use)
are in Appendix 2.

DISPLAYING QUANTITATIVE DATA

In 1798, Henry Cavendish measured the mean density of the earth using an instrument called a
torsion balance.
While the density of the earth is not uniform (the centre of the Earth is heavier than the crust), the
value of the mean density is important in determining the Earths composition.
The units are grams/cm3 .
The data are:

5:50
5:34
5:10

5:57
5:26
5:86

5:42
5:44
5:58

5:61
5:46
5:27

5:53
5:55
5:85

5:47
5:34
5:65

4:88
5:30
5:39

5:62
5:36

5:63
5:79

4:07
5:75

5:29
5:29

For this dataset the variable is the mean density measurement.


A histogram is a graphical display that shows the shape of the data.
To construct a histogram, we first need to make a frequency table. The most important decision is
that of class interval, since a poor choice of class interval can give a false impression of the shape
of the data. (Class interval is sometimes referred to as bin width.)
For the above dataset, one choice is to group the data into these intervals - 4.00 to 4.09, 4.10 to
4.19, up to 5.70 to 5.79. Here the class interval is 0.1 unit.
The frequency table and the histogram are shown below.

4:0
4:1
4:2
4:3
4:4
4:5
4:6
4:7
4:8
4:9

x
- 4:09
- 4:19
- 4:29
- 4:39
- 4:49
- 4:59
- 4:69
- 4:79
- 4:89
- 4:99

tally
j

freq.
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0

5:0
5:1
5:2
5:3
5:4
5:5
5:6
5:7
5:8

x
- 5:09
- 5:19
- 5:29
- 5:39
- 5:49
- 5:59
- 5:69
- 5:79
- 5:89

tally
j
jjjj

jjjj
jjjj

jjjj
jjjj
jj
jj

freq.
0
1
4
5
4
5
4
2
2

A histogram shows the shape of the dataset and displays unusual data values. This histogram shows
a dataset that is reasonably symmetric, with the exception of a single value a long way from the
rest of the data values and another that is less far from the main group of observations.
Values significantly different from the majority of the data values are called outliers. Outliers are
of particular interest. They may be errors and hence can be discarded, or they may be the seed for
a momentous scientific discovery.

For example, the satellite that was monitoring the ozone level in the atmosphere was programmed to
discard outliers - readings that were too low. It took ten years for scientists to find out that the readings being discarded were in fact accurate and that there was an ozone hole above the South Pole.

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

115

The metric dataset

EXAMPLE 3.7
Shortly after metric units were introduced in Australia, forty-four students were asked to guess,
to the nearest metre, the width of the lecture theatre in which they were sitting. The true width
of the theatre was 13.1 metres.
Guesses: 8
9 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13
13 13 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 16 16
16 17 17 17 17 18 18 20 22 25 27 35 38 40
a What is the variable?
b Construct two histograms, each with a different class interval.
c Choose the class interval that gives the clearest picture of the dataset. Justify your
choice.
a The variable is the estimated width of the lecture hall.
b The first display uses the default settings of a particular
model of graphics calculator. In the second display the
class interval has been decreased to one unit.
c The second histogram is more informative. It shows
that the values of 10 and 15 appear more frequently than
neighbouring values. This pattern is common when the
data values are estimates - people often round to the
nearest multiple of 5 or 10. The pattern is not evident
in the first histogram.

One of the main purposes in constructing a histogram is to show the shape of the dataset. The
choice of class interval can have an effect on the picture that the histogram reveals. Hence it is
common to construct a number of histograms for the same set of data, and choose the one that gives
the best picture of the dataset. As histograms are very tedious to construct by hand, statisticians
use a statistics program to construct histograms. Once you have constructed a few histograms by
hand yourself, to get a feel for the process, we recommend that you use a graphics calculator or a
computer for this task.
Datasets are classified by shape as follows:

This is a symmetric distribution, in which the left


half looks roughly like the
right half.

This dataset is skewed, as


it has a tail on one side.
This histogram is called
right-skewed as the tail is
towards the right.

A multimodal dataset has more


than one hump. Such a dataset
may contain data from two groups
with different characteristics, so
each hump represents the centre
of one of the groups. Note that
a multimodal dataset may also be
symmetric or skewed.

116

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

EXERCISE 3G
1 Here is a set of 27 numbers:
10 6 16 8 5 13 13 5 15 7 10 8 5 8 11 8 5 8 5 18 3 4 5 9 12 2 16
a Construct a histogram from the numbers, using these class intervals: 1-2, 3-4, .... 17-18:
b Construct a histogram from the numbers, using these class intervals: 1-3, 4-6, .... 16-18.
c Construct a histogram from the numbers, using these class intervals: 1-4, 5-8, ..., 17-20.
d Construct a histogram from the numbers, using these class intervals: 1-5, 6-10, ..., 16-20.
e Describe the shape of each histogram. How similar are they?
f Which of the above histograms gives a truest picture of the data? Justify your response.
2 The Rainfall dataset gives the average annual rainfall for 20 cities around the world, measured
in millimetres.
Algiers
762
Dublin 762
Madrid
432
Athens
406
Geneva 864
Moscow 635
Beirut
889
Havana 1219
Oslo
686
Berlin
583
Lagos
1829
Paris
559
Bogota
1067
La Paz 584
Rome
765
Bombay 1803
Lima
51
Vienna
660
Cairo
25
London 586
a Enter this data into your graphics calculator. Now draw at least three different histograms,
choosing a different class interval each time.
b Choose the histogram that best displays the data, and comment on what the data tell
about rainfall in these cities around the world.

STEMPLOTS

A stemplot (also called a stem-and-leaf plot) is a display similar to a histogram. It alerts us to


outliers, and gives a picture of the overall shape. Its main advantages over the histogram are that
it is easier to construct by hand, and each data value is retained.
Because the original data is available, it is possible to make some statements about the spread and
the centre of the data. It is most effective for displaying small datasets with only positive values.

CLASS ACTIVITY

GREED
The entire class stands up. The teacher throws a die twice, and adds the numbers.
This is the starting score of every student. Students who are happy with that score sit down, and
record their score for that round. The others remain standing.
The teacher throws the die again. If the number is not a 2, the students still standing add the
number to their total. Students may now elect to sit down, and record their total, or remain
standing for another throw. If a number is a 2, then the students still standing lose all of their
points, sit down and record a score of 0 for that round. The round continues until all students
have sat down, or a 2 is thrown.
The game consists of 5 rounds, and the object of the game is to maximise your score after 5
rounds.

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

117

EXAMPLE 3.8
A class of year 11 Maths B students played a game called Greed as detailed above.
Each value below represents the score for one student in the class.
50 17 27 0 56 66 80 35 37 24 13 1 7 12 23 32 52 2 0 28 31 26 24
Display the data with a stemplot. Discuss what information the stemplot gives us about the
data.
We will divide each number into a stem and a leaf. The tens digits form the stem, and they
are written in a column, as shown in A. The units digit of each number is a leaf. For the first
number, 50, 5 is the stem, and 0 is the leaf. The number is added to the stemplot as shown in
B. The next number, 17, has a stem of 1 and a leaf of 7, while 27 has a stem of 2 and a leaf
of 7. The number 0 is represented with a stem of 0 and a leaf of 0. These numbers have been
added to the stemplot in C. The completed stemplot is shown is D.
Stem
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Stem
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Leaves

Stem
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Leaves
0
7
7

Stem
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Leaves
01720
732
743864
5721
062
6
0

For a stemplot to give an accurate indication of the shape of a dataset, it is important to write the
leaves neatly in columns.

THE STORY THAT THE STEMPLOT TELLS US


This stemplot shows us that the majority of the students had scores under 40.
The range of the data is found by subtracting the minimum score from the maximum score.
So, the range is 80 0 = 80.
The score of 80 is an outlier. As it is a real value, it needs to be retained in this dataset.
The data appear to be bunched towards the lower scores, with a smaller number of larger scores, so
the shape of the dataset is said to be right-skewed (Note: for a stemplot, right-skewed means
the skew is towards the bottom of the stemplot).
The row with the greatest number of scores is the row with the stem of 2, so this group of scores,
from 20-29, is called the modal class.
There are 23 scores altogether, so the middle score, called the median, can be found by pairing
off the smallest value with the largest, then the second smallest with the second largest, and so on.
The number remaining unpaired at the end is the 12th score, which is 26.
Sometimes it may be useful to draw a back-to-back stemplot. A second set of data is added as
leaves to the left of the stem.

118

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

EXAMPLE 3.9
The students then played a second game of Greed. We can add this data to the stemplot by
adding the new set of leaves to the left of the stem rather than the right. What story does the
data tell us?
Second game Stem First game
0
0
01720
24
1
732
82
2
743864
9082
3
5721
955001
4
746
5
062
01
6
6
474
7
8
0
9
For the second game, the minimum is still 0, while the maximum is 77, so the range is
77 0 = 77. This is not significantly different from the first game.
The modal class is 40-49. There are three scores in the 70s, but there are no outliers in this
dataset.
The dataset appears to be roughly symmetric, with maybe a slight skew towards the smaller
values. The median is 41.
Overall the scores in the dataset have increased in the second round, which suggests that the
students may have used more effective strategies.

ADVANCED STEMPLOTS
Advanced stemplots really is a contradictory phrase as stemplots, by their nature, should be simple
to construct. However, there may be times when a stemplot is desired and constructing it involves
a little bit more effort than usual. An advanced stemplot includes one or more of these features:

Split stems
One purpose of a stemplot is to display the shape of the distribution. To achieve a satisfactory
display of some datasets, the stem is best split into two parts, for example, with one part
containing values from 0 to 4 and the other part from 5 to 9. Other datasets may benefit if the
stem is split into five parts: 0-1, 2-3, 4-5, 6-7, 8-9. Very occasionally it is best to split the stem
into ten parts.

Truncated data values


For data with a large number of significant digits, it is common to truncate the data so the leaf
consists of a single digit. Very little information is lost by doing this, as the essence of the
original data is retained. Data are truncated rather than rounded as it is easier to do.

Outliers
Imagine a dataset that contains an extremely large outlier. It is not sensible to extend the stem to
include the outlier, if it means including row after row of empty stems. Most computer-generated
stemplots display the outlier as a data value outside of the stemplot proper, at the top or bottom
of the stemplot as appropriate, and labelled as HIGH or LOW. It is a matter of judgement when
to adopt this approach.

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

119

Scaling
If the values to be plotted are extremely large or extremely small, it may be necessary to scale the
data by multiplying or dividing by a power of 10. For example if the data contain decimal points,
the statistics program NCSS Jr. scales the data to remove them.
As with histograms, different choices on how the stem is split, if at all, may result in significantly
different pictures of the data. If you are not sure how the stem should be split, do it in a number
of ways and choose the display that you feel reveals the most information about the dataset.

The density dataset revisited (page 114)

EXAMPLE 3.10
Construct a stemplot from the Density dataset.
This stemplot was constructed using a freeware statistics program available from the Internet,
called NCSS 6:0 Jr. This software is on the accompanying CD.
Low
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58

407
8

0
6799
04469
2467
03578
1235
59
56

Unit = 0:01

Comments:
NCSS has chosen a two-digit stem with single digit leaves.
For example, the entry 5.50 is displayed with a stem of 55 and a
leaf of 0. NCSS arranges the leaves on each row in order, from
smallest to biggest.
The outlier is labelled as Low and the entire value (407, representing 4.07) is given in its row.
The scale is given at the bottom. For this dataset NCSS multiplies
each value by 100 to remove the decimal point.
For example, 54 j 2 represents a value of 542. Multiply this by
the unit (0.01) to obtain the original value: 542 0:01 = 5:42

The metric dataset revisited (page 115)

EXAMPLE 3.11
Display the Metric dataset using a stemplot.
0
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
High

89
0000001111
22333
44455555555
6667777
88
0
2
5
27, 35, 38, 40

Comments:
To achieve the best display, NCSS Jr has split the stems into
five parts. The first row that has a stem of 1 contains the
values 10 and 11, the next row with a stem of 1 contains the
values 12 and 13 and so on.
The two peaks are visible in this display. Since the original
data are retained we can see that the reason for these peaks is
that 10 and 15 were common guesses.
There are four high outliers that are given in the High row
at the bottom of the stemplot.
There is no scaling necessary for this stemplot.

120

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

Surnames dataset

EXAMPLE 3.12
I collected data from my students on the length of their first names and surnames.
Here is the dataset:
4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 10 10 11
Display this data with a stemplot.
Stem
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Leaves
00
0000
000 000 0
000 00
000
0
00
0

Comments:
For this dataset I wish to graph one value per row. Since most
numbers contain only one digit, I need to use the digit 0 as a
placeholder for the leaves.
The Unit legend at the bottom shows a slightly different
method of giving the scale.

Unit = 4 j 0 represents 4.0

The Bradmanesque dataset

EXAMPLE 3.13
The table displays the Test cricket batting averages in the period 1946-49 for all batsmen
who averaged over 40.
Construct a stemplot for this data.
Comment on the shape, and the presence of outliers.
Source: Bradmanesque, the AToMIC Project, Geiger et al, 1997
Name
D G Bradman
E de C Weekes
A D Nourse
A R Morris
S G Barnes
D C S Compton
B Mitchell
A L Hassett
A Melville

Country
Aus
WI
RSA
Aus
Aus
Eng
RSA
Aus
RSA

Average
105:72
82:46
68:60
67:00
66:53
61:95
59:55
58:10
55:27

Name
W J Edrich
L Hutton
J D B Robertson
R S Modi
V S Hazare
E A B Rowan
C Washbrook
J Hardstaff jnr
D G Phadkar
C L Walcott

As there are too many digits, we will truncate the data. All we
have lost are a few insignificant decimal places.
The data is right-skewed since the stemplot drawn on its side would
show a skew in that direction. The average scores of Bradman and
Weekes are both outliers as their Test averages are considerably
higher.

Country
Eng
Eng
Eng
Ind
Ind
RSA
Eng
Eng
Ind
WI
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Average
53:09
51:97
51:90
49:78
49:77
48:10
47:85
47:16
46:16
45:00
5677899
113589
1678
2
5

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

121

OUTLIERS
If a dataset contains one or more outliers, you have to make a decision - do you toss them out or
keep them in? As is usual with questions about statistics, the answer is, It depends.. There is no
rule you can apply to answer this question, so you have to use your judgement. Is the data value
a valid member of the dataset?
In Example 3.13, Bradmans test average is an outlier, but it is certainly a valid member of the
dataset. There is no justification for removing it.
Similarly the high guesses in the Metric dataset are genuine guesses, so they probably should be
retained. But the low value in the Density dataset is different. While it is a genuine measurement,
the instruments that were used were very sensitive, and it was easy to make an error. The density
of the Earth is a fixed (but unknown) value, and it is likely that the other measurements are much
closer to this value. We would choose to remove this value from the dataset, on the basis that it is
probably in error due to the difficulty of obtaining accurate measurements.
There is no correct decision about retaining or removing an outlier, but you should be able to justify
the decision that you have made.

EXERCISE 3H
1

a Using the data in Exercise 3G, Question 1, construct a stemplot:


i without splitting the stems
ii splitting the stems into 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19
iii splitting the stems into 0-1, 2-3, ..., 16-17, 18-19
iv splitting the stems into 0, 1, 2, ... , 16, 17, 18
b Use the stemplot in part iii above to determine the median value.
c Which stemplot gives the truest picture of the data? Justify your response.

2 This question refers to the class survey that was discussed on page 113.
a Construct, by hand, a back-to-back stemplot of the number of hours doing homework or
assignments, comparing the male responses to the female responses. Describe the dataset
in a few sentences.
b Construct a histogram of the number of hours of paid work, using the combined data.
Describe the dataset in a few sentences.
3 This is the amount of change in the pockets of a class of students in Rockhampton, measured
in cents. Only coins were counted, not notes.

0 0 0 0 30 50 90 90 120 150 155 170 210 230 270 270 340 560 570
a
b
c
d
e

Construct a stemplot from this data.


Combine this with the data from your class survey to construct a back-to-back stemplot.
Comment on the shapes of the distributions.
Compare the two datasets, noting any unusual or interesting differences.
Coins commonly used in the US are the penny (1 cent), nickel (5 cents), dime (10 cents)
and quarter (25 cents). We are interested in determining how this different currency affects
the amount of change in the pockets of students. The data below is from Prospect High
School, Illinois. Draw a back-to-back stemplot comparing the data from the US high
school with data from your class. Write a few sentences about what the stemplot tells
you.
97 97 15 53 139 31 38 0 50 96 89 111 85 125 98 8 46 150
83 45 84 420 74 5 133 0 155 256 0 15 7 65 98 201 59 111

122

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

4 Here are the lengths of surnames of students from a class of secondary students. Construct
histograms from this data and the data from your class survey, using the same scale, to compare
the lengths of names of students in your class. Write a few brief sentences on what the
histograms tell you.
7 7 7 5 7 6 7 5 4 5 6 5 5 5 5 6 9 6

7 5 6 4 8 7 11 6 4 8 7 4 6 6 8 7 8 5
5 This is the Rowing dataset. It contains the weights in kilograms of the crews participating in
an Oxford and Cambridge rowing race. Reference: The Independent, March 31, 1992
Cambridge 85:7 83:2 88:4 84:1 97:3 92:5 84:6 81:1 49:5
Oxford
84:6 83:9 92:7 83:9 88:9 92:0 79:1 83:2 49:8
a Construct a back-to-back stemplot.

6 This is the Hitchcock dataset. The


stemplot gives the distribution of the
times (in minutes) of the videotape
versions of 22 movies directed by Alfred Hitchcock. What is the median
length of the movies?

Comment on the dataset.


8
9
10
11
12
13

1
1335888
136679
00068
026
Units: 8 j 1 means 81 minutes

7 This is a stemplot showing the sizes of wildlife management areas measured in hectares.
a Three of the areas
are 53, 506 and 5157
hectares respectively.
Identify these values in the stemplot
alongside.

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

b Find the median area.

00111111222222233333344455668999
00000111223345679
1128
29
1
46
1
3

Unit = 1000 Example: 1 j 2 represents 1200

8 A dotplot is another graphical display. It is similar to a stemplot or a histogram, where each


data value is represented by a single dot. Two companies, The Tool Company and The Machine
Company, have made prototype devices to automatically throw softballs a fixed distance. The
dotplot below shows the results of 100 throws for each device. Each device was set to throw
each ball a distance of 55 metres.

12

24

36

48

60

72

12

24

36

48

60

72

tool

machine

Each company argued that its prototype is better. In a sentence or two write an argument to
support each companys prototype.

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

123

SUMMARISING DATA MEASURES


OF THE CENTRE

One useful statistic about a dataset is its centre.


There are two common measures of the centre of a dataset,

the mean (or average)


the median.

As computers and graphics calculators are so fast and accurate at calculating these statistics, we
will confine our paper-and-pencil calculations to small datasets only. You should know how to
calculate these summary statistics, but more important than calculating these statistics is being able
to choose the measure of the centre that is most appropriate for a particular dataset.

MEAN
If we give a class two mathematics exams and we want to know in which exam the students scored
higher, we can compare the centres of the two datasets, by finding the mean (or average).
P
The formula for the mean is
The symbol

x=

is the capital Greek letter sigma, and is an instruction to add the values.

The x represents each data value, while n is the number of data values.
What this formula tells us is, add the data values, and divide by the number of values.

EXAMPLE 3.14
We will use the Density of the Earth dataset again. What is the mean value of these densities?
4.07
5:36
5:58

4.88
5.39
5:61

5.10
5:42
5:62

5.26
5:44
5:63

5.27
5:46
5:65

5.29
5.47
5:75

5:29
5.50
5:79

5:30
5.53
5:85

5.34
5:55
5:86

5:34
5.57

There are 29 values with a sum of 157.17.


P
x
So, the mean x =
n
157:17
=
29
= 5.42

MEDIAN
The median is the middle value of a dataset. There are as many values in the dataset less than
the median as there are values greater than the median.
To find the median, simply list the data values in order, from smallest to biggest, and then
if there are an odd number of values, the median is the middle value
if there are an even number of values, the median is halfway between the two middle values.

124

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

EXAMPLE 3.15
a Find the median of the Density dataset.
b Find i the mean
ii the median

of the data in the Metric dataset.

a The 29 values in the Density dataset above are already in order. The middle value
is the 15th value, as there are 14 values smaller than it and 14 values larger. The
median therefore is 5.46.
b

705
44
= 16.0 metres

i The mean value of the Metric dataset is found by x =

ii There are 44 ordered values in the Metric dataset, so the median is halfway
between the 22nd and the 23rd data values. Since they are both 15, the median
value is 15.

CHOOSING BETWEEN THE MEAN AND THE MEDIAN


Which of the two measures of the centre, the mean or the median, should we use? The answer
depends on the shape of the dataset as well as the presence of outliers, which is why you always
draw a histogram or stemplot before calculating any summary statistics.
Consider the dataset containing the weights in kilograms of
the Cambridge University rowing eight from the previous
exercise, reproduced here.
85:7 83:2 88:4 84:1 97:3 92:5 84:6 81:1 49:5
Shall we choose the mean or the median as our measure of
the centre? Calculating both statistics gives:
mean = 82.9 and median = 84.6
Looking at the dataset, we notice that all of the weights are greater than 80 kg, except one, which
is 49.5 kg. This is the weight of the cox. If we are only interested in the weights of the rowers
themselves, we can eliminate this value, and recalculate the statistics. We now have:
mean = 87.1 and median = 85.2:
The mean has changed substantially, while the median has only changed slightly. The median is
said to be a robust measure, which means that it is not greatly affected by outliers. This is because
the median does not use the actual values of the data in its calculation. If the largest value of a
dataset were 10 and it changed to 10 000, the value of the median would not change. The mean
does use all of the values in its calculation, so it can be greatly affected by an outlier.
Generally the median gives a better measure if

the data are skewed, or


if there are one or more outliers.

Because of the outlier, the median is a better choice as a measure of the centre for this dataset. If
a set of data is symmetric, you can use either the mean or the median, as both measures would be
about the same value.
In the Density of the Earth dataset, the value 4.07 is so far from the other data values, the researcher
may decide that the value is in error and delete it from the dataset.

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

125

If it is deleted, the median only changes slightly, from 5.46 to 5.465, while the value of the mean
rises from 5.42 to 5.47. This is a good indication that the median is preferable in describing the
centre of this dataset, especially if the outlier is retained.

MODE
The mode is the value that has the greatest frequency. Some textbooks call the mode a measure of
the centre of a dataset, but this is not very sensible, since the mode could be a long way from the
centre. (See Exercise 3H, question 3.)
The Density of the Earth dataset is multi-modal, as it has two modes, 5.29 and 5.34, both of which
occur twice. Note that neither of these is close to the mean or the median.

EXERCISE 3I
1 Why is the median considered to be a more robust statistic than the mean?
2 For
a
b
c

each set of numbers below, calculate the i mean ii median.


2 2 3 3 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 13 13 13 13 14 14
23 20 18 25 34 22 22 500
0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 2.0 20.0

3 Using data from the class survey on the number of hours students spend on the computer each
week:
a
b
c
d
4

Draw a histogram for the Male data, and one for the Female data.
Calculate the mean and the median for each gender.
Decide which of the two measures of centre is more appropriate. Justify your decision.
Summarise what the data says about gender differences in the class regarding computer
usage.

a Using data from the class survey, construct a histogram of the estimated width of the
room.
b Calculate the mean and median measurements.
c Which measure of the centre would you use, and why?

5 Give an example of a dataset with ten data values for which the median is a better measure of
the centre than the mean.
6 Of nine numbers in a dataset, eight are given: 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 8
What must be the missing value if the mean is equal to the median?
7

a What is the mode of the pocket money dataset for the Rockhampton students, in Exercise
3H, Question 3 ?
b For this dataset, is the mode a good measure of the centre of the data?

8 Calculate the mean and the median of the Hitchcock dataset, in Exercise 3H , Question 6.
Which measure of the centre should be used? Why?
9 Calculate the mean and median of the Rainfall dataset (Exercise 3G, Question 2 ). Decide
which is the best measure of the centre. Justify your choice.

126

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

10 The mean height of a team of 6 basketball players was 180 cm. A new player was recruited,
and because of this, the mean height rose to 183 cm. How tall was the new player?

SUMMARISING DATA MEASURES


OF SPREAD

The other important measure of a dataset is the amount of spread or variation in the data. In other
words, are the data generally close to the centre, or are they widely spread?
Manufacturers are particularly interested in measures of spread, as controlling the amount of variation in a manufacturing process is important in quality control.
Suppose that you sell computers, 30% of which fail within a week, but the rest last for 30 years.
Only 3% of your competitors computers fail within a week, but the rest last for 5 years. On average
your computers last longer, but whose customers will be most satisfied with their purchase?
Often the measure of spread is more important than the measure of the centre. In Mathematics B
we study three measures of spread.
These are:

the range
the standard deviation and
the interquartile range.

RANGE
The range is found using the formula:
range = the maximum value the minimum value
For example, the range of weights of the members of the Cambridge rowing team is
range = 97.3 kg 49.5 kg
= 47.8 kg
The range as a measure of spread is not very robust.
For example, if we drop the cox from the Cambridge dataset, the range changes from 47.8 kg to
16.2 kg.

STANDARD DEVIATION
A logical method of calculating a measure of spread is to find out how far, on average, the data
values are from the centre. A large answer would indicate that on average the data are very spread
out, while a small answer would indicate that the data is generally close to the centre of the dataset.
A measure of spread based on this principle is called the standard deviation.
To illustrate how the standard deviation is calculated, consider the following dataset of the ages of
8 children:
2 2 5 6 7 7 13 14
First we find the mean of the dataset: x =

56
=7
8

Next we calculate how far each value is from the mean, by subtracting the mean from each.

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

127

These are the values in the second column of the table below, labelled x x.
These values are called the deviations from the mean.
x
2
2
5
6
7
7
13
14
sum

x
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7

xx
5
5
2
1
0
0
6
7
0

(x x)2
25
25
4
1
0
0
36
49
140

To find the average deviations, we start by adding up these deviations. Unfortunately when we add
the deviations, the sum is 0, as the positive and negative values cancel out.
There are two ways around this.
We can ignore the sign of the numbers, by taking their absolute values, and then adding these
absolute values. This results in a measure of spread called the mean deviation. The mean deviation
is not commonly used, as mathematical formulas containing the absolute value are difficult to use.
The alternative is to square the deviations, as squaring either a positive or a negative number will
return a positive answer. This is what we have done in the column headed (x x)2 . The sum of
these squared deviations is 140.
We now divide this sum by the number of scores, 8, to get the average of the squared deviations:
P
(x x)2
140
=
= 17.5
n
8
This value is called the variance, symbolised by 2 , which is read as sigma squared.
Now the units on the ages are years, while the units on the variance are years2 , since we squared the
deviations. In order to get our units back to years, we need to take the square root. This gives us
a measure of spread called the standard deviation, which is shown by the symbol (pronounced
sigma).
We can summarise this whole process with a single, neat formula for the standard deviation:
rP
(x x)2
=
n
This formula says

Find the mean, x.


Subtract it from each of the scores, x.
Square these values, and then add up the answers.
Divide this total by the number of scores.
Finally take the square root to counteract the effect of the earlier squaring.

While it is important to understand how this formula gives us a measure of spread, you do not
need to do extensive calculations with it. Any scientific calculator, graphics calculator or statistics
software package will do the calculation for you. It is more important that you understand what
information the standard deviation is giving you about the data.

128

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

Note that we used the mean to calculate the standard deviation. If we use the mean as the measure
of centre, then we should use the standard deviation as the measure of spread.

EXAMPLE 3.16
Calculate the standard deviation for the following set of numbers: 2, 5, 4, 6, 7, 5, 6
2+5+4+6+7+5+6
7
35
=
7
=5
rP
(x x)2
=
n
r
16
=
5
x=

Score (x)
2
4
5
5
6
6
7
35

x
5
5
5
5
5
5
5

xx
3
1
0
0
1
1
2

(x x)2
9
1
0
0
1
1
4
16

+ 1:79

EXERCISE 3J.1
1 Calculate by hand the standard deviation of the following sets of numbers. Check your answers
using your graphics calculator.
a
b
c
d
e

1 1 2 2 3 4 5 6
1 1 2 2 3 4 5 54
12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12
48 49 50 51 52
0 25 50 75 100

INTERQUARTILE RANGE
The interquartile range is the measure of spread that is normally used with the median.
The median gives us the middle of the dataset, the value that divides the dataset into two halves.
The interquartile range gives us the range of the middle 50 percent of the data values.
Here is how the interquartile range is calculated:

Find the median. Now consider two subsets of the dataset: the set of those values
smaller than the median, and those values larger than the median. Note that neither
set contains the median itself.

Find the median of the subset of values smaller than the median.
This gives us the first quartile, or Q1 .

Find the median of the subset of values larger than the median.
This gives us the third quartile, or Q3 .

The interquartile range, (IQR), is found by subtracting: IQR = Q3 Q1 .

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

129

EXAMPLE 3.17
Find the interquartile range of the set of ages: 2 2 5 6 7 7 13 14
The median is 6.5, halfway between 6 and 7. The two sets are:
2 2 5 6 7 7 13 14
The median of the first set, Q1 , is halfway between 2 and 5, so it is 3.5.
The median of the second set, Q3 , is halfway between 7 and 13, so it is 10.
The interquartile range is IQR = Q3 Q1
= 10 3:5
= 6:5
We will add one more data value to our set of ages, to illustrate how we find the IQR if we have
an odd number of data values.

EXAMPLE 3.18
Find the interquartile range of this set of ages: 1 2 2 5 6 7 7 13 14:
The median is 6, which is the middle value. The two sets are:
1 2 2 5 6 7 7 13 14
Note that we do not include the median in either set.
The median of the first set, Q1 , is halfway between 2 and 2, so it is 2.
The median of the second set, Q3 , is halfway between 7 and 13, so it is 10.
The interquartile range is IQR = Q3 Q1
= 10 2
=8

Note that the interquartile range, like the median, is a robust measure. If the largest age is 99 rather
than 14, the interquartile range would not change.
If we use the median as the measure of centre, then we must use the interquartile range as the
measure of spread.
The median, Q1 and Q3 can all be calculated by all graphics calculators and statistics software.
You should understand how these statistics are calculated, but you will only be asked to calculate
them by hand if the datasets are very small. For large datasets you are expected to use either a
calculator or computer software.

FIVE-NUMBER SUMMARY
We are now able to summarise a dataset, using the five-number summary.

The five-number summary consists of (in order) the minimum value, the first quartile Q1,
the median, the third quartile Q3 , and the maximum value.

130

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

Using our original set of ages (Example 3:17), the five-number summary is:
minimum = 2
Q1 = 3:5
median = 6:5
Q3 = 10
maximum = 14
Graphics calculators and statistics software will calculate the five-number summary for any dataset.
Note that there are a variety of methods for calculating Q1 and Q3 , so your calculator may not give
exactly the answers you were expecting. For large datasets they should be close, though.

GRAPHICS CALCULATOR ACTIVITY


Recall the dataset of the weights in kilograms of the members of the Cambridge
University rowing eight, not including the cox.
85:7 83:2 88:4 84:1 97:3 92:5 84:6 81:1
What to do:
1 Assume that every member of the team gained 5 kilograms over the Christmas break.
What effect on the data set would this have on the
a mean
b median
c standard deviation
d interquartile range?
2 You wish to publish this dataset in an English magazine. They have asked you to convert
all of the weights to pounds, which you can do by multiplying the number of kilograms
by 2:2. What effect on the data set does this have on the
a mean
b median
c standard deviation
d interquartile range?

The first question looks at the effect of adding a constant to all members of a dataset, while
the second question looks at the effect of multiplying all members of a dataset by a constant.
The following question combines the two operations. This is called an affine transformation
of the dataset.
3 The following data is the body temperature, measured in degrees Fahrenheit, of a group of
34 people. You wish to convert these temperatures to degrees Celsius, using the formula
C = 59 (F 32):

96:3
97:9
98:7

97:0
98:0
98:8

97:1
98:0
98:8

97:1
98:2
98:8

97:3
98:2
99:0

97:4
98:3
99:1

97:4
98:4
99:2

97:5
98:5
99:3

97:6
98:6
99:4

What effect on the data set will this have on


a mean
b median
c standard deviation

97:6
98:6
99:5
d

97:8
98:6

97:8
98:7

interquartile range?

EXERCISE 3J.2
1 Calculate by hand the interquartile range of the following sets of numbers:
a
c
e

1 1 2 2 3 4 5 6
12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12
0 25 50 75 100

b
d
f

1 1 2 2 3 4 5 54
48 49 50 51 52
12 3 4 2 11 8

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

131

2 For each of the sets of numbers in question 1, determine the five-number summary.
3 Consider the Rowing dataset (Exercise 3H, Question 5).
a
b
c
d
e
f
g

Calculate, by hand, the standard deviation of each set of data with the outlier included.
Calculate, by hand, the standard deviation of each set of data with the outlier not included.
How much effect do the outliers have on the standard deviations?
Calculate, by hand, the IQR of each set of data with the outlier included.
Calculate, by hand, the IQR of each set of data with the outlier not included.
How much effect did the outlier have on the IQR?
Give the five-number summary for both datasets, with and without the outlier.

4 Use the data in the class survey on the number of hours spent playing sport.
a
b
c
d
e

Draw a histogram or stemplot of the data.


Calculate the mean and the median.
Calculate the standard deviation and the interquartile range.
Give the five-number summary.
Decide which of the two sets of summary statistics is more appropriate. Justify your
answer.

5 Use the data in the class survey on the amount of money earned in a given week, for both
Males and Females.
a
b
c
d
e
f

Display the data using appropriate graphical displays.


Calculate the mean and the median for each set of data.
Calculate the standard deviation and the interquartile range of each set of data.
Give the five-number summary.
Decide which of the two sets of summary statistics is more appropriate.
Make a statement comparing and contrasting these two datasets.

6 Consider the Rainfall dataset (Exercise 3G, Question 2).


a Calculate, using any method you wish, the standard deviation and the interquartile range.
b Give the five-number summary.
7 Give an example of a dataset with five data values that has a standard deviation of 0.
8 A dataset consists of 1000 zeros, 1000 ones, 1000 twos and 1000 threes, that is, there are 4000
data values altogether.
a Find the median.

Find the first quartile, Q1 .

9 Match each histogram with a set of summary statistics. Note the horizontal scale.
a

10

15

20

mean
standard deviation
median
IQR

10.5
1.4
10.7
2.0

132

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

10

12

10

13

11

18

24

13

mean
standard deviation
median
IQR

10.2
2:1
10.5
2.5

mean
standard deviation
median
IQR

10.2
4.1
11.9
6.8

mean
standard deviation
median
IQR

8:8
2:8
8:0
1:9

30

10.1
2.7
10.1
4:2

16

mean
standard deviation
median
IQR

14

16

BOXPLOTS

A simple boxplot (also called a box-and-whisker plot) shows the five-number summary graphically. Here is how it is constructed:

Draw a number line from the minimum value to the maximum value. The number line can
be drawn either vertically or horizontally.

Mark the minimum, Q1 , the median, Q3 and the maximum on the number line.
The interquartile range is shown by drawing a rectangular box between Q1 and Q3 .
The median is displayed as a line across the box. Lines, called whiskers, are drawn from
the sides of the box out to the minimum and maximum values.

The following example will clarify this.

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

133

EXAMPLE 3.19
Draw a simple boxplot from the five-number summary in Example 3.16.
The 5 number summary is:
minimum = 2,

median = 6.5,

Q1 = 3.5,

Q3 = 10,

maximum = 14.

10 11 12 13 14

The simple boxplot can occasionally give a misleading picture of the dataset. A long whisker
implies that the dataset is skewed in that direction, but the reality may be that there is a single large
outlier to which the whisker is drawn. With a simple boxplot there is no way of interpreting a long
whisker.
A standard boxplot (usually just called a boxplot) is a bit more difficult to construct, but is a much
more useful display, as outliers are specifically identified. A long whisker on a standard boxplot is
a strong indicator that the data is skewed in that direction. An example will clarify this.

EXAMPLE 3.20
Construct both a simple and a standard boxplot using the Density of the Earth dataset,
using a graphics calculator. Compare the two displays.
From the simple boxplot alone we can not tell if the long
whisker to the left is because of a dataset that is skewed to
the left, or due to one or more outliers.
A standard boxplot better shows the information, and indicates
that this dataset is symmetric (since the box is symmetric), with
a possible slight skew to the left (since the left whisker is longer
than the right whisker), and has one outlier.

CONSTRUCTING A STANDARD BOXPLOT BY HAND


The box of a standard boxplot is identical to that of a simple boxplot. It is only the whiskers that
may be drawn differently. If there are no outliers, the simple boxplot and the standard boxplot are
identical.
With a standard boxplot, the left whisker extends to the smallest data value that is within 1.5 IQRs
of Q1 . All data values smaller than that are marked separately, as outliers.
The right whisker extends to the largest data value that is within 1.5 IQRs of Q3 . All data values
larger than that are marked separately, as outliers.
Here is an example to clarify this process, using the Density of the Earth dataset:

Draw the box


Find the five-number summary.
Draw the number line, the box and the median.

min = 4.07 Q1 = 5.295 median = 5.46


Q3 = 5.615 max = 5.86

134

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

Draw the left whisker


Calculate the interquartile range.

IQR = Q3 Q1 = 5:615 5:295 = 0:32

Multiply the interquartile range by 1.5:

0:32 1:5 = 0:48

Find Q1 1.5 IQR.

5:295 0:48 = 4:815

In this case there is one outlier at 4.07 .

Mark any data value smaller than 4.815


as an outlier.
Extend the whisker to the smallest data
value that is not marked as an outlier.

Draw the left whisker to 4.88.

Draw the right whisker


Find Q3 + 1.5 IQR.

5:615 + 0:48 = 6:095

Mark any data value larger than 6.095 as


an outlier.

In this case there are no outliers.

Extend the whisker to the maximum data


value in the dataset.

Extend the right whisker to 5.86.

4.0

4.2

4.4

4.6

4.8

5.0

5.2

5.4

5.6

5.8

Comparing two or more datasets


One of the uses of boxplots is to compare two or more (sometimes many more) datasets graphically.

EXAMPLE 3.21
Lord Raleigh was one of the earliest scientists to study the density of nitrogen. In his studies, he noticed something peculiar.
The density of nitrogen produced from chemical compounds
tended to be smaller than the density of nitrogen produced from
the air. However, he was working with fairly small samples,
and the question is, was his conjecture correct?
Lord Raleighs measurements which first appeared in Proceedings, Royal Society (London, 55, 1894 pp. 340-344) are shown.
The units are the mass of nitrogen filling a certain flask under
specified pressure and temperature.
We will use a graphics calculator to draw side-by-side boxplots
of the two datasets. The boxplots make it clear that the two
samples have significantly different masses, and that the variation of the chemical sample is much larger than that of the
atmospheric sample.
Lord Raleigh thought that the difference in mass may have been
due to an undetected gas. He was correct, and this eventually
led to the discovery of the gas argon.

Chemical
2:301 43
2:298 90
2:298 16
2:301 82
2:298 69
2:299 40
2:298 49
2:298 89
2:300 74
2:300 54

Atmospheric
2:310 17
2:309 86
2:310 10
2:310 01
2:310 24
2:310 10
2:310 28
2:311 63
2:309 56

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

135

EXAMPLE 3.22

draft number

In 1970, the U.S. Congress instituted a random selection process for drafting young men to
serve in the Vietnam war. All 366 possible birth dates were placed in plastic capsules in a
rotating drum and were selected one by one. The first date drawn from the drum received
draft number one and eligible men born on that date were drafted first. The next date drawn
received draft number two, and eligible men born on that date were drafted second, and so on.
What does the boxplot below reveal about the selection process?
Note that month number 1 = January, month number 2 = February, and so on.
1970 Draft Lottery
400
300
200
100

9 10 11 12
month number

The most striking feature is that months towards the end of the year tended to have lower draft
numbers. We find that the capsules were placed in the drum in order, starting with January
dates, so December dates were added in last, and the capsules were not fully mixed! Males
born towards the end of the year had a greater chance of getting a small draft number and
hence being sent to fight in the Vietnam war.

EXERCISE 3K
1 Draw, by hand, a simple boxplot for each of the following sets of numbers. Check with your
graphics calculator.
a 2 3 3 4 4 5 6 7 9 10 10
b 0 0 1 2 3 3 4 5 5 6 6 13
c 0 6 6 6 6 7 7 8 15 25
2 Draw, by hand, a standard boxplot for each set of numbers in question 1. If possible, check
your answers with your graphics calculator.
3 Draw, by hand, side-by-side boxplots for the three sets of numbers below.
A: 11 20 19 2 1 16 12 13 9 13
B: 6 10 13 8 10 9 0 1 10 13 10 8
C: 4 7 3 2 16 15 4 4 3 4
4 Use the data from the class survey on the number of hours of TV watched each week.

Calculate the five-number summary for each gender.


Draw side-by-side boxplots of the data.
Calculate the mean and the median of each set of data.
Decide which of the two measures of centre is more appropriate.
Depending upon which measure you chose in d , calculate the standard deviation or the
IQR.
f Write a brief report on what these datasets tell you.

a
b
c
d
e

136

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

5 Using the data from the class survey on the number of hours spent on the telephone in a typical
week, draw side-by-side boxplots of the Male data and the Female data. Comment on what
the boxplots reveal.
6 While baseball is not a major sport in Australia, it is a rich source of interesting statistics.
The Home Run dataset contains data about the number of home runs hit in a single season is
US baseball. From 1927 to 1960, the holder of the record was Babe Ruth. In 1961, Roger
Maris eclipsed the record with 61 home runs. In 1998, two players broke this 27 year old
record, with Mark McGuire hitting 70 home runs and Sammy Sosa hitting 66. Hank Aaron
holds the record for the greatest number of career home runs.

Using a graphics calculator, put this data into five lists. Using a variety of graphical displays or
summary statistics, determine who was the greatest home run hitter of all time. Write a report
supporting your choice. Include in your report the summary statistics and graphical displays
you used to support your decision.
Babe Ruth
Yr 14 15
No 0
4
Hank Aaron
Yr 54 55
No 13 27
Roger Maris
Yr 57 58
No 14 28
Mark McGuire
Yr 86 87
No 3 49
Sammy Sosa
Yr 89 90
No 4 15

16
3

17
2

18
11

19
29

20
54

21
59

22
35

23
41

24
46

25
25

26
47

27
60

28
54

29
46

30
49

31
46

32
41

33
34

34
22

35
6

56
26

57
44

58
30

59
39

60
40

61
34

62
45

63
44

64
24

65
32

66
44

67
39

68
29

69
44

70
38

71
47

72
34

73
40

74
20

75
12

59
16

60
39

61
61

62
33

63
23

64
26

65
8

66
13

67
9

68
5

88
32

89
33

90
39

91
22

92
42

93
9

94
9

95
39

96
52

97
58

91
10

92
8

93
33

94
25

95
36

96
40

97
36

98
66

Sharelle McMahon was a goal attack for the Australian netball team
that won the World Championship
in 1999, and for the Melbourne
Phoenix in the 2000 Commonwealth Bank season.
Here are her shooting statistics
for the 1999 World Championships
and the 2000 Commonwealth Bank
season.
Note:
23/25 means she scored on 23 out
of 25 attempts.
Sharelle had less time on the court
during the World Championships
than she had playing for Melbourne
Phoenix.

Game
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

76
10

98
70

World Championships
1999
23 / 25
18 / 22
22 / 28
12 / 14
7/9
32 / 40
20 / 26
4/6
6/8

Commonwealth
Season 2000
34 / 40
27 / 32
28 / 29
37 / 41
40 / 49
25 / 31
36 / 44
19 / 19
27 / 31
35 / 43
50 / 55
42 / 50
41 / 48
41 / 49
32 / 35

Put this data into lists in your graphics calculator. Using a variety of graphical displays and/or
summary statistics, compare her shooting statistics in the 1999 World Championships and the
2000 Commonwealth Bank season. Write a report on your comparison, using the graphical
displays and summary statistics you have generated.

137

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

8 Refer to the table in Example 3.13 which displays


the Test batting averages in the period 1946-49
for all batsmen who averaged over 40.
a Draw a boxplot.
b Is the Don Bradman batting average an outlier,
over the period 1946-49?

9 Following are the mean minimum and maximum monthly temperatures for Perth and Adelaide,
arranged chronologically (i.e., Jan, Feb, Mar, etc). Using any method or methods of displaying
and/or summarising the data that you feel are useful, compare both the maximum temperatures
and the minimum temperatures in Adelaide and Perth.

Perth
max. 31.4
min. 16.7

31.7
17:3

29:5
15:7

25:2
12:6

21.4
10:2

18.8
9.1

17.7
8:0

18.3
7:9

20.0
8:7

22.3
10.1

25.4
12.3

28.5
14.6

Adelaide
max. 27.8
min. 15:5

27.9
15.7

25.4
14.2

22.1
11.6

18.4
9.4

16.0
7.4

14.9
6:8

15.9
7.5

17:9
8.6

20.8
10.4

23.5
12.3

25:5
14.2

10 A marketing consultant observed 50 consecutive shoppers at a small independent supermarket,


and recorded how much money each shopper spent in the store.
2.32
6.61
6.90
8.04
9:45 10:26 11.34 11.63 12.66 12:95
13.67 13:72 14:35 14:52 14:55 15:01 15:33 16:55 17:15 18:22
18:30 18:71 19:54 19:55 20:58 20:89 20:91 21:13 23:85 26:04
27:07 28:76 29:15 30:54 31:99 32:82 33:26 33:80 34:76 36:22
37:52 39:28 40:80 43:97 45:58 52:36 61:57 63:85 64:30 69:49

Using any method or methods of displaying and/or summarising the data that you feel are
useful, write a report to the supermarket manager about the spending pattern of shoppers.
11 Immediate release medications quickly liberate their drug content into the body, with the maximum concentration reached in
a short time, followed by a rapid decline in concentration. Sustained release medications, on the other hand, take longer to reach
maximum concentration in the body and stay active for longer periods of time.

A study of two such pain relief medications compared the maximum concentration in mg/mL of immediate release codeine (irc)
with sustained release codeine (src). Thirteen healthy patients
were randomly assigned to one of the two types of codeine and
treated for 2.5 days. After a 7-day wash-out period, the same
patients were given the other type of codeine. Thus, each patient
received both treatments.

Age
33
40
41
43
25
30
24
44
42
33
38
39
43

Circ
181:8
466:9
136:0
221:3
195:1
112:7
84:2
78:5
85:9
85:3
217:2
49:7
190:0

Csrc
195:7
167:0
217:3
375:7
285:7
177:2
220:3
243:5
141:6
127:2
345:2
112:1
223:4

a Construct histograms for both irc and src.


b Determine which summary statistics are most appropriate, and justify your decision.
c Calculate the summary statistics.

138

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

d Construct side-by-side boxplots of the concentrations of irc and src.


e Write a report comparing the maximum concentration of codeine in the blood for irc and
src.
12 For each of five datasets, a histogram and a boxplot have been constructed. Match each
histogram with its boxplot.
a
A

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

139

MODELLING

1 Bus stop view of breastfeeding mothers


Attitudes on breastfeeding in public are the subject of a study in southern Tasmania.
The study, by the Department of Community and Health Services and the Nursing Mothers
Association (now known as the Australian Breastfeeding Association), will involve volunteers surveying at least 200 people at Metro bus stops.
Department nutritionist Roger Hughes said bus stops would be used as survey sites because
they provided a broad cross-section of society and because Metro buses would later be used
in a campaign to promote breastfeeding in public as a normal activity.
Mr Hughes said that while research showed a large number of developmental, health
and economic benefits were associated with breastfeeding, mothers were often reluctant
to breastfeed in public.
a Is the design of this study satisfactory? Some questions you may need to consider are:
What is the proposed population in this study?
What is the population which would be represented by a sample of 200
people at Metro bus stops?
How similar are these populations?
b If you were planning this survey, how would you design the collection of the data?
Some questions you may need to consider are:
How many bus stops would you use?
What times of day would you conduct the survey?
What training would you provide the volunteers conducting the survey?
How would you handle a situation with someone who refused to answer
the survey?
What specific questions would you ask?

2 The design of controls

The design of controls has a large effect on how easily people can use them. Twelve
right-handed people were asked to turn a knob that moved an indicator. There were two
identical instruments, one with a right-hand thread, and one with a left-hand thread. The
table below gives the times required (in seconds) to move the indicator a fixed distance.
The project co-ordinator hoped to show that right-handed people find right-hand threads
easier to use. Analyse the data by using what ever graphical displays or summary statistics that you feel are suitable. Write a report to the project director on your findings. Include in your report any graphs or calculations needed to support your argument.
Subject
1
2
3
4
5
6

Right-hand
thread
113
130
138
87
116
96

Left-hand
thread
137
133
115
103
145
107

Subject
7
8
9
10
11
12

Right-hand
thread
103
107
103
104
89
100

Left-hand
thread
148
87
146
135
93
116

140

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

PROBLEM SOLVING

EXERCISE 3L
1 A set of eleven data values has a mean of 8 and a standard deviation of 2. At least one of the
data items is the value 8. If this single value is removed, without replacement, from the data
set, what will be the effect on the standard deviation of the dataset?
A The standard deviation will decrease.
B The standard deviation will increase.
C The standard deviation will not change.
D There is insufficient information to answer this question.
Justify your answer.
2 The Australian Bureau of Meteorology collects
data on rainfall across Australia. The table
shows the mean monthly rainfall in Broken
Hill as well as the median monthly rainfall.
a Note that the median monthly rainfall in
January is much smaller than the mean
monthly rainfall. What does this imply
about the shape of the distribution of the
rainfall data for the month of January?
b Which measure of central tendency, the
mean or the median, is more appropriate for describing rainfall in Broken Hill?
Justify your answer using knowledge of
mean and median.
c Use the above table to estimate the total
yearly rainfall for Broken Hill.

Average monthly rainfall in Broken Hill


(in millimetres) 1900 to 1990
Month
Mean
Median
Jan
23
9
Feb
24
10
Mar
18
9
Apr
19
9
May
22
13
Jun
22
15
Jul
17
15
Aug
19
17
Sep
20
12
Oct
25
15
Nov
19
10
Dec
20
7

d In the north of Australia, the wet season occurs from November to April. Broken Hill,
in central Australia, is occasionally drenched by a northern storm during these months.
These storms tend to drop a large amount of rain in a comparatively short time. How
does the table reflect this fact?
3

In an exam, seven students, A to G, obtained


the following marks:

A
18

B
26

C
34

D
42

E
50

F
58

G
66

a Calculate the mean and standard deviation


of this dataset.
b Re-scale the marks so the new dataset now has a mean of 60 and a standard deviation
of 15. You would like to retain the relative differences in the exam results.

4 Prove that any dataset that consists of seven consecutive integers has a mean and a standard
deviation that are also both integers.
5 Dataset A is the amount of change in the pockets of 100 people.
Dataset B is the amount of change in the pockets of these people after I gave them each 50c.
Dataset C is the amount of change in the pockets of these people after I doubled their money.
Assume that I draw side-by-side boxplots of these 3 datasets. Describe what you would
expect to see.

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

141

6 The two most common measures of the centre of a dataset are the mean and the median. The
median is called a robust measure of location as a very large or very small value in the dataset
does not have undue influence on the value of the median.
Two less commonly used measures of location are the mid-hinge and the mid-range. The
mid-hinge is the value that lies exactly halfway between the first quartile and the third quartile.
The mid-range is the value that lies exactly halfway between the largest and smallest values.
Which of these measures of the centre, the mid-hinge or the mid-range, is the more robust
measure of the centre? Justify your answer.

WORDS YOU SHOULD KNOW


average
bivariate data
boxplot
centre
class interval
data
experiment
five-number summary
frequency table
histogram
interquartile range
leaf

maximum
mean
mean deviation
median
minimum
modal class
mode
multi-modal
outlier
quartile
random variation
range

robust
sample
scatterplot
simulation
skewed
spread
standard deviation
stem
stemplot
symmetric
trial
variance

CHAPTER 3 REVISION SET


1 A biologist is varying the amount of calcium in the diet of battery hens
to determine whether the amount of calcium in the diet affects the thickness
of the shells of their eggs.
a For this study, identify the
i population
ii variables.
b State one parameter of the population.
c Should the scientist take a census or a sample? Justify your decision.
d Is the thickness of the eggshell a discrete or a continuous variable?
e Outline a cost-effective and time-effective method of obtaining a simple random sample.
f Which of the methods of gathering data discussed in the chapter does the biologist use?
2 A scientist is interested in determining the number of days that different varieties of
potatoes will last before they go rotten. She goes to her local supermarket and buys a dozen
potatoes of each variety.
a Explain why this may result in a biased sample.
b Explain how she can obtain an unbiased (or less biased) sample.
c Which type of graph (column graph, pie graph, time series graph or scatterplot) would
best display the data?

142

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

3 Compare and contrast the terms


a graphical integrity
b

graphical excellence

4 Wind roses display the direction, strength and frequency of winds at a


location, for a given season and time of day. The percentage of calms
is represented by the size of the centre circle. Each branch represents
wind coming from that direction.
The varying thicknesses of the branches represent wind speeds from
that direction. The length of each branch segment is proportional to
the percentage of winds in that speed range. See the legend for more
detail.
NW
W
SW

NE

SE

km/h

75%
calms

calm

calm

1-10

11-20

21-30

>30

20%

Brisbane, summer 9 am

Brisbane, winter 9 am

A wind rose is a rich source of information about the wind strength, direction and frequency
at a location. Write a report comparing the wind in Brisbane at 9 a.m. in summer and winter.
5 A refinery is planning to increase its production, which will increase the overall emission
level of carbon monoxide by the refinery. In order to establish the level of carbon monoxide
emissions by the refinery prior to the increase, both the refinery and the Department of the
Environment have measured the existing carbon monoxide levels.
Here is the data that each gathered.
Refinery

DoE

45
55
40
12:5

30
58
141
20

38
153
85
4

42
75
161
20

63
58
86
25

43
36
71
170

102
59

86
43

99
102

15

20

15

63
52

58
58

34
30

37
21

i Draw a stemplot of the refinery data.


ii Discuss the shape of the data, and the presence of any outliers.
iii Determine the median from the stemplot.

b Enter the data into two lists of your graphics calculator.


c Draw a number of histograms of the refinery data. Which class interval best displays
the data?
d Based on the histogram, which measure of the centre is best used: the mean or the
median?

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

143

e For each set of data, calculate:


i the mean and standard deviation
ii the median and interquartile range
f Draw side-by-side boxplots of the two datasets.
g Comment on the measurements made by the two bodies.
h Can you explain why the measurements are so different?

CHAPTER 3 TEST (KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES)


1 Explain briefly how you would decide which of the following two events
is the more unusual:
a a 40 degree day in Rockhampton
b a 35 degree day in Brisbane.
2 Ms. Sweetwaters biology class had a standard deviation of 2.4 on a standardized test,
while Ms. Quincys biology class had a standard deviation of 1.2 on the same test.
What can be said about these two classes?
A Ms. Sweetwaters class is more homogeneous than Ms. Quincys.
B Ms. Quincys class is less heterogeneous than Ms. Sweetwaters.
C Ms. Quincys class did not do as well on the test as Ms. Sweetwaters.
D Ms. Sweetwaters class performed twice as well on the test as Ms. Quincys.
Explain your answer.
3 A distribution of 6 scores has a median of 21. If the highest score increases 3 points,
the median will become
A 21
B 21:5
C 24
D Cannot be determined without additional information.
E None of these.
Explain your answer.

4 If you are told a population has a mean of 25 and a standard deviation of 0, what must
you conclude?
A Someone has made a mistake.
B There is only one element in the population.
C There are no elements in the population.
D All the elements in the population are 25.
E None of the above.
5 If the mean and median of a distribution are 6 and 5 respectively, then the distribution is
A
D

skewed left
symmetric

B
E

not skewed
multimodal

skewed right

6 A manufacturer of shock absorbers claims that its product lasts longer than the shock
absorbers supplied with the car originally. To test this claim, eight cars each had one
shock absorber from each manufacturer installed on the rear of the car, and were driven
until the shock absorbers were no longer effective. The number of kilometres driven is
given in the table which follows.

144

EXPLORING DATA (Chapter 3)

Car
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

a
b
c
d
e

Thousands of kilometres
Original shock absorber Replacement shock absorber
42:6
43:8
37:2
41:3
50:0
49:7
43:9
45:7
53:6
52:5
32:5
36:8
46:5
47:0
39:3
40:7

Draw a back-to-back stemplot of this data.


Calculate the mean and the standard deviation.
Calculate the median and the IQR.
Draw side-by-side boxplots.
Comment on the manufacturers claim.

CHAPTER
Modelling
data with
functions

SUBJECT MATTER
This chapter is optional, as the content is in the
learning experiences in the syllabus, but not the subject
matter.
However, the topic does allow students to apply their
knowledge of various functions to real-life datasets.
Gathering and analysing bivariate data is part of the
study of many disciplines, including all sciences,
business and economics.

146

MODELLING DATA WITH FUNCTIONS

(Chapter 4)

HISTORICAL NOTE
In 1885, Sir Francis Galton gave his Presidential address before the anthropology section of the British Association for the advancement of Science. He talked
about a study in which he compared the heights of tall
children with the heights of their parents. Galton made
two interesting observations about parents who were
either tall or short. If a parent was very tall, the children
tended to be tall, but shorter than the parent. Similarly, a
very short parent tended to have short children, but taller
than the parent. He called this regression to the mean,
with the word regression meaning to come back to.
Today the term regression is attached to a line that is
used to represent a set of data: the regression line.

A FIRST MODEL (THE REGRESSION LINE)

You have ten different secondary mathematics textbooks. You look on the last page of each to see
how many pages are in each book, and then put each text onto your digital kitchen scales to find
its weight.
The results are given in this table:
Number of pages
weight (g)

568
1178

584
1197

656
1350

576
1056

506
916

430
867

534
998

594
1151

422
779

582
1079

Now you could calculate some statistics on each of the variables


separately, say, find the average weight of your sample of mathematics texts, and draw a boxplot to show the distribution of
weights. But what you are interested in is the relationship between
the number of pages and the weight.
Since there are two variables and you are studying them together,
you are working with bivariate data, which is also known as
paired data. A single variable by itself is called univariate data.
When studying univariate data, the first thing we did was look at the data using graphical displays.
We do the same with bivariate data, using a graphical display called a scatterplot.
If we assume that the weight depends to some extent on the number of pages, then the number of
pages is the independent variable, weight is the dependent variable. The data can be plotted as a
set of 10 ordered pairs, as shown.

Now what can we say about these data? While the data do not lie perfectly in a straight line, there
is a general pattern that shows that books with more pages tend to weigh more.
The data appear to be roughly linear, so we might wish to find the straight line that best fits these
data.
Such a line is called a line of best fit or a regression line. This line will be a mathematical model
for this dataset.

MODELLING DATA WITH FUNCTIONS

147

(Chapter 4)

One method of finding a line of best fit would be to


choose a line that passes through as many points as possible, with half the remaining points above the line and
half below the line. But this may not always be possible.

For example, in the diagram alongside, if a line is drawn that passes through as many points as
possible, the remaining points are all above the line. Or a line could be drawn so half of the points
are above the line and half below. But I could draw such a line, and you could draw such a line,
and they might be quite different. What is needed is an objective method of finding the line of best
fit.
Not all data fit a linear pattern. In this diagram, the data
values tend to follow a curved pattern. Fitting a linear
function to this data is not appropriate.
Later in the course you will learn how to fit non-linear
functions to such data.

INVESTIGATION 1

FINDING A LINE OF BEST FIT


Materials needed: For each group, a photocopy of these scatterplots (they are also on the
website in a suitable size and format) on an overhead transparency and a soluble overhead
transparency pen.
For the class: one overhead projector.
For each of the scatterplots below, draw in the line that you think best fits the data. Now compare your lines with those of your classmates by overlaying the scatterplots. How closely did
your lines agree?
y

EXERCISE 4A
1 Enter each of the sets of data into a graphics calculator, and draw the scatterplot. For each
dataset, decide whether the data are better modelled by a straight or a curved line.
a
b

x
y

0:5
3:2

0:7
4:5

1
5

1:1
5:1

1:8
7:2

1:9
7:1

2:8
10:5

x
y

1:2
5

1:7
20

2:5
30

2:8
22

4:5
34

4:8
41

7
35

3
11:6
7:5
34

7:5
52

3
12
8
41

3:2
11:4
8:8
70

3:9
14:3

148

MODELLING DATA WITH FUNCTIONS

x
y

0
0

1
0:8

1:5
2:4

1:6
2:9

(Chapter 4)

2:2
4:1

2:4
5

2:6
7

3:7
12

4:1
20

5
28:1

5:1
30:2

2 An alternative to counting the number of pages of a text is measuring the area of the cover.
The data for the same set of textbooks are given below, comparing the area of the cover with
the weight.

Area (cm2 )
weight (g)

489
1178

489
1197

489
1350

434
1056

438
916

439
867

428
998

429
1151

432
779

424
1079

a Draw a scatterplot of this data.


b Is a linear model appropriate for this dataset?
c Discuss any interesting features of this dataset.

LEAST SQUARES REGRESSION LINE

There are a number of methods of finding a line of best fit. The most common is the least squares
method, which results in the least squares regression line (LSR line). This method is available
on all graphics calculators. In Maths B we do not need to be able to derive the equation of the
LSR line, but we need to understand that a regression line is a line that represents paired data, that
the LSR line is the most commonly used regression line, and what is meant by least squares. A
fuller explanation of the least squares method is given later in the chapter.
For now, we must be able to find the equation of the least squares regression line using a graphics
calculator.

CLASS DISCUSSION
The diagram on the right is the scatterplot
of the weight vs page data with the least
squares regression line included. Its equation
is W = 2:2P 146 where W = the weight
and P = the number of pages.
What to discuss:
1 What are the largest and smallest values of the
a independent variable
b dependent variable?
2 What are the interpretations of the gradient and y-intercept for this situation?
3 What are the units of the gradient, and on the y-axis?
4 Use the regression equation to predict the weight of a Maths text with 450 pages.
5 Use the regression equation to predict the weight of a text with 850 pages.
6 Use the regression equation to predict the number of pages if a book weighs 1 kilogram.

When we predict the weight of a book with 450 pages, we are using interpolation, since 450 pages
is in the domain. Predicting the weight of a book with 850 pages is called extrapolation, since
this value is larger than the largest book in the dataset.

MODELLING DATA WITH FUNCTIONS

MEASURING THE FIT OF A LINEAR MODEL

The scatterplots show Olympic gold medal performances for discus and long jump, with their least squares
regression lines.
For each graph, the data lie roughly within an oval
shape, the general trend is for the distance to increase
over the years and the data are approximately linear.

Olympic Discus Gold Medal Performances


Length of throw (m)

149

(Chapter 4)

70.0
62.5
55.0
47.5
40.0
32.5
25.0

20

40

60

80

100

Olympic Long Jump Gold Medal Performances


Distance (m)

However, on average the long jump data, compared to


the discus data, lie further from the least squares line.
Can this difference be quantified in some way?
For the long jump data, the dependent variable varies
between 6.3 and 8.9. This variation is not entirely random. Much of the variation appears to be explained by
the fact that the length of the winning long jump increases over time.

Year since 1900

-20

9.0
8.5
8.0
7.5
7.0
6.5
6.0

Year since 1900


-20

20

40

60

80

100

A statistic called r2 which is pronounced r-squared, and called the coefficient of determination, is a measure of the proportion of the variation of the dependent variable (distance, in this
case) that is explained by the independent variable (year since 1900).
If all of the data values lay exactly on the line, then all of the variation in the dependent variable
could be explained by the independent variable, and the value of r2 equals 1 (i.e., 100% of the
variation can be explained by the independent variable).
If there is no relationship whatever between the independent and dependent variables, and the points
of the scatterplot are randomly placed on the graph, then none of the variation in the dependent
variable can be explained by the independent variable, and the value of r2 is 0.
Generally, the closer the data values are, on average, to lying on a straight line, the closer r2 is to
1. The more the data values are scattered randomly about the number plane, the closer r2 is to 0.
The value of r2 for the discus data is 0.920, while for the long jump data, r2 = 0.648. This indicates
that over 92% of the variation in the length of the discus throw can be explained by the year in
which the throw took place, while only about 65% of the variation in the long jump distances can
be explained by the year.
For the Mathematics B course, we do not need to know how to calculate r2 , but we must understand
what it measures, and have a feel for the shape of a distribution of data values for different values
of r2 . We must be able to find r2 using a graphics calculator or statistics software.
The diagrams following are of five scatterplots with the value of r2 for each.
Note:

When we find the linear regression equation with a graphics calculator, we may be
given the value of r2 as well. If not, we will be given the value of r, which is called
the correlation coefficient. Just square this value to find the value of r2 .

150

MODELLING DATA WITH FUNCTIONS

(Chapter 4)

r2 = 0:998

r2 = 0:600

r2 = 0:001

r2 = 0:250

r2 = 0:81

EXERCISE 4C
1 While writing this textbook, one of the authors conducted a little experiment.
I had a hypothesis that the daily weight of the bar of soap in my shower was not a linear function, the reason being that the tiny little bar of soap at the end of its life seemed to hang
around just about forever. I wanted to throw it out, but I felt I should not do so until it became
unusable. And that seemed to take weeks.
Also I had recently bought some digital kitchen scales and felt I needed to use them to justify
the cost. I hypothesised that the daily weight of a bar of soap might be dependent upon surface area, and hence would be a quadratic function.

Day No.
Weight (g)

0
124

1
121

4
103

5
96

6
90

7
84

8
78

9
71

11
58

12
50

17
27

19
12

21
8

22
6

a Enter the given data into two lists in a graphics calculator.


b Draw a scatterplot of the data.
c Using the regression function of your graphics calculator, find the least squares regression
line.
d What is the value of r2 ?
e Comment on how well this linear function fits the data.
2 The data below show the number of deaths caused by firearms in Australia from 1983 to
1997, expressed as a rate per 100,000 of population.

Year
Rate
Year
Rate

83
4.31
91
3.67

84
4.42
92
3.61

85
4:52
93
2.98

86
4.35
94
2:95

87
4.39
95
2:72

88
4.21
96
2:96

89
3.4
97
2:3

90
3:61

a Enter the data given into two lists in a graphics calculator. Let 1983 be year 0.
b Draw a scatterplot of the data.

MODELLING DATA WITH FUNCTIONS

151

(Chapter 4)

c Using the regression function of your graphics calculator, find the least squares regression
line.
d What is the value of r2 ?
e Comment on how well this linear function fits the data, and on any unusual features of
the dataset.
3 Match the scatterplot with the coefficient of determination.
a 50
b 120
40
30
20
10
0

10

15

20

10
0

10

15

20

60

10
0

10

A r = 0:77
F r2 = 0:26

15

20

B r = 0:94
2

4 Estimate the value of r2 .


a
b
80

40

60

30

40

20

20

10

10

15

20

100
80

10

15

20

80

20

20

10 15 20

15

C r = 0:84

20

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

10

15

20

10

15

20

D r = 0:03

60
50
40
30
20
10
0

10
5
0

10

15

15

20

10

15

20

10

15

20

40
30
20
10

10
10

20

20

20
15

50

30

E r = 0:88

40

40

40

10

60

60

a
b
c
d
e
f
g

20

20

20

30

40

30

40

60

40

10

50

50

15

60

80

20

100

10

15

20

Measure the diameter and the circumference of at least 10 tin cans of different sizes.
Put the data into two lists in a graphics calculator.
Construct a scatterplot of the data.
Find, and then plot, the least squares regression line.
What is the value of r2 ?
Find the gradient of this line.
If the tin cans were perfectly round, and your measurements were perfect, what should
the value of the gradient be?

MODELLING DATA WITH FUNCTIONS (Chapter 4)

RESIDUALS AND THE RESIDUAL PLOT

Returning to the dataset for the


long jump event, let us now look
at a particular data value in some
detail.
The actual winning jump in 1912
was 7.60 metres while the predicted value is found by substituting 12 for x in the regression equation, f(12) = 0:0180 12 + 7:06
which equals 7.28 metres.
The difference between the
actual value and the predicted
value is called the residual.
In this instance the
residual = 7:60 7:28 = 0:32.

Olympic Long Jump Gold Medal Performances


9.0
8.5

Distance (m)

152

1912

8.0
7.5
7.0
6.5

Year since 1900

6.0
-20

20

40

60

80

100

On the scatterplot given the residuals are shown as vertical line segments between the predicted
values and actual values in the dataset. For the year 1912 our predicted value was 0:32 metres too
small.
Note the large residual in 1968. This was the year in which Bob Beaman made his astounding long
jump of 8.90 metres, an Olympic record that still stands.
Values that have unusually large residuals are called outliers.

Just as outliers in univariate data are unusual, so are outliers in bivariate data. An outlier in bivariate data may represent a significant event, as in the above example, or it may represent an error in
measurement or an error in recording a measurement.
Note that another outlier is the long jump in 1896, in which the actual distance is much less than
the predicted distance.

We will come back to the long


jump data after we have looked
at how to construct a residual plot
with a simpler dataset. The scatterplot in the diagram is the residual
plot for the long jump data.

Residuals

A residual plot is a scatterplot of the values of the residuals versus the values of the
independent variable.
Residual Plot of the Long Jump Data

0.80
0.40
0

0.40
0.80
-20

Year since 1900


0

20

40

60

80

100

MODELLING DATA WITH FUNCTIONS

(Chapter 4)

153

Many graphics calculators have the residual plot available from a menu, however a knowledgeable
user can produce a residual plot using any graphics calculator (see Example 4.1). All commercial
statistics software programs will produce a residual plot.
A residual plot shows the distance each datapoint is from its predicted value.
If all of the data values were on the least squares line, all of the residuals would be 0 and hence
all of the points on the residual plot would be on the horizontal line passing through 0. For points
not on the regression line, the distance of the point above or below this line is its residual.
If we compare the residual plot of the long jump data with the scatterplot of the data itself, we
should understand how a residual plot is constructed.

EXAMPLE 4.1
Construct the residual plot for this dataset.
x
y

1
1

2
4

3
4

4
9

5
10

6
15

7
16

1 Use the linear regression facility of your graphics calculator to find the least squares regression line. For this
dataset, it is y = 2:6x 2. Draw the scatterplot with
its regression line.
2 Using the regression equation, calculate the predicted
value for each value of x in the table. These are called
the fitted values or the fit. This is the 3rd row of the
table following.
3 The residual is the difference between the actual data value (in row 2 of the table) and
the fitted value (row 3). This is row 4 of the table.

The rule is residual = data fit. (This can also be written as residual = yactual ypredicted :)
x
data
fit
residual

1
1
0:6
0:4

2
4
3:2
0:8

3
4
5:8
1:8

4
9
8:4
0:6

5
10
11:0
1:0

4 To draw a residual plot, draw a scatterplot of the x values


vs the residuals. Set your window so Y min is about 2
and Y max is about 1.5, so the residual plot nicely fills
the screen.
Note: The above calculations can be done using lists
in your graphics calculator. Consult your calculator manual or teacher if you are not sure how
to do this.

6
15
13:6
1:45

7
16
16:3
0:3

154

MODELLING DATA WITH FUNCTIONS

(Chapter 4)

WHAT DOES THE RESIDUAL PLOT SHOW?


Residual plots help decide if the mathematical model we have chosen is appropriate. Residual plots
are useful because they emphasise patterns in the data.
Patterns in a residual plot may indicate that there are additional features of the dataset that have to
be considered. Ideally, the residuals are random, with no pattern, which implies that the residuals
are the natural variation of the dependent variable.
Lack of a pattern indicates that the function chosen to model the data is appropriate.
The residual plot for the long jump data shows no strong pattern. This implies that a linear function
is an appropriate choice to model the data.
There are a variety of patterns in a residual plot that would alert a statistician to potential problems
with the data or with the function being used to model it. In Mathematics B, we will focus our
attention on the pattern that occurs when an incorrect function is used to model the data.
Here is an example.
The following table contains values of the function y = 0:1x2 , which is a quadratic function
rather than a linear function. What does the scatterplot and the residual plot show when we try to
model this data with a linear equation?
x
y

2
0:4

2:1
0:441

2:2
0:484

2:3
0:529

2:4
0:576

The first diagram shows a scatterplot of the data along


with the least squares regression line, which has equation
y = 0:46x 0:525.
The data appears to be linear, and r2 = 0:999, which
implies that the model is an excellent predictor for the data.
The second diagram, which is the residual plot, tells a different story. There is a strongly curved pattern to the data,
which indicates that the data are not linear.
The residual plot exaggerates any patterns in the data, making the patterns much easier to see.
Note that despite its apparent excellent fit, the linear model
is not useful for extrapolation.
For x = 10, the actual value is y = 0:1 102 , or
y = 10, while the linear model predicts the value to be
I = 0:46 10 0:525, or y = 4:075.

Most graphics calculators can also calculate the least


squares quadratic regression line. This is the quadratic
function that best fits the data. Residual plots can be constructed for the quadratic regression line as well. Since the
data fit a quadratic equation perfectly, the residuals of the
least squares quadratic regression line are all 0. The residual
plot on the right shows that the quadratic function models
the data perfectly.

2:5
0:625

2:6
0:676

MODELLING DATA WITH FUNCTIONS

(Chapter 4)

155

MODELLING DATA WITH A FUNCTION


In Chapter 1, we looked at the steps involved in mathematical modelling. Step 3 (Build the
model) involves interpreting the situation in mathematical terms.
Here is a process for finding a mathematical model for paired data.
Step 1:

Think about the context. For example, if we think the dependent variable changes at a
constant rate, then we would expect a linear function to be appropriate.

Step 2:

Look at the data, by graphing a scatterplot. The human eye is fantastic at spotting
patterns - far better than, say, a mere supercomputer.

Step 3:

Choose the type of function that we think will best model the data, based on Steps 1
and 2. At the moment you only know of two types of functions, linear and quadratic,
but you will learn about others over the next year.

Step 4:

Calculate the regression equation, using your graphics calculator.

Step 5:

Graph the residual plot. If there are no obvious patterns in the residual plot, then the
function is probably an appropriate choice. If there are patterns, then we need to go
back to Step 1.

Step 6:

Decide how closely the function models the data, by calculating r2 (using your calculator). The closer r2 is to 1, the better the function will be at prediction.

EXAMPLE 4.2
One measure of form for a runner is stride rate, defined as the number of steps per second. A
runner is considered to be efficient if the stride rate is close to optimum. The stride rate is
related to speed; the greater the stride rate, the greater the speed (measured in feet/second).
In a study of 21 top female runners, researchers measured the stride rate for different speeds.
The following table gives the average stride rate of these women versus the speed.
Stride Rate (strides/sec)
Speed (feet/sec)

3.05
15:86

3.12
16:88

3:17
17:50

3:25
18:62

3:36
19:97

3:46
21:06

3:55
22:11

a Plot the data on a scattergram. Decide, by eye, if the data appear to be linear.
b Find the equation of the least squares regression line.
c What is the gradient of this equation? What is the physical interpretation of the gradient
of this function? In other words, what are the units of the gradient?
d Plot the least squares regression line on the scatterplot. Comment on the fit.
e Using the equation of the least squares regression line, make a prediction of the speed if
the stride rate is 3.5 feet per second.
f Using the equation of the least squares regression line, make a prediction of the stride
rate if the speed is 19 feet per second.
g What is the speed if the stride rate is 0? Interpret your result. Do the results make sense?
What should be done about this?
h Draw a residual plot of the data. Do you notice any patterns? Can you find a better
mathematical model for this data?

156

MODELLING DATA WITH FUNCTIONS

Enter the following


data into two lists.

Stride Rate
Speed

(Chapter 4)

3:05
15:86

3:12
16:88

3:17
17:50

3:25
18:62

3:36
19:97

3:46
21:06

3:55
22:11

a Construct a scatterplot from this data. The data appear


to be linear.
b The regression equation is y = 12:4x 21:9

c The gradient of the graph is 12.4. Since the units on the


y-axis are feet per second, and the units on the x-axis
are strides per second, the units of the gradient are
feet per second
, which simplifies to feet per stride.
strides per second

d The least squares regression line with its scatterplot is


shown. The regression line appears to fit the data extremely well.
e Substitute x = 3:5 into the equation of the least squares
regression line.
y = 12:4 3:5 21:9 = 21:5 feet per second

f Substitute y = 19 into the equation of the least squares regression line, and solve.
)

19 = 12:4x 21:9
12:4x = 40:9
) x = 3.30 strides per second

g The speed for a stride rate of 0 is the y-intercept, 21:9 . This means that if the runner
is not striding at all, she is moving backwards at a speed of 21.9 feet per second! Our
linear model is not valid when we extrapolate back to the value x = 0. The data for
the independent variable has a low value of 3.05 and a high value of 3.55. If we restrict
ourselves to values between 3 and 3.6, we should be fairly safe. We are not confident
that we can make predictions outside of this range.
h A scatterplot of the residuals helps to determine the validity of the linear model. Ideally, the residuals should
show no strong patterns.
However, the scatterplot shows the data has a strongly
curved pattern. Another model, say a quadratic model,
may give a better fit. The results of applying quadratic
regression are shown below. The residual plot shows no
pattern, which indicates that a quadratic model is more
accurate than a linear model.

MODELLING DATA WITH FUNCTIONS

(Chapter 4)

157

EXERCISE 4D
1 Enter the following data into two lists in your graphics calculator.
x
y

a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i

0:6
0:565

0:65
0:605

0:7
0:644

0:75
0:682

0:8
0:717

0:85
0:751

0:9
0:783

Construct a scatterplot and least squares regression line.


Find the equation of the least squares regression line.
Find the value of r2 .
Based on the above, how well does the linear model fit the data?
Now construct a residual plot of the data.
Answer the question in part d again, using the information from the residual plot.
Find the equation of the quadratic regression line.
Construct a residual plot based on the quadratic regression line.
How well does the quadratic model fit the data?

2 Repeat the above questions


for this dataset.

x
y

97
158

105
130

121
168

147
291

151
311

169
328

180
278

201
343

3 Consider these four bi-variate datasets:


x1
10
8
13
9
11
14
6
4
12
7
5

y1
8:04
6:95
7:58
8:81
8:33
9:96
7:24
4:26
10:84
4:82
5:68

x2
10
8
13
9
11
14
6
4
12
7
5

y2
9:14
8:14
8:74
8:77
9:26
8:1
6:13
3:1
9:13
7:26
4:74

x3
10
8
13
9
11
14
6
4
12
7
5

y3
7:46
6:77
12:74
7:11
7:81
8:84
6:08
5:39
8:15
6:42
5:73

x4
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
19
8
8
8

y4
6:58
5:76
7:71
8:84
8:47
7:04
5:25
12:5
5:56
7:91
6:89

a Confirm that the summary statistics of each of these datasets are identical:
n
Mean of x
Mean of y
Equation of regression line
r2

11
9:0
7:5
y = 3 + 0:5x
0:67

b Draw the scatterplot of each dataset.


c Frank Anscombe created these datasets to emphasise the importance of looking at the
data, and not just relying on the summary statistics (and r2 in particular) to decide on
the appropriateness of modelling the data with the linear function y = 3 + 0:5x. For
which of these datasets is this linear model appropriate?

158

MODELLING DATA WITH FUNCTIONS

(Chapter 4)

4 On 29 February, 1992 a full page advertisement for diamond rings was


placed in the Singapore Straits Times
newspaper.
The advertisement contained pictures
of diamond rings and listed their
prices, the size of the diamond (measured in carats) and the gold purity
(also measured in carats, with 24 carat
representing pure gold).
There were 48 rings of varying designs, with the diamonds weighing
from 0.12 to 0.35 carats (one carat = 0.2 gram) and priced between $ 223 and $1086.
The data below comes from 24 of these rings. Each ring is a 20 carat gold ladies ring,
mounted with a single diamond. Consider only the size of the diamond in the ring and its cost
and determine if a linear equation is a suitable model for this data.

a
b
c
d
e

Carats
Cost($)

0:17
355

0:16
328

0:17
350

0:18
325

0:25
642

0:16
342

0:15
322

0:19
485

Carats
Cost($)

0:21
483

0:15
323

0:18
462

0:28
823

0:17
353

0:18
438

0:17
318

0:18
419

Carats
Cost($)

0:17
346

0:15
315

0:17
350

0:32
918

0:32
919

0:15
298

0:16
339

0:16
338

Find a linear model for this data.


Interpret the gradient and y-intercept.
Construct a scatterplot with a least squares regression line.
Construct a residual plot.
Are you satisfied using a linear model for this data? Justify your answer.

5 In 1997, the premiere ice hockey


league in the world, the National
Hockey League, was in trouble. Scoring was at its lowest level in 42 years
and the percentage of shots on goal
saved by the goalie was at its highest
level since that statistic was first recorded in 1982. The general managers of the 26 teams in the National
Hockey League were meeting to discuss this. They needed to predict the
mean number of goals per game in
future years, based on past data.
There are three variables:

Year (the 1984-85 season is coded as 84, and so on)


Save Percent (the percentage of shots on goal saved by the goalie)
Goals per Game (mean goals scored per game, for an entire season)

MODELLING DATA WITH FUNCTIONS

Year
Save Percent
Goals per Game
Year
Save Percent
Goals per Game

82
0:875
7:73
90
0:886
6:82

83
0:873
7:8
91
0:882
6:87

84
0:874
7:68
92
0:885
7:18

85
0:874
7:86
93
0:895
6:4

86
0:88
7:25
94
0:901
5:9

87
0:881
7:34
95
0:898
6:2

159

(Chapter 4)

88
0:879
7:39
96
0:905
5:75

89
0:881
7:28
97
0:906
5:19

a Draw scatterplots of
i Save Percent vs Year
ii Goals per Game vs Year
b Find the least squares regression line for each of the above.
c Draw a residual plot for each, to decide if a linear function is appropriate for these data.
d Estimate the mean number of goals per game in the year 2005.
e Estimate the mean number of saves per game in the year 2005.
6 Over the years, goalie equipment in the
National Hockey League is becoming progressively lighter. According to an article
from The New York Times, Since 1990 ...
goalie equipment is not only lighter, it is
also ridiculously bigger. Leg pads were allowed to become 20 percent wider, from 10
inches to 12, under a 1989-90 rule revision,
and along with them, every other piece of
goalie gear from catching gloves to toe caps
to shoulder pads has mutated into bizarre
sizes and shapes.
Split the data for Years and Goals per Game
into two datasets - one for the data from
1982 to 1989, and the second for the data
from 1990 to 1997.
For each, calculate the equation of the regression line. How do the gradients of these lines
compare? Does your analysis confirm that the rule revision has made it more difficult to score?

E LEAST SQUARES REGRESSION LINE REVISITED


Now that you understand residuals, the meaning of
least squares should make some sense.

15 y

The least squares regression line is the line that


gives the smallest sum of the squares of the residuals.

12

To clarify what this means, consider the following paired data (1,2), (2,4), (3,6), (4,8), (5,15)
which are plotted on the scatterplot along with two
lines, L1 and L2.
Line L1 has equation y = 3x 2
Line L2 has equation y = 2x

L1
L2

3
x

160

MODELLING DATA WITH FUNCTIONS

(Chapter 4)

For each line, we will calculate the sum of the squares of the residuals.
Recall that:
yactual is the y-coordinate of the paired data
ypredicted is the corresponding value of the linear function
residual = yactual ypredicted
Line L1 y = 3x 2

x
yactual
ypredicted
residual
(residual)2

1
2
1
1
1

2
4
4
0
0

3
6
7
1
1

4
8
10
2
4

5
15
13
2
4

The sum of the squares of the residuals is 1 + 0 + 1 + 4 + 4 = 10


Line L2 y = 2x

x
yactual
ypredicted
residual
(residual)2

1
2
2
0
0

2
4
4
0
0

3
6
6
0
0

4
8
8
0
0

5
15
10
5
25

The sum of the squares of the residuals is 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 25 = 25


Since the sum of the squares of the residuals is smaller for line L1 than L2, line L1 fits the
data better, even though line L2 passes through four of the five points. If you followed this, the
definition at the start of this section should now make some sense:
The least squares regression line is the line that gives the smallest sum of the squares
of the residuals.
The least squares regression line has the equation y = ax + b where:
P
P
P
xy n1 ( n)( y)
a= P 2 1 P 2
x n ( x)
and

b = y ax

P
Recall that
is a symbol that tells you to sum what follows, and x and y are the means of the x
and y variables respectively.
We will illustrate these formulas by using them to find the equation of the least squares regression
line for the above data.
Note that your graphics calculator is very good at summing lists, so these calculations can be done
using your calculator.

MODELLING DATA WITH FUNCTIONS

(Chapter 4)

161

To calculate a:
We construct a table to find the sum of x, y, xy and x2 .

x
1
2
3
4
5

y
2
4
6
8
15

xy
2
8
18
32
75

x2
1
4
9
16
25

15

35

135

55

Substitute these values into the formula for a.


P P
P
xy n1 ( x)( y)
a = P 2 1 P 2
x n ( x)
=

135 15 (15)(35)
55 15 (15)2

135 105
55 45
30
=
10
=3
=

To calculate b:

15
=
=3
x=
n
5
and
)
)
)

b
b
b
b

P
and

y=

35
=7
5

= y ax
= 7 3(3)
= 79
= 2

Therefore, the line y = 3x 2 is the least squares regression line.

You do not need to know how to derive the formulas for a and b; this is a topic for a mathematical
statistics course at University.
You do not even need to use the above formulas, as they are built into your graphics calculator.
But, you need to understand that a regression line is a line that represents paired data, and the least
squares regression line is the most commonly used regression line. You should have knowledge of
what least squares represents.

EXERCISE 4E.1
Doing one or two exercises by hand, even though they can be done using a calculator, is often
instructive.
1 Use the above method to find the least squares regression equation for this set of data.

(1, 1), (2, 7), (3, 10), (4, 7), (5, 13), (6, 12)
Confirm your answer using a graphics calculator.

162

MODELLING DATA WITH FUNCTIONS

(Chapter 4)

2 For the data below, find the least squares regression equation by hand. Confirm your answer
with a graphics calculator.
(2, 11), (4, 12), (5, 5), (6, 8), (7, 4)

LEAST SQUARES REGRESSION LINE THROUGH THE ORIGIN


Danielle was confirming Hookes Law. She attached weights to a
spring, and measured the extension of the spring due to the attached
weights. She obtained the following data.
Weight (g)
Extension (mm)

50
21

100
49

150
64

200
94

250
111

300
137

She wishes to find the least squares line that passes through the
origin, as the extension is zero when no weight is attached.
In other words, the equation that models this data has the form y = ax, a > 0 and she wants
to find the value of a that minimises the sum of the squares of the residuals.
This particular regression equation
P is not available in Danielles calculator, so she will have to use
xy
the formula to find a: a = P 2
x
Enter the first two columns of this table into List 1 and List 2 of your graphics calculator (or use a
spreadsheet).
sum(List 3)
Then List 3 = List 1 * List 2, and List 4 = (List 1 ) 2 . To find a, calculate:
sum(List 4)

x
50
100
150
200
250
300

y
21
49
64
94
111
137

xy
1050
4900
9600
18 800
27 750
41 100

x2
2500
10 000
22 500
40 000
62 500
90 000

103 200

227 500

P
xy
= P 2
x
=

103 200
227 500

= 0:454

Our least squares regression equation is y = 0:454x. We now need to look at the residual plot,
to see if this function y = ax is a good model for this data.
To draw the residual plot:

Set Y 1 = 0:454x. Turn off the graph of this equation.


The formula for residuals is: residual = yactual ypredicted .
We will put the residuals into List 5, as follows:
List 5 = List 2 Y 1(List 1)

Draw the residual plot of List 5 versus List 1. The residual plot shows no strong patterns, so this is a good model
for the data.

MODELLING DATA WITH FUNCTIONS

Notes:

(Chapter 4)

163

The derivation of this formula for a will be done as an example in the Year 12 textbook,
after you have studied the topic Optimisation using derivatives.
All graphics calculators are programmable. Writing a program that finds the least
squares regression equation of the form y = ax for data in List1 and List2 would be
useful, and not too difficult.

EXERCISE 4E.2
1 For each dataset

a
b

x
y
x
y

1
5

find the least squares regression model of the form y = ax


construct a residual plot
discuss the appropriateness of the equation as a model for the data

i
ii
iii
2
17

13:4
47:5

3
16

21:6
83:2

4
27

5
39

28:9
126:7

31:0
118

56:2
198:3

2 Justin was confirming Hookes Law. He attached weights to a spring, and measured the
extension of the spring due to the attached weights.
He obtained the following data.
Weight (g)
Extension (mm)

50
17

100
27

150
37

200
53

250
57

300
68

a Find the least squares regression line of the form y = ax.


b Draw the residual plot.
c The above analysis implies there is a problem with Justins data. Briefly describe what it
is, and how he might fix it.
3 Three 11 Mathematics B students from Glenmore High School repeatedly rolled a steel ball
down an inclined plane, and recorded displacement (s) and time (t) for each trial.
Their results are:

time (t)
0 0:5 1:0 1:5 2:0 2:5 3:0 3:5 4:0 4:5 5:0
displacement (s) 0 4:5 7:7 13:4 36:6 52:2 88:5 110:5 144:5 161:5 188:8
From their knowledge of Physics, they expect the least squares regression equation to be the
non-linear function s = at2 where s = displacement, t = time, and a depends upon the
steepness of the inclined plane.
To find this regression line, the students need to determine the value of a.
P 2
x yi
Here is the least squares equation for finding this value: a = P i 4 , for a > 0:
xi
a Use your graphics calculator and the above formula to find the least squares function of
the form s = at2 that models this data.
b Draw the residual plot.
c Decide if the function is appropriate for this data set. Justify your decision.

164

MODELLING DATA WITH FUNCTIONS

(Chapter 4)

MODELLING
1 The tables below contain the world record times and the year they were set for the 100
metre sprint for males and females. Use this data to find a model to predict when the
female world record holder will have a faster time than the male world record holder.
Discuss the assumptions that underlie your prediction.
Female
Year (19 )
Time
Year (19 )
Time

34
11:7
73
10:9

37
11:6
73
10:8

48
11:5
83
10:79

52
11:4
84
10:76

55
11:3
88
10:49

61
11:2

65
11:1

68
11:08

70
11:0

Male
Year (19 )
Time
Year (19 )
Time

12
10:6
91
9:90

20
10:4
94
9:85

30
10:3
96
9:84

36
10:2

56
10:1

60
10:0

68
9:95

83
9:93

88
9:92

2 Six students were asked to form a line at the front of the classroom, and to hold hands. A
seventh student was asked to act as the Timer. When the teacher said Start!, the timer
started his watch, and the person at the head of the line squeezed the hand of the next
person. When that person felt a squeeze, they squeezed the hand of the next person, and
so on. When the last person felt his hand being squeezed, he shouted Stop!. The Timer
recorded the time taken between Start and Stop.
Six more students joined the group and the same process was carried out. The process
was repeated until all students in the class were in the line.
Here are the data:

Number of students
Time (sec)

6
2:22

12
3:03

20
4:63

28
6:44

38
9:25

a Find a mathematical model for this dataset. Justify your choice.


b What do you predict would have been the time if 24 students had been in line?
c What would you predict if 50 students had been in line?
You may wish to carry out this experiment with your class, and compare the predicted
time with the actual time.

3 In 1981, two new varieties of a tiny biting insect called a midge were discovered by
biologists W. L. Grogan and W. W. Wirth in the jungles of Brazil. They named one kind
of midge an Apf midge and the other an Af midge. The biologists found out that the Apf
midge is a carrier of a debilitating disease that causes swelling of the brain when a human
is bitten by an infected midge. Although the disease is rarely fatal, the disability caused
by the swelling may be permanent. The other form of the midge, the Af, is quite harmless
and a valuable pollinator. In an effort to distinguish the two varieties, the biologist took
measurements on the midges they caught. The two measurements taken were of wing
length and antennae length, both measured in centimetres.

MODELLING DATA WITH FUNCTIONS

Af Midges
Wing Length (cm)
Antenna Length (cm)

1:72
1:24

1:64
1:38

1:74
1:36

1:70
1:40

1:82
1:38

1:82
1:48

Apf Midges
Wing Length (cm)
Antenna Length (cm)

1:78
1:14

1:86
1:20

1:96
1:30

2:00
1:26

2:00
1:28

1:96
1:18

1:90
1:38

(Chapter 4)

1:82
1:54

165

2:08
1:56

Is it possible to distinguish an Af midge from an Apf midge on the basis of wing and
antenna length? Use your knowledge of regression to find a method of distinguishing the
two types of midges.

PROBLEM SOLVING

EXERCISE 4F
1 The Leaning Tower of Pisa, an ancient tower in Italy, is falling over! The
table below gives the amount of lean* in each of the years from
1975 to 1987.
Year 75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
Lean 642 644 656 667 673 688 696 698
Year 84
85
86
87
Lean 717 725 742 757

83
713

* The data represent the amount of lean greater than 2.9 metres, written without a
decimal point. For example, the lean of the Tower in 1975 was 2.9642 metres, and is
given in the table as 642.

The TI-83 screen shots above show:

A the scatterplot, with the least squares regression line


B the linear regression output screen
C the residual plot

a Is a linear model an appropriate choice for this set of data? Justify your decision.
b In 1918, the lean was 71. What does the linear model predict for 1918?
c Discuss briefly how well the model fits the data when we extrapolate back to 1918.
2

a Draw a scatterplot with 15 data values that you think has an r2 value of about 0.6 .
b Now enter the coordinates of these 15 points into two lists in your calculator, and use
them to determine the actual r2 value.
c If necessary, modify your original data values, and repeat b until your r2 value is close
to 0.6 .

166

MODELLING DATA WITH FUNCTIONS

(Chapter 4)

WORDS YOU SHOULD KNOW


bivariate data
coefficient of determination
correlation coefficient
extrapolation
fitted values (fit)

interpolation
least squares regression line
line of best fit
outliers
regression line

residual
residual plot
scatterplot
univariate data

CHAPTER 4 REVISION SET


1 Explain what a least squares regression line is, in your own words.
2 When investigating a car accident, the police need to determine how fast each car was
travelling when the accident occurred. One indicator of the speed is the length of the skid
mark left by the car. If a car leaves a skid mark, how accurately can the speed of the car
be determined from its length?
The following data was gathered by the Department of Transport under controlled conditions
(i.e., for a particular surface type and particular weather conditions).
Skid length (m)
Speed (kph)

5
32

8
40

11
48

15
56

25
64

31
72

37
80

44
88

52
96

60
104

80
120

100
144

a Enter this data into two lists of your graphics calculator.


b Draw the scatterplot. Describe the shape of the data.
c
i Fit a least squares linear regression model to this data.
ii Find the value of r2 .
d Construct the residual plot for the linear model and discuss any patterns in the residual
plot.
e
i Fit a least squares quadratic regression model to this data.
ii Find the value of r2 .
f

i Construct the residual plot for the quadratic model


ii Discuss any patterns in the residual plot.

g Now use the information you have gathered to decide which of these three models best
fits the data. Determine the domain over which you feel the model is valid. Justify
each of these decisions.
h Use your chosen model to estimate the speed a vehicle was travelling if it left a skid
mark 110 metres long.
i Use your chosen model to estimate the length of the skid mark left by a vehicle
travelling at 155 kilometres per hour.

MODELLING DATA WITH FUNCTIONS

(Chapter 4)

CHAPTER 4 TEST (KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES)


1

a When undertaking exploratory data analysis, an initial step is to


plot the data. Why is this important?
b What is a regression line? Is it always a linear function?
c What symbol is given to the coefficient of determination?
d Give two reasons why outliers might occur in a dataset.
e Write a paragraph explaining what information the coefficient of determination can
give about a dataset.
f Explain why knowing the value of r2 is not, by itself, sufficient to determine how
well a model fits a dataset.

2 Enter the following data into two lists in your graphics calculator.

x
y

10
81

15
187

26
251

29
197

36
266

41
304

45
297

a Graph the scatterplot.


b Find the equation of the least squares regression line, and graph it along with the
data.
c Find the value of r2 .
d Based on the above, how well does the linear model fit the data?
e Now construct a residual plot of the data.
f Answer the question in part d again, using the information from the residual plot.
g Find the equation of the quadratic regression line.
h Construct a residual plot based on the quadratic regression line.
i How well does the quadratic model fit the data?

167

168

MODELLING DATA WITH FUNCTIONS (Chapter 4)

EXTENDED MODELLING ACTIVITY


Kochel
numbers

W.A. Mozart (January 27, 1756 - December 5, 1791) is one of the most famous composers of
all times. Because much of Mozarts work is undated, and he did not have a publisher, Dr
Kochel, an Austrian botanist and mineralogist, composed a chronological thematic catalogue of
Mozarts works. The catalogue gives each work a Kochel number by which the work is now
universally identified. Kochels catalogue was first published in 1862, and has been periodically
revised.
Colin Fox is a professional mathematician who also hosts programs on the Australian Broadcasting Corporations FM Classical Music radio network. Colin Fox claims that there is a linear
relationship between the Kochel numbers and Mozarts age when the particular work was written.
The catalogue of Mozarts works is available from a number of websites.
One such is www.classical.net/music/composer/works/mozart/
It is also available from the website for this text.
From the complete collection of Mozarts compositions, select a random sample of 20 works.
Describe briefly how you selected your sample to ensure it was random.
Using your sample, find a linear relationship between the Kochel number and Mozarts age.
Use a residual plot to determine if a linear relationship is a good model for your data.
From your linear relationship, devise a rule of thumb (a simple rule) that allows someone to
quickly estimate Mozarts age from the Kochel number. Test your rule of thumb on a random
selection of ten of Mozarts compositions.
The website also contains the rule of thumb used by Colin Fox. Compare your rule of thumb
with that of Colin Fox for:
ease of use
accuracy.

Let us speculate on what might have been. If Mozart had lived to the age of 70, and continued
to produce compositions at the same rate until his death, what would have been the Kochel
number of his last composition?

CHAPTER

Trigonometry

SUBJECT MATTER
l
l
l
l

simple definitions and practical applications of the


sine, cosine and tangent ratios
simple practical applications of the sine and cosine
rules
definition of a radian and its relationship with
degrees
definition of the trigonometric ratios sin, cos and
tan of any angle in degrees and radians

170

TRGONOMETRY

(Chapter 5)

HISTORICAL NOTE

Trigonometry was first developed to help people understand the heavens. The
stars were thought to be fixed on a large crystal sphere, on which the planets, the
Sun and the Moon moved.
To aid in this understanding, Hipparchus ( 190-120 BC) produced the first trigonometric table.
This was a table of chords for angles in a large circle. The angles were measured in steps,
where one step equalled 15o.
Ptolemy (178-100 BC) used a different large circle and extended the table to include angles
o
1o
from 12
to 180o in steps of 1212 and even provided a means of interpolating results to get
2
greater accuracy. Although trigonometry was originally based on the chord of a circle, today
we base our trigonometry on the half-chord, which we call the sine.

SIMILAR TRIANGLES

We will start with a brief review of the trigonometry that you learned in the Junior school.

While historically trigonometry was based on circles, it is more useful to the student beginning the
study of trigonometry to start with triangles, and in particular with similar right-angled triangles.
Similar triangles are triangles with the same shape.

INVESTIGATION 1

PROPERTIES OF SIMILAR TRIANGLES


Materials:

protractor, ruler, calculator

What to do:
H

E
B

1 In the above triangles, by measuring confirm that angles A, D and G are congruent.
EF
HI
BC
,
,
.
2 Confirm that these ratios are equal:
AB
DE
GH
The basis of trigonometry of the right-angled triangle is that the ratios of the lengths of the sides
of similar triangles is equal, irrespective of the size of the triangle.
This fact allows us to find inaccessible lengths, distances and angles.

TRGONOMETRY

(Chapter 5)

171

TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS

As the ratios of the sides of right-angled triangles are


so critical in the study of trigonometry, we have
names for the sides of a right triangle, as well as for
the ratios of these sides.
If is the angle of interest, we will name the sides as
shown in the diagram.
The hypotenuse is opposite the right angle, the
adjacent side and the hypotenuse form the angle, and
the opposite side is the side furthest from the angle.
Taking any two sides at a time it is possible to make
up six different ratios.

A
hy

po

opposite

ten

us

adjacent

Name of Ratio

Abbreviation

Ratio of Sides

sine

sin

opposite
hypotenuse

cosine

cos

adjacent
hypotenuse

tangent

tan

opposite
adjacent

cosecant

cosec

hypotenuse
opposite

secant

sec

hypotenuse
adjacent

cotangent

cot

adjacent
opposite

The last three ratios are referred to as the reciprocal ratios as they are the reciprocals of the first
three ratios respectively.
In particular,
cosec =

1
sin

sec =

1
cos

cot =

1
tan

As in our earlier work on trigonometry we will concentrate mainly on the sin, cos and tan ratios
but in some situations a knowledge of the reciprocal ratios will be very useful.
As it is very important to remember the ratios of sides, some students learn a mnemonic to help
them remember these ratios.
For example, some old hippies cannot always hide their old age helps us to remember:
sin =

opp
hyp

cos =

adj
hyp

tan =

opp
adj

172

TRGONOMETRY

(Chapter 5)

EXAMPLE 5.1

Find sin , cos , tan , sec , cosec


and cot ratios from the diagram.

4
C

sin =

opposite
=
hypotenuse

4
5

cosec =

hypotenuse
=
opposite

5
4

cos =

adjacent
=
hypotenuse

3
5

sec =

hypotenuse
=
adjacent

5
3

tan =

opposite
=
adjacent

cot =

adjacent
=
opposite

4
3

3
4

Calculating the unknown sides and angles in a triangle is referred to as solving the triangle.

EXAMPLE 5.2
Solve PQR, giving length answers to 2 decimal places.

35
8 cm

Given: P = 90o , Q = 35o , PQ = 8 cm. We are required to find ]R, PR and QR.
If we know two angles, we can find the third angle because the sum of the angles of a
triangle is 180o . So, R = 180o 90o 35o = 55o .

Once we have found the unknown angle, we can now use either 35o or 55o as our reference
angle for our trigonometric ratios. Sometimes a calculation may be made a little easier by
selecting a particular reference angle over the other.
To find PR:
)

To find RQ:

opp
adj
PR
0:7002 =
8
) PR = 5.60

tan 35o =

8
RQ
8
) 0:8192 =
RQ
8
) RQ =
0:8192
) RQ = 9.77

falways write the trig ratio firstg


fsubstituteg
fsolve for PR, and round to two decimal placesg

cos 35o =

fmultiply by RQ, then divide by 0.8192g


fround to two decimal placesg

Therefore: P = 90o , Q = 35o , R = 55o ; PQ = 8 cm, PR = 5.60 cm, RQ = 9.77 cm.

TRGONOMETRY

(Chapter 5)

173

FINDING AN UNKNOWN ANGLE

EXAMPLE 5.3
If sin A = 0.7071, find angle A.
We want to find the angle whose sine is 0.7071.

We write: sin A = 0.7071

There are two common notations for finding an unknown angle:


A = sin1 0.7071

We read this as A equals the inverse sine of 0.7071.

or A = arcsin 0.7071

We read this as A equals the arcsin of 0.7071.

Using the inverse sine key, we find that A + 45o .

INVESTIGATION 2

TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS AND GRADIENT


y

Use the diagram to find a relationship between a


trigonometric ratio and the gradient of the line OA.
O

EXAMPLE 5.4

Solve ABC giving angles and sides correct to one decimal place.

5 cm
A

Given: B = 90o , AB = 6 cm, BC = 5 cm.


To find A:

tan A =
)

opp
=
adj

6 cm

We are required to find ]A, ]C and AC.

5
6

A = tan1 ( 56 ) + 39:8o

To find C:

C + 180o 90o 39:8o + 50:2o

To find AC:

Use Pythagoras Theorem (although we could also use the sine ratio).
AC2 = 52 + 62
p
) AC = 52 + 62 + 7:8

Therefore:

A = 39.8o , B = 90o , C = 50.2o


AB = 6 cm, BC = 5 cm, AC = 7.8 cm.

174

TRGONOMETRY

(Chapter 5)

EXERCISE 5B.1
1 Using your calculator determine the following (correct to 4 decimal places).
a sin 56o
b cos 18o
c tan 72o
d sin 30o
o
o
o
e cos 60
f tan 45
g cosec 56
h cot 17o
i sec 39o
j cot 45o
k sec 60o
l cosec 89o
2 Find
a
d
g

A (give your answer to the nearest degree).


sin A = 0:6428
b cos A = 0:2250
sin A = 0:5
e cos A = 0:7071
sec A = 1:5
h cot A = 0:702

3 Solve the following triangles.


a
b
B

20

C
6 cm

A
D

50

tan A = 5:6713
tan A = 1:7321
cosec A = 10

10 cm

c
f
i

5 cm

12 cm

F
G

4 cm
5 cm

A
H

a For y = sin x, if the domain of x is 0o 6 x 6 90o , then determine the range of y.


b For y = cos x, if 0o 6 x 6 90o , then determine the range of y.
c For y = tan x, if 0o 6 x < 90o , then determine the range of y.

5 By selecting any three angles between 0o to 90o , demonstrate that


6 A clinometer is used to measure angles.
If the Greek geometer Thales had access
to a clinometer, what angle would he
have measured to the top of the Great
Pyramid?

sin A
= tan A.
cos A
148 m

185 m

7 Use the following set of angles: A = f10o , 20o , 30o , .... , 70o , 80o g to verify the following
relationships:
a sin A = cos(90o A)
b cos A = sin(90o A)
c What do you think the co in cosine is referring to?
d What is the relationship between tan A and cot A?
8 For a circular track of radius r metres, banked at
degrees to the horizontal, the ideal velocity (the
velocity that gives no tendency to sideslip) in metres
per second is given by the formula:
p
v = gr tan , where g = 9:8 m/s2 .
a What is the ideal velocity for a vehicle travelling
on a circular track of radius 100 m, banked at
an angle of 15o ?
b At what angle should a track of radius 200 m be banked, if it is designed for a vehicle
travelling at 20 m/s?

TRGONOMETRY

(Chapter 5)

175

9 A regular hexagon has a side length of 1 metre. Determine the area of this hexagon in m2 .

DIVIDING UP DEGREES
Although one degree is a very small angle there are many situations where scientists require a more
accurate angle measurement. Again thanks to the Babylonians, the traditional fractional system for
degrees is based on number 60. Here are the conversions, and the symbolism:

so,

Therefore an angle of 28o 150 3600


equals 28 +

15
60

36
3600

1o = 600
10 = 6000
1o = 360000

1 degree = 60 minutes
1 minute = 60 seconds
1 degree = 3600 seconds

(which we say as 28 degrees, 15 minutes, 36 seconds)

degrees, which in decimal form is 28.26o .

The decimal form is becoming more common, but both methods are still in use. Expressing angles
in degrees, minutes and seconds is referred to as sexagesimal form.

EXAMPLE 5.5
a Change 25.63o from decimal form to sexagesimal form.
b Change 36 o 400 3000 to decimal form.
a

0.63o = 37.80
fmultiply 0:63 60g
fmultiply 0:8 60g
0:80 = 4800
o
o
0
00
So, 25.63 = 25 37 48

36o 400 3000

= 36 +

40
60

30
3600

degrees

= 36.675o

If you use a scientific calculator, you may have a key on your calculator that does these conversions
automatically. Many graphics calculators have decimal to sexagesimal conversions as a menu choice.
Alternatively, you can (if you know your calculators programming language) write a short program
to do these conversions for you.

EXERCISE 5B.2
1 Convert into sexagesimal form.
a 25.6o
b 105.38o
e

14:04o

546:2o

2 Convert into decimal form.


a 15o 240 3600
b 125o 80 4800
e 123o 450 600
f 90o 120 1200

c
g
c
g

63:125o

235:366o

0:1o

1o
2

44o 150 2400


0o 500

d
h

83o 420 5500


0o 00 500

3 Using your calculator find the following trig values.


a sin 18o 320 2400
b cos 84o 320 5400
d sin 12o 340 5600
e cos 67o 120 16:700

c
f

tan 46o 450 1500


tan 89o 560 4300

176

TRIGONOMETRY (Chapter 5)

4 Solve these triangles expressing all angles in sexagesimal form.

6 cm

c
17

7m

G
10 cm

24 m

X
41

40

ANGLES OF ELEVATION AND ANGLES OF DEPRESSION


Commonly angles are measured up or down from
the horizontal. Such angles are called angles of
elevation and angles of depression respectively.
Note that the angle of elevation equals the angle
of depression as they are measured from parallel
lines.

angle of elevation
angle of depression
angle of elevation

EXAMPLE 5.6
A fire-spotter atop a 205 metre hill sees a wisp of smoke in the forest at an angle of depression of 6 o. Assuming the smoke is at the same altitude as the base of the hill, how far away is
the smoke?
Always draw a diagram first. The angle in
the triangle is the complement of 6o , or 84o .
opp
adj
d
tan 84o =
205
) d = 205 tan 84o
) d = 1950

tan 84o =

The fire is 1950 metres from the base of the hill.

84
205 m

EXERCISE 5B.3
1 Find the height of a vertical cliff if the angle of elevation is 35o to the top, from a point which
is 170 metres from the base of the cliff.
2 Lindsay is standing on level ground, 100 metres from a statue. Using a clinometer, he measures
the angle of elevation to the top of the statue to be 12o .
a Ignoring Lindsays height, what is the height of the statue?
b A more realistic model takes Lindsays height into account. What is the height of the
statue if Lindsays eye is 1:6 metres above the ground?
3 The angle of elevation to the top of a lighthouse 175 metres above sea level from a trawler is
7o . Calculate the horizontal distance of the boat from the lighthouse.

177

TRIGONOMETRY (Chapter 5)

4 Kylie measures the angle of elevation from a point on level ground to the top of a building
120 metres high to be 32o . She walks towards the building until the angle of elevation is 45o .
How far did she walk?
5 From a point A, 40 metres from the base of a building B, the angle of elevation to the top of
the building C is 51o , and to the top of the flagpole D is 56o . Find the length of the flagpole.
6 A vertical tree is growing on the side of a hill with a slope of 10o 400 to the horizontal. From
a point 50 m downhill from the tree, the angle of elevation to the top of the tree is 18o 200 .
Find the height of the tree.
7 A balloon travels horizontally at a distance h kilometres above the ground between two points
A and B, which are two kilometres apart. From a point C on the ground, the angle of elevation
to the balloon at A is 40o and at B is 25o . Assume that A, B and C are in the same plane and
that A and B are on the same side of the observation point. Find the height h of the balloon.
8 The hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle is five times the length of the shortest side. Find
the tangent of the angle that is opposite the remaining side, i.e., the angle adjacent to the short
side.
9 Triangle ABC is isosceles, with legs AC and BC = 1 unit.

a Use the Theorem of Pythagoras to find the length AB.


b Hence, find exact values of sin 45o , cos 45o and tan 45o .
1

10

b
c
P

Triangle PQR is equilateral with each side of length


2 units.
If QT ? PR, then determine ]P, ]PQT and QT.
Hence, find exact values of sin 30o , cos 30o
and tan 30o .
Find the exact values of sin 60o , cos 60o and
tan 60o .

EXACT TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS


From questions 9 and 10 in the previous exercise, you
should have discovered these exact trigonometric ratios:

Angle

Sin

Cos

Tan

30o

1
2

p
3
2

p1
3

45o

p1
2

p1
2

60o

p
3
2

1
2

1
p
3

178

TRIGONOMETRY (Chapter 5)

As these are used extensively in Mathematics B, you must either commit them to memory (it is not
hard, as there are many patterns in this table) or be able to quickly reproduce them from the diagrams given in questions 9 and 10 in Exercise 5B.3.
It is very satisfying at the endpof a tricky problem to find, for example, that an unknown length can
be expressed very simply as 3. It is not at all satisfying to find that the length is 1.732050808.

The other justifications for using exact trigonometric ratios are efficiency and accuracy. Often it is
much faster to work without a calculator and with exact trigonometric ratios, and the p
chance of
making a silly error is much reduced. We never make a transcribing error when writing 3, while
we could easily make a transcribing error when writing 1.732060808.

ANGLES OF ANY MAGNITUDE

To the ancient Greeks, all angles had a magnitude between 0o and 180o ; in fact 0o and 180o were
not considered to be angles. But once we think about angles in settings other than triangles, for
instance the angle through which a golf club turns during a swing, it becomes necessary to study
angles outside of this range.
An angle can be defined very simply as an amount of rotation.
In the previous section, our discussion was based on the right-angled triangle, which limited the
magnitude of any angle from 0o to 90o .
However, from our calculator we can see that sin 150o = 0:5 and tan(135o ) = 1.
It appears that trigonometric ratios exist for angles smaller than 0o and larger than 90o .

Instead of limiting our discussion by


referring only to right-angled triangles,
let us use a circle diagram to display
angles. Recall from the historical note
that trigonometry was originally developed using circles and not triangles.
You have learned previously that one
complete revolution has 360 o. It is
thought that this number of 360 originated from the Babylonians who used a
base 60 number system. Because 360
can be divided by so many divisors,
later cultures probably found it very
convenient to retain the 360 degrees in
a circle rather than change it to say 100
units or even 10 units.

120

90

anticlockwise
= positive

60
30

150

0
360

180

210

starting
position

330

240

300
270

clockwise
= negative

To represent an angle we need a starting position. By convention this is the horizontal position
pointing to the right.
Consider the circle diagram above to be a Cartesian Plane with the centre of our circle at the origin
of the Cartesian Plane.
We define the starting position for measuring angles as the positive direction of the x-axis.
A positive angle is an anticlockwise rotation from the starting position while a negative angle is
a clockwise rotation from the starting position.

TRGONOMETRY

179

(Chapter 5)

For example, 210o is shown in the first


diagram alongside.
The angle 120o is shown in the second
diagram alongside.

We do not have to stop after one revolution. An angle of 480o is shown in the
first diagram on the right.

210
-120

II

III

IV

480

Any angle of any magnitude (positive or


negative) can be represented by a rotation
measured from the positive x-axis.

The circle diagram, like the Cartesian Plane, can be divided into four quadrants with the quadrants
being numbered from the starting position in order in the positive direction. Often Roman numerals
are used to number the quadrants. An angle from 0o to 90o is sometimes referred to as a first
quadrant angle, an angle from 90o to 180o is referred to as a second quadrant angle and so on.

EXERCISE 5C
1 Represent the following angles with a circle diagram.
a 240o
b 330o
c 60o
o
o
e 450
f 720
g 240o
i 0o
j 90o
k 180o

d
h
l

180o
540o
270o

2 Classify the following as 1st


a 45o
b
e 495o
f
i 90o
j

d
h
l

215o
1079o
1 000 000 000o

, 2nd, 3rd or 4th quadrant angles.


120o
c 300o
o
95
g 2000o
180o
k 1 000 000o

3 A nautical mile (n mile) is the distance on the Earths surface that subtends an angle of 1 minute of the Great Circle
arc measured from the centre of the Earth. A knot is a
speed of 1 nautical mile per hour.
a Given that the radius of the Earth is 6400 km, show that
1 n mile is approximately equal to 1.852 km.
b Calculate how long it will take a plane to fly from Rockhampton to Brisbane (a distance of 650 km) if the plane
can fly at 400 knots.

1 n mile
Q

1'

4 a A figure skater does a triple axle (i.e., three complete rotations). How many degrees does
she turn through?
b An engine is running at 5000 rpm (revolutions per minute). How many degrees does it turn
in one second?
c

Some children are playing pin the tail on the donkey. A child is facing the donkey when
the blindfold is put on. She is spun around until she is facing away from the donkey.
Through what angles might she have been rotated?

d Can you find an elegant way to answer question c that includes all possible solutions?

180

TRIGONOMETRY (Chapter 5)

CIRCULAR FUNCTIONS

The previous section discusses angles of any magnitude. Your calculator confirms that trigonometric
ratios are defined for any angle. So far we have defined the various trigonometric ratios using the
sides of a right-angled triangle.
But definitions such as sin =

opp
hyp

(0, 1)
y

have a major drawback

in that the range of is restricted to 0o < < 90o .

Hence, we must rethink our definition of the trigonometric


ratios. In the previous section we introduced a circle to explain
angles of any magnitude. Similarly we will use a circle to
re define our trigonometric ratios. In fact to make things as
simple as possible we will use a unit circle.

1 unit

(-1, 0)

(1, 0)

(0, -1)

The unit circle is a circle of radius 1 unit with centre the origin.

y
P(x, y)

The unit circle has intercepts of (1, 0) and (1, 0) on the x-axis,
and intercepts of (0, 1) and (0, 1) on the y-axis. Consider
the point P with general coordinates (x, y) situated on the circumference of the unit circle. Let be the angle formed as P
rotates from the x-axis (the starting position for measurement
of angles) and initially let be a first quadrant angle.

We will now extend our definitions of sin , cos and tan so they can be applied to angles of
any magnitude.
Given a circle of radius 1 unit centred at the origin O and any point P(x, y) on the circumference,
let the angle formed by the positive x-axis and ray OP be . Then we define cos to be the
x-coordinate of P and sin to be the y-coordinate of P. The tangent ratio will be defined as the
ratio the y-coordinate : the x-coordinate.
These definitions are consistent with the original definitions of sin and cos for angles less than 90 degrees.
To show this, we will construct a right-angled triangle
in the first quadrant of the unit circle. See the diagram.

y
P(x, y)
1

In OPN:

opp
sin =
hyp
PN
=
OP
y
=
1
sin = y

Similarly cos =

adj
=x
hyp

and tan =

opp
y
=
adj
x

y
x

TRIGONOMETRY (Chapter 5)

181

Therefore, based on a unit circle, the definitions of the trigonometric ratios are:
If point P is any point on the unit circle, then
cos = x-coordinate of P
sin = y-coordinate of P
tan =

y-coordinate of P
x-coordinate of P

Rather than say that P has co-ordinates (x, y), we can


now say that the co-ordinates of P are (cos , sin ).
Let us see how the definition works in a quadrant other
than quadrant I. If the angle is in the third quadrant,
i.e. 180o < < 270o , then sin and cos are both
negative while tan will be positive.
To remind us of the meaning of the x and y-coordinates
of a point on the unit circle, we can also call the x-axis
the cosine axis and the y-axis the sine axis.

sine axis
y

cosq
1

q
sinq

cosine axis
x

P(cosq, sinq)

As the line segment OP moves around the unit circle mapping out angles of any magnitude, the
values of sin and cos change from a maximum value of 1 to a minimum value of 1. Therefore
for angles of any magnitude, the range of sin and cos are:
1 6 sin 6 1 and 1 6 cos 6 1 respectively.

HISTORICAL NOTE

The origin of the term sine is quite fascinating. Arbyabhata, a Hindu mathematician who studied trigonometry in the 5th century AD called the sine-leg of the
circle diagram ardha-jya which means half-chord. This was eventually shortened to
jya. Arab scholars later translated Aryabhatas work into Arabic and initially phonetically translated jya as jiba but since this meant nothing in Arabic they very shortly
began writing the word as jaib which has the same letters but means cove or bay.
Finally in 1150 an Italian, Gerardo of Cremona, translated this work into Latin and replaced jaib with sinus which means
sin
bend or curve but is commonly used in
leg
Latin to refer to a bay or gulf on a coastline.
chord
The term sine that we use today comes from
of circle
this Latin word sinus. The term cosine
comes from the fact that the sine of an angle is
equal to the cosine of its complement. In 1620,
Edmund Gunter introduced the abbreviated
co sinus for complementary sine.

In geometry you have learned that a tangent is a line that intersects a circle at just one point.
However, when we refer to the tangent ratio in trigonometry we mean either

sin
y
adj
or
or .
hyp
cos
x

Are these two seemingly different ideas, the geometrical and the trigonometrical, related in some

182

TRIGONOMETRY (Chapter 5)

way? Let us return to our original unit circle diagram which we used to define the sin, cos and tan
ratios.
Draw a line perpendicular to the x-axis (cosine
axis) which touches the unit circle at A(1, 0).
Extend OP so that it intersects this tangent at B.

sine axis
B
P

ONP is similar to OAB


)

NP
AB
=
ON
OA

But

NP
= tan
ON

AB
= tan
OA

) AB = tan

y
O

q
x

A
cosine axis

since OA = 1 for the unit circle.

A tangent line is drawn to the circle at A (and hence is perpendicular to the x-axis). If OP is
extended to intersect this tangent line at B, then the length of AB is equal to the tangent of the
angle. Hence the tangent ratio does have a strong connection with the tangent to a circle.
We have already noted that the range for sine and cosine is from 1 to 1. The tangent ratio is
more interesting. For an angle of 89o , the tangent ratio is very large. For an angle of 89:9999o ,
the tangent ratio is very large. Try this on your calculator. Can you see why this is so?
For an angle of 90o , the value of tangent does not exist since the ray OP will never intersect the tan
axis. We say that the value of tan 90o (and similarly 270o ) is undefined. While sine and cosine
only take on values in [1, 1], the value of the tangent ratio can be any real number.
The values of sin, cos and tan ratios can be either positive or negative now that we are considering
angles of any magnitude.
We need to develop a simple way of quickly determining whether a trigonometric ratio for a given
angle is positive or negative.

INVESTIGATION 3

TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS IN OTHER QUADRANTS


What to do:
1 Use your calculator to find sin, cos and tan values of various
angles in the range 0 o < < 360 o, and satisfy yourself that
this diagram is correct for angles in that particular quadrant.
2 Based on the unit circle definitions, develop an argument as to
why only sine is positive in quadrant II, only tangent is positive in quadrant III and only cosine is positive in quadrant IV.
This can be summarised using the diagram on the right. There are
a variety of ways of remembering which letter goes in which quadrant. A\l\l S\t\a\t\i\o\n\s T\o C\e\n\t\r\a\l is one common mnemonic.
Perhaps you would like to develop your own.

only Sin
values
are positive

All trig
values
are positive

only Tan
values
are positive

only Cos
values
are positive

TRIGONOMETRY (Chapter 5)

183

INVESTIGATION 4

OTHER TRIGONOMETRIC RELATIONSHIPS


As mentioned previously there are many relationships between the trig ratios. A few that we
have encountered already are
sin
cos = sin(90o )
,
sin = cos(90o ),
cos
A set of relationships that will be required in later sections of this chapter are
tan =

sin(180o ) = sin
cos(180o ) = cos
tan(180o ) = tan

By using a variety of values for angle , satisfy yourself that these relationships are true.
Because definitions of the trig ratios can be developed from a unit circle, mathematicians quite often
refer to sin, cos and tan as circular functions. Consider the sine ratio. It is a function because for
each value in the domain (i.e. for each angle) there is exactly one value in the range (i.e. one value
of sin). The study of trigonometry is included in our study of functions.

EXERCISE 5D
1 Refer to the third
diagram on page 180.
Using this, copy and
complete the table.

Angle
0o
90o
180o
270o
360o

sin

cos

2 Draw a unit circle and label the sin axis, the cos axis and the tan axis.
available from the website. Use the diagram to estimate the value of
a sin 60o
b cos 60o
c tan 60o
o
o
e
cos 315
f tan 315
g sin 150o
o
o
i
tan 150
j sin(30 )
k cos(30o )
m sin 570o
n cos 570o
o tan 570o
Now check all of your estimates using your calculator.

tan

A useful diagram is

d
h
l

sin 315o
cos 150o
tan(30o )

3 Without using your calculator determine whether the ratio is positive, negative or zero.
a sin 210o
b cos 300o
c tan(60o)
d sin 130o
e cos(150o )
f tan 480o
g sin 750o
h cos(450o )
4 If 0o
a
c
e
g

6 6 360o , determine the range of values for which


sin is positive
b cos is negative
tan is positive
d sin is negative
sin is positive and tan is negative
f cos is positive and tan is positive
tan is negative and cos is negative.

184

TRIGONOMETRY (Chapter 5)

5 If 0o
a
c
e

6 6 90o , find in each of the following. Drawing a diagram of a unit circle may help.
sin 160o = sin
b sin 135o = sin
o
cos 100 = cos
d cos 152:8o = cos
o
tan 140 = tan
f tan 115o 320 4500 = tan

6 Angles are said to be coterminal if they have the same position on the unit circle diagram,
i.e. if the angles terminate at the same point on the unit circle. For example, 30o and 390o
would be coterminal angles.
a
b
c
d

Give six angles of different magnitude that are coterminal with 60o .
What can be said about the sine values of all angles coterminal with 60o ?
What can be said about the cosine values of all angles coterminal with 30o ?
What can be said about the tangent values of all angles coterminal with 90o ?

7 If sin = 0:89 determine two possible values for if 0o < < 360o . Drawing a diagram
of a unit circle may help.
8 If sin = a, then determine the following in terms of a, where 0o < < 90o . Drawing a
diagram of a unit circle or a right-angled triangle may help.
a cos
b tan
9 If 0o < < 360o , then determine for what values of
a sin = cos
b sin = tan
c tan = cos

RADIAN MEASURE

In our study of geometry and trigonometry work so far we have used degrees as the unit for the magnitude of an angle. As already mentioned the Babylonians introduced this unit and mathematicians
1
of a revolution.
over the ages have seen little need to change this basic unit of 1o = 360

The division of a circle into 360 equal parts is quite arbitrary. Why not divide the circle into 100 equal
parts or into 400 parts? The division of a circle into 400 units has some appeal as this would give us a
right-angle of 100 parts. This has been tried from time to time but it is not very convenient.
A more natural way to measure angles is to use a measure known as radian measure. A radian is simply an angle subtended at the centre of a circle by an arc equal in length to the radius. The term initially
used with this measure was radial angle but in 1873 James Thompson introduced the term radian.

CLASS INVESTIGATION 5
Materials: a sheet of A4 paper, a pair of compasses, a length of garden twistem or a piece of
whipper-snipper chord or a piece of string
(something flexible but not too flexible).
On an A4 sheet of paper, draw a large circle
with a pair of compasses. Do not change the distance between the points and step this distance
off around the circumference of the circle.

TRIGONOMETRY (Chapter 5)

Note the distance AP is a chord length equal in length to


the radius and in fact goes around the circle exactly six
times. This is the well known construction of a regular
hexagon. The triangle AOP is equilateral and ]AOP is
exactly 60o .

185

60

Now measure the radius of the circle with your piece of


flexible material. Then place one end of the material at
A and carefully, with your fingers, lay it along the arc
of the circle.

If you do this carefully you will find that the end does
not quite reach P. Call this point B. Join OB, and the
angle ]AOB is one radian.

flexible
material
A

Note that one radian is slightly less than 60o . (1 radian + 57o )
How many times would the radius fit around the curvature of the circle to reach A again?
Obviously it is six plus a little bit.
We can work out how many times the arc equal to the radius will divide into the circumference as
circumference
2r
=
= 2
so 360o = 2 radians.
arc
r
B

A radian is the angle at the centre of a


circle subtended by an arc whose length
is equal to the radius.

r
q

r
A

EXAMPLE 5.7
Establish the magnitude of the angles in these diagrams, in radians.

8 cm

c
O

O 5 cm

6 cm

q
O

6 cm

a =

8
5

= 1.6

b =

6
6

=1

(do not write anything after the number 1.6)

c No lengths are given. But, in any circle C = 2r so, half the circumference will be r.
r
= .
Hence, =
r
From Example 5.7 we see that

180o = radians

186

TRIGONOMETRY (Chapter 5)

Symbol for radians


In this text, we use the radian as a unit of angle measure. Different notations are used in different
texts. For example, we could write sin 2 (radians), sin 2R or sin 2c (c for circular measure;
this is not used very much in print as c could be confused with o for degrees).
In more advanced mathematics you will learn that radians are simply real numbers and the convention is to write sin 2, the implication being that without being specific, the angle is in radians.

CONVERTING FROM DEGREES TO RADIANS, AND VICE VERSA


Simple conversions

Because 360o = 2 R
180o = R
90o =

R
2

45o =

R
4

60o =

R
3

30o =

R
6

You should be able to convert multiples of 90o , 45o , 60o , 30o to radians without a calculator.

EXAMPLE 5.8
Convert to radians

a 240o

240o
= 4 60o
= 4 3
=

135o

135o
= 3 45o
= 3 4

4
3

330o

3
4

330o
= 11 30o
= 11 6
11
6

Harder conversions

EXAMPLE 5.9
Convert to radians

a 180o

To do any conversion, multiply by


and divide by 180:

180o
= 180
= R
= 3:14R

radians

500o

desired unit
. Since radians = 180o , we multiply by
existing unit

180

300o

300o
= 300
=

5
3

180

radians

radians

= 5:236R

by calculator

500o
= 500

180
R

= 8:727

radians

187

TRIGONOMETRY (Chapter 5)

EXAMPLE 5.10
Convert these angles from radians to degrees:

i.e., we multiply by 180 and divide by .


b

11
6

11
6

180

= 45o

180o
,

To convert from radians to degrees, we multiply by

11
6

11180o
6

1
=1

180

1800

1800

+ 57.3o

= 330o

An angle of magnitude 1 radian is slightly less than 60o . So a rough approximation for a radian is
a bit less than 60o .

Now that you have two methods of naming the magnitude of angles, you must
be careful that your calculator is in the correct mode, degrees or radians.

WARNING:

EXERCISE 5E
1 Determine the magnitude of each of the following angles in radian measure.
a
b
c
15
9

2
O

x2

4r

f
O

2 Express the following in radian measure, leaving your answer in terms of .


a 30o
b 90o
c 45o
d 120o
e 15o
f 60o
g 22:5o
h 240o
i 300o
j 225o
k 180o
l 270o
3 Express the following in radian measure (correct to 4 decimal places).
a 47:8o
b 153:47o
c 221o
d
o 0
o 0
o 0 00
e 64 18
f 257 45
g 98 15 30
h
i o

418o
338o 270 4500

188

TRGONOMETRY

(Chapter 5)

4 Copy and complete this table.


degrees

45o

radians

60o

120o

180o
5
4

3
2

5 Convert the following into degrees.


a
f

4
7
6

11
4

3
7
5

4
3
20
9

6 Convert the following into degrees, giving your answer in sexagesimal form.
a 1
b 0:76
c 1:39
d 2
e
f 0:27
g 4:85
h 2:71
i 5

3:64

7 Find the value of each of the following. Give the exact value where possible.
a sin( 3 )
b cos( 3
c tan( 4 )
d sin 2
e
4 )
f

tan( 2
3 )

sin 1:49

cos(3:6)

cos( 6 )

tan 1

8 Find the angles in each case, where 0 6 6 2. Give your answer in radian measure.
a sin = 0:5
b cos = 0:5
c tan = 1
d sin = 0:84
e cos = 0:563
f tan = 2:8

AREA OF TRIANGLES

F
A formula for the area of a triangle is

Area = 12 base perpendicular height.

This formula is sufficient if we have a right-angled triangle or we know the perpendicular height in
the triangle that is not right-angled. In real life there are many triangles that are not right-angled or
where it is often very difficult to measure the perpendicular height accurately.
Using trigonometry, we can develop an alternative formula that does not depend on a perpendicular
height. Any triangle that is not right-angled must be either acute or obtuse. We will consider both cases.

obtuse

acute

h
180-C

In both triangles a perpendicular is constructed from A to D on BC (extended if necessary).


h
b
h = b sin C

sin C =
)

h
b
) h = b sin(180o C)
but sin(180o C) = sin C
) h = b sin C
sin(180o C) =

TRGONOMETRY

189

(Chapter 5)

From our old formula for the area of a triangle,


Area =
=

1
2 base
1
2 ah

perpendicular height

we have been able to develop another formula for the area of a triangle
Area = 12 ab sin C
A

This formula will work for all angles between 0o and 180o .
In particular, if we let C = 90o ,
Area =
=

1
o
2 ab sin 90
1
since
2 ab

sin 90o = 1

which shows that our formula for the area of a triangle that we learned in Junior school is just a
special case of this formula. This is a common occurrence in Mathematics. A more general formula
is developed that includes an existing formula as a special case.
In general, to use this formula we need to know any two sides of the triangle and the included
angle. There are three variations of the rule depending on how the sides and angles are named:
A

Area of ABC =
=
=

In words,

1
2 ab sin C
1
2 ac sin B
1
2 bc sin A

The area of a triangle equals half the product of


any two sides and the sine of the included angle.

EXAMPLE 5.11
A

Find the area of ABC shown.

12 cm

110
B

We know B = 110o , a = 15 cm, c = 12 cm


(i.e., 2 sides and the included angle)
Area = 12 ac sin B
=

1
2

15 12 sin 110o

= 84:6 cm2

15 cm

190

TRGONOMETRY

(Chapter 5)

EXERCISE 5F
1 Calculate the area of the following triangles. All lengths are in cm.
a
b
c
70

100

7
52

8
50

10740'

45

2 Calculate the area of the following shapes.


a

10

85

10

3652'12"
8

5m
73
2.8 m

3.6 m

6 cm
68

105

4m

12 cm

3 Find the angle A in this triangle if the area is 15 cm.

A
5 cm

4 Find the side x in each case.


a

C
x

Area = 100 cm 2

15 cm
55

4 cm

Area = 3 cm 2

60
~`3 cm

5 Find the area of the parallelogram ABCD in which AB = 6.2 cm, BC = 8.9 cm and B = 40o .
6 A triangle has an area of 5 cm2 . Two sides are 5 cm and 4 cm and the angle between these
sides is . Find , giving your answer in sexagesimal form.
7 A rhombus has an area of 60 cm2 with an internal angle of magnitude 75o . Find the length of
the side of this rhombus.
8 Prove that the formula for the area of a regular hexagon is as follows:
p
3 3s2
Area of hexagon =
where s = length of one side.
2
Hint: Draw a diagram.

TRGONOMETRY

(Chapter 5)

191

9 The Australian 50 cent coin has the


shape of a dodecagon (12 sides).
Eight of these 50 cent coins will fit
exactly on an Australian $10 note
as shown below. What fraction of
the $10 note is not covered?

THE SINE RULE

We have seen earlier that in any right-angled triangle if we know two sides, or one side and an angle other than the right angle then we can use Pythagoras Theorem or trigonometric ratios to solve
the triangle. We now wish to extend this to triangles that do not have a right angle. We will use our
newly found formula for the area of a triangle to develop a formula relating the sides and angles of
any triangle.
Previously we saw that the area of ABC can be written in three ways.
Area of ABC = 12 bc sin A or

1
2 ac sin B

or

1
2 ab sin C.

Since each represents the same area, we can write


1
2 bc sin A

bc sin A = ac sin B = ab sin C

bc sin A
ac sin B
ab sin C
=
=
abc
abc
abc
)

= 12 ac sin B = 12 ab sin C

sin B
sin C
sin A
=
=
a
b
C

fmultiply by 2g
f by abcg
fsimplifyingg

This may also be written in inverted form as


a
b
c
=
=
sin A
sin B
sin C

This formula which relates the three sides and the sin ratios of the three angles is called the sine rule.
The sine rule states:
sin B
sin C
sin A
=
=
a
b
c

In any triangle ABC


or

b
c
a
=
=
sin A
sin B
sin C

The sine rule allows us to solve any triangle provided that two angles and one side are known.

192

TRGONOMETRY

(Chapter 5)

EXAMPLE 5.12

Solve ABC.

a = ? cm

A = 105o

25

b = 14 cm

B = 25o

C =?

Finding C: C = 180o 105o 25o = 50o


a
b
=
sin A
sin B

Finding a:

14 cm

105

)
)
)

Finding c:

b sin A
sin B

a=

c
b
=
sin C
sin B
)

14 sin 105o
sin 25o
a = 32

a=

c = ? cm

c=

b sin C
sin B

14 sin 50o
sin 25o
c = 25:4
c=

Solution is: C = 50o , a = 32 cm, c = 25:4 cm


Note: If you are given two angles it is a very simple procedure to find the third angle. As a
check against having made calculation errors, in any triangle the longest side is always opposite
the largest angle and the shortest side is always opposite the smallest angle.

EXERCISE 5G.1
1 In ABC, find
a
b
c
d
e

a if
c if
a if
b if
a if

A = 72o ,
A = 66o ,
A = 47o ,
B = 59o ,
B = 69o ,

B = 23o
B = 51o
B = 65o
C = 73o
C = 41o

and
and
and
and
and

b = 35 cm
a = 5:1 m
b = 6:8 cm
a = 12 m
b = 3 cm

2 Solve the following triangles (i.e. find all unknown sides and angles).
a
b
c
d
R

B
65

48

20 cm

50

52

X
105 Y
8m

200 km

length of BD

length of CD

25
100 m

40

D
0.16 m

36

3 Find
a ]ADB
b

80

45
F
D

TRGONOMETRY

4 The angle of elevation of the top of a tall building,


T, observed from a point A on ground level is
18o . The angle of elevation from a point B, 300
metres closer to the base of the building in the
same plane as A and T, is 30o . Find the height
of the building using the sine rule.

193

(Chapter 5)

18
300 m

30

THE AMBIGUOUS CASE OF THE SINE RULE (OPTIONAL)


You may have noticed in the previous exercise that all calculations where the sine rule was used
involved finding a side (having been given two angles but only one side). The sine rule may also be
used to solve triangles where two sides and a non-included angle are given. However you have to
be very careful because different triangles are sometimes possible from the same set of given data.

INVESTIGATION 6

THE AMBIGUOUS CASE


You will need a blank sheet of paper, a ruler, a protractor and a compass for the tasks
that follow. In each task you will be required to construct triangles from given information.
Task 1: Draw AB = 10 cm. At A construct an angle of 30o . Using B as centre, draw an
arc of a circle of radius 6 cm. Let the arc intersect the ray from A at C. How many
different positions may C have and therefore how many different triangles ABC may
be constructed?
Task 2: As before, draw AB = 10 cm and construct a 30o angle at A. This time draw an
arc of radius 5 cm based on B. How many different triangles are possible?
Task 3: Repeat, but this time draw an arc of radius 3 cm on B. How many different triangles
are possible?
Task 4: Repeat with an arc of radius 12 cm from B. How many possible triangles?
In this investigation you should have discovered that when you are given two sides and a nonincluded angle there are a number of different possibilities. You could get two triangles, one
triangle or it may be impossible to draw any triangles from the given data.
Let us consider the calculations involved in each of the cases of the investigation.
Task 1: Given: c = 10 cm, a = 6 cm, A = 30o

sin A
sin C
=
c
a

Finding C:
)

c sin A
sin C =
a

10 sin 30o
sin C =
= 0:8333
6

30
10 cm

Because sin = sin(180o ) there are two possible angles:


C = 56:44o

or 180o 56:44o = 123.56o

6 cm
6 cm

On your calculator check that the sin ratio of both of these angles is 0.8333.

194

TRGONOMETRY

(Chapter 5)

Carrying on to solve the triangle in both cases:


If C = 123:56o
) B = 180o 30o 123:56o
) B = 26:44o
b
a
=
sin B
sin A

If C = 56:44o
) B = 180o 30o 56:44o
) B = 93:56o
b
a
=
sin B
sin A
a sin B
sin A

b=

6 sin 93:56o
b=
sin 30o

b = 11:98 cm

b=

a sin B
sin A

b=

6 sin 26:44o
sin 30o

b = 5.34 cm

Therefore two solutions are possible:


c = 10 cm
a = 6 cm
A = 30o

with

C = 56:44o
B = 93:56o
b = 11:98 cm

or

C = 123:56o
B = 26:44o
b = 5:34 cm

Task 2: Given: c = 10 cm, a = 5 cm, A = 30o


sin C
sin A
=
c
a

Finding C:
)

sin C =

c sin A
a

sin C =

10 sin 30o
5

sin C = 1

C
5 cm
A

30
10 cm

There is only one possible solution for C in the range from 0o to 180o and that is C = 90o .
So only one triangle (i.e. one set of solutions) is possible. Complete the solution of the triangle
yourself.
Task 3: Given: c = 10 cm, a = 3 cm, A = 30o
sin A
sin C
=
c
a

Finding C:
)

sin C =

c sin A
a

sin C =

10 sin 30o
3

sin C = 1:6667

3 cm

30
10 cm

There is no angle that has a sin ratio > 1. Therefore there is no solution for this given data, i.e.,
no possible triangle can be drawn.

TRGONOMETRY

(Chapter 5)

195

Task 4: Given: c = 10 cm, a = 12 cm, A = 30o


C

10 sin 30o
12
sin C = 0:4167

Finding C:

sin C =

Two angles have a sin ratio of 0.4167


o

C = 24:62
C = 24:62o

or
or

12 cm

180 24:62
155.38o

30

10 cm

However, in this case only one of these two angles is valid. If A = 30o then C cannot possibly
equal 155.38o because 30o +155:38o > 180o . Therefore, there is only one solution, C = 24:62o .
Once again, you may wish to carry on and complete the solution.

Conclusion: Each situation using the sine rule with two sides and a non included angle must be
examined very carefully.

EXERCISE 5G.2
1 Construct two different triangles for each of the following and then proceed to solve both
triangles.
a ABC with a = 15 cm, c = 13 cm and C = 45o
b PQR with r = 6 cm, q = 4:5 cm and Q = 30o
2 ABC has B = 40o , b = 8 cm and c = 11 cm . Show that C can have two possible values
and solve the triangle in each case.
3 Solve ABC in each case, given:
a
b
c
d
e

a = 75 cm,
a = 24 cm,
a = 3 cm,
a = 30 cm,
a = 60 cm,

c = 80 cm
c = 19 cm
c = 8 cm
b = 15 cm
b = 76 cm

and
and
and
and
and

A = 60o
A = 36o
A = 100o
A = 120o
B = 35o

9.8 cm

4 Is it possible to have a triangle with measurements as shown?


Explain!

68

85

11.4 cm

THE COSINE RULE

The cosine rule, like the sine rule, involves the sides and angles of a triangle.
In any ABC
c
a2 = b2 + c2 2bc cos A
2
2
2
or b = a + c 2ac cos B
or c2 = a2 + b2 2ab cos C
B
We will develop the first formula for both an acute and an obtuse triangle.

A
b

196

TRGONOMETRY

(Chapter 5)

180-A
c-x

In both triangles drop a perpendicular from C to meet AB (extended if necessary) at D.


Let AD = x and let CD = h.
Apply the Theorem of Pythagoras in BCD

a2 = h2 + (c x)2
a2 = h2 + c2 2cx + x2

a2 = h2 + (c + x)2
a2 = h2 + c2 + 2cx + x2

In both cases, applying Pythagoras to ADC: h2 + x2 = b2 and substitute for h2


)
In ADC:
)

a2 = b2 + c2 2cx
x
cos A =
b
b cos A = x
) a2 = b2 + c2 2bc cos A

a2 = b2 + c2 + 2cx
x
cos(180 A) =
b
b cos(180 A) = x
cos(180 A) = cos A
) b cos A = x

Now
)
But,

a2 = b2 + c2 2bc cos A

The other variations of the cosine rule could be developed by rearranging the vertices of ABC.
Note that if A = 90o , cos A = 0 and a2 = b2 + c2 2bc cos A reduces to a2 = b2 + c2 .
This shows that Pythagoras Theorem is just a special case of the cosine rule.

EXAMPLE 5.13

In ABC find:

114

a b
b A

8
b
A

To find b we need the variation of the formula


b2 = a2 + c2 2ac cos B
) b2 = 62 + 82 2 6 8 cos 114o
) b2 = 139:05
) b = 11:8

TRGONOMETRY

(Chapter 5)

197

b To find A it is best to rearrange the formula to make cos A the subject.

a2 = b2 + c2 2bc cos A
2bc cos A + a2 = b2 + c2
) 2bc cos A = b2 + c2 a2
)

cos A =

b2 + c2 a2
2bc

11:82 + 82 62
2 11:8 8
) cos A = 0:8858
) A = 27:7o

cos A =

EXAMPLE 5.14
Find the angle opposite the longest side in this triangle.

20 cm

8 cm

15 cm

Given: a = 20, b = 15, c = 8, A =?


From before:

cos A =

b2 + c2 a2
2bc

152 + 82 202
2 15 8
) cos A = 0:4625
) A = cos1 (0:4625)
) A = 117.55o or 117o 320 5400

cos A =

Note: If cos A is negative this means that A must be a second quadrant angle.
The cosine rule can be used to solve triangles given:

two sides and an included angle


three sides.

There is no ambiguity possible using the cosine rule.

EXERCISE 5H
1 Rearrange the formulas for the cosine rule:
a to make cos A the subject
c to make cos C the subject
2 In ABC, given
a b = 4 cm,
c = 5 cm and A = 68o , find a
b a = 11 cm, b = 7 cm and C = 60o , find c

to make cos B the subject

198

TRGONOMETRY

(Chapter 5)

c a = 135 m, b = 215 m and C = 115o , find c


d b = 20 m, c = 15 m and A = 95o , find a
e a = 22 cm, c = 18 cm and B = 55o , find b
3 In PQR, given
a p = 8 m, q = 5 m and r = 4 m, find P
b p = 30 cm, q = 20 cm and r = 41 cm, find Q
c p = 12 m, q = 15 m and r = 7 m, find R
4 Find the value of x in each of the following.
a
b

120

5
x

60

12

5 Find the smallest angle in a triangle with sides of 4, 5 and 6 cm.


6 Solve these triangles:
a
10 m

b
11.2 km

C
X

5m

56

8 cm

12.5 cm

16 cm

6m
14.6 km

e
15 m
4025'
18 m

f
11 cm

9 cm

12 cm
3642'
9 cm

5 cm

7 Find the largest angle in the triangle with sides of 2.1 m, 3 m and 1.8 m.
8 The lengths of two adjacent sides of a parallelogram are 15 cm and 9 cm with the angle
between the sides being 40o . Find the length of the longer diagonal.
9 Use the cosine rule followed by the sine rule to solve ABC where b = 5, c = 8 and A = 56o .
10 If two sides of a triangle are of length 26 cm and 22 cm and include an angle of 69o 300 4500 ,
find the length of the third side and the other two angles.
11 Two cyclists depart from the same point. One travels due East at 18 km/hr while the other
travels North-West at 20 km/h. How long (to the nearest minute) will it be before they are 80
km apart?

TRGONOMETRY

(Chapter 5)

199

APPLICATIONS OF THE SINE AND COSINE RULES

The first decision that has to be made is what rules to use. Do not forget that if the triangle is
right-angled that the trig ratios or Pythagoras Theorem can be used, and for some problems adding
an extra line or two to the diagram may result in right triangle. However, if you have to choose
between the sine and cosine rules, the following checklist may assist you.

Use the cosine rule when given


Use the sine rule when given

three sides
two sides and an included angle
one side and two angles
two sides and a non-included angle (but
beware of the ambiguous case which can
occur when the smaller of the two given
sides is opposite the given angle).

EXAMPLE 5.15
The angles of elevation of the top of an electricity pylon from the top and bottom of a building
are 50 o and 75 o respectively. If the building is 100 metres high determine the height of the pylon.
C

In real life problems it is essential


that a well-labelled diagram always
be drawn, showing all given data.
In ABC, A=15 o, B=140 o,
c=100 m. We need to find AC so
that we can then use a simple trig
ratio in ADC to find the height of
the pylon.

B 50
pylon

100 m
75

building
A

Since one side and two angles are known, we will use the sine rule.
C = 180o 140o 15o
= 25o
b
c
=
sin B
sin C
)

c sin B
sin C

100 sin 140o


sin 25o
b = 152.1 metres

)
)
)

h = AC sin 75o
h = 152:1 sin 75o
h = 146.9

In ADC: sin 75o =

b=
b=

h
AC

Therefore the height of the pylon is 146.9 metres.

200

TRGONOMETRY

(Chapter 5)

Surveyors and navigators use trigonometry to make calculations in many real-life practical situations.
These calculations usually involve directions or bearings.
The direction of a point is stated as a number of degrees East or West of either North or South. In
the diagram, the direction of A from O is N40o E. The direction of B from O is S60o W.
Another way to measure a direction is by measuring
it from true North in a clockwise direction, called a
bearing. A bearing is given as a 3 digit number from
001 to 359, without the degree symbol. From the
diagram given the bearing of A from O is 040 while
the bearing of B from O would be 240. The reverse
bearings of O from A would be 220 (add on 180) and
of O from B would be 060 (either add on 180 and
then subtract 360, or just subtract 180).

N
A
40
W

30
B
S

EXAMPLE 5.16
A party of bushwalkers start out at Base Camp and walk for 12 km on a bearing of 231.
They then walk for 19 km on a bearing of 117. Find
a how far they are now from Base Camp
b the bearing they must travel along to return to Base Camp.

First draw a labelled diagram showing all data. Other angles can be calculated and added on
to the diagram.
231

B
12 km
51
51
A

66

117
19 km

We need to find BC and the bearing


of B from C (i.e. angle ).
In ABC: A = 117o 51o = 66 o; b = 19 km, c = 12 km

q
C

As we know two sides and an included angle we will use the cosine rule.
a

Finding BC:

a2 = b2 + c2 2bc cos A
) a2 = 192 + 122 2 19 12 cos 66o
) a2 = 319:53
) a = 17.88 km

Therefore the distance from Base Camp is 17.88 km.

TRGONOMETRY

Finding \ ABC:

cos B =

(Chapter 5)

201

a2 + c2 b2
2ac
(to nearest degree)

B = 76o

O = 76o 51o
= 25o

Therefore bearing of Base Camp from C is 335.

EXERCISE 5I
1 A student wishes to determine the height of a flag pole. She
takes a sighting of the top of the flagpole from point A.
She then moves further away from the flagpole by 30
metres to point B and takes a second sighting.
The information is shown in the diagram
below. How high is the flagpole?

25

55

30 m

2 From the foot of a building I have to look upwards at an angle of 10o to sight the top of a
tree. From the fourteenth floor of the building, 50 metres above ground level, I have to look
down at an angle of 60o below the horizontal to sight the tree top.
a How high is the tree?
b How far from the building is this tree?
3 A Communications Tower is constructed
on top of a building as shown. Find the
height of the tower.

tower

20

building

20
100 m

4 A tower, 50 metres high, stands on top of a hill. From a point some distance from the base
of the hill, the angle of elevation to the top of the tower is 12.5o . From the same point the
angle of elevation to the bottom of the tower is 9o . What is the height of the hill?
5 A man walks a distance of 8 km in a direction S56o W . He then walks due East for 20 km.
What is the distance and bearing of the man from his starting point?
6 A hiker walks 5.5 km in a direction S20o E . He then turns and walks due North for a distance
of 6 km. What is the distance of the hiker from his starting point?
7 A point A is 12 km from B along a bearing of 132. C is 17 km from B along a bearing of
063. Find the bearing of A from C.

202

TRGONOMETRY

(Chapter 5)

8 A yacht sails on a bearing of 065 for 4 km and then sails 8 km along a bearing of 195. Find
the distance and bearing of the yacht from its starting position.
9 A football goal (soccer) is 8 metres wide. When a player is 24 metres from one goal post and
18 metres from the other, he shoots for goal. Assuming that the goal keeper is out of position
and will not interfere, within what angle must the shot be made if he is to score a goal?
10 An aircraft takes off from an airport and flies 400 km in a direction of N40o E. It then changes
course and flies in a direction S20o E until it is 500 km from the airport.
a What is the direction of the airport from the aircrafts final position?
b How far did it fly along the second leg of the journey?
C

11 The solid figure shown is a rectangular prism.


Find the magnitude of angle CAB.

3 cm

6 cm

5 cm

12 The triangle ABC has a = 5:8 cm, b = 7:5 cm and A = 45o .


Find the area of the triangle.
13 Three circles with radii of 3 cm, 4 cm and 5 cm touch each other externally. Using the centres
of the circles as vertices, a triangle is drawn. Find the area of this triangle.
14 Two points A and B on the same bank of a river are 60 metres apart. C is a point on the other
side of the river. If ]BAC = 82o 420 and ]ABC = 68o 260 , find the width of the river.
15 Jack and Jill are standing on level ground 100 metres apart. A large tree is due North of Jack
and on a bearing of 065 from Jill. The top of the tree appears at an angle of elevation of 25o
to Jill and 15o to Jack . Find the height of the tree.
16 A property owner wishes to know the area
of his property, the shape of which is
shown alongside. He measured the length
of side AB to be 450 metres and then took
the bearings as shown.
A ! B:
A ! C:
A ! D:
B ! C:
B ! D:

due North
028
060
070
140

C
B

450 m

Find the area of the property in hectares.


A

TRGONOMETRY

(Chapter 5)

203

PROBLEM SOLVING

EXERCISE 5J
1 A triangle has an area of 85 cm2 . If two of the sides are 18 cm and 11 cm,
determine the length of the third side.
2 ABCD is a square. M is the mid-point of side AB and E divides DC in the ratio of 2 : 1,
i.e, DE : EC = 2 : 1. Find ]AEM, giving your answer in sexagesimal form.
3 A pilot takes off from the RAAF base at Amberley for a destination 400 km due West of
the base. After covering 250 km, the pilot checks his instruments and finds that he has
been flying on a bearing of 280o since leaving the base. What course should he now fly
to arrive at his destination?
4 At 12 noon a ship leaves port and travels at 8 km/hr along a straight course in the direction
N25o E. At 2 pm a second ship leaves the same port and travels at 9 km/hr in the direction
S45o E. The radio communication between the two ships has a range of 75 km. Will the
two ships be able to communicate by radio at 6 pm?
5 You now know two formulas for the area of a triangle:

Area = 12 bh and Area = 12 ab sin C


a Show that for a right-angled triangle, these formulas are equivalent.
b Show that for any triangle, these formulas are equivalent.
6 In ABC, prove that c = a cos B + b cos A:
7 The diagram alongside shows a circular
entertainment area. It has a paved hexagonal area with plants growing in the garden (shown as the shaded sectors).

If the radius of the circle is 7 metres, find


the area of the garden.
8 A painting 2 metres by 2 metres is hung on a wall such that the lower border is 1 metre
above eye level of a normal person. An art expert gives advice that the viewer should stand
far enough away so that the viewing angle is about 20o . How far from the wall should the
viewer stand so that this angle of 20o occurs?
B

9 Recall the alternative formula for the area


of a triangle using trigonometry is:

Area =
Area =
Area =

1
2 ab sin C
1
2 ac sin B
1
2 bc sin A

or

q f

or
A

By applying this formula to the triangles in the diagram given:


h
h
a Show that: sin( + ) = sin + sin
a
c
b Hence show that: sin( + ) = sin cos + cos sin

204

TRGONOMETRY

(Chapter 5)

10 Three equal circles with radius r are drawn as


shown, each with its centre on the circumference of the other two circles. A, B and C are
the centres of the three circles. Prove that an
expression for the area of the shaded region
is:
p
r2
A = ( 3)
2

11 Vee belts are often used to form the drive link between pulleys. The length of the vee belt
is very important. To save time and reduce the chance of error, maintenance engineers use
a formula to determine the correct belt length given the radii of the pulleys and the distance
between their centres.

a = radius of larger pulley


b = radius of smaller pulley
c = distance between pulley centres.

Establish that:
belt length = (a + b) + 2(a b) + 2c cos

ab
where = sin1
in radians.
c
12 Suppose you are standing an unknown distance
d away from a cliff of height h. You need to
know the height t of a tower located on top of
the cliff. You know that the angle of elevation
of the bottom of the tower is B and the angle of
elevation of the top of the tower is A. Show that
the formula for the height of the tower, t, is given

by
tan A
t=h
1
tan B

t
h
B A

WORDS YOU SHOULD KNOW


arc
bearing
central angle
chord
circular functions
corresponding sides
cosecant
cosine
cosine axis

cosine rule
cotangent
coterminal
direction of a point
knot
nautical mile
radian
secant
sector

segment
sexagesimal
similar triangles
sine
sine axis
sine rule
tangent

205

TRIGONOMETRY (Chapter 5)

CHAPTER 5 REVISION SET


1

a For A = 29o , 58o and 85o


cos(270o A) = sin A:

use your calculator to verify that

b Solve the triangles


i

ii

iii

P
13.9 cm

6 cm

Q
B

5 cm

11.3 cm

c At a distance of 160 metres from Nelsons Column in Trafalgar Square in London, the
base of the statue is at an angle of elevation of 29:25o while the top of the statue is at an
angle of elevation of 31:80o . What is the height of the statue of Nelson?
2 The Great Pyramid in Egypt is 146:6 metres high
and has a square base of side 203:3 metres. Find
the angle which the edge at the intersection
ersection of
two faces makes with the horizontal.

146.6 m

203.3 m

203.3 m

a Convert from sexagesimal to decimal the following angles:


i 28o 330 3600
ii 135o 100 1200
b Convert from decimal to sexagesimal the following angles:
i 36:7o
ii 137:2o
c Convert the angles in b to radians.

4 Euclid, a racing pigeon, averages 90 km per hour in peak condition. He is taken by rail to
Plains 200 km north west of Mourne and then by road to Arid which is 50 km beyond Plains
on a bearing of 280 degrees. How long will he take to fly back to Mourne?
5 Solve the following triangles:
a

11 m

12 cm
39
58

25

11 km
7m

42
13 km

206

TRIGONOMETRY (Chapter 5)

6 Find the areas of the following figures:


a
b

8m
70

11 cm
28

12 m

7 Use your calculator to find


a cos = 0:6791
c cos = 0:6154
8

30

15 cm

10 m

given 0 < < 180o and


b sin = 0:4672
d sin = 0:7777

a A regular
octagon is inscribed in a circle of radius r. Show that the area of the octagon
p
is 2 2r2 :
A
b In the given diagram, angle BPC = 2(angle BAC).
Find a formula for r in terms of a and A.
r
B

r
a

CHAPTER 5 TEST (KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES)


1 Solve the triangle alongside.

8 cm

2 Convert 35o 140 2600 into decimal form.

9 cm
A

3 If 0 6 6 360 , determine the range of values for which cos is positive and
tan is negative.
o

4 Express 342.8o in radian measure (correct to 4 decimal places).


5 Convert

11
4

into degrees.

6 A triangle has an area of 9 cm2 . Two sides are 6 cm and 4 cm and the angle between
these sides is . Find , giving your answer in sexagesimal form.
7 Solve ABC, given a = 62 cm, c = 73 cm and A = 62o .
8 Two cyclists leave town at midday. One travels along a bearing of 037 at 25 km/hr
while the other travels on a bearing of 153 at 30 km/hr. How far apart are they at
3 pm?
9 From a point X, a mountain peak which is due North of X has an angle of elevation
of 25o . From point Y, 3 km West but on the same level as X, the mountain peak
is on a bearing of 050. Find the height of the mountain peak.

CHAPTER
Revision
exercises for
chapters
1 to 5

Review exercises are reproduced as student worksheets


on the CD and are accessible
by clicking on this icon

208

REVISION EXERCISES FOR CHAPTERS 1 TO 5 (Chapter 6)

REVIEW OF CHAPTER 1

1 A salesman earns a fortnightly salary of $800, plus 15% commission on his fortnightly sales.
a What is the
i independent variable
ii dependent variable?
b Show the relation as a
i table
ii set of ordered pairs
iii
iv graph
v equation
2 For the function f(x) = x2 + 3x, find the value of
a f (1)
b f(3)

mapping

f (0)

3 Which of the following variables are discrete and which are continuous?
a hat size
b capacity of the glasses in your kitchen cupboard
c number of colours that your computer monitor displays
4 As a casual worker, Jenna earns $12 per hour for the first eight hours she works in a day, and
$18 per hour for every hour after that. Union regulations state that she must be employed for
at least 4 hours per day, and no more than 12 hours per day.
a Which is the
i dependent variable
ii independent variable?
b Are the variables discrete or continuous?
c Represent the function as
i a table
ii a graph
iii the rule for the domain 0 to 8
iv the rule for the domain 8 to 12
d State the domain and the range of the function.
5 Find the gradient of the line joining
a (3, 1) and (3, 2)

(1, 5) and (2, 5)

6 Show that the points H(1, 2), I(2, 4,), J(0, 3) and K(3, 1) are the vertices of a parallelogram.
7 The
a
c
e

cost of curtains is $16 per metre for the material, plus a labour charge of $125.
What is the independent variable?
b What is the dependent variable?
Find the y-intercept.
d What are the units of the dependent variable?
Find the gradient.
f What are the units of the gradient?

8 Find the gradient and the y-intercept of


a

y 3 = 2(x 4)

9 Determine the equations of these straight lines.


a gradient 5 and passing through (2, 5) b
c a vertical line through (1, 2)
d
10

x+1
=2
y3

gradient 2 and passing through (1, 3)


a horizontal line through (1, 2)

a Find the equation of the straight line parallel to y = 2x + 3 that passes through
(1, 2). Graph both lines with your graphics calculator.
b Find the equation of the straight line perpendicular to y = 2x+3 that passes through
(1, 2). Graph both lines with your graphics calculator.

REVISION EXERCISES FOR CHAPTERS 1 TO 5 (Chapter 6)

11

209

a Sketch the graph of y = 3x + 7 by constructing a table, and plotting points.

b Sketch the graph of y = 13 x 1 using the y-intercept and gradient.


c Sketch the graph of 4y x = 8 by finding the x and y-intercepts.

12 Broccoli costs $3.29 per kilogram. What is the cost of


n kilograms?
a
b
c
d
e
f

What is the independent variable?


What is the dependent variable?
Is the independent variable discrete or continuous?
Find the constant of proportionality.
Write the relation between the variables in the form /.
Write the equivalent linear equation.

13 A laser printer takes 15 seconds to print the first page and


prints 12 pages per minute after that.
a Are the variables time and number of pages printed
discrete or continuous variables? Explain your answer.
b What is the
i independent variable ii dependent variable?
c Draw up a table showing the relationship between time
and number of pages.
d What is the domain?
e What is the range?
f Draw a graph from the table.
g Calculate the gradient. What are the units of the gradient?
h What does the gradient represent in this application?
i Find the equation for this situation.
14 Which of these relations is a function? Explain your answers.
a f(1, 3), (2, 3), (2, 5), (3, 6), (4, 7)g
b
1

-3

-2

-1

15 Explain the sentence, The time taken to dig the trench is proportional to the length of the
trench. You may wish to include a graph as part of your explanation.
16 The size of a sheet of A4 paper is 297 mm by 210 mm. A sheet of A3 paper has twice the
area of a sheet of A4 paper, with dimensions 420 mm by 297 mm. Similarly, a sheet of A2
paper is twice the size of a sheet of A3, and so on. Now if you cut a sheet of A4 paper in
half, you make two sheets of A5 paper, each 210 mm by 148:5 mm. Smaller paper sizes can
be made similarly.
a Copy and complete the following table.

210

REVISION EXERCISES FOR CHAPTERS 1 TO 5 (Chapter 6)

Size
Width (mm)
Length (mm)
b
c
d
e

A0

A1

A2

A3
297
420

A4
210
297

A5
148:5
210

A6

A7

A8

On your graphics calculator, graph length vs width.


Find an expression for the length, given the width.
Explain why this is an example of direct proportion.
What is the value of the constant of proportionality? Do you recognise this value?

REVIEW OF CHAPTER 2

B
1 Simplify
p
a
56
p p
d 5 12 27
p
p
g 3 82 2
p
27
p
j
3
2 Solve for x.
a x2 = 36

b
e
h
k

3 Simplify
p
p
a 6 13 9 13
p
p
d 3 24 2 54
p
p
g 5 d2 + 3 d2
r
a2
j
16

x=

p
121
p
2 c3
p
p
3 2 3 2
p
34
p
17

p
36

b
e
h
k

c
f
i
l

p
x = 36

p
p
2 5 + 3 20
p
p
6 x9 x
p
f 4 3f 2

c
f
i

p p p
w w w

p
x2
p
p
6 12
p
p
p
3 6 2 2 3
p
18g
p
2g

p
p
18 + 50
p
p
p
6 a + 5 a 12 a
p
36n2
p
a2 bc3
abc2

4 Rationalise the denominator. Simplify where possible.


a
e

5
p
10
3
p
2 3

5 Expand and simplify.


a (x + 6)(x 5)

b
f

7
p
7
1
p
b

c
g

p
6 2
p
6
7
p
2

p
x = 36

d
h

p
8+6
p
2
2c
p
c

(x 9)2

6 Expand using (a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2 :


a (x 8)2
b (2x + 5)2

(5 2x)2

7 Expand using (a + b)(a b) = a2 b2 :


a (x + 7)(x 7)
b (3x + 1)(3x 1)

(4 2x)(4 + 2x)

(2x 1)(3x + 2)

REVISION EXERCISES FOR CHAPTERS 1 TO 5 (Chapter 6)

8 Factorise completely.
a x2 10x + 16
d 3x2 27
g 2x4 2y 4
j 3x2 11x 4

b
e
h
k

6x2 7x 3
2x2 12x 32
(x + 2)2 y 2
4x2 + 2x 6

9 Given f(x) = 2x2 17x + 8, find


a f(2)
b f (8)
10 Factorise completely.
a x3 + 1

c
f
i
l

x2 36
5x2 + 20x + 15
2x2 + x 6
6x2 21x + 15
d

f( 12 )

f (0)

x3 125

11 Solve by graphing.
a 3x2 5x 2 = 0

2x2 8 = 0

12 Solve by factorising.
a x2 9x 22 = 0

x2 6x + 9 = 0

6x2 + x 12 = 0

13 Solve by factorising.
a x2 144 = 0

3x2 75 = 0

p 2
p
5x 4 5 = 0

14 Write the following as perfect squares.


a x2 + 12x + 36
b 4g 2 12g + 9

25 20x + 4x2

15 Solve by completing the square.


a x2 x 1 = 0
b

2x2 + 8x 1 = 0

x2 + 5x + 4 = 0

16 Solve using the quadratic formula.


a x2 x 1 = 0
b

2x2 + 8x 1 = 0

x2 + 5x + 4 = 0

y = 3t2 + 6t + 3

17 Find the discriminant of each of these quadratic functions.


a y = 3x2 x + 6
b y = x2 9x 14

211

18 Sketch the graph of y = x2 + x 6 over the domain [3, 3], by first making a table.
19 For the function y = 24 2x x2 , find
a the zeros b the y-intercept c the coordinates of the vertex.
Then sketch the graph of the function using this information.
20 For y = 3(x 1)(x 2) find the
a the roots b the y-intercept c
21

the coordinates of the vertex.

a Sketch the graph of y = x2 and the graph of y = 3x2 on the same set of axes.
b Sketch the graph of y = x2 and the graph of y = 2x2 + 2 on the same set of axes.
c Sketch the graph of y = x2 and the graph of y = 6 (x + 3)2 on the same set of
axes.

22 Use completing the square to re-write the function y = x2 4x + 10 in the form


y = A(x B)2 + C. Then sketch the graph of the function.
23

a Use completing the square to re-write the function y = 3x2 8x + 1 in the form
y = A(x B)2 + C.

212

REVISION EXERCISES FOR CHAPTERS 1 TO 5 (Chapter 6)

b
c
d
e

What are the coordinates of the turning point of the graph?


What is the y-intercept of the graph of this function?
Find the zeros of the equation.
Sketch the graph, showing all relevant information.

24 Sketch the graph of y = jxj and the graph of the given function on the same set of axes.
a y = jxj 4
b y = jx + 5j
25 For each exercise, the graphs of f (x) = jxj and g(x) are given. State the equation for g(x).
a

(!)

(!)

2
x

-2
-2

g(!)

2
x

-4

g(!)

1
26 For each question, sketch the graph of f (x) =
and the graph of the given function on the
x
same set of axes.
a

f (x) =

1
x

f(x) =

1
2(x + 1)

27 One important feature of the overhead projector (OHP) in the mathematics room is the area
of projection A, for a given distance from the screen d. The OHP has been designed to have
the following relation between A and d: A = 0:15d2 + 0:4 where A is measured in square
metres and d is measured in metres.
a List some of the assumptions that have been made in the design of this mathematical
model.
b Make a table and draw a graph that shows that area for various distances d.
c What is the area of projection when the OHP is 2.1 metres from the screen?
d If a projection area of 2 square metres is needed, how far from the screen should the
projector be?
28 Give the coordinates of two points that lie
a on the function y = x2 4x 6
c above the function y = x2 4x 6
29 Consider the rectangle alongside, called the
golden rectangle. It has width of 1 unit and
a length of x units. It has the property that
if a 1 1 square is cut from the rectangle,
the remaining rectangle has the same shape
as the original rectangle. In other words, the
ratio BC : AB is equal to the ratio EF : FC.

below the function y = x2 4x 6


F

a Use this information to find the exact value of x.


This value is called the golden ratio.
b What is the value of the golden ratio to four decimal places?

REVISION EXERCISES FOR CHAPTERS 1 TO 5 (Chapter 6)

213

30 Here is a proof that 4 = 5, which uses completing the square:


16 36 = 25 45
4 9 4 = 52 9 5

)
)

fobviously true, since 20 = 20g


fwrite each term in an equivalent formg

42 9 4 +

81
4

9
2

= 52 9 5 +

fcompleting the squareg

81
4

(4 92 )2 = (5 92 )2
4

=5

ftaking the square root of both sidesg

9
2

fadding

4 =5

9
2

to each sideg

Where is the error in this proof?

31 One root of the equation x2 2x + k = 0 is 8 more than the other. Find the value of k.
32 Consider the function y =
Copy and complete
the table.

x
y
distance from origin

What do you notice?

33 Solve the equation

x2 1
, for odd values of x starting at x = 3.
2

2x
x4
x2

11

13

15

17

= x 3, rounded off to two decimal places.

REVIEW OF CHAPTER 3

1 A medical researcher needs to determine for how many days a person who has the Melbourne
flu is infectious.
a For this study, identify the
i population
ii variables.
b State one parameter of the population.
c Should the scientist take a census or a sample? Justify your decision.
2 There is a large population of possums on Great Keppel Island.
a State a quantitative variable that may be of interest to a researcher.
b State a categorical variable that may be of interest to a researcher.
3 Determine if each of these variables is discrete (D) or continuous (C).
a the length of time a person with the Melbourne flu is infectious
b the highest sound, measured in hertz, that a person can hear
c the amount of memory in a computer
4 For these variables, decide if data are best collected on a population or a sample. Briefly
justify your decision.
a the official handicaps of the members of the Royal Brisbane Golf Club
b the number of spelling mistakes in an edition of The Courier Mail
5 These questions require data to be collected before they can be answered. For each question,
which method of collecting data (survey, observation, experiment or using available data) is

214

REVISION EXERCISES FOR CHAPTERS 1 TO 5 (Chapter 6)

most appropriate?
a the official handicaps of the members of the Royal Brisbane Golf Club
b the number of spelling mistakes in an edition of The Courier Mail
c the number of hours of paid work done by 11 Mathematics B students at your school
6 Explain how a SRS could be obtained in each case.
a the number of spelling mistakes in an edition of The Courier Mail
b the number of each species of bird in the Brisbane Botanical Gardens
7 To find out the views of her electorate about gun control, a candidate for mayor talks to every
registered voter in her street. This method of collecting data will give a biased sample. State
how the bias will occur, and give an alternative method that will give an unbiased (or less
biased) sample.
8 For each of the following, state which graph or graphs (column graph, pie graph, time series
graph or scatterplot) would best display the data.
a A school is bringing in a program to reduce absenteeism. To measure the effectiveness
of the program, the school needs to know current levels of absenteeism.
b The number of each species of bird in the Brisbane Botanical Gardens.
age

9 The graph shows the profile of


Australias population by age
and sex in both 1901 and 1999.
It is a graph rich in information.

95

90
85

Comment on what information


the graph conveys.

80
75

70
65

Profile of Australias population


by age 1901 and 1999

60
55

50

1901

45

1999

40
35

30
25

20
15

10
5
150

100

male

50

50

thousands of people

100

female

150

REVISION EXERCISES FOR CHAPTERS 1 TO 5 (Chapter 6)

215

10 Two Year 11 Mathematics B students collected the following data on the number of students
in their school in each year level who claimed that they smoked at least one cigarette a week.
They drew the following graph to illustrate how the number of smokers increased with year
level.
Year level
8
9 10 11 12
Number of smokers 19 23 28 30 35

Number of smokers, by year level


40
30
20
10

Yr 8

Yr 9

Yr 10

Yr 11

Yr 12

Calculate the lie factor of the graph.

11 A random dot stereogram is the name given to a picture in which a three dimensional shape
can be seen if the viewer stares at the picture while crossing his or her eyes. Usually it takes
some time before a viewer can see the three-dimensional shape. The data given here are the
times it took 43 subjects to see the three dimensional shape, in seconds. The group was given
no information about the nature of the three dimensional object.
47.2
9:7
5:6
2:3

a
b
c
d

e
f
g
h

22.0
9:5
4:7
2:1

20.4
9:1
4:7
2:1

19.7
8:9
4:3
2:0

17.4
8:9
4:2
1:9

14.7
8:4
3:9
1:7

13:4
8:1
3:4
1:7

13.0
7:9
3:1

12.3
7:8
3:1

12.2
6:9
2:7

10:3
6.3
2:4

9.7
6.1
2:3

Construct three different histograms of these data, using a different class interval for each.
Comment on which histogram best shows the shape of the dataset.
Construct a stemplot of these data.
Using your graphics calculator, calculate for these data the
i mean
ii median
iii standard deviation
iv interquartile range
Which set of summary statistics, mean and standard deviation, or median and IQR, is
more appropriate for this set of data. Justify your decision.
Calculate the five number summary.
Draw the standard boxplot of this data.
Write a paragraph about what these data tell you about the time it takes for subjects to
visualise a stereogram if they have no prior knowledge of the shape of the three dimensional object it contains.

216

REVISION EXERCISES FOR CHAPTERS 1 TO 5 (Chapter 6)

12 Your class has gathered some data on the number of CDs


owned by class members.
a Construct a histogram using appropriate class intervals.
b Construct a stemplot.
c Using your graphics calculator, calculate for these data the
i mean
ii median
iii standard deviation
iv interquartile range
d Which set of summary statistics, mean and standard deviation, or median and IQR, is
more appropriate for this set of data. Justify your decision.
e Calculate the five number summary.
f Draw the standard boxplot of these data.
g Write a paragraph about what these data tell you about the number of CDs owned by
members of your class.
13 When is the median more appropriate than the mean as a measure of the centre of a dataset?
14 Give an example of a dataset for which the mode is not an appropriate measure of the centre.
15 Give an example of a dataset with ten data values for which the median is a better measure of
the centre than the mean.
16 Give an example of a dataset that contains an outlier.
17 Does the following dataset contain an outlier? Justify your answer.
0 0 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 12 20 20 21 21 21 21 22 22 23
18 When would a modified boxplot and a standard boxplot be identical?
19 The diagram given shows the standard boxplot of this set of data:

1 1 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 9
a If you add 3 to each of these numbers, how will this
change
i the mean
ii the standard deviation
iii the median
iv the interquartile range
v the boxplot
b If you multiply each of the original numbers in the dataset by 10, how will this change
i
iv

the mean
the interquartile range

ii
v

the standard deviation


the boxplot

20 A group of eleven rugby league players has a


mean weight of 100 kg. The heaviest member
who weighs 121 kg, is replaced by a player
who only weighs 89 kg. What is the mean
weight of this new group?

iii

the median

REVISION EXERCISES FOR CHAPTERS 1 TO 5 (Chapter 6)

217

21 Give an example of a dataset with five data values that has an interquartile range of 10.
22 A dataset consists of 999 zeros, 999 ones, 999 twos and 999 threes, i.e., there are 3996 data
values altogether.
a Find the median.

Find the first quartile, Q1.

REVIEW OF CHAPTER 4

D
1

a Enter these data into two lists in a graphics calculator.

x
y

1
68

2
66

3
58

4
59

5
49

6
32

7
39

8
26

i Draw a scatterplot of the data.


ii Using the regression function of your graphics calculator, find the least squares
regression line.
iii What is the value of r2 ?
iv Comment on how well this linear function fits the data.
b Repeat the above steps for these data.

x
y

0
0

1
0:5

2
5

3
10

4
15

5
23

6
30

2 In a 1948 book called The Song of Insects, George W. Pierce, a Harvard physics professor,
presented data relating the number of chirps per second for striped ground crickets to the
temperature.
a
b
c
d
e

Find the least squares regression line.


What is the gradient and y-intercept?
What is their physical interpretation?
Construct the residual plot.
Decide if a linear model is useful for these data, using the value of r2 , and the residual
plot. Justify your decision.
Temp o C
Chirps/sec
Temp o C
Chirps/sec

31:4
20
20.8
15:4

22:0
16
28:5
16:2

34.1
19.8
26:4
15

29:1
18:4
28:1
17:2

27.0
17:1
27:0
16

24:0
15:5
28:6
17

20.9
14:7
24.6
14:4

27:8
17:1

3 When talking about cars, speed kills. One reason speed kills is that the faster a car is travelling, the greater the distance it takes to stop. To quantify this, here are some data from the
Queensland Department of Transport.

Speed (km/h)
Total stopping distance (m)

50
25

60
34

70
43

80
54

90
66

100
80

110
?

Data is from the Queensland Department of Transport website.

a Find a mathematical model that fits the above data. Justify your model.

218

REVISION EXERCISES FOR CHAPTERS 1 TO 5 (Chapter 6)

b Use your model to predict the total stopping distance of a car travelling at 110 km/h.
c If the speed limit on residential streets was lowered from 50 km/h to 40 km/h, what would
be the difference in the stopping distance?
4 Draw ten squares, of different sizes. Measure the side length and the length of the diagonal of
each.
a
b
c
d
e
f
g

Put the data into two lists in a graphics calculator.


Construct a scatterplot of the data.
Find, and then plot, the least squares regression line.
What is the value of r2 ?
Find the gradient of this line.
Construct the residual plot. Comment on what it tells you.
If the drawings and the measurements were perfectly accurate, what should the value of
the gradient be?

5 For the dataset below,


a find the least squares regression model of the form y = ax
b construct a residual plot
c based on the residual plot, discuss the appropriateness of the equation as a model for the
data
x 1 3
5
7
9 11
y 4 23 31 34 58 78

REVIEW OF CHAPTER 5

1 Using your calculator, determine the following (correct to 4 decimal places):


a sin 23o
b cos 14o
c tan 211o
d sec 30o
2 Find A to the nearest minute, if 0 6 A 6 90o and
a sin A = 0:6
b cos A = 0:501
c sec A = 3:6

cot A = 0:876 54

3 Solve the following triangles.


B

24

12 cm

14 cm
A

4 A lighthouse is located on the edge of a


cliff. From a small boat on the water, the
angle of elevation to the top of the lighthouse is 24o and to the base of the lighthouse is 20o . The top of the lighthouse is
100 metres above sea level. How tall is
the lighthouse?

B
16 cm
A

h
100 m
24

20

REVISION EXERCISES FOR CHAPTERS 1 TO 5 (Chapter 6)

219

5 Using four different angles, one from each quadrant, verify that cos A = sin(90 A):
6 Convert into decimal form:
a 15o 240 3600
b 125o 80 4800

44o 150 2400

83o 420 5500

840o

sec 90o

sin is zero

7 Using your calculator find tan 16o 120 5400 :


8 Represent the following angles with a circle diagram.
a 150o
b 330o
c 120o
9 State the value of
a tan 180o

sin 270o

cos 0o

10 If 00 6 6 360o , determine the range of values for which


a sin is negative b cos is positive c cot is positive
11 Give six angles of different magnitude that are coterminal with 150o .

12 If cos = 0:3 determine two possible values for if 0o < < 360o .
13 Determine the magnitude of each of the following angles in radian measure.
5r
a
b
c
1

14 Express the following in radian measure, leaving your answer in terms of :


a 60o
b 210o
c 315o
d 180o
15 Express the following in radian measure (correct to 4 decimal places):
a 25.7o
b 98o 150 3000
c 257o 450
d

1000o

16 Convert the following into degrees:


a

5
3

7
6

11
9

17 Convert the following into degrees, giving your answer in sexagesimal form:
a 1:5
b 0:23
18 Find the value of each of the following. Give the exact value where possible.
a sin 2
b sin
c tan 1
3
19 Find the angle in each case, where 0 6 6 2. Give your answers in radian measure.
a cos = 0:5
b tan = 1
c cos = 0:165
20 Calculate the area of the following shapes. All lengths are in cm.
a
b
16
18

25

35

130
32

220

REVISION EXERCISES FOR CHAPTERS 1 TO 5 (Chapter 6)

21 Find the angle A in this triangle if the


area is 15 cm2 .

23 cm

32 cm

22 In ABC, find a if A = 32o , B = 71o

and b = 35 cm.
A

23 Solve the following triangle (i.e., find all


unknown sides and angles).

8 cm
42

85

24 Construct two different triangles ABC and then proceed to solve both triangles.
ABC has a = 9 cm, c = 8 cm and C = 40o :
25 Two cyclists depart from the same point. One travels Northwest at 22 km/hr while the other
travels South at 14 km/hr. How long (to the nearest minute) will it be before they are 80 km
apart?
26 Find the length of each of the diagonals of
this parallelogram.
25
130

27 A regular polygon of nine sides is inscribed


in a circle of radius 10 cm. Find its perimeter.

32

28 From a point on level ground, the angle of elevation of the top of a radio tower is 26o . From
another point 60 m closer to the base, the angle of elevation of the top of the radio tower is
63o . What is the height of the tower?
29 A rule of thumb useful in trigonometry is that, for small angles, the tangent of an angle is
approximately equal to the angle divided by 60.
For what range of angles is this approximation suitably accurate?
30 Given that ]ABC = 90o , ]BCP = 124o
and BC = 50 mm,

A
P

a find the measure of ]OCM.


b Express MC in terms of r.
c Hence find the value of r.
O

Q
r
B

CHAPTER

Indices and
logarithms

SUBJECT MATTER
l
l
l
l
l
l

index laws and definitions


solutions of equations involving indices
definitions of ax and loga x , for a > 1
logarithmic laws and definitions
use of logarithms to solve equations involving
indices
applications of indices and logarithms

222

INDICES AND LOGARITHMS

(Chapter 7)

HISTORICAL NOTE
The development of modern notation for indices is enlightening.
In 1572 Bombelli used 1 to represent the unknown,
our modern x2 , 3 for x3 and so on.

for

Vieta in 1591 used a, a quad, a cub etc. This was improved


upon by Herigonus in 1634 who wrote a, a2, a3 etc. for a, a2 ,
a3 .
Finally in 1637 Descartes (whom you met in Chapter 1) wrote
a1 , a2 , a3 but for positive whole number indices only. Work
continued with Wallis who, in 1659, found meanings for a1 ,
1
a 2 , etc. Newton finally used the idea of xn where n is any real
number in his development of the binomial theorem.

Descartes

A REVIEW OF INDEX NOTATION


A MATHEMATICAL SHORTHAND

Integers can be written as a product of numbers called factors.


For example, the positive factors of 15 are 1, 3, 5 and 15 since 15 can be written as 3 5, or as
1 15.

In a similar way, 32 can be written as 2 2 2 2 2 and this is written in mathematical shorthand


as 25 . The 5 is called an index or exponent and indicates the number of factors while the 2 is
called the base. 32 is called the 5th power of 2. Since 32 = 25 , we often refer to the expression
25 as a power, as well.
Some further examples:
10 000 = 10 10 10 10 = 104

ppppppp = p7

x21 would be too time consuming to write out, so we write x21 = xxx ::::: x to 21 factors.
This enables us to define am as:
am = aaa ::::: a

to m factors

In this definition a can be any real number. However, (for the moment) m is restricted to positive
whole numbers, i.e., m = 1, 2, 3, 4 .......

EXAMPLE 7.1
Express (3ab2 )3
a in factor form
b in the form pas bt where p, s and t are integers.

INDICES AND LOGARITHMS

(Chapter 7)

223

(3ab2 )3
= 3ab2 3ab2 3ab2
= 3abb 3abb 3abb
=333aaabbbbbb

b 3 3 3 a a a b b b b b = 33 a3 b6

Hence, (3ab2 )3 = 33 a3 b6
= 27a3 b6

so p = 27, s = 3, t = 6:

EXERCISE 7A
1 Express in index notation.
a 10 10 10 10 10
c 2xxxxxxxxx
e aaaabbaabbab

b
d
f

666666666
pqpqpqpq
y

2 Evaluate
a 2n , where n = 1, 2, 3, .... 10
b 23 , 33 , 23 33 , and 63 . What does this suggest might be true?
1 n
c
, where n = 1, 2 , ... 5.
3
3 Express in factor form.
a
72 as prime factors
d
2310 as prime factors
g
(2y)6
j
(cd)3
m a
p (3a2 b3 )2

b
e
h
k
n
q

OPERATIONS WITH POWERS

1296 as prime factors


a 3 b5
(abc)3
(2d)3
5p3 q 2
3(2y 2 )2

c
f
i
l
o
r

5040 as prime factors


2y 6
c3 d3
(5a2 b)3
(3a)3
3(2a2 b2 )3

Once mathematicians define a new mathematical object (such as a power), they often want to
determine if there is a logical way to define mathematical operations (such as multiplication and
division) on that object. The word logical here means that the mathematical operations are
consistent with existing mathematics and do not lead to any contradictions.

MULTIPLICATION OF POWERS
Consider b3 b4

b3 = bbb
)

and

b3 b4 = bbb bbbb
= bbbbbbb
= b7

b4 = bbbb

224

INDICES AND LOGARITHMS

(Chapter 7)

In general,
m factors
n factors
z }| { z }| {
am an = (aaa::::aa) (aaa::::aa)
|
{z
}
m + n factors
)

am an = am+n

DIVISION OF POWERS
Consider

k7
.
k3
kkkkkkk
k7
=
= k4
k3
kkk

Now

In general, and assuming that m > n,


aaa:::::::a
am
=
an
aaa:::::::a

m factors of a
n factors of a

n factors of a in the numerator divide out n factors of a in the denominator


)

am
= aaa:::::::a
an

am
= amn
an

(m n) factors

RAISING A POWER TO A POWER


Consider (a2 )4
Now

(a2 )4 = a2 a2 a2 a2
= aa aa aa aa
= a8

In general,
(am )n = am am am ...... xm
= (aaa::::a) (aaa:::::a) ::::: (aaa:::::a)
| {z }
| {z } | {z }
m factors m factors
m factors

{n factors }

= aaaaaa ::::: a

{n m factors }

mn

=a
)

{n factors }

(am)n = amn

INDICES AND LOGARITHMS

(Chapter 7)

225

THE POWER OF A PRODUCT


Consider (ab)4

(ab)4 = ab ab ab ab
= aaaabbbb
= a4 b4
In general,

(ab)n = an bn

THE INDEX LAWS FOR POSITIVE INTEGER EXPONENTS AND BASES


Index Law 1

To multiply powers with the same base, add the indices.

Index Law 3

am an = am+n
am
= amn
an
(am )n = amn

Index Law 4

(ab)n = an bn

The power of a product equals the product of the powers.

Index Law 2

To divide powers with the same base, subtract indices.


To raise a power to a power, multiply the indices.

EXERCISE 7B
1 Simplify
a y2 y5
d 2x4 3x9
g bb2 b3 b4
j (6ab3 )(4a3 b3 )

b
e
h
k

r 7 r9
(5d2 )(3d4 )
a2 b a3 b5
3g 2 n2 2n3 g5 (5gn4 )

b
e
h

(6x)(2x)(4x)
rr2 r3 r4 r5
(3f 2 g3 ) (2f g 3 )

c
f
i
l

2 y4 y 3
h3 h2 h7
x2 y 3 x5 y 2
3a2 b 4c2 d3

2 Simplify
a
d
g

3x2 2x3
(6y2 )(8y 3 )(y)
xy xy xy (xy)

c
f
i

5d13 d2 d4
6 (4t) (5t) (6t)
(3kt2 )(5k4 t3 )

3 Simplify
a
e
i

a7
a2
6y 4
9y 2
a5 b4
a3 b2

b
f

b4
b
a2
a2

c
g

4c5
c3
5a8
a2

d
h

6a6
3a2
4x5
x5

6a4 b3
2a2 b3

5a8 b9 c10
10abc

16p3 q 2 r
12q

4 (a2 )4

4 Simplify
a

(y 2 )3

(x5 )4

3(c2 )5

5c2 (c2 )3

(d2 )3 (d3 )2

(c3 )4 (c2 )5

2(c5 )3 [5(c2 )2 ]

(c3 )3
(c2 )3

4(p5 )2
6(p4 )2

4(a3 )2 2(a2 )6
(a4 )3 (b4 )2
(a3 )2 (b2 )2

226

INDICES AND LOGARITHMS (Chapter 7)

5 Write without brackets, simplifying where possible.


a

(ab)2

(3c)3

(2xy)5

(xyz)4

(2pqr)6

(ab2 )3

(4d2 c3 )4

(a2 b)2 (a3 b)4

3st5 (2st)2

(a2 b3 )2
a2 b3

(4a2 b2 )2
(2ab)2

4a6 b8
(2ab2 )2

6 Simplify
a

d2 d5

3a5 2a3

3x4
x4

(5m3 n2 )(4mn2 )

b6
b2
6f 6
3f 2

2 a4 a2

x3
2x2

5a3 2a2

4p6 3p

y3 y2 y5

3a 2b c

a3 b5
ab3

4g7 h3
g 6 h3

4p2 s 2ps2 ps

x3 y 2 xy2 2y

b2 4b 5b

(2k)2 (k)3

(2y)2 (3y)3

(q 3 ) (2q)3

(2t)2 (t4 )3

(4a) (2a2 )3

(3r)2 (2r)3

(2ab)2 (3a2 b)

(c2 d)2
cd

(2ab2 )5
4a4 b2

7 Simplify
a 6a2 b 4a2 b3 (2ab)4
c

5a2 2b2 3b + 7a2 2b2 + (3a)(5a)(4b)

(4pq)2 (2p) (3q) (2pq)

INDICES OTHER THAN NATURAL NUMBERS

The four index laws given at this point are consistent with our knowledge and understanding of
arithmetic, given that the indices are positive whole numbers. Is it possible to define an index to be
any real number in such a way that the definition is consistent with both the index laws for positive
whole number indices and with arithmetic?
Clearly a1 cannot be defined using the definition of an given at the start of this chapter. Under
this definition, the expression a1 implies 1 factors of a, which is meaningless.
1

In a similar way b 2 cannot mean half a factor of b.


However, it is possible to give a logical meaning to these expressions. Extending the set of indices
to include all real numbers, in particular zero, fractions and negative numbers, is very worthwhile.
Throughout this chapter, we will assume that the base is positive. While (2)5 has a value of 32,
the expression (2)1:5 is not a real number (try it on your calculator) and hence is outside the scope
of Mathematics B.

INDICES AND LOGARITHMS (Chapter 7)

227

THE MEANING OF a 0, WHERE a >0


Most students, when asked to guess the value of a0 will say 0, reasoning that if there are no factors
of a, then you have nothing at all, or 0. But defining a0 to be 0 is not consistent with existing
arithmetic.
b4
Consider:
=1
b4
b4
= b44 = b0
b4

But from Index Law 2


Therefore,

b0 = 1
am
= amm = a0
am

In general,

am
=1
am

But also,
Therefore,

a0 = 1, a > 0

To be consistent with existing mathematics, we say that any number raised to the index 0 equals 1.

INVESTIGATION 1

A NUMBER TO A ZERO POWER


Use your calculator to evaluate:
a 100

40

17.460

e 20

p
!0
5 1:7622
p
1:543 + 3 6:5

CLASS DISCUSSION

ZERO TO THE ZERO


A class was discussing how to interpret 0 0.
James says, Zero raised to any power is 0, so 0 0 equals 0. Sommer says, But any number
raised to the power of 0 equals 1. So, 0 0 equals 1. What do you think?

THE MEANING OF a-n


The next task is to find a logical definition of a negative index.
Consider
From Index Law 2
Therefore,

d4
= d 46 = d 2
d6
1
d2 = 2
d

1
an
is defined to be the reciprocal of an .

In general,
In words, an

1
dddd
d4
= 2
=
d6
dddddd
d

an =

228

INDICES AND LOGARITHMS (Chapter 7)

This definition of a negative index is used because it is consistent with our index laws for positive
whole numbers.

GRAPHICS CALCULATOR EXERCISE

FRACTIONAL INDICES
1

Sketch the graph of y = x 2 .


Use your trace button to find the value of
1

a 42
1
b 92
1
c 22

Comment.

THE MEANING OF an
Recall that for a > 0,
From Index Law 3
Hence,

p
a2 = a
1

(a2 ) 2 = a2 2 = a1 = a
1
p
a2 = (a2 ) 2

This suggests that taking the square root is equivalent to raising an expression to the index 12 .
Therefore,

a2 =

p
a

p
3
a,
1
p
a 4 = 4 a, etc.
1

Similar arguments show that

a3 =

In general,

THE MEANING OF a

an =

p
n
a

m
n

p
n
a and

The meaning of a n can be derived from a n =

Index Law 3: a n = am n = (am ) n =


In general,
Note:

an =

p
n
am

p p
p
3, 3 5 and n am are examples of radical notation.

p
n

am

INDICES AND LOGARITHMS (Chapter 7)

229

SUMMARY OF FURTHER INDEX LAWS


Index Law 5
Index Law 6

a0 = 1
1
an
p
= na

an =
1

Index Law 7

an

Index Law 8

an =

p
n
am

EXAMPLE 7.2
Evaluate 43

43
1
= 3
4
1
= 64

p
3
y4

Write

without the radical

p
4
3
y4 = y 3

Simplify 2n 4n

EXAMPLE 7.3
3

Evaluate 16 4

16 4
p
4
= 163
p
= 4 16 16 16
p
p
p
= 4 16 4 16 4 16
=222
=8

2n 4n
= 2n (22 )n
= 2n 22n
= 23n

fwrite as a common baseg

EXERCISE 7C
1 Simplify without using a calculator.
a 60
b 123:60
0
2x
e
f 0
3

c0

(4y)0

1
22
51

2 Evaluate without using a calculator, simplifying where possible.


a

42

26

3 62

22 33

(22 )(33 )

6(32 )

31 22

(3 2)2

2
52

2
(3 2)2

230

INDICES AND LOGARITHMS (Chapter 7)

m
q

22 22 22
1

n
r

42

62 22
5
22

3 Express with positive indices.


a
a2
b b1
e

7z 2

6c4

(ab)3

(a 3 x2 )3

2y
p
3
z2

a1 b1 c1

(1 2 3)2

22
22

22
22

5 c3

3x4

y 2

2z 3

2x1

1 12 8 4
( 16
a b )

3
x2

p
3
y2

33

32a5
b10

1
5

4 Evaluate without using a calculator, simplifying where possible.


1

25 2

32 5

36 2

1
1

144 2

25 2

27 3

1
1

83

81 4

64 6

1
1

27 3

(12 3) 2

02

42

25 2

625 4

4b 3

a3

5b 2

5 Evaluate without using a calculator, simplifying where possible.


2

83

27 3

256 8

2
3

83

729 3

81 4

42

d 3

(2a) 4

289 2

32 5

(12 3) 2

b3

16 2

a 3

3
1

3
3

6 Write using radicals.


2

83

6 2

g 2

3
1
3

7 Write without a radical sign. Simplify if possible.


p
p
a
a
b
a3
c
p
p
3
5
e
h2
f
a5
g
p
1
3
p
i
8x4
j
k
h

1
3
2

p
a6
p
3d2

d
h

2
5

p
3
t
p
(3d)3

3
p
3
2y

4
p
4a4

(3c)0

16 2

23

32

2
83

42

4 2

9 2

8 Simplify, without using a calculator.


a

50

27 3

53

27 3

d0

32 5

j
n

2 32
4

32 5

3
1

INDICES AND LOGARITHMS (Chapter 7)


5

16 4

(a3 ) 3

25 2

a4 a4

a2 a 2

3 2 3 2

2x 4 x 4
1
22

231

(a2 ) 2

( 13 )1

9 Simplify, expressing the answer using radical.


a

x2 x3

a2 a4

b3 b2

a3 a4

10 Simplify
a 3n 9n

3n 92n

43n 162n

4n 8n

5n 252n2

83n 162n 32n

2n 4n 8n

2n 4n+1
8n2

11 Use index laws to determine which of the following are equal.


r
1
1
1
1
14
4
16 4
(16)
1
164
16
16 4

1
p
4
16

LOGARITHMS

HISTORICAL NOTE

In the late 16th century, astronomers spent a large part of their working lives
doing the complex and tedious calculations of spherical trigonometry needed to
understand the movement of celestial bodies.
A Scotsman, John Napier, discovered a method of simplifying these calculations using logarithms. So effective was Napiers method that it was said that Napiers discovery effectively
doubled the life of an astronomer by reducing the time required to do these calculations.

A Year 11 Mathematics B student said to his teacher, I was browsing at a Lifeline book sale,
and found this tattered old book of tables called A Table of Four Figure Logarithms. What are
logarithms?
The teacher replied, Before calculators were invented, logarithms were used to perform complex
calculations. We will demonstrate the principle using the powers of two. This table relates powers
of two to its index. The log2 of a number is just the index when a number is written as a power
of 2.
Number
2
4
8
16
32

Power
21
22
23
24
25

Log2 (Number)
1
2
3
4
5

Number
64
128
256
512
1024

Power
26
27
28
29
210

Log2 (Number)
6
7
8
9
10

232

INDICES AND LOGARITHMS (Chapter 7)

Here are two examples of using powers to simplify calculations.


Calculation 1:

Multiply 8 32

Using the above table and index laws, we can calculate as follows:
8 32
= 23 25
= 23+5
= 28
= 256
Instead of multiplying 8 32, we only had to add 3 and 5. Much easier!
Calculation 2:

Calculate 512 32
512 32
= 29 25
= 295
= 24
= 16

Instead of dividing by 32, we had to subtract, i.e., 9 5. Easy!


We can set these calculations out more efficiently as follows.
Number
8
32
256

Log2
3
5 +
8

Number
512
32
16

Log2
9
5
4

Logs can be used to simplify other calculations as well. Here is a table showing related calculations.
Calculation with numbers
multiplication
division
raise to a power
find the nth root

Calculation with logs


addition
subtraction
multiplication
divide by n

These days we use a calculator to divide 512 by 32, so this particular use of logarithms is no longer
important. But as you will soon see, logarithms have other uses.

LOGARITHMS TO THE BASE 10


The tables that the student found at the Lifeline book sale were tables of common logarithms, or
base 10 logarithms.
Generations of school children, scientists and engineers used tables such as these for arithmetical
calculations, where the base was 10 rather than 2 as in the example above. These powers of 10
were first calculated by Henry Brigg, a mathematician and astronomer, about four centuries ago.
You can check them on your calculator.
For example, 100:3010 = 1:9999 (there is a slight rounding error).

233

INDICES AND LOGARITHMS (Chapter 7)

1 = 100
2 = 100:3010
3 = 100:4771
4 = 100:6021
5 = 100:6990

6 = 100:7782
7 = 100:8451
8 = 100:9031
9 = 100:9532
10 = 101

To calculate 2 3, we proceed as in the base 2 example given previously.


2 3 = 100:3010 100:4771
= 100:3010+0:4771
= 100:7781
= 5:999

Notice the rounding error.

These indices are called logarithms. The setting out was as follows
23

32

Number
2
3
6

Logarithm
0:3010
0:4771
0:7781

Number
3

Logarithm
0:4771
2
0:9542

82
+

Number
8
2
4

Logarithm
0:9031
0:3010
0:6021

Any positive number can be expressed as a power of 10, and hence as a base 10 logarithm.
For example,
we write log10 3 = 0:4771

3 = 100:4771
30 = 3 10
= 100:4771 101
= 101:4771

we write log10 30 = 1:4771

300 = 3 100
= 100:4771 102
= 102:4771

we write log10 300 = 2:4771

Note in particular that


1 = 100
10 = 101
100 = 102
..
.
1 000 000 = 106

) log10 1 = 0
) log10 10 = 1
) log10 10 = 2
)

log10 1 000 000 = 6

Tables of logarithms, and the mechanical equivalent, the slide rule, were used for arithmetical
calculations until the 1970s. Up to that time, our buildings, bridges and aircraft were designed
almost entirely using tables of logarithms or slide rules.

234

INDICES AND LOGARITHMS (Chapter 7)

THE THEORY OF LOGARITHMS


Although the above examples use base 2 and base 10, logarithms can be formed for any base greater
than zero.
For example,

)
)

81 = 34
25 = 52

log3 81 = 4
log5 25 = 2

This leads us to our definition of a logarithm.


The logarithm of a number is the index to which the base is raised to equal the number.
In symbols, if N = ax , a > 0 then x = loga N

EXAMPLE 7.4
= 32

Write in log form

125 = 53

ii

1
9

Write in index form

log7 49 = 2

ii

log10

log5 125 = 3

ii

log3

72 = 49

ii

101 =

1
10

1
9

= 1

= 2
1
10

Note: The value of a logarithm may be positive or negative, but the base must be positive.

EXAMPLE 7.5
Find
a
a

log4 16 = x
) 16 = 4x
) 42 = 4x
) x=2

log16 4

log4

1
16

fWrite both sides in the same baseg


fEquate indicesg

log16 4 = y
4 = 16y
)

log4 16

16 2 = 16y
) y = 12

log4
)

1
16

=w

1
16

= 4w

42 = 4w
) w = 2

fWrite both sides in the same baseg


fEquate indicesg

fWrite both sides in the same baseg


fEquate indicesg

log16

1
4

235

INDICES AND LOGARITHMS (Chapter 7)

log16
)

1
4

=z

1
4

= 16z

41 = (42 )z
1

fWe need to write both sides in the same baseg

) 4 =4
) 1 = 2z
) z = 12
2z

fEquate indicesg

SOME IMPORTANT RESULTS


Since

Since

1 = a0

a = a1

loga 1 = 0

loga a = 1

If a > 0, then an > 0 for all n. Since an = y can be expressed as loga y = n it follows
that we can only find the logarithm of positive numbers, if we are only interested in real number
solutions. (There is a solution involving complex numbers).
Confirm this with your calculator by keying in log(2). If you graph y = log x with your
graphics calculator, you will see that the log function only exists for positive values of x.
There are two important bases for logarithms. One is 10 and the other is e, which is an irrational
number approximately equal to 2.718281828459.
You will learn in Year 12 why we use this strange number as a base for logarithms.
Log10 is called the common log and we just write log (without writing the base) while loge is
called a natural log and is written as ln.
So, log10 10 = 1 and ln e = 1. Note that this terminology is not universal. In many university
mathematics textbooks, log 2 means loge 2:

EXERCISE 7D
1 Write each of the following in the equivalent logarithmic form.
a 8 = 23
b 25 = 52
c 64 = 26
e

16 = 24

1
2

1
3

=8

= 23

1
8

10 = 101

1 = 60

343 = 73

1
12

= 144 2

2 Write each of these in the equivalent logarithmic form.


a

32 = 25

125 = 53

256 = 28

64 = 43

1
4

= 22

1
32

= 25

1
5

= 51

9 = 91

1
2

= 21

1
= n1
n

1
= n3
n3

1
= ab
ab

log1000 10 =

log2

3 Write each of the following in the equivalent index form.


a log2 128 = 7
b log36 6 = 12
c log5 25 = 2
e

log10 1000 = 3

log7 49 = 2

1
log3 27

log2 1 = 0

= 3

log8 2 =

1
3

1
2

= 1

1
3

236

INDICES AND LOGARITHMS (Chapter 7)

4 Write each of the following in the equivalent index form.


a log2 1024 = 10
b log3 81 = 4
c log4 16 = 2
1
1
1
e log2 32 = 5
f log5 125 = 3
g log4 64
= 3
i

log16 2 =

1
4

5 Find the value of


a log2 64
e

log2

log 1 4

1
2

log64 2 =

b
f

d
h

log27 3 =

log3 81

log5 1

log3 9

log4 8

log10 10x

loga ax

1
6

1
3

log9 729 = 3
log6 16 = 1
log16 8 =

3
4

THE LAWS OF LOGARITHMS

E
You saw earlier that:

to multiply numbers, we can add their base 10 logs


to divide numbers, we can subtract their base 10 logs
to raise a number to a power, we can multiply two powers by the base 10 log of the number.

These can be generalized into the laws of logarithms.


Log Law 1

loga MN = loga M + loga N

Log Law 2

loga

M
= loga M loga N
N
loga M b = b loga M

Log Law 3

We will prove the Log Law 1, and leave the rest as exercises.
Prove:
Proof:

loga MN = loga M + loga N


Let M
Now MN
MN
) loga MN
) loga MN

= ax and N = ay
= ax ay
= ax+y
= x+y
= loga M + loga N

and so loga M = x and loga N = y


fsubstitutingg
fIndex Law 1g
fusing definition of a logg
fsubstitutingg

Proofs of Log Law 2 and Log Law 3 are similar and may be found on the website.

EXAMPLE 7.6
Simplify without using a calculator
a log6 4 + log6 9
b
d

2 log 3 1

2 log 2 + log 25
log 8
log 4

log 72 + 2 log 5 log 78

INDICES AND LOGARITHMS (Chapter 7)

log6 4 + log6 9
= log6 (4 9)
= log6 36
= log6 62
=2

= log 32 log 10
= log

log 72 + 2 log 5 log 78

= log 72 + log 52 log 78

= log 72 + log 25 log 78


= log( 72 25 78 )
= log( 72 25 87 )

log 8
log 4

2 log 3 1

2 log 2 + log 25
= log 22 + log 25
= log 4 + log 25
= log 100
=2

9
10

log 23
log 22

3 log 2
2 log 2

3
2

= log 100
=2

EXERCISE 7E
1 Evaluate the following.
a log2 12 log2 3
c log3 54 log3 2
p
p
e log3 18 + log3 24 log3 12
g
i

log2 6 + log2
log

3
5

+ 2 log

3
2
5
2

b
d

2 log2

3
4

log

log 27

5
36

log3 36 log3 4
log2 144 log2 36

log 500 + log 2

log6 144 log6 4


2 log 3 +

1
2

log 49 + 2 log 53 log 74

2 Express as a single logarithm.


a log 8 log 2
d 3 log 2 + 2 log 3
g 3 log 2 2 log 5
j log 12 + log 4 log 3

b
e
h

log 4 + log 5
log 2 + log 3 + log 4
1 + log 3

c
f
i

log 40 log 8
1
2 log 4 + log 3
2 log 5 3 log 2

3 Write as a single logarithm.


a log 8 + log 2
d log 12 log 12
g 3 log 2 log 4
j 3 log 5

b
e
h

log 35 log 7
log 2 + log 6 log 4
2 log 6 + log 2

c
f
i

log 6 + log 4
log 4 log 16
1 + log 2

4 Simplify without a calculator


log 8
log 27
a
b
log 2
log 9
f

log 5
log 125

5 Simplify
a loga a3

log 2
log 12
b

logx x3

log 32
log 16

log 2
log 16

log 8
log 12

log 8
log 14

237

logb b 2

log 3
log 9

loga a2

238

INDICES AND LOGARITHMS (Chapter 7)

SOLVING LOGARITHMIC EQUATIONS

F
EXAMPLE 7.7
Solve for x.
a

a log(1 2x) = 1

log(1 2x) = 1
) 1 2x = 101
1
) 1 2x = 10
)

log x + log(x 3) = log 18

log x + log(x 3) = log 18


) log[x(x 3)] = log 18
) x(x 3) = 18
) x2 3x 18 = 0
) (x 6)(x + 3) = 0
) x = 6 or x = 3

9
2x = 10

x=

9
20

However, log x is defined only for x > 0.


) x = 3 is not a solution.
The solution is x = 6.

EXERCISE 7F
1 Solve for x.
a log 2x = 3
1
c log = 1
x
e log(x 1) = log 2
g log(x + 2) log x = 1
i log x + log(x + 3) = log 4
k log(x + 1) + log(x 2) = 1
2 Solve for x.
a log 4x = 2

1
= 2
c log
x
e log x + log(x + 1) = log 2

log(2x + 3) = 0

log(3x 1) = 1

f
h
j
l

log(1 2x) = log 3


log 2x log(x 1) = 1
log x + log(x 7) = log 8
log 2x log(1 x) = 2

log(3x 2) = 0

log(1 2x) = 1

log x + log(2x 3) = log 2

CHANGE OF BASE OF A LOGARITHM

For various reasons it is necessary to work with logarithms in other bases.


In general, let x = loga M . We can change the base to any other base, say b, as follows:

)
)

x = loga M
) M = ax
logb M = logb ax
logb M = x logb a
logb M
) x=
logb a

frewrite as an index equationg


ftake the logb of both sidesg
fapply Index Law 3g
fsolve for xg

INDICES AND LOGARITHMS (Chapter 7)

This derivation gives us the change of base rule:


For positive values of a, b and M

loga M =

logb M
logb a

EXAMPLE 7.8
a
b

Evaluate log1:7 3.36 using first principles.


Evaluate log1:7 3.36 using the change of base rule.
Let x = log1:7 3:36
) 1:7x = 3:36
) log 1:7x = log 3:36
) x log 1:7 = log 3:36
log 3:36
) x=
log 1:7
) x = 2:2840

log1:7 3:36
log10 3:36
=
log10 1:7
= 2:2840

EXAMPLE 7.9
Find the value of log2 3 log3 4 log4 5 log5 6 log6 7 log7 8
log2 3 log3 4 log4 5 log5 6 log6 7 log7 8

log 3 log 4 log 5 log 6 log 7 log 8

log 2 log 3 log 4 log 5 log 6 log 7


log 8
=
log 2

fChange all bases to base 10g

log 23
log 2
3 log 2
=
log 2
=3
=

EXERCISE 7G
1 Use
a
d
g

a calculator to evaluate
log7 9
log2 5
log3 7

2 Evaluate without a calculator


a log3 7 log7 3
c log6 4 log4 36

b
e
h

c
f
i

log2 7
log2 10
log2 6
b
d

log100 50
log5 2
log8 5

log3 8 log5 9 log2 5


logb a loga b

239

240

INDICES AND LOGARITHMS (Chapter 7)

a Simplify logb b2 logb2 b3

a If log2 3 = a and log2 7 = b, express the following in terms of a and b.


i log8 72
ii log21 28

Calculate y if log2 10 log10 2 = loga y

b If log3 2 = p and log3 13 = q, express log78 52 in terms of p and q.


c Evaluate

logb a3 loga b3

ii

loga b2 logb c2 logc a2

APPLICATIONS OF INDICES AND LOGARITHMS

Indicial equations are equations in which the index is the unknown.


Examples of indicial equations are 5x = 10 and (1:016)n = 4. Logarithms are used to solve
such equations.

EXAMPLE 7.10
Consider the very simple equation 4x = 16 which we know has the solution x = 2.
Confirm this solution by solving this equation using logarithms.

)
)

4x = 16
log 4x = log 16
x log 4 = log 16
log 16
) x=
log 4
)
)
)

log 42
log 4
2 log 4
x=
log 4
x=2

ftake the log of both sidesg


fapply Log Law 3g
fsolve for xg

x=

fLog Law 3g
fcancellingg

EXAMPLE 7.11
Solve (1:7)x = 4:2
Using the same method as above,

Confirm this solution using your calculator.

(1:7)x = 4:2
) log(1:7)x = log 4:2
) x log 1:7 = log 4:2
log 4:2
) x=
log 1:7
0:6232
) x=
0:2304
) x = 2:70

INDICES AND LOGARITHMS (Chapter 7)

241

EXERCISE 7H.1
1 Solve for x.
a 2x = 6
e 3x = 0:123 45

b
f

3x = 12
(0:5)x = 0:1

c
g

3x = 2
x = 1

d
h

2 Solve for x.
a 3x = 10
e 2x = 2:1

3x = 1
2x = 1

b
f

5x = 20
2x = 1:9

c
g

4x = 3
(0:2)x = 0:1

d
h

100x = 101
ex =

3x1 = 7

(3:3)x1 = 14

1x = 2

3x+1 = 5x

2x+1 = 10
10
= 4x
2x

3 Solve for x.
a 2x + 8 = 13
p
e ( 2)x = 10

COMPOUND INTEREST (AN APPLICATION OF INDICES AND


LOGARITHMS)
Recall the
compound interest formula:

P=
A=
i=
n=

the
the
the
the

A = P(1+i)n where
principal
amount to which the principal grows
interest rate per compounding period
number of compounding periods

For example, if $1000 is invested at an interest rate of 9% per annum compounded monthly for
five years, the final value of the investment can be found as follows:
P = 1000,

I = 0:09 12 = 0:0075

and

n = 12 5 = 60.

A = P (1 + i)n
= 1000 (1 + 0:0075)60
= 1565:68
The investment grows to $1565.68 after five years.

EXAMPLE 7.12
I have $20 000 to invest, and want it to grow to $30 000 within four years.
What must be the annual interest rate for this to occur?
A = 30 000,

P = 20 000
and
n = 4.
A = P (1 + i)n
) 30 000 = 20 000(1 + i)4
) (1 + i)4 = 1:5
p
) 1 + i = 4 1:5
)

1 + i = 1:1067
) i = 0:1067

My investment needs to earn 10.7% compounded annually.

Find i.

Find A.

242

INDICES AND LOGARITHMS (Chapter 7)

EXAMPLE 7.13
I invest $8000 at an interest rate of 8% p.a., compounded quarterly.
How long will it take for my investment to grow to $12 000?
Since n is an index, we will use logarithms to solve for n.
A = 12 000,

i = 0:08 4 = 0:02

P = 8000,

Find n.

A = P (1 + i)
) 12 000 = 8000 (1:02)n
) (1:02)n = 1:5
) log(1:02)n = log 1:5
) n log(1:02) = log 1:5
log 1:5
) n=
log(1:02)
)

n = 20:5

It will take 21 quarters, or 5 years.


Note that we use logarithms to solve equations when the unknown is an index.

EXERCISE 7H.2
1 Find the value of the unknown variable.

A
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h

$2000
$75 000
$40 000
$4000
$2500
$1 million

$20 000
$100 000

5% p.a. compounded annually


8:3% p.a. compounded daily
9:2% p.a. compounded monthly
3:5% p.a. compounded annually
...... compounded annually
...... compounded monthly
6% p.a. compounded annually
11:5% p.a. compounded monthly

12 years
6 years
20 years
15 years
7 years
5 years

$30 000
$550
$1000
$300 000

2 It is anticipated that an investment will grow to $160 000 after 5 years, with an annual interest
rate of 8% p.a. If interest is compounded annually, what initial amount must be invested?
3 Six thousand dollars deposited eight years ago into an account that pays interest annually has
grown to nine thousand dollars. Calculate the value of i, the annual interest rate.
4 Forty thousand dollars was deposited in an account that pays interest compounded monthly. It
has grown to $80 000 in 6 years. Calculate the value of i, the annual interest rate.
5 How many years will it take for an investment of $30 000 earning 11:5% p.a. compounded
annually to grow to $50 000?
6 How many years will it take for an investment of $30 000 earning 11:5% p.a. compounded
monthly to grow to $50 000?

INDICES AND LOGARITHMS (Chapter 7)

243

7 The Rule of 72 is a quick way of estimating how many years it takes for an investment to
double, compounded annually.

The formula is
Number of years to double +

72
annual interest rate

For example, with an interest rate of 9% p.a. compounded annually, the investment will double
in 8 years.
a

b
c

The Rule of 72 is only approximate. Calculate precisely how long it takes for an investment to double at 9% p.a. compounded annually. What is the percentage error in the
Rule of 72?
Repeat the above for 4% p.a.. Is the percentage error greater or less, compared to that
for 9% p.a.?
Repeat for 24% per annum interest. Does the Rule still hold for large rates of interest?

8 The formula for compound interest can be applied in other situations that exhibit a similar
pattern of growth (which is called exponential growth). For example, inflation exhibits exponential growth.
The formula for growth due to inflation is
FV = PV (1 + i)n where
FV = the future value (cost of a commodity in the future)
PV = present value (cost of a commodity now)
i = the annual percentage increase of the cost, as a decimal (for example, 4% = 0:04)
n = the number of years

Note that this is the compound interest formula, using different names.
a A house is worth $150 000 today. If its cost increases by 4% per year, what will it cost
in ten years?
b The cost of a unit in Noosa rose from $300 000 in 1994 to $1 000 000 in 2002. What was
the annual percentage increase in its cost?
c A sales representative claims that $100 000 invested today in developing a new type of
cow that can breathe underwater will grow to $600 000 in just three years. What annual
percentage return is he claiming this investment will earn?
d A loaf of bread doubles in price over an eight year period. What was the annual percentage
increase in its cost?
e How many years will it take a valuable painting that is increasing in value by 25% per
year to grow in value from $200 000 to $1 000 000?

ACTIVITY

BENFORDS LAW
Benfords Law (which was first stated by Simon Newcomb in 1881) states that
if you randomly select a number from a table of physical constants or statistical data,
the probability that the first digit will be a 1 is about 0.301, rather than 0.1 as we might
expect if all digits were equally likely.
In general, the law says that the probability of the first digit being a d is
1
P (d) = log(1 + )
d

244

INDICES AND LOGARITHMS (Chapter 7)

This implies that a number in a table of physical constants is more likely to begin with a
smaller digit than a larger digit. It was published by Newcomb in a paper entitled Note on the
Frequency of Use of the Different Digits in Natural Numbers, which appeared in The American Journal of Mathematics (1881). It was re-discovered by Benford in 1938, and he published an article called The Law of Anomalous Numbers in Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc.
What to do:
1 Use this formula to find the probability of the first digit being a 1, 2, ..., 9.
2 Using a table of physical or statistical data that contains at least 100 data values (an
atlas would be useful here), determine the number of leading digits that are a 1, a 2, etc.
Compare your results with the results expected if Benfords Law applies.
3 Visit the website to learn how Benfords Law is used to detect corporate and scientific
fraud.

A FURTHER APPLICATION OF LOGARITHMS

An important application of logarithms results from the Log Law 3. It is used by researchers when
two variables are related by a power function, which is a function of the form y = axk where
a and k are non-zero real numbers.
The underlying theory is simple. Consider a power function where a = 1:
)
)

y = xk
log10 y = log10 xk
log10 y = k log10 x .......... (1)

ffind logs of both sidesg

As x and y are both variables, log x and log y are also both variables, so equation (1) can be written
as
p = kq
where p = log10 y
and q = log10 x
This is of the form y = mx which is the equation of
a linear function that passes through the origin.
If two variables are related by a power function of the form y = xk , then
by taking logarithms of both sides, the function is transformed to a linear
function of the form p = kq.
Consider y = x2

for x > 0

Here is a table of values. Enter the numbers 1 to 10 into


List 1 of your calculator, then make List 2 = (List 1) 2 .
x
y

1
1

2
4

3
9

4
16

5
25

6
36

7
49

8
64

9
81

10
100

If you draw the scatterplot of this data, the points will lie
on the right half of a parabola.

245

INDICES AND LOGARITHMS (Chapter 7)

Now make List 3 = log(List 1) and List 4 = log(List 2).


log x
log y

0
0

0:3010
0:6021

0:4771
0:9542

0:6021
1:2041

0:6990
1:3979

0:7782
1:5563

0:8451
1:6902

0:9031
1:8062

0:9542
1:9085

1
2

Drawing the scatterplot of this data shows that the data lie
in a straight line. Either from the graph or from the table,
you can confirm that the gradient of this line is k = 2.

GRAPHICS CALCULATOR ACTIVITY

GRAPHING POWER FUNCTIONS


What to do:
1 Repeat the above procedure on your graphics calculator for y = x3

0 < x 6 10:

a Use List1 for x. Then make List 2 = (List 1)


List 3 = log(List 1) and
List 4 = log(List 2)
b Graph List 2 versus List 1
c Graph List 4 versus List 3
d Comment on your results.
3

2 Repeat this procedure with the function y = 5x2

0 < x 6 10:

In part 1 of the investigation, we looked at a function of the type y = xk .


The logarithmic transformation mapped the power function onto a linear function whose
graph passes through the origin and has gradient k.
In part 2 of the investigation, we looked at a power function of the type y = axk
and k constants). Notice the difference:
)
)
)

y
log y
log y
log y

= axk
= log axk
= log a + log xk
= log a + k log x ..... (2)

(with a

ftake logs of both sidesg


fapply Log Law 1g

Now log y and log x are variables, since x and y are variables. But a is a constant, so log a
is a constant as well. Therefore equation (2) may be written as
p = kq + c where

p = log y
q = log x
c = log a

Hence, the transformed equation is a linear equation of the form y = mx + c.


If two variables are related by a power function of the form y = axk , then
by taking logarithms of both sides, the function is transformed into a linear
function with a gradient of k and a y-intercept of log a.

246

INDICES AND LOGARITHMS (Chapter 7)

EXAMPLE 7.14
Johann Kepler is a very famous man in the history of astronomy and mathematics. He used
data from observations of planetary orbits to show that these motions are not random, that
they obey certain mathematical laws, and that these laws can be written in algebraic form.
He took the Earth as his base unit, so the orbital periods are given as multiples of one
Earth year, and orbital radii as multiples of one Earth orbit. Some of his observational data
are given in this table.
Planet
Orbital period
Orbital radius

Mercury
0:241
0:387

Venus
0:615
0:723

Earth
1:000
1:000

Mars
1:881
1:542

Jupiter
11:862
5:202

Saturn
29:457
9:539

Kepler showed that this data could be summarised by the equation y = axk where a and k
are constants.
a Find values for a and k.
b Determine if this is an appropriate model for the data.
c Kepler stated the relationship as The square of the planets year is proportional to
the cube of its distance from the sun. Show that your solution is equivalent to this.

Put the Orbital Period data into List 1 and the Orbital
Radius data into List 2. Always look at the data first.
Draw a scatterplot of this data. It is not very helpful, as
the points for the first four planets are bunched near the
origin. However we can see that the data is not linear.
Kepler claimed the data follows a power function.
Make List 3 = log(List 1) and List 4 = log(List 2).
The lists are shown below.

List 1
0:241
0:615
1
1:881
11:862
29:457

List 2
0:387
0:723
1
1:542
5:202
9:539

List 3
0:618
0:211
0
0:2744
1:074
1:469

Draw a scatterplot of List 4 versus List 3. This is more


instructive. One effect of taking logs is to unbunch the
data. The points appear to lie in a straight line, which
implies that a power function is an appropriate model
for the data.

a The least squares regression line on the transformed linear data is


p = 0:6667q + 0:000793 with an r2 value of 0.99998.
Hence the value of k is 0.6667, or 23 .

List 4
0:412
0:141
0
0:188
0:716
0:980

INDICES AND LOGARITHMS (Chapter 7)

247

Now c = log a
so log a = 0:000 793
)
)

a = 100:000 793
a = 1:002

Allowing for rounding and measurement error,


2

the function y = x 3 appears to fit the data


very well. The diagram alongside shows the
graph passing through the points on the scatterplot.

b The final step is to draw the residual plot of the


transformed data, to see if there are any strong
underlying patterns. The residual plot shows
that one data value appears to be too large, but
further investigation shows that the residual is
only 0.0043. If we had access to Keplers original data, we would certainly check it.
Given the large value of r2 and no strong patterns in the residuals, we conclude
2

that y = x 3

is a very good model for Keplers data.


2

c Our model is y = x 3 , where x is the Orbital Period (year) and y is the Orbital
Radius (distance from the Sun). To write this without a fractional index (fractional
indices had not been discovered in Keplers day), cube both sides of this function:
2

y = x3
2

y3 = (x 3 )3

y3 = x 3

y3 = x2

2 3

which in English is The square of the planets year is proportional to the cube
of its distance from the sun.

Note: It is hard to overstate the importance of the discovery of this simple pattern. Isaac Newton
asked the question, What kind of force on a planet would be needed to produce this
motion?, and in answering it discovered the Law of Gravity.

EXERCISE 7I
1 During wet weather, mushrooms grow very quickly. The diameter (in mm)
is measured every three hours.
Time (hours)
Diameter (mm)

3
2:99

6
6:87

9
11:20

12
15:78

15
20:66

18
25:67

21
30:89

Assume that the relationship between the diameter of the mushroom d and
the time t is in the form d = atk . Find the value of a and k.

248

INDICES AND LOGARITHMS (Chapter 7)

2 When left in damp, salty conditions, motor vehicles rust. Once a


spot of rust develops, it will grow. Initially a spot of rust develops
and gradually grows into an area of rust that is roughly circular. The
diameter of the rust spot after t months is given in the table.
Time (months)
Diameter (mm)

1
14:8

6
21:2

11
23:9

16
25:8

21
27:2

26
28:4

31
29:4

Find a function of the form d = atk , where t is the time in months


and d is the diameter of the circular area.

MODELLING
What to do:

1 Gathering data on certain characteristics of


wild animals can be difficult, if not dangerous. Take alligators, for example. The
length of an alligator can be estimated quite
accurately from aerial photographs or from
a boat. However, the alligators weight is
much more difficult to determine. The table
contains data on the length (in inches) and
weight (in pounds) of alligators captured in
central Florida.

Length
94
74
147
58
86
94
63
86
69
72
128
85
82

Weight
130
51
640
28
80
110
33
90
36
38
366
84
80

Length
86
88
72
74
61
90
89
68
76
114
90
78

Weight
83
70
61
54
44
106
84
39
42
197
102
57

Use this data to develop a model of


the form y = axk from which the
weight of an alligator can be predicted
from its length. Comment on the effectiveness of the model.

Three of the alligators are significantly larger than the others and may have undue
influence on our model for predicting weight from length. Remove these three sets
of paired data, and carry out the above analysis again. Does this model do a better
job of predicting the weights of the smaller alligators?

2 As you learned in Chapter 3, changing the class interval or bin width of a histogram can
markedly change the shape of the histogram. Much research has gone into finding an algorithm that selects an appropriate bin width for any set of data. An early attempt was made
by Herbert Sturges, who published his findings in 1926. Sturges Law states that if a
dataset contains N points that span a range R, then the bin width is given by:
R
B=
1 + 3:332 log N
Chapter 3 contains a number of datasets. For those given below, comment on whether
Sturges Law gives a class interval which gives a good picture of the dataset.

a Example 3.7 (metric data set) on page 115


b Exercise 3G, question 2 (rainfall dataset) on page 116
c Exercise 3H, question 6 (Hitchcock dataset) on page 122

INDICES AND LOGARITHMS (Chapter 7)

249

PROBLEM SOLVING

J
EXERCISE 7J
1 Simplify completely

p
4
32a5

2 Without using a calculator, show that

1 12
2

1 14
4

3 Evaluate logc b2 logb c3


4 A steak left lying in the sun initially has
500 000 bacteria on it. If the number of bacteria doubles every 20 minutes, how long will
it take for the number of bacteria to reach
500 000 000?

5 In 1998, the population of Australia reached 19 million. The annual growth rate of the
population is 1.6%. In what year might you expect the population of Australia to reach 30
million people?
6 Many graphics calculators have a built-in function called DeltaList for computing the difference
between consecutive numbers in a list.
For example,
if List 1 contains f1, 3, 8, 4, 1g then DeltaList(List 1) > List 2 stores f2, 5, 4, 3g in List 2.

A teacher asked the following question in an email, If I have a list entered on my [graphics
calculator], is there a way to divide consecutive values in the list in order to find the ratio
between values?
Use your knowledge of logarithms and the DeltaList function to help this teacher. Write an
email to this teacher explaining how this might be done.

7 If log 1025
1024 = a and log 2 = b, prove log 4100 = a + 12b.
8 If x, y and z are positive numbers, prove that
1
1
1
+
+
=1
logx (xyz) logy (xyz) logz (xyz)
9 Without using a calculator, evaluate 2log2 3 + 9log3 2 .

WORDS YOU SHOULD KNOW


base
logarithm

common log
natural log

exponent
power

index
reciprocal

250

INDICES AND LOGARITHMS (Chapter 7)

CHAPTER 7 REVISION SET


1 Express with a single index.
a (b4 )3
b (b3 )4
2 Express with positive indices.
1
a a3
b b 2
1
3g3 h2
e
f
4e2
5j 2 k 4

(b 4 )4

2c 4

(b 3 ) 5

4d2 e3

3 Express with radical signs (and positive indices under the radicals).
a

a4

b 2

4 Simplify
2 13 2 12
b
a
a

3
b
a3

16x2
y 2

2c 2

14

2
34

27x3
8a3

23

5 Simplify and express with positive indices.


5n 252n2
2n+4 2 2n
a
b
3n2
1
5
10
2n+2 4
6 Express as a single logarithm.
a log 4 + log 5 log 2
7 Prove that loga b =

4 log 2 log 8

1
2

log 4 log 5

1
:
logb a

8 Solve for x.
a 3x2 = 5
d log(3x + 1) = 2
9

b
e

5x = 1000
log x + log(x + 1) = log 6

c
f

553x = 2x+2
log(2x 19) + log x = 1

a The Australian newspaper on 26 January 2001 reported that a loaf of bread in 1901
cost 2 cents (1 penny in the currency of 1901). An equivalent loaf of bread cost $2:30
in 2001. Find the average annual rate of inflation for the period 1901 - 2001, assuming
that the price change is all due to inflation.
b $1500 is invested at 8% p.a. It is compounded quarterly and amounts to $2229. Find
the number of years for which the money is invested.

10 It is known that good wine increases in


Time in years (t) 10
20
30
40
value with time. The value of a bottle of
Value $V
340 660 900 1230
fine wine over a period of years is given
in the following table.
One method of modelling the relationship between the value of the wine and the time in
years is with a function of the type: V = at k (t > 10) where a and k are constants.

Using the values given in the table, find a and k and hence find the value of the wine in
100 years as predicted by the model.

251

INDICES AND LOGARITHMS (Chapter 7)

11 A formula used to find the area of a triangle is called Herons formula.


p
Herons formula is A = s(s a)(s b)(s c) where a, b, and c are the side lengths
and s is half of the perimeter.
Show, from the formula, that log A = 12 [log s + log(s a) + log(s b) + log(s c)].

12 Here is a novel way to travel to the moon. Get a big piece of paper. Stand on it. Assuming
that the paper is 0:1 mm thick, you are now 0:1 mm closer to the moon! Now fold the paper in half and stand on it. You are now 0:2 mm closer to the moon. Fold the paper again
and you are 0:4 mm closer, again and you are 0:8 mm closer, and so on. How many times
do you have to fold the paper in half before you reach the moon, assuming the moon is
about 400 000 km away?

CHAPTER 7 TEST (KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES)


1 Simplify
a 3a4 2a6

2m4 n2 2mn8

(3k)3 (k)

2 Evaluate, without using a calculator.


a

27 3

1
2

64

3 Express with positive indices.


a
4

2
3

5
3

3 2

(a c

8a5
b6

13

a Define loga b.
b Without using a calculator, find the value of each of the following:
1
i log8 64
ii log64 8
iii log8 64

iv

log64

a State the three log laws.


b Find, without a calculator
i

log7 15 + log7 16 log7 240

ii

logp2 8 + logp2 28 logp2 240

log 16 log 25 + log 4


log 8 + log( 15 )

iv

log3 6 log3 2 + log3 7


log3 105 log3 5

iii
6 If log y =

2
3

log x + 1

a express y in terms of x
b find y when x = 8, without using a calculator.
7

1
8

a State the rule for change of base of a logarithm.


b Use a calculator to determine which is greater: log13 17 or log17 13.
c Simplify without using a calculator: log81 64 log16 243 log32 27 log9 16

252

INDICES AND LOGARITHMS (Chapter 7)

EXTENDED MODELLING ACTIVITY

PIANO KEYS

C#
C

D#
D

F#
E

G#
G

A#
A

The scale used in modern music is called an equal temperament scale. An octave, shown above
as part of a piano keyboard, contains twelve notes. The note A has a frequency of 440 hertz
(i.e., cycles per second).
A mathematical model of the frequencies of the notes of an octave divides the octave into twelve
intervals, called semitones.
p The ratio of the frequency of1one semitone to the frequency of the
next semitone is 1 : 12 2, or in index notation, 1 : 2 12 .

1 Use this model to calculate the frequencies of the 12 notes of the octave.
2 What is the ratio of the frequency of upper C to that of middle C?
3 You will notice that the frequencies that you calculated in 1 are not whole numbers. Check
your calculated frequencies with those of the tuning forks in your schools Music Department or Science Department.
4 How accurate is this mathematical model of a musical scale?

CHAPTER

Polynomials

SUBJECT MATTER
l

l
l

relationship between the graph of f(x) and the


graphs of f(x)+a, f(x+a), af(x) and f(ax) for
both positive and negative values of the constant a
general shapes of graphs of polynomial functions
up to and including the fourth degree
composition of two functions

254

POLYNOMIALS (Chapter 8)

HISTORICAL NOTE

The method of completing the square to solve quadratic equations has been known
since the Babylonian times. Despite much effort, almost no progress on solving equations involving higher powers of x was made until the early 16th century, almost 2000 years
later! In 1500, dal Ferro solved equations of the type x 3 + mx = n, for example, x 3 5x = 7.
In 1530, Niccolo Fontana, known as Tartaglia, solved equations of the type x 3 + mx 2 = n.
A general method of solving all third degree equations (of
the form ax 3 + bx 2 + cx+ d = 0) was found by Leonhard
Euler in 1732. The general solution to fourth degree equations (of the form ax 4 + bx 3 + cx 2 + dx + 3 = 0) was
found by Lodovico Ferrari soon after.
One night in 1732, a Frenchman, Evariste Galois, scribbled
a brief outline of a proof that no general solution for fifth
degree (or higher degree) equations exists. The next day, he
was engaged in a duel over a romantic involvement. Galois
was killed in that duel. He was 21 years old at the time.
Evariste Galois

INVESTIGATION 1

MAXIMISING VOLUME
A sheet of A4 paper has dimensions 29.7 cm 21cm. You have been given the task of
making an open rectangular box from this sheet of paper by cutting squares from each of the
corners, folding up the sides, and taping the sides together.

If you cut small squares from each corner, the box will have a large base, but be very shallow.
If you cut large squares, the box will be tall, but have a relatively small base.
For example, if the squares have a side length of
1cm then the height of the box will be 1cm, the base
of the box will have length 29:7(21)=27:7cm
and a breadth of 21(21)=19 cm.
We can find the volume as follows:

V = LBH
= 27:7 19 1
= 526.3 cm3

Height Length Breadth Volume


1
27:7
19
526:3
1:5
2
etc.

By making a table of values, find, as accurately as you can, the length of the side of the
square that will result in the box with maximum volume.

POLYNOMIALS (Chapter 8)

255

DEFINITION OF A POLYNOMIAL

A
Consider the following functions:

constant function
linear function
quadratic function

f(x) = 3
g(x) = 4x + 3
h(x) = x2 + x 2

We can extend this pattern by adding higher powers of x:


called a cubic function or a 3rd degree function

i(x) = x3 + 2x2 x 2
4

j(x) = x + 6x + 7x 6x 8
k(x) = x + 3x 2x 5

called a quartic function or a 4th degree function


usually we do not use special names for polynomials
of the 5th degree or higher

These are all examples of an important class of functions called polynomials.


A polynomial of degree n is a function of the form
f(x) = an xn + an1 xn1 + an2 xn2 + :::::::: +a2 x2 + a1 x + a0 , a n 6= 0

where an , an1 , ......, a0 , are real numbers and the indices, n, n 1, .... , 1 are natural
numbers.
The symbols an , an1 , an2 , ...... , a2 , a1 are called coefficients, while a0 is called the
constant term. This method of naming variables and constants is called subscript notation.
It is often used when the number of variables or constants is large, and they have a common purpose, such as representing coefficients.
The first coefficient is an , which is pronounced a sub n, the second is an1 , pronounced a sub
n minus 1. The constant term, a0 , is pronounced a sub zero.
We would read the first term of the polynomial as a sub n times x to the power of n and the
second term as a sub n minus 1 times x to the power of n minus 1, and so on.
Following are the graphs of the above functions. We will be studying the graphs of polynomials in
detail later in this chapter.
y

-4

-2

4 x

-4

f (x) = 3

-2

4
2

-4

-4 -2

h(x) = x2 + x 2
y

10

-4
-3 -2 -1

i(x) = x3 + 2x2 x 2

-2

-4

g(x) = 4x + 3

-2

-4

-4

-4

-4

j(x) = x4 + 6x3 + 7x2 6x 8

-5

k(x) = x5 + 3x4 2x 5

256

POLYNOMIALS (Chapter 8)

EXAMPLE 8.1
Based on the definition, which of the following functions are polynomials?
a

f (x) = x3 + 4

h(x) =

2x2 + x 1
x+6
p
x2
j(x) =
x + 5
3

e
g

p
p
n(x) = 2x + 3x2 3 2x

g(x) = 2x 4x3

i(x) = 3:6 0:5x4 + 3x 1:34x2

k(x) = x7
p
m(x) = x3

l(x) = 0

1
2

a f(x) is a polynomial. Note that the coefficients on x and x2 are both zero, so these terms
are not written down.
b g(x) is not a polynomial, since the 2nd term contains a negative power of x.
c h(x) is not a polynomial, though it is a rational function in which both the numerator
and denominator are polynomials.
d i(x) is a polynomial, though the terms are not written in the usual order. A polynomial
is usually written with the powers of x either consistently increasing or consistently
decreasing.
x2
can be rewritten as 13 x2 , and
e j(x) is a polynomial. The coefficient of x2 is 13 , since
3
the other coefficients are both real numbers.
f k(x) is a polynomial, even though it consists of a single term. For this polynomial, all
of the coefficients of the other terms are 0.
g l(x) is a polynomial. Its degree is 0 and its graph is the x-axis.
3
h m(x) is not a polynomial. It can be re-written as m(x) = x 2 , which has a fractional
index.
i n(x) is a polynomial. The coefficients and constant term can be any real number, including
roots.
You may wish to draw the graphs of these functions using your graphics calculator, just for interest.

We can use summation notation to represent the general polynomial as follows:


f (x) =

n
X

ai xi

i=0

The first term is a0 x0 , then next term is a1 x1 , and so on. The last term is an xn . Note that in this
format, the terms are added in reverse order to that usually given in the problem. It does not make
any difference, of course.

EXERCISE 8A
1 Which of the following are polynomials? For those that are not, explain why they are not
polynomials.
a

f (x) = 4x 3

f(x) = 3

g(x) = 7 3x

h(x) =

1
x

POLYNOMIALS (Chapter 8)

f(x) = 2x2 6x + 8

F (x) =

p
x3

d(x) =

p
2 3x

h(x) = 5x 4x4

5
x
4
g(x) = 2
x 3x + 1
m(x) = x2

g(x) = 3 4x + x5

k(x) = (x + 3)(x 7)(x + 1)

2 For any of the following which are polynomials, state the degree.
x 1
a f(x) = 4 6x9
b g(x) = +
c
6 3
d

f(x) = 3

h(x) =

257

3x2 + 5x 2
3

g(t) = 12 at2

h(x) =

3x2 + 5x 2
3x

3 Construct polynomials that meet these criteria. A polynomial:


a
c
e

of degree 6
that is a quartic function
with non-rational coefficients

that is a linear function


with only one term
a polynomial of degree five, with 3 terms

b
d
f

4 Write out in general form, using subscript notation:


a the general quadratic function
b the general quartic function
c the general function of the fifth-degree
5 You have learned that a quadratic function can be expressed as y = ax2 + bx + c.
Why does mathematics not use this simpler style of notation for polynomials, rather than the
more complex subscript notation?
6 Write the following as polynomials in the expanded form:
a

4
X

ai xi

i=0

6
P

xi

i=2

2
X
i=1

ai (x 2)i

3
P

(x + 1)i

i=1

EVALUATING POLYNOMIALS

You have learned to evaluate linear and quadratic functions previously. The technique extends
easily to polynomials.

EXAMPLE 8.2
f (x) = 2x3 3x2 + x 4.
a

Substitute 1 for x, and simplify:


f(1)
= 2(1)3 3(1)2 + 1 4
=23+14
= 4

Evaluate a f (1)
b

f (2)

Substitute 2 for x, and simplify:

f (2)
= 2(2)3 3(2)2 + (2) 4
= 16 12 2 4
= 34

258

POLYNOMIALS (Chapter 8)

EXERCISE 8B
1 Evaluate each of the following polynomials for the given values of x.
a

f (x) = 4x3 + 2x + 5

g(x) = x4 4x2 + 7

h(x) = 5 3x 5x + 2x

f (3)

ii

f(0)

iii

f(5)

g(1)

ii

g(2)

iii

g(3)

h(0)

ii

h(3)

iii

h(9)

2 Confirm that for the given values, each polynomial evaluates to be zero.
a f(x) = x2 + 5x + 6
i f (2)
ii f(3)
b g(x) = x3 4x2 + x + 6
i g(3)
ii g(2)

iii

g(1)

c h(x) = x5 + 4x4 7x3 22x2 + 24x


i h(0)
ii h(1)
iii h(2)

iv

h(3)

h(4)

OPERATIONS WITH POLYNOMIALS

Polynomials can be added, subtracted and multiplied, and the answer is always a polynomial.
Polynomials can also be divided but the answer is often not a polynomial.

ADDING AND SUBTRACTING POLYNOMIALS

EXAMPLE 8.3
Given f (x) = x2 + 3x 2 and g(x) = 2x2 4x 1, find
a f (x) + g(x)
b f (x) g(x)
You can only add or subtract like terms.
a

f (x) + g(x)
= (x2 + 3x 2) + (2x2 4x 1)
= 3x2 x 3

f(x) g(x)
= (x2 + 3x 2) (2x2 4x 1)
= x2 + 3x 2 2x2 + 4x + 1
= x2 + 7x 1

GRAPHICS CALCULATOR ACTIVITY


What to do:
1 On your graphics calculator, graph the functions Y1 = x2 5x + 6 and Y2 = x + 6.
2 Make Y3 = Y1 + Y2 , and graph Y1 , Y2 and Y3 on the same set of axes. Turn
on the [TRACE] function and toggle between Y1 , Y2 and Y3 . What do you conclude?
3 Now make Y3 = Y1 Y2 , and graph Y1 , Y2 and Y3 on the same set of axes. Turn
on the [TRACE] function and toggle between Y1 , Y2 and Y3 . What do you conclude?

POLYNOMIALS (Chapter 8)

259

MULTIPLYING POLYNOMIALS (IN FACTORISED AND EXPANDED FORMS)


Multiplying polynomials is called expanding.
The resulting expression is said to be in expanded form.

EXAMPLE 8.4
Expand the expression y = (x 2)(x + 1)(x 3)2 :
We will start at the end, and work forward.
(x 2)(x + 1)(x 3)2
= (x 2)(x + 1)(x2 6x + 9)
= (x 2)[x(x2 6x + 9) + 1(x2 6x + 9)]
= (x 2)[x3 6x2 + 9x + x2 6x + 9)]
= (x 2)[x3 5x2 + 3x + 9)]
= x(x3 5x2 + 3x + 9) 2(x3 5x2 + 3x + 9)
= x4 5x3 + 3x2 + 9x 2x3 + 10x2 6x 18
= x4 7x3 + 13x2 + 3x 18

f(a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + bg


fexpand the factor (x + 1)g
fexpand each termg
fcollect like termsg
fexpand the factor (x 2)g
fexpand each termg
fcollect like termsg

The inverse of an operation undoes the operation. The inverse of expanding polynomials is
factorising. The resulting expression is said to be in factorised form.
The quadratic expression x2 + 5x + 6 can be written in factorised form as (x + 2)(x + 3).
The cubic x3 7x + 6 can be written in factorised form as (x 1)(x 2)(x + 3).

To show this, we will expand the factorised form:


(x 1)(x 2)(x + 3)
= (x 1)(x2 + x 6)
= x(x2 + x 6) 1(x2 + x 6)
= x3 + x2 6x x2 x + 6
= x3 7x + 6

fexpand (x 2)(x + 3) firstg


fexpand the factor (x 1)g
fmultiply through using the distributive lawg
fcollect like termsg

Expanding a polynomial given in factorised form is not difficult, but it can be tedious. Factorising
a polynomial given in expanded form is even more tedious, and often is not possible in terms of
simple factors with integer (whole number) coefficients. Factorising polynomials of degree three
or higher is not studied in Mathematics B.

DIVIDING POLYNOMIALS
Dividing one polynomial by another generally results in a rational function, which is a function
g(x)
where h(x) 6= 0.
of the form f (x) =
h(x)
As rational functions are not studied in Mathematics B, we will only divide polynomials if they
have an easily found common factor.

260

POLYNOMIALS (Chapter 8)

EXAMPLE 8.5
Divide x2 + 5x + 6 by x + 3:
(x2 + 5x + 6) (x + 3)

x2 + 5x + 6
for x 6= 3
x+3
(x + 3)(x + 2)
=
(x + 3)

= x+2
Note that the domain of this function is x 6= 3, as we cannot divide by zero.

EXERCISE 8C.1
Add, and then ii

1 i
a
b
c
d
e
f

subtract, each pair of polynomial expressions.

x + 5 and 2x 6
2x + 2 and x2 + 3x 1
3x2 4x + 5 and 5x2 6x 1
3 4x x2 and 4x3 5x2 + 2x + 6
4x3 7 and x3 + 7x2 2x 5
x4 3x2 + 2 and x3 3x

2 Expand each of these polynomial expressions.


a 4(x 3)
b
c (t + 1)(3t 5)
d
e (2x + 3)(x + 1)(x 1)
f
2
g t(t 1)
h
2
i (a + b)
j
3
k (a + b)
l

2(5 4x)
2(x + 1)(x + 7)
x(x + 1)(x 2)(x + 3)
x(x 2)3
(2t 1)(2t + 1)(3t 2)
(a + b)4

3 For each of these polynomial expressions, without expanding write


i the degree of the polynomial ii the constant term, if any.
a
c
e
g

(3 x)(5 x)
(t2 + 2t 4)(t + 1)
(h4 + 2)(h3 5h)
x(x + 1)(x + 2)(x + 3)

b
d
f
h

(3t + 1)(4 t)
(2x2 + 3x 1)(2x2 3x 4)
(2a3 5a2 )(4a2 + 2a4 )
( 12 x2 + 3)( 14 x3 + 2x 13 )

4 Divide the following polynomials. State any restrictions on the domain.


a
c
e
g

x2 + 5x + 6
x2 x 12
6x2 + 5x 6
6x2 3x 3

by
by
by
by

x+2
x4
2x + 3
3x 3

b
d
f
h

x2 2x 15 by x + 3
x2 11x + 24 by x 3
(x + 5)2 (2x 1) by x + 5
(x 3)2 (x + 5)3 by (x 3)(x + 5)2

POLYNOMIALS (Chapter 8)

261

POLYNOMIALS OF THE FORM f(x) = (x + a)n


An important class of polynomials are those of the form f (x) = (x+a)n . This function is important
in the study of probability, and the study of calculus.
The expansion of such expressions is called the binomial expansion.
If you expand polynomials of the form f (x) = (x + a)n , for n = 0 to 5, you will get the following:
recall that b0 = 1, for any b

f (x) = (x + a)0

=1

f (x) = (x + a)1

=x+a

f (x) = (x + a)

= x2 + 2ax + a2

f (x) = (x + a)3

= x3 + 3x2 a + 3xa2 + a3

f (x) = (x + a)4

= x4 + 4x3 a + 6x2 a2 + 4xa3 + a4

f (x) = (x + a)5

= x5 + 5x4 a + 10x3 a2 + 10x2 a3 + 5xa4 + a5

The expansion of f(x) = (x+a)n

is rich in patterns. Can we predict the expansion of (x +a)6 ?

Recalling the fact that a1 = a and a0 = 1, for all a, it is easy to see that for each successive
term the index of x reduces by 1 for each term, from n to 0, while the index of a increases by 1
for each term, from 0 to n.
So, the expansion of (x + a)5 could have been written more fully as:
(x + a)5 = x5 a0 + 5x4 a1 + 10x3 a2 + 10x2 a3 + 5x1 a4 + x0 a5
The hardest pattern to find when expanding (x + a)6 is the pattern of the coefficients. Here are the
coefficients from the above expansions written in a triangular pattern.

row 0
row 1
row 2
row 3
row 4
row 5

1
5

1
4

1
3
10

10

1
4

1
5

This is called Pascals Triangle, after the famous mathematician of the 17th century, Blaise Pascal.
The last line of this triangle contains the coefficients of (x + a)5 , in order.
It is possible to form each row from the one above it.
Look, for example, at the 2nd term of the 5th row, which is a 4. This value is found by adding the
numbers to the northwest and the northeast of it. Also, the first and last numbers in each row
are both 1.
The next row gives the coefficients for (x + a)6 . These coefficients are derived from the last row
in the above table, as follows.

15

10

20

10

15

Hence, the expansion of (x + a)6 is x6 + 6x5 a + 15x4 a2 + 20x3 a3 + 15x2 a4 + 6xa5 + a6 .

262

POLYNOMIALS (Chapter 8)

EXAMPLE 8.6
Expand each of the following expressions.
a

(x + 1)3

(x 2)4

(3x 4)3

a Substituting a = 1 into x3 + 3x2 a + 3xa2 + a3

(2 +

1 4
)
x

gives

(x + 1)
= x3 + 3x2 + 3x + 1
b Substituting a = 2 into x4 + 4x3 a + 6x2 a2 + 4xa3 + a4

gives

(x 2)4
= x4 + 4x3 (2) + 6x2 (2)2 + 4x(2)3 + (2)4
= x4 8x3 + 24x2 32x + 16

c Substituting x = 3x and a = 4 into (x + a)3 = x3 + 3x2 a + 3xa2 + a3

gives

(3x 4)
= (3x)3 + 3(3x)2 (4) + 3(3x)(4)2 + (4)3
= 27x3 108x2 + 144x 64
d Note that this is not a polynomial, but the pattern still holds.

Substituting a = 2 and b =
(2 +

1
gives
x

1 4
)
x

1
1
1
1
= 24 + 4 23 ( ) + 6 22 ( )2 + 4 2 ( )3 + ( )4
x
x
x
x
32 24
8
1
= 16 +
+ 2+ 3+ 4
x
x
x
x
= 16 + 32x1 + 24x2 + 8x3 + x4

EXERCISE 8C.2
1 Expand and simplify, using the binomial expansion.
a
e
i
m

(x 1)3

(3a 3)3

b
f

(5x 5)2

(x

2 3
)
x2

(x 4)3

(4 y)3

(x 2)5

(2x + 1)5

(2x 3)5

(a + 1)7

(3 2x)3

(2 x)4

( 13 x2 12 )4

(2c 5)3

1
(a )4
a

(x 12 )3

b
d

x4 4x3 + 6x2 4x + 1
x3 + 15x2 + 75x + 125

2 Express in the standard form (x + a)n .


a x3 + 3x2 + 3x + 1
c 8x3 + 24x2 + 24x + 8

POLYNOMIALS (Chapter 8)

263

ZEROS OF A POLYNOMIAL

The solutions (or roots) of the quadratic equation (x 2)(2x + 1) = 0 are x = 2 and x = 12 .
These are called the zeros of the function y = (x 2)(2x + 1).

Graphically, they are the x-coordinates of the points where the graph of the function crosses the
x-axis.
This extends easily to polynomials of higher degree.

EXAMPLE 8.7
a Find the zeros of the function f (x) = (x + 1)(x 2)(x + 3).
b Draw the graph of the function using a graphics calculator and confirm that these
are the x-coordinates of the points where the graph crosses the x-axis.
c From your knowledge of f (x), what are the zeros of
g(x) = 2(x + 1)(x 2)(x + 3)? Without drawing it, what can you say about the
graph of g(x)?

a If f (x) = (x + 1)(x 2)(x + 3) then


x + 1 = 0 or x 2 = 0 or x + 3 = 0
so x = 1, 2 and 3 are the zeros of this
function.
b The diagram on the right shows that the
graph crosses the x-axis at x = 1. The
other roots are found similarly.
c The zeros of g(x) are the same as those of f(x). The graph of g(x) crosses the xaxis at the same point as f (x). From our knowledge of transformations, the graph
of g(x) is the graph of f (x) stretched vertically by a factor of 2.

EXERCISE 8D
1 Find
a
c
e

the zeros of these polynomials.


f(x) = x(2x + 1)(x 2)
f(x) = x2 + 6x + 5
g(x) = (x2 2x 3)(x2 6x + 8)

b
d
f

the zeros of these polynomials.


f(x) = (x 2)(x + 3)
f(x) = (x 4)2
g(x) = x(2x + 1)(3x 4)3

b
d
f

f(x) = (x 2)(x + 1)(x + 5)(x + 9)


f(x) = (3x 1)(x2 x + 20)
g(x) = x(x2 + 6x + 9)(x2 13x + 22)

2 Find three polynomial functions whose graphs intersect the x-axis at x = 5, x = 0 and
x = 1.
3 Find
a
c
e

f(x) = x(2x + 1)(3x 4)


f(x) = (x 2)2 (x + 3)
f(x) = (x + 3)5 (x 4)2

264

POLYNOMIALS (Chapter 8)

4 Given the graphs below, state the zeros of each function.


a
b
y

1
-1

-1

x
1

-1

x
-1

GRAPHICS CALCULATOR EXERCISE

REPEATED ROOTS
1 Using a graphics calculator, sketch the graphs of the following cubic functions.
Choose a window size that shows the critical points clearly.
a
c

f(x) = x(x 2:25)(x 3:75)


h(x) = x(x 2:75)(x 3:25)

b
d

g(x) = x(x 2:5)(x 3:5)


i(x) = x(x 2:95)(x 3:05)

2 Sketch by hand what you think the graph of i(x) = x(x 3)2
Check your answer with a graphics calculator.

will look like.

3 Sketch by hand the graphs of these functions. Check your answer using a graphics
calculator.
a
c

f(x) = x(x + 1)2


h(x) = (x 1)2 (x + 3)2

b
d

g(x) = x2 (x 2)
i(x) = x2 (x 5)2

4 Explain in a few brief words what is meant by repeated roots.

GRAPHS OF POLYNOMIALS

These screen shots from a graphics calculator show the characteristic shapes of polynomials of
degree 3 to degree 6.
If you wish to graph them yourself, the window is (4:7, 4, 7, 1; 3:1, 3:1, 1)

3rd degree equation

4th degree equation

y = 0:3(x + 2)(x 1)(x 3)

y = 0:5x(x + 1)(x 2)(x 3)

POLYNOMIALS (Chapter 8)

5th degree equation


y = 0:02x(x 2)(x 4)(x + 2)(x + 4)

265

6th degree equation


y = 0:008x(x + 4)(x + 3)(x 1)(x 3)(x 4)

Note that for these functions, the number of zeros and the degree of the polynomial are equal. In
general, an nth degree polynomial can have up to n zeros, but it can have fewer than n zeros and
indeed no zeros at all.
Here are some examples:

3rd degree equation with two zeros


y = 0:1(x 2)(x + 3)2

4th degree equation with two zeros


y = 0:3x(x2 + 1)(x 2)(x 3)

4th degree equation with one zero


y = 0:2x3 + 1

6th degree equation with no zeros


y = 0:1x(x 2)2 (x + 1)3 + 1

CLASS DISCUSSION

Is it possible to have a cubic function with no zeros?


Is it possible to have a quartic function with three zeros?
Is it possible to have a function of degree five with no zeros?

POINTS OF INTEREST
When investigating the graph of a function, often a mathematician will start by finding the values
of the points that tell us something about the function, for example, the zeros of the function, its
y-intercept, and the local maxima and local minima.

266

POLYNOMIALS (Chapter 8)

A local maximum is a point whose y-coordinate is larger than that of any nearby point.
A local minimum is a point whose y-coordinate is smaller than that of any nearby point.
The coordinates of such points can be found to reasonable accuracy using any graphics calculator,
either by zooming in on the point of interest or by selecting the option from a menu.

EXAMPLE 8.8
Use a graphics calculator to graph the following functions such that all points of interest are
visible in the viewing window. Find the values of these points to at least 3 decimal places.
a

f (x) = x3 3x2 13x + 15

g(x) = x3 + 4x2 3x 4

a The viewing window (4, 6, 1; 30, 30, 10)


shows the necessary points. The zeros are at
(3, 0), (1, 0) and (5, 0). The local maximum has coordinates (1:309, 24:634) while
the minimum is at (3:309, 24:634). As we
know that a polynomial of degree 3 can have
a maximum of 3 zeros only, it is not necessary
to expand the viewing window.
b The viewing window (5, 3, 1; 10, 20, 3)
shows the interesting points nicely. Using the
in-built programs, the zeros are at (4.471, 0),
(0:739, 0) and (1.210, 0). By substituting
x = 0, the y-intercept is at (0, 4). There
is a local maximum at (3, 14) and a local
minimum at (0:333, 4:519).

GRAPHICS CALCULATOR ACTIVITY

ROOTS OF A SIXTH DEGREE POLYNOMIAL


On the previous page is a sixth degree polynomial with six zeros, and another with no zeros.
Can you find a 6th degree polynomial that has
a 5 zeros

4 zeros

3 zeros

2 zeros

e 1 zero?

EXERCISE 8E.1
1 Sketch the graphs of these polynomials using a graphing calculator. Adjust the window to
include all points of interest. State the coordinates of each of the zeros, the y-intercept, and
the local maximum and minimum values.
a y = x(x 4)(x + 1)
b y = x3 (x 1)2
3
2
c y = x + 3x 4x + 1
d y = x3 4x2 + 9x 10
e y = x3 3x2 + 3x 1
f y = x4 3x2 + 1

POLYNOMIALS (Chapter 8)

267

2 Find the equation of a cubic function for which all of the interesting points lie in the window
(1, 1, 1; 1, 1, 1).
3 When graphing a polynomial with a graphics calculator, there is a useful theorem, proved by
Cauchy in 1829, that establishes upper and lower bounds on the roots. If you use these bounds
as your values for Xmin and Xmax on your graphics calculator, you will be sure to capture all
of the roots.

Let f (x) = xn + an1 xn1 + an2 xn2 + :::: + a1 x + a0 .


Note that the leading coefficient of f must be 1. If you have a polynomial whose leading
coefficient is not 1, divide your polynomial by its leading coefficient, and you will get a
function with leading coefficient 1 that has the same roots as your original polynomial.
Theorem: Let f be as indicated above. Then all the zeros of f lie in the interval:
jxj < 1 + maxfja0 j, ja1 j, ....., jan2 j, jan1 jg.

Use this theorem to find the upper and lower bounds of the roots for the following polynomials.
Use your graphics calculator to check that your window has captured all of the roots.
a
c

f(x) = x2 + x 2
3

f(x) = 3x +

27 2
10 x

63
3
10 x + 5

f(x) = x3 54 x2

47
4 x

+3

THE OVERWHELMING INFLUENCE OF THE TERM WITH THE


HIGHEST DEGREE
Below are the graphs of three cubic equations, drawn with a graphics calculator with the viewing
window (5, 5, 1; 15, 15, 3).

y = x3

y = (x 1)(x + 2)(x 4)

y = (x 1)(x2 + x + 3)

y = (x 1)(x + 2)(x 4)

y = (x 1)(x2 + x + 3)

Viewed from a distance, the same functions present us with a quite different picture. These are
graphs of the same equations, using the viewing window (60, 60, 10; 50 000, 50 000, 10 000).

y = x3

At a sufficiently large scale, the graphs of these functions are nearly identical. The reason is that
for large positive and large negative values of x, the largest power of x controls the basic shape
of the graph, as its value is so much greater than that of the other terms combined. For each of
these graphs, the largest power of x is x3 . The other terms have their strongest effect on values of
x close to the origin.

268

POLYNOMIALS (Chapter 8)

Now consider the graphs of f (x) = x3 , g(x) = 3x3 and h(x) = 12 x3 , shown in the window
(40, 40, 10; 50000, 50000, 10000).

The functions g(x) and h(x) are vertical stretches of


f (x), by factors of 3 and 12 respectively. The effect of
these transformations will be visible at any scale factor.

EXERCISE 8E.2
1 Sketch the graphs of the following simultaneously in the window (3, 3, 1, 20, 20, 4).
a

y = x4

y = x(x 3)(x + 2)(x 1)

y = (x2 + x + 3)(x2 + x + 3)

Now change the window to (40, 40, 4; 50 000, 50 000, 10 000). Comment on what the two
different views of these functions show you.
2 Sketch the graphs of the following simultaneously in the window (2, 2, 1, 1, 3, 1).
a

y = x4

y = 5x4

y = 15 x4

Now change the window to (30, 30, 10; 10 000, 50 000, 5000). Comment on what these
two different views of these functions show you.

COMPOSITION OF FUNCTIONS

In many real life situations one variable may depend upon a second variable which in turn depends
upon a third variable.
Consider a stone which is dropped onto the surface of
still water. Ripples are formed, which move out from
the point of impact in a circular form. The radius r
of the disturbance increases with time t, i.e., the
radius is a function of time. Consider a simple case
where r = 2t.
Now as r increases the area of the circle increases
as well, since area is a function of the radius, i.e.,
A = r2 :
So area is a function of the radius where the radius is a function of time. Mathematicians say that the
area is a function of a function of time. In particular, if A = r2 then A = (2t)2 = 4t2 .
Or consider a hot air balloon. The velocity at which
it is rising, v, is a function of the temperature of
the air, T . The temperature of the air is a function
of the time, t, that the burner has been operating.
Hence, the velocity at which the balloon is rising
is a function of a function of the time the burner
has been operating. We can write v = f (T ) and
T = g(t) so v = f[g(t)].
We say v = f of g of t.

POLYNOMIALS (Chapter 8)

269

Here is an algebraic example:


Let u = x2 3x and y = u10 . Now u is a function of x and y is a function of u, and
therefore y is a function of a function of x. In particular, y = (x2 3x)10 . Note that y is still a
function of x.

EXAMPLE 8.9
Form the composite function y = f (x) if
p
a y = u and u = 2x 5
a

y=

p
2x 5

2
u2

and u =

y=

2
2
y= p 2 =
x
( x)

p
x

Now consider the following function: y = (x 3)2 5(x 3) + 6.

If we substitute c for (x 3), the function can be written as y = c2 5c + 6 which is obviously


a quadratic function.
We would say that y is a quadratic function on x 3.

This complex function can be thought of as the composition of two simpler functions, one being a
quadratic function and the other, a linear function.

EXAMPLE 8.10
Solve the equation (x 3)2 5(x 3) + 6 = 0
By substituting c for (x 3), we have the equation: c2 5c + 6 = 0, which factorises as
(c 3)(c 2) = 0. Its solutions are c = 3 and c = 2.
By substituting x 3 back in place of c, we have: x 3 = 3 and x 3 = 2:

The solutions are x = 6 and x = 5. Check by substituting in the original equation.


While we often substitute a number for x, we can just as easily substitute an algebraic expression.

EXAMPLE 8.11
Consider f(x) = x2 + x 5.

Find an expression for


a
c

a f (a)

f(a) = a2 + a 5
f (x 2)
= (x 2)2 + (x 2) 5
= (x2 4x + 4) + (x 2) 5
= x2 3x 3

b
b

f (3c)
f (3c)
= (3c)2 + (3c) 5
= 9c2 + 3c 5

f (x 2)

270

POLYNOMIALS (Chapter 8)

EXAMPLE 8.12
Consider f(x) = x3 4x2 + 3x 1 and g(x) = x 1.
Show that f [g(x)] = x3 7x2 + 14x 9:
f [g(x)] means to substitute g(x) in place of x, in the function f (x).
This gives us
But

f [g(x)] = [g(x)]3 4[g(x)]2 + 3[g(x)] 1


g(x) = x 1.

Substituting g(x) = x 1, we have

f (x 1) = (x 1)3 4(x 1)2 + 3(x 1) 1

Using the binomial expansion, we have

f (x 1) = (x3 3x2 + 3x 1) 4(x2 2x + 1) + 3x 3 1


= x3 3x2 + 3x 1 4x2 + 8x 4 + 3x 3 1
= x3 7x2 + 14x 9
Note that f[g(x)] is often written as f g.

EXERCISE 8F
1 Form the composite function y = f (x). Simplify where appropriate.
p
a y = 2u and u = 3x 5
b y = 3 2u and u = 4x + 1
u
and u = x2 1
c y = 3u2 and u = 5 2x
d y=
u+5
e
g

y = (x 1)3 and x = t + 3
p
y = 4u and u = x2

y = x2 3x + 4 and x = t2 + 1

y = (u + 4)2

and u = x + 4

2 The concept of composite functions extends easily to a function of a function of a function


(and beyond). Form the composite function y = f (x) if
1
a y = u2 , u = v 3 and v = x + 1
b y = , u = v 2 and v = x 3
u
3 The function y = (3x 1)2 can be described as the composite function y = u2 where
u = 3x 1. Describe these functions similarly.
p
1
a y = 2x + 3
b y=
c y = (x2 + 5x 3)3
7 x2
p
d y = 3 4 x2
e y = (2x)4
f y = 2x4
4 Consider the function f(x) = 2x2 + x 1. Find an expression in simplest form for:
a f (y)
b f (2a)
c f (3x 1)
d

f (2 c)

f (t2 )

a f(x) = x2 3x + 1 and g(x) = x 5. Find


i f [g(x)]
ii g[f (x)]
iii

f ([t 1]2 )

f [f (x)]

iv

g[g(x)]

POLYNOMIALS (Chapter 8)

b f (x) = x3 4x + 1 and g(x) = 3 x. Find


i fg
ii g f
iii
6 Solve the following equations.
a (x + 3)2 2(x + 3) 3 = 0
c (x2 x + 1)2 (x2 x + 1) 2 = 0

b
d

gg

iv

271

ff

(x 5)2 16 = 0
3(4x2 9) 2 = 19

TRANSFORMATIONS OF POLYNOMIALS

The knowledge you have gained in an earlier chapter about transformations of quadratic functions
applies equally well to transformations of polynomials (and to other functions you will study later
in this course).

EXAMPLE 8.13
The graph of y = x3 is shown.
Sketch by hand the graphs of
a y = x3 4
b
c
d
e

y = 2x
y = (x 4)3
y = 2(x + 4)3
y = 3(x 2)3 + 3

-4

-4
-8

a The graph of y = x3 4
shifts the graph of y = x3
vertically 4 units down.

4
-4
-4
-8

b The graph of y = 2x3


stretches the graph of y = x3
vertically by a factor of 2.

4
-4
-4
-8

272

POLYNOMIALS (Chapter 8)

c The graph of y = (x 4)3


shifts the graph of y = x3
horizontally 4 units to the right.

8
4
-4

-4

-8

d The graph of y = 2(x + 4)3


shifts the graph of y = x3
horizontally 4 units to the left, and
stretches it vertically by a factor of 2.

4
-4
-4

-8

e The graph of y = 3(x 2)3 + 3


shifts the graph of y = x3 horizontally 2 units to the right, flips it
about the x-axis, stretches it vertically by a factor of 3, and then shifts
the graph vertically upwards a distance of 3 units.

y
8

4
-4
-4

-8

EXAMPLE 8.14
The graph shown is the graph of a particular function, f(x). Draw the graph of each of these
functions, along with the graph of f(x):
y

a g(x) = 2f (x)
b h(x) = f (x 2)
c i(x) = f(x) 3

f(x)

4
-2

-4

POLYNOMIALS (Chapter 8)

a The graph of the function g(x) = 2f (x) is


the graph of f (x) stretched vertically by
a factor of 2. Note that the zeros of f (x)
and g(x) = 2f (x) are the same. Stretching the function does not change the zeros
of the function.

273

g(!)

(!)

-2

-4

b The graph of the function


h(x) = f(x 2) is the graph
of f (x) shifted 2 units to the right.

(!)

-2

h(!)

-4

c The graph of the function


i(x) = f(x) 3 is the graph
of f (x) shifted 3 units down.

(!)

-2

i(!)

-4

EXERCISE 8G
1 Describe in words how the graph of each of these functions is a transformation of the graph
of f (x).
a 3f(x)
b f (x 3)
c f (x) 1
d 2f (x + 3)
e f(x 1) + 3
2 If f (x) = x3 , sketch by hand the graphs of each of the functions in question 1. Check your
answers with a graphics calculator.
3 If f (x) = x4 , sketch by hand the graphs of each of the functions in question 1. Check your
answers with a graphics calculator.

274

POLYNOMIALS (Chapter 8)

4 The diagram shows the graph of


h(x) = 15 (x 1)(x + 2)(x 3).

Sketch by hand the graphs of


a 2h(x)
b h(x 1)
c h(x) 1
d 2 h(x)

3
2

1
-3 -2 -1
-1
-2
-3

x
1

5 Consider the quadratic function f(x) = (x + 1)(x 5). Without drawing the graphs,
a find the zeros of this function
b find the zeros of g(x) = 3(x + 1)(x 5)
c find the zeros of f (x 3)

6 Consider the graph of the polynomial f (x)


alongside.
a
b
c
d

What
What
What
What

are the zeros of this function?


are the zeros of g(x) = 2f (x)?
are the zeros of h(x) = f(x + 1)?
is the y-intercept of g(x)?

a A function g(x) = f(x) + 3. What do you know about the function g(x)?
b A function h(x) = 4f(x). What do you know about the function h(x)?
c A function j(x) = f(x 2). What do you know about the function j(x)?

APPLICATIONS AND MODELLING


USING POLYNOMIALS

EXAMPLE 8.15
Optimising volume
Consider the earlier problem of maximising the volume of an
open box made from a sheet of A4 paper. We found an approximate solution by constructing a table of values. Now let
us take an algebraic approach and see if we can do any better.
From the diagram it should be clear that if a square of side x is cut from each corner of the
paper, then the length of the base is given by L=29:72x and the breadth by B=212x.
Also, the height of the box is H=x.
We can now substitute:
V = LBH
V = (29:7 2x)(21 2x)(x) or rearranging,
V = x(21 2x)(29:7 2x)

275

POLYNOMIALS (Chapter 8)

The graph of V as a function of x is given alongside.


We find, using a graphics calculator, that at the point
where the graph reaches a maximum value, the maximum volume is 1128.5 cm 3, and this occurs when the
square has a side length of 4.04 cm.

y
1200
1000
800
600
400
200

-200

x
2

10

12

14

EXAMPLE 8.16
Towing an iceberg
During periods of drought, it is occasionally suggested in the press that Australia should consider
towing an iceberg up from Antarctica. Icebergs are
large frozen masses of fresh water, and could provide
a steady source of fresh water in a time of need. The
problem is that while an iceberg is being towed, it
is melting. Assuming that for the plan to be feasible
the iceberg needs to contain at least 1 billion litres
of water when it arrives, should such a scheme be
given serious consideration?
Deciding if such a scheme is feasible is a highly complex problem, and involves knowledge
of meteorology, oceanography, the capabilities of the towing ships, and much more. A very
simple mathematical model is probably a good way to start.
Assume the iceberg is a sphere of radius 100 m, and that the iceberg melts uniformly at a rate
of 15 cm of depth per day. We will need to calculate the maximum number of days available
for the towing such that the iceberg is still of sufficient size when it arrives. The towing
experts can then decide if such a deadline could be met.
Recalling the metric conversion 1 m3 = 1000 L, the iceberg still has to have a volume of one
million m3 when it reaches Australia.
The volume of a sphere is given by the function V = 43 r3 .
The radius on day t, in metres, is given by the function r = 100 0:15t.
Hence, V is a function of r, and r is a function of t, so V is a function of a function of t.
By substitution, the volume of the iceberg on day t, in
cubic metres, is given by V (t) = 43 (100 0:15t)3 .
We can use a graphics calculator to determine the value
of t when V = 1 000 000 m3 . From the screen shot
we can see that if we can tow the iceberg to Melbourne
within 250 days then we will meet the requirements.
Note that this answer may be wildly inaccurate! Icebergs are not spheres, and the actual rate
of melting would depend on many factors, such as the shape of the iceberg, the air and sea
temperatures and the speed at which the iceberg is moving. Large chunks of the iceberg may
break off during the tow.

276

POLYNOMIALS (Chapter 8)

However, the mathematical model has given us a start, and some indication as to how we can
refine our solution to obtain a more accurate answer. Such calculations are fun to do, and can
give rise to some enjoyable discussions.

EXAMPLE 8.17
Savings accounts
A few years ago your favourite aunty started depositing $1000 each year, on your birthday,
into an account that pays a fixed annual rate of interest, compounded annually. You are
allowed to withdraw the money on your 21st birthday, just after she has made her deposit on
that day.
a Let x = the fixed interest rate that the account is earning, expressed in decimal
format. Express as a polynomial the amount of money that is in the account three
years after the first deposit, assuming that the latest deposit (i.e., the fourth deposit)
has just been made.
deposits
1
2
3
4
b How much money is in the account just
after the 4th deposit is made, if the interest
0
1
2
3
rate is 9% p.a., compounded annually?
years

c If there is $4300 in the account just after the fourth deposit is made, what interest
rate is the account earning?

We need to use the compound interest formula A = P (1 + i)n .


When deposits are made annually and interest is compounded annually, then A is the amount
that a deposit of P dollars grows to in n years, at an annual interest rate of i, expressed as a
decimal. For example, for an annual interest rate of 6% p.a., i = 0:06.
a

The total amount in the account is given by


T (x) =

the amount the


the amount the
the amount the
$1000 just
first deposit
+ second deposit + third deposit +
deposited
has grown to
has grown to
has grown to

Using the above formula,


T (x) = 1000(1 + x)3 + 1000(1 + x)2 + 1000(1 + x) + 1000
fcommon factorg

T (x) = 1000[(1 + x)3 + (1 + x)2 + (1 + x) + 1]

T (x) = 1000[(1 + 3x + 3x2 + x3 ) + (1 + 2x + x2 ) + (1 + x) + 1]


3

T (x) = 1000[x + 4x + 6x + 4]
b

fcollecting like termsg

Substitute 0:09 for x.


T (0:09) = 1000[(0:09)3 + 4(0:09)2 + 6(0:09) + 4] = 4573:13
There is $4573.13 in the account.

We need to solve T (x) = 4300. We can solve this


equation to suitable accuracy by graphing the functions T (x) and f(x) = 4300 on the same set of
axes and looking for the point of intersection between 0 and .09. The screen shot gives the answer
of x = 0:0484, or an annual interest rate of 4.84%.

fexpandingg

POLYNOMIALS (Chapter 8)

277

EXERCISE 8H
1 W. F. Weeks and W. J. Campbell in the Journal of Glaciology used a more complex cubic
model for towing a flat iceberg from Amery Ice Shelf in Antarctica to Australia. The equation
is V = 7:75 0:35x + 0:0625x2 0:0208x3 , where V is the number of cubic kilometres
of ice remaining and x + 3 is the number of thousand kilometres travelled by the iceberg,
0 6 x 6 4. The volume of ice changed very little in the first 3000 km of the tow, as it was
still in Antarctic conditions.
a What was the initial volume of ice?
b What was the volume of ice remaining after the iceberg had been towed 4000 km (that
is, when x = 1)?
c If the total length of the journey was 7000 km, what percentage of the original volume
of ice still remained?
d How many kilometres was the iceberg towed before it lost 10% of its volume?
2 In a coal mine, there are x men in each shift at the coalface, and the output of coal is
1 2
x (36 x) tonnes of coal.
given by 60

a What is the maximum domain for this function?


b What is the optimum number of men per shift? Use a graphics calculator to assist.

3 A firm sells all units it produces at $4 per unit. The firms total cost, C, for producing x units
is given in dollars by C = 50 + 1:3x + 0:001x2
a Write an expression for the total profit as a function of x.
b How many items should be produced so that the profit is a maximum?
4 The owner of a small business estimates that the profit from producing x items is given by
the function P (x) = 0:003x3 1:5x2 + 200x 1000. This function is based on current
production levels, which cannot exceed 350 items due to limited space and resources. How
many items should be produced to maximise the profit?
5 A scientist working for Crash Test Barriers, Inc. is trying to design a crash test barrier whose
ideal characteristics are shown graphically below. The independent variable is the time after
impact, measured in milliseconds. The dependent variable is the distance that the barrier has
been depressed because of the impact, measured in millimetres.
y
120
100
80
60
40
20

x
200

400

600

800

a The equation for this graph is of the form f (t) = kt(t a)2 . From the graph, what is
the value of a? What does it represent?
b What is the domain?
c If the ideal crash barrier is depressed by 85 mm after 100 milliseconds, find the value of
k, and hence find the equation of the graph given.
d What is the maximum amount of depression, and when does it occur?

278

POLYNOMIALS (Chapter 8)

6 A business has won a contract to make a large number of cylindrical open top
bins. The bins are to be open on top. These bins must have a
1
m3 . To minimise costs (and therefore maximise
volume of 20
profits) you are given the job of designing a bin of the required
volume that has the minimum surface area.

The formula for the volume V of a cylinder of radius r and height


h is V = r2 h while the formula for surface area is
SA = area of curved surface + area of circle,
or SA = 2rh + r2

1
a Use the volume formula and the fact that the volume of the bin is 20
m3 to write an
expression for h in terms of r.
b Hence express the surface area in terms of r only.
c Use a graphics calculator to sketch the graph of SA (y-axis) against r (x-axis).
d Hence find the dimensions of the bin to be manufactured if the surface area is to be a
minimum.

PROBLEM SOLVING AND MODELLING

I
EXERCISE 8I

1 Consider the function f(x) = x2 2x + 3. There is a common factor of x in the first


two terms, so the function could be written in the form f(x) = x(x 2) + 3.

a Show that the function f(x) = 2x3 + 5x2 6x + 3 can be written in the form
f(x) = x[x(2x + 5) 6] + 3.
b If it takes 10 units of time for a computer to perform each multiplication, and 1 unit
of time for each addition and subtraction, compare the time it would take to evaluate
f(x) using each of the above forms of the polynomial. Note that evaluating xn
requires n 1 multiplications.
c Now repeat the analysis for the function f (x) = 5x4 4x3 + 3x2 2x + 1:

2 A polynomial approximation for cos x, 0 6 x 6

is given by

cos x = 1 + a2 x2 + a4 x4 + a6 x6 + a8 x8 + a10 x10

where

a2 = 0:499 999 996


a4 = 0:041 666 641
a6 = 0:001 388 839
a8 = 0:000 024 760
a10 = 0:000 000 260
Over the domain [0,

2 ],

what is the maximum error of this approximation?

3 In the last year (starting 1st January), the volume of water (in megalitres) in a particular
dam after t months could be described by the model V (t) = t3 + 30t2 131t + 250.
The dam authority rules that if the volume falls below 100 ML, irrigation is prohibited.
During which months, if any, was irrigation prohibited in the last twelve months?
Include in your answer a neat sketch of any graphs you may have used.

POLYNOMIALS (Chapter 8)

279

4 A ladder of length 10 metres is leaning up against a wall


such that it is just touching a cube of edge length one
metre that is resting on the ground against the wall.

What height up the wall does the ladder reach?

10 m

1m

5 Suppose that the annual interest rate at your bank is some fixed rate, i, (written as a
decimal). To calculate how much you have in your account after you put in $7000 for 1
year compounded yearly, you use the formula A = 7000 (1 + i):
To simplify some more, let us call (1 + i) = x. So if you put in $7000 the first year,
your total at the end of the year is 7000x. Now, you probably want to keep on saving and
adding to this account. Suppose that at the beginning of the next year, you put in $3000.
Your total is now 3000 + 7000x:
a Assuming that the interest rate stays the same, show that at the end of year 2, the
amount has grown to 3000x + 7000x2 , by the miracle of compound interest.
b Now assume that the interest rate remains fixed, and you made the following deposits: At
the start of the third year, you deposited $4500. At the start of the fourth year, you deposited $4000. At the start of the fifth year, you deposited $9000. If you hope that this account
has $35000 at the end of the fifth year, what is the fixed interest rate that you require?

WORDS YOU SHOULD KNOW


binomial expansion
composite function
cubic function
degree of a polynomial
expanded form
factorial notation
factorised form

local maximum
local minimum
Pascals Triangle
polynomial
quadratic function
quartic function
rational function

reciprocal function
repeated roots
roots of a function
subscript notation
summation notation
zeros of a function

CHAPTER 8 REVISION SET


1 Explain why each of the following is not a polynomial.
a

f(x) =

1
x

p
g(x) = 3x3 2 x + 6

2 Rewrite in standard polynomial form:


3

5
X
1 i
x
i
i=1

h(x) =
b

x2 1
x+2

3
X

i(x + 1)i

i=1

a Given T (x) = x4 + 3x3 + x2 4x, U (x) = x + 5, find


i

2T (x) + 3U (x)

ii

T (x) 4U (x)

iii

T (x):U (x)

iv

T (x)
x

280

POLYNOMIALS (Chapter 8)

b Express P (x) = (2x + 1)(x 2)(x + 2) (x + 4)(x 5) in polynomial form and hence
evaluate P (3).
4 If f(x) = x2 + 1 and g(x) = x3 , find
5
6

a Expand (2x 3)5 .

f (g(x))

g(f(x))

Find the first three terms of the expansion of (3x + 1)4 .

a Without using a graphics calculator, find the zeros of


i y = x2 + x 6
ii y = (x + 1)(x 1)(x 2)2

b Find the points of interest of


i y = x3 2x2 x + 2

ii

iii

y = x4 4x + 3

y = x4 2x3 + x2

7 A piece of wire 60 cm long is bent to form a rectangle. If one of its dimensions is x, express
the area as a function of x. Hence, find the maximum area of the rectangle.
8 A closed box (like a pizza box) is to be formed from a sheet of cardboard 64 cm by 40 cm
by cutting equal squares, of side x cm, from two corners of the short side, and two equal
rectangles of width x cm from the other two corners and folding along the dotted lines as
shown in the diagram.
64

40

lid

Find the volume of the box as a function of x and hence find the maximum volume.
9 The diagram shows two ladders of length 20 feet and
30 feet (in old imperial units) placed between two
buildings. The ladders meet 8 feet above the ground.
If x is the height of one building as shown, show that
x4 16x3 + 500x2 8000x + 32 000 = 0.

30
20

If D is the width of the street, find D.

CHAPTER 8 TEST (KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES)


1 Which of the following are polynomials?
a

y = x2 + 2x1

2 Write in expanded form:

y=5
4
X

x=2

y=

x3 4x2 + 3x
x

ix2 . Simplify if possible.

i=1

3 Expand using the binomial expansion: (2a + 3)4


4 For the function y = 5 3x 6x2 x3 , use a graphics calculator to find the
coordinates of the local maximum in the vicinity of the y-axis.
5 If f(x) = 3x2

and g(x) = x2 + 5, find f g.

6 Sketch by hand on the same set of axes: f (x) = x3

g(x) = 2(x 1)3

CHAPTER

Further
functions and
relations

SUBJECT MATTER
l
l
l
l

distinction between functions and relations


distinction between continuous and discontinuous functions
practical applications of the reciprocal function
and inverse variation
relationship between the graph of f(x) and the
graphs of f(x)+a, f(x+a) and af(x) for both
positive and negative values of the constant a

282

FURTHER FUNCTIONS AND RELATIONS

(Chapter 9)

RECIPROCAL FUNCTIONS

A rich old man left a fortune of $12 million dollars to be divided equally amongst all of his
grandchildren.
Let

x = the number of grandchildren, and


y = the amount that each grandchild receives.

We can start by making a table:


x (number of grandchildren)
y ($millions)

1
12

2
6

6
2

12
1

24
0:5

From the table we can draw a graph. Following the convention, we will join the points with a smooth curve, even
though we cannot have fractions of a grandchild.
To find an algebraic equation, we note that the product of
the x and y coordinates is always 12, so we have
xy = 12
12
y=
x

12
10
8
6
4

number of
grandchildren

2
0

or, solving for y,

$millions

14

10

15

20

which is our required function.

This is an example of a class of functions called reciprocal functions. The name of this graph is
a rectangular hyperbola.
y

1
The simplest reciprocal function is y = , whose
x
graph is given alongside.
This graph has two branches. The graph approaches but
does not intersect the two axes. Such lines are called
asymptotes, which in Greek means never touching.
Geometrically it is as though the curve has tangents whose
point of contact has gone to infinity. The function is not
continuous at x = 0, i.e., you cannot draw its graph
without taking your pencil from the paper at x = 0.

3
2
1
-3 -2 -1
1

-1

-2
-3

The reciprocal function is an example of a discontinuous function. A discontinuous function may


be thought of as a function that cannot be drawn without lifting the pen from the graph paper.
Section B contains further examples of these functions.

GRAPHICS CALCULATOR ACTIVITY

RECIPROCAL FUNCTIONS
The basic form of a reciprocal function is y =

a
x

where a is a non-zero real number.

On your graphics calculator, draw the reciprocal function for values of a from 6 to 6.

What effect does a have on the graph of the function?

FURTHER FUNCTIONS AND RELATIONS

TRANSFORMATIONS OF y =

(Chapter 9)

283

1
x

What you have learned about transformations of functions in Chapter 2 applies to reciprocal
functions.

EXAMPLE 9.1
Use a graphics calculator to sketch the following graphs. Choose a viewing window that
illustrates the features of each graph.
1
2
1
a f (x) =
b g(x) =
c h(x) =
x
x
2x
2
1
can be rewritten as g(x) = 2( ), or g(x) = 2f(x).
x
x
Its graph is just the graph of f(x) stretched vertically by a factor of 2. Turning on the Trace
feature of a graphics calculator and toggling back and forth between the graphs of f(x) and
g(x) illustrates that the y coordinates of g(x) are twice those of f(x).

1
1
1
can be rewritten as h(x) = 2
, or h(x) = 12 f(x).
The function h(x) =
2x
x
The function g(x) =

Its graph is the graph of f (x) stretched vertically by a factor of 12 .


a

EXERCISE 9A
1
, sketch by hand the graphs of each of these functions.
x
You may check your answers with a graphics calculator.
a 3f (x)
b f(x 3)
c f (x) 4
d f(x 1) + 3

1 If f(x) =

2 Use your knowledge of transformation of functions to sketch the following sets of graphs by
hand. Sketch each set of functions on the same set of axes.

Use a graphics calculator to check your solution.


1
x

y=

1
x

y=

3
x

y=

y=

1
x

y=

1
3x

y=

y=

1
x

y=

1
x1

y=

1
3x

1
x+3

284

FURTHER FUNCTIONS AND RELATIONS

(Chapter 9)

y=

1
x

y=

1
+1
x

y=

1
2
x

y=

1
x

y=

1
+2
x1

y=

1
1
x+3

y=

1
x

y=

2
1
x

y=

1
x

y=

1
+3
2x

3 A large plot of land has an area of 1200 hectares. The owner is hoping to subdivide the
land into equal-sized smaller plots. The independent variable is the number of plots, and the
dependent variable is the size of each plot.

a Find a function that gives the plot size as a function of the number of plots, where area
is measured in m2 .
b Sketch the graph of the function.
c If each plot is to be as close to 700 m2 as possible, how many plots will there be?

B CONTINUOUS AND DISCONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS

percentage interest rate

The graph shows the values of the interest rates set by the Reserve Bank of Australia from January
1998 to December 2000. The values jump on certain dates. If you were paying off a loan, the
amount you repay would move up and down at the time when your lending institution changed its
rates in response.
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

10

20

30
40
50
60
number of months after January 1996

This function has a number of jump discontinuities, where the value of the function changes
abruptly. There are many examples of discontinuities in the natural world.

The wake of a ship has a boundary which separates smooth water from the turbulent
water within the wake.

A sonic boom is heard when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. The boom is due
to a discontinuity in air pressure across a shock wave caused by the flight of the aircraft.

Weather maps show fronts; these are almost always due to a discontinuity of some
meteorological phenomenon, rain for example.

FURTHER FUNCTIONS AND RELATIONS

(Chapter 9)

EXAMPLE 9.2
The cost of parking in the short term car park at
Brisbane airport is shown in the table. According
to the table, the cost is charged for the full period
in which the length of the stay falls. For example,
40 minutes counts as a 1 hour stay, 3 hours 10
minutes counts as 4 hours and so on.

First half hour


Second half hour
Next hour

$3:30
$2:20 additional
$2:20 additional

Each succeeding
hour up to 24 hours

$1:10 additional

a Plot the graph of the cost.


b What is the domain and range of the function?

cost, in dollars

12
10
8
6
4
2
0

3
4
5
6
number of hours in car park

b The range is the four different rates, from $1:10 to $6:60. The domain is 0 to 24
hours. The graph plot is truncated at 6 hours.

EXERCISE 9B
1 Domestic electric power rates are charged according
to the table. Plot a graph of the rates versus the
power consumed.

100 units (kwh)


next 300 (kwh)
remaining units

17:116
11:627
10:373

2 For long term parking at an airport the following


charges apply. Determine the rate for each day and
plot the rates versus the number of days parked.

1 day
$19:70

2 days
$34:70

3 days
$49:70

4 days
$61:70

5 days
$73:70

6 days
$85:70

7 days
$97:70

8 days 9 days 10 days


$106:70 $115:70 $124:70

285

286

FURTHER FUNCTIONS AND RELATIONS

(Chapter 9)

3 The investment rates of banks varies so that higher sums attract higher interest
known bank offers the interest rates shown.
$5000 $19 999
a Plot the interest rate against the sum invested.
$20 000 $49 999
b Plot the amount of interest gained over a period
$50 000 $69 999
of 12 months against the sum invested.
$70 000 $100 000

rates. A well
1:85% p.a.
3:85% p.a.
4:15% p.a.
5:2% p.a.

4 Give three other real world examples of functions that contain jump discontinuities.

INVERSE VARIATION

In Chapter 1 you studied direct variation, in which one variable is proportional to another.
If y varies directly as x, then y = kx where k is the constant of proportionality.
The graph of this function is a straight line passing through
the origin.

y
y = kx

If y varies inversely as x, then y =

c
.
x

The graph of inverse variation is a rectangular hyperbola


centered at the origin.
We can also write this as xy = c which states that the
product of the two variables equals the constant, c.
If two variables vary directly, doubling the value of the
independent variable doubles the value of the dependent
variable. With inverse variation, if the value of the independent variable doubles, the value of the dependent
variable halves.

half

xy = c

EXAMPLE 9.3
Two men can paint a house in 15 days. How long does it take three men to paint the house,
if they work at the same rate?
If the number of painters is doubled, the time to complete the job is halved, so this is an
example of inverse variation.
Let x = number of men
y = days each man works
Since xy = c
we have 2 15 = 30
so c = 30
It takes 30 man days to paint the house.

FURTHER FUNCTIONS AND RELATIONS

(Chapter 9)

287

If there are 3 men, we have 3y = 30


so y = 10
It will take 10 days for 3 men to complete the task.

EXERCISE 9C
1 A roller with a diameter of 20 cm is running at 1520
revolutions per minute (rpm), and drives a conveyor
belt. There is another roller, with a different diameter,
at the other end of the conveyor belt.
a The speed of the second roller (measured in rpm)
is inversely proportional to its diameter. Explain
why this must be true.
b Find the speed, in rpm, of the second roller if its
diameter is 30 cm.
2 The frequency of a radio wave is inversely proportional to the wave length. If a wave of
300 metres has a frequency of 1000 kilocycles per second, find the length of a wave with a
frequency of 750 kilocycles per second.
3 Two meshed gears have 36 and 56 teeth respectively. If
the speeds are inversely proportional to the number of
teeth, at what speed should the second gear be driven
in order to make the first gear run at 1296 rpm?
4 According to the universal gas law, known as Boyles
Law, the pressure of a gas, under constant conditions,
varies inversely with its volume. Suppose that a gas
with a volume of 400 cm3 results in a pressure of
1:2 kg/cm2 . If the same gas is put into a container
with a volume of 250 cm3 , under the same constant
conditions, what will be the pressure?
5 According to Newtons Second Law of Motion, given a constant force, the acceleration of an
object varies inversely with its mass. If such a force causes a 20 kg object to accelerate at 4
m/s2 , what would be the acceleration of a 15 kg mass?
6 For a rectangle with a given area, the length of the rectangle varies inversely with the width.
a Explain why this is true.
b A rectangle with a length of 40 cm has a width of 25 cm. If the area is to remain constant,
what is the length if the width is 4 cm?
7 Farmer Brown has 30 horses, and enough hay to
feed them for 60 days. But on the 20th day, he
buys another 20 horses. Assuming that each horse
eats the same amount of hay, how many more days
will the hay last?

288

FURTHER FUNCTIONS AND RELATIONS

(Chapter 9)

A RECIPROCAL MODEL THE UNIVERSAL GAS LAW


Robert Boyle announced his discovery of the universal gas law, now known as Boyles Law, (see
question 4 above) in an article entitled A Defence of
the Doctrine Touching the Spring And Weight of the
Air.., published in 1662.
His original data is given in the table. Column A
gives the height of a cylinder of air. This is equivalent to the volume, as the height of a cylinder is directly proportional to its volume. The values in this
column are the number of equally spaced tick marks
measured from the top of the cylinder. Column B
gives the pressure, measured in inches of mercury.
Column C gives the pressure predicted by this theory.
Your task is to confirm Boyles Law, using his original data.
A

B (in.)

C (in.)

48

2
29 16

2
29 16

23

5
61 16

60 18
23

46

6
30 16
31 12
16
33 17

22

40

35

35

19

38

5
37 16

36 15
16

18

36

39 10
16

38 78

17

34

3
41 16

2
41 17

16

24"

32

1
44 16

43 11
16

15

48"

30

1
47 16

46 35

14

28

5
50 16

50

13

26

5
54 16
58 13
16

53 10
13
58 28

12

1
64 16
1
67 16
70 11
16
2
74 16
77 14
16
82 12
16
87 14
16
1
93 16
7
100 16
107 13
16
9
117 16

6
63 11

42

9
30 16
8
31 16
5
33 16

Mercury column
increased by
pouring mercury
in at T

44

Shorter leg
with scale

Initial
level of
mercury

29\\Qq_Qy_ "

24

21
20

B (in.)

C (in.)

66 47
70
73 11
19
77 23
4
82 17

87 38
93 15
99 67
7
107 13

116 48

a Choose three or four rows of this table, at random, and multiply the value in column A
by the value in column B. What did you expect to find? What did you find?
b Enter the data from column A into List 1 and column B into List 2 of your graphics
calculator. Plot List 2 (y) vs List 1 (x). Does the data have the shape of a recipriocal
function?
c We want to determine the least squares regression line for this data. Most graphics
calculators do not have reciprocal regression as an in-built menu item, so we must do the
calculations ourselves.
1
First we have to straighten the data, by plotting Height vs
.
Pressure
i Make List 3 = 1 List 2:
ii Draw a scatterplot of List 3 (y) vs List 1 (x).
iii If Boyles Law is correct, the data should be linear. Does the data appear to be
linear?

FURTHER FUNCTIONS AND RELATIONS

(Chapter 9)

289

d As we want the graph of the linear regression equation to pass through the origin, the
equation has the form y = ax, where the data for y is in List 3, the data for x is in
List 1, and
P
xy
a = P 2 (this formula is discussed in Section 5.6)
x
i Find the value of a. Carry out the usual analysis, i.e., find the value of r2 ,
calculate the residuals, and do a residual plot.
ii Use this analysis to decide if the transformed data can be modelled by a linear
function.
e Back transform the linear regression equation to find the corresponding reciprocal function.
f Draw the reciprocal function on a scatterplot containing the original data. It should fit
beautifully!
g Column C of the data contains the predicted values according to Boyles hypothesis.
Compare these to the values predicted by your least squares regression line.

The web page http://dbhs.wvusd.k12.ca.us/GasLaw/Gas-Boyle-Data.html contains some of Robert


Boyles original notes about how he conducted the experiment. It is worth a visit!

NON-LINEAR MODELS
The above example illustrates a sound approach to fitting a non-linear function to a set of paired
data.

Enter the data into lists on a graphics calculator (or a spreadsheet or a statistics program).

Look at the data, by drawing the scatterplot. What did you expect to find? Are there any
unexpected patterns, or anomalies? Does the data appear to have errors?

Based on previous knowledge, choose a function that you believe to be an appropriate


model for this data.

Apply the algebraic transformation that straightens the data.

Draw a scatterplot of the transformed data. Does it look linear? Are there any anomalies?

If the data does not look linear, you might try another function. If it does, find its least
squares regression equation.

Draw a residual plot of the linearised data. Are there any strong underlying patterns? If
so, can they be explained?

Note the value of r2 . This gives you an indication of how useful the model will be for
prediction.

Back transform the linear model to obtain a non-linear model of the original data.

Plot the non-linear model on the scatterplot of the original data. How well does it fit?

If you are not sure which type of function to choose, you might fit a few different functions, and
choose one based firstly on the residual plot and secondly on the value of r2 .

290

FURTHER FUNCTIONS AND RELATIONS

(Chapter 9)

Most graphics calculators have a variety of non-linear regression models built into their software.
A student might ask, Why not just use those? It is much easier. Three arguments against this
are:

Pushing a regression button on a calculator does little to assist in understanding the underlying mathematics.

A student can learn much about the appropriateness of the chosen function by viewing the
scatterplot of the straightened data.

A function that is a possible model for the paired data may not be available on the graphics calculator. Presenting a subset of the possible functions implies that these are the only
functions that one should try.

CIRCLES AS RELATIONS

The Pythagoreans of ancient Greece believed that all


numbers could be expressed as the ratio of two integers,
i.e. that all numbers were rational numbers. They were
inconsolable when it was proved that the diagonal of a unit
square (a square with p
a side length of one unit), which
we now symbolise as 2, was not rational.

(x, y)
r

Partly because the Greeks lacked algebraic notation, they


used plane geometry (Euclidean geometry) to advance
their understanding of mathematics.
Rene Descartes was able to marry algebra and geometry with his discovery of coordinate geometry,
and many of the geometric figures such as the line, parabola and hyperbola were able to be studied
from an algebraic viewpoint.
You have already learned about the equations of lines and parabolas. Is there an equation for a
circle?
Let us consider a simple case, a circle of radius r units, centred at the origin.
From the diagram, and using the fact that for any right-angled triangle, a2 + b2 = c2 , it is
obvious that:
The equation of a circle of radius r, centred at the origin, is x2 + y 2 = r2 :
To find the equation of a circle with radius r at centre (h, k), we translate the circle h units
horizontally and k units vertically. In the equation, we replace x with (x h) and y with (y k).
Hence:
The equation of a circle with centre (h, k)
and radius r is (x h)2 + (y k)2 = r2 .

(h, k)
r
x

FURTHER FUNCTIONS AND RELATIONS

291

(Chapter 9)

EXAMPLE 9.4
Sketch the graph of each equation:
a x2 + y2 = 9
c

(x 3)2 + (y + 2)2 = 4
a

(x + 2)2 + y 2 = 1

3x2 + 3y2 = 48

centre (0, 0), radius 3

centre (2, 0), radius 1

4 y

4 y

x
-4 -2

-4 -2

-2

-2

-4

-4

centre (3, 2), radius 2

3x2 + 3y2 = 48
) x2 + y2 = 16
So, centre (0, 0), radius 4

4 y

4 y
2

2
-2

6x

x
-4

-2

-2

-2

-4

-4

EXAMPLE 9.5
State the equation of each graph:
a
b
4 y
x
-2

2
-4

-2
-4

centre (0, 0), radius 4


) x2 + y 2 = 42
i.e., x2 + y 2 = 16

centre (2, 2), radius 3


) (x + 2)2 + (y + 2)2 = 32
i.e., (x + 2)2 + (y + 2)2 = 9

x
-4

-2

x
-4

-2

-2

-2

-4

-4

centre (0, 1), radius 4


) x2 + (y + 1)2 = 42
i.e., x2 + (y + 1)2 = 16

292

FURTHER FUNCTIONS AND RELATIONS

(Chapter 9)

EXERCISE 9D.1
1 Sketch the graph of each of these circular equations.
a x2 + y 2 = 16
b (x 1)2 + (y 5)2 = 9
c x2 + (y + 3)2 = 1
d (x 3)2 + y 2 = 25
e (x + 1)2 + (y 1)2 = 20
f 3x2 + 3(y + 3)2 = 12
2
2
g y = 100 x
h (y + 2)2 = 25 x2
i

x2 + y 2 = 8

(x 13 )2 + (y + 13 )2 =

1
9

2 Write the equations of the following circles, and sketch their graphs.
a centre (0, 0) and radius 1
b centre (3, 0) and radius 4
c centre (0, 2) and radius 3
d centre (5, 6) and radius 2
e centre (3, 4) and radius 5
f centre (1, 7) and touching the x-axis
g centre (1, 7) and touching the y-axis
h centre (3, 4) and passing through (0, 0)
p
i centre (1, 1) and radius 2
j centre (a, b) and radius c
3 Give the equation of each graph below.
a
b
4 y
x
-2

2
-2
-4

4 y

2
-4

-4

-2

-2
-4
-6

x
-4

-2

-2
-4

4 Find the equation of a circle with diameter AB, where A has coordinates (1, 2) and B has
coordinates (5, 6).
5 Given the equation x2 + y2 = 25, find the y-coordinates if
a x=3
b x = 4
c x=0
d x=5

6 Given the equation (x 2)2 + (y + 3)2 = 100, find the y-coordinates if


a x=8
b x = 6
c x=2
d x=0
e

x=2

x= 2+

p
19

7 Consider the statement, Given the equation x2 + y 2 = 25, there is no y-coordinate corresponding to an x-coordinate of 6.
a By substitution and solving the resulting equation, show algebraically why this is so.
b Show that this is true by sketching the graph.
8

a Find the equation of a circle with its centre in quadrant II that is tangent to both the x
and y axes.
b Find the general equation of all circles with centre in quadrant I that are tangent to both
the x and y axes.
p
a Draw y = 36 x2 on your graphics calculator.
b Adjust your window so the graph looks like a semi-circle. (Note that due to the low
screen resolution, sometimes the entire semi-circle is not drawn. Often making a small
change to Xmax or Xmin fixes this.)

FURTHER FUNCTIONS AND RELATIONS (Chapter 9)

293

c What other function must you draw, to complete the other half of the circle?
d Draw the second function on the same screen.

DRAWING A CIRCLE WITH A GRAPHICS CALCULATOR


The circle is a relation that is not a function.
For the equation x2 + y2 = 25, verify by substitution that if x = 4, then y = 3 or y = 3.

A graphics calculator only graphs functions, so how can we sketch the graph of a circle using a
graphics calculator?
Note that the top half of a circle is a function, as is the bottom half. To sketch a circle we need to
find the equations for each of these semicircles.

EXAMPLE 9.6
Sketch the graph of x2 + y2 = 2 on a graphics calculator.
x2 + y 2 = 25
) y 2 = 25 x2
p
) y = 25 x2
p
The top half of the circle is the function y = 25 x2
while the bottom half of the circle is the function
p
y = 25 x2 .
To sketch these two functions on your graphics calculator, the vertical and horizontal scales
must be the same for the graph to look circular.
Because of the algorithm used by graphics calculators to draw graphs, the parts of the circle
that have a very steep gradient (the left and right edges) may not be drawn.
If the entire circle is not drawn, sometimes changing the window slightly will improve the
graph.

THE GENERAL EQUATION OF A CIRCLE


Recall that there are two common forms for the equation of a straight line:
y = mx + c

the gradient-intercept form of a straight line

ax + by + c = 0

the general equation of a straight line

Similarly there are two forms for the equation of a circle:


(x h)2 + (y k)2 = r2
x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2f y + c = 0

the centre-radius form of a circle


the general equation of a circle

We need to be able to convert from one form to another.

294

FURTHER FUNCTIONS AND RELATIONS (Chapter 9)

EXAMPLE 9.7
a Convert (x + 3)2 + (y 2)2 = 16 to the general equation of a circle.

b Convert x2 + y2 2x + 6y + 6 = 0 to the centre-radius form of a circle.


a

(x + 3)2 + (y 2)2 = 16
x2 + 6x + 9 + y 2 4y + 4 16 = 0
) x2 + y2 + 6x 4y 3 = 0

b Re-arrange and complete the square.

x2 + y 2 2x + 6y + 6 = 0
) (x 2x + ) + (y2 + 6y + ) + 6 = 0
(x2 2x + 1) + (y 2 + 6y + 9) + 6 1 9 = 0
) (x 1)2 + (y + 3)2 = 4
2

fexpandg
fcollect like termsg

fre-arrange the termsg


fcomplete the square, twiceg
fre-write in factorised formg

EXERCISE 9D.2
1 Write each of these equations of a circle in the general form.
a (x + 3)2 + y 2 = 16
b (x 1)2 + (y 5)2 = 9
2
2
c x + (y + 3) = 3
d 2(x 3)2 + 2y 2 = 50
e (x + 1)2 + (y 1)2 = 10
f 3x2 + 3(y + 3)2 = 12
2 Write each of these equations in the general form.
a (x 2)2 + y 2 = 4
b x2 + (y 5)2 = 9
d (x + 3)2 + (y + 3)2 = 6
e x2 + (y 5)2 = 1

c
f

(x + 2)2 + (y + 3)2 = 1
y2 = 12 (x 2)2

3 Write each of these equations of a circle in the centre-radius form.


a x2 + y 2 4x + 2y 11 = 0
b x2 + y 2 + 6x 16y 27 = 0
c x2 + y 2 4y + 3 = 0
d x2 + y 2 + 8x 2 = 0
e x2 + y 2 3x + 2y = 0
f x2 + y 2 x y 1 = 0
4 Write each of these equations of a circle in the centre-radius form.
a x2 + y 2 6x + 10y + 33 = 0
b x2 + y 2 4y 5 = 0
c x2 + y 2 12x + 29 = 0
d x2 + y 2 x + 23 y 23
36 = 0

AN AMAZING EQUATION
The ancient Greeks spent a lot of time studying a collection of
geometric objects called conic sections - the parabola, the circle,
the ellipse and the hyperbola. You have met all of these except
the ellipse. An ellipse (shown alongside) can be thought of as a
stretched circle.
After Rene Descartes invented analytical geometry mathematicians were able to give a single
equation to give rise to all of these graphs:
ax2 + by 2 + 2hxy + 2gx + 2f y + c = 0, a > 0

FURTHER FUNCTIONS AND RELATIONS (Chapter 9)

2x2 + 6x + 3y 2 = 0
2x2 + 2y 2 3x + 4y 5 = 0
2x2 + 5y 2 3x + 4y 5 = 0
2x2 3y 2 3x + 4y 5 = 0
7x + 2y 4 = 0

is
is
is
is
is

295

a parabola
a circle
an ellipse
an hyperbola
a straight line

Examples of two special cases are


is a pair of intersecting lines through the origin
2x2 3y 2 = 0
x2 + y2 + 4 = 0 has no real solution and hence has no graph.

EXAMPLE 9.8
On a graphics calculator, sketch the graph of ax2 + by2 + gx + f y + c = 0, where
a = 4, b = 9, g = 8, f = 0, c = 32:
The equation is 4x2 + 9y 2 8x 32 = 0.

In order to graph it, we need to solve this equation for y.


4x2 + 9y 2 8x 32 = 0
)

)
)

9y 2 = 32 + 8x 4x2

32 + 8x 4x2
9
r
32 + 8x 4x2
y=
9
y2 =

Graphing these two equations in the window (3, 5, 1; 3, 3, 1) shows that the relation
is an ellipse centred at (0, 1).

EXAMPLE 9.9
Sketch the graph of x2 + y2 2x + 4y 4 = 0 on a graphics calculator.
Solve for y:
)

x2 + y2 2x + 4y 4 = 0

(x2 2x + 1) + (y 2 + 4y + 4) = 4 + 1 + 4
) (x 1)2 + (y + 2)2 = 9
)

(y + 2)2 = 9 (x 1)2
p
p
)
(y + 2)2 = 9 (x 1)2
p
) (y + 2) = 9 (x 1)2
p
) y = 9 (x 1)2 2

Sketch these two equations in the window (4, 5, 1; 5, 1, 1).

296

FURTHER FUNCTIONS AND RELATIONS (Chapter 9)

EXERCISE 9D.3
1 Sketch the graph of these circles on a graphics calculator.
a
c
e

x2 + y 2 2x 15 = 0

x2 + y 2 6x 5y + 11 14 = 0

2x2 + 2y2 12x + 8y + 24 = 0

x2 + y 2 4x + 2y 11 = 0

x2 + y 2 16x 6y + 48 = 0
x2 + y 2 + 32 x + y

3
16

=0

FINDING POINTS OF INTERSECTION OF


LINES, PARABOLAS AND CIRCLES
Concurrent lines are three or more lines that intersect in a single point.

To show algebraically that three lines are concurrent, we find the point of intersection of any two
of them, and then show that the coordinates of the point of intersection satisfy the third line.

EXAMPLE 9.10
Prove algebraically that the lines with equations y = 2x + 1, y = 4 x and
3x 2y + 3 = 0 are concurrent.
We will use the substitution method.
2x + 1 = 4 x
) 3x = 3
) x=1
) y=3

fsetting the first two equations equal to each otherg


fsolving for xg
fsubstitute to solve for yg

The coordinates of the point of intersection are (1, 3). Substitute these values into the third
equation.
LHS = 3 1 2 3 + 3
=0
= RHS
The coordinates of the point satisfy the equation, therefore the lines are concurrent.

A line and a circle intersect in at most two points. When we solve for the points of intersection, we
would expect to get a quadratic equation. Similarly a line and a parabola intersect in at most two
points.

EXAMPLE 9.11
a Find the coordinates of the points of intersection of the line x + y = 4 and the
circle x2 + y 2 = 8.
b Find the coordinates of the points of intersection of the line y = 3x and the
parabola y = 4 x2 .
c Find the coordinates of the points of intersection of the circle with equation
(x 1)2 + (y 2)2 = 9 and the parabola with equation y = 8 + 2x x2 .

FURTHER FUNCTIONS AND RELATIONS (Chapter 9)

y =4x
) x2 + (4 x)2 = 8
) x2 + 16 8x + x2 = 8
) 2x2 8x + 8 = 0
) x2 4x + 4 = 0
) (x 2)(x 2) = 0
) x=2
) y=2

fre-write, making y the subjectg


fsubstitute into the equation of the circleg
fexpandg
fsimplifyg
fdivide both sides by 2g
ffactoriseg
fsolveg
fsubstitute and solveg

As there is a single solution, the line must be a


tangent to the circle and touch it at the point (2, 2).

Graphing the line and circle on the same set of


axes provides a worthwhile check.

x
-2

-2

3x = 4 x2
) x2 + 3x 4 = 0
) (x + 4)(x 1) = 0
) x = 4 or 1
when x = 4, y = 12

and when x = 1, y = 3

fequate the expressions for yg


fgather terms on one side of the equationg
ffactoriseg
fsolveg
fsubstitute and solveg
y

The coordinates are (4, 12) and (1, 3).


The graphs verify our result.

2
-4 -2

-2
-4
-6
-8
-10
-12

c A quick sketch of a parabola and a circle shows


that it is possible to have up to four points of
intersection.

8
6
4

Substituting for y in the equation


(x 1)2 + (y 2)2 = 9

gives (x 1)2 + [(8 + 2x x2 ) 2]2 = 9.

2
-4 -2

2
-2

297

298

FURTHER FUNCTIONS AND RELATIONS (Chapter 9)

The equation is a fourth degree polynomial. As we have no general method of


solving such a polynomial analytically, we will take a graphing approach instead.
We start by making y the subject of (x 1)2 + (y 2)2 = 9:
(y 2)2 = 9 (x 1)2
p
) y 2 = 9 (x 1)2
p
) y = 9 (x 1)2 + 2

We now plot the following three functions


on the same set of axes:

)
)

ftransposing (x 1)2 to the RHSg


p
fIf X 2 = A, then X = Ag
ftransposingg

y = 8 + 2x x2
p
y = 9 (x 1)2 + 2
p
y = 9 (x 1)2 + 2

Finally we use the graphics calculators


facility for finding points of intersection.
These functions intersect at (1:236, 4),
(3:236, 4), (3:828, 1) and (1:828, 1).

EXERCISE 9E
1

a Show that the lines 2x 5y + 1 = 0, x + y + 4 = 0 and x + 3y + 6 = 0 are


concurrent.
b Show that the lines 4x 3y 1 = 0, 6x + 8y + 1 = 0 and 2x + 11y + 2 = 0 are
concurrent.

a Find the points at which the line 3x + y 9 = 0 intersects the parabola


y = x2 5x + 6.

b Find the points at which the line x 2y 1 = 0 intersects the parabola


y = x2 2x + 1.

c Find the points where the line y = 12 x 1 meets the circle x2 + y 2 = 4.

d Prove that the line x + 5y + 9 = 0 touches the circle x2 + y 2 4x 6y 13 = 0.


e Prove that the line x + 2y = 10 touches the circle x2 + y 2 2x 4y = 0.

f Show that the circles x2 + y2 = 13 and x2 + y2 12x 8y + 39 = 0 touch each


other.

g Show that the circles x2 + y 2 + 10x + 5 = 0 and x2 + y2 + 5y + 5 = 0 touch each


other.
3

a Solve algebraically this system of equations:


3x 2y = 3 and (x 2)2 + (y + 3)2 = 10.

b Find the points of intersection of the line x + y = 11 and the hyperbola xy = 24.
c Find the points of intersection of the line x 2y = 8 and the hyperbola xy = 24.

d Solve algebraically this system of equations: 2x + y + 5 = 0 and 3xy + 2x2 = 0:

FURTHER FUNCTIONS AND RELATIONS (Chapter 9)

299

4 Use a graphics calculator or graphing software to find the points of intersection of the following
functions:
a the circle (x 1)2 + (y 4)2 = 12 and the parabola y = 2x2 + x 4

b the circle (x + 2)2 + (y 3)2 = 16 and the parabola y = x2 + 3x 5

MORE ON RELATIONS AND MAPPING

Recall from Chapter 1 that a relation is a set of ordered pairs. You might be surprised to know
that relations are fundamental in the study and design of computerised databases. In fact the name
given to a database with multiple inter-connected tables is a relational database.
Prior to studying the equations of circles, all relations we studied were also functions. Each value
of x in the domain is paired with a single value of y.
In this chapter we studied a relation that is not a function, i.e., the circle.
Now we will study relations in general. We will consider four cases. In each case we define the
relation, explain how each type of relation can be determined from its graph, and give an example.
a one-to-one mapping

a many-to-one mapping

Each value in the domain maps to a single


value in the range, and each value in the range
is mapped from a single value in the domain.

Each value in the domain maps to a single


value in the range At least one value in the
range is mapped from two or more values in
the domain.

Line test: Any horizontal or vertical line will


intersect the graph in at most one point.

Line test: Any vertical line will intersect the


graph at at most one point. At least one horizontal line will intersect the graph in two or
more points.

Example: A linear function.

Example: A cubic equation with three roots.


y

4
4

x
-4

-2

2
-2

4
-4

-2

2
-2

-4
-4

Both of these relations are also functions, since they pass the vertical line test.

300

FURTHER FUNCTIONS AND RELATIONS

(Chapter 9)

a many-to-many mapping

a one-to-many mapping

At least one value in the domain maps to two


or more values in the range, and at least one
value in the range is mapped from two or
more values in the domain.

At least one value in the domain maps to two


or more values in the range, and each value
in the range is mapped from a single value in
the domain.

Line test: At least one horizontal line will


intersect the graph in two or more points. At
least one vertical line will intersect the graph
in two or more points.

Line test: At least one horizontal line will


intersect the graph in at most one point. At
least one vertical line will intersect the graph
in two or more points.

Example: A circle.

Example: The graph of x = y 2 .


y

x
-4

-2

-2

-2

-4

-4

Note: Neither of these are functions, as they fail the vertical line test.
The mathematics of relations extends to situations that are not normally thought of as mathematics.

EXAMPLE 9.12
Consider a family consisting of a married couple, Ed and Martha, with two boys, Rocket and
Charles, and one girl, Moonbeam. Classify each of these relations as one-to-one, one-to-many,
many-to-one, many-to-many. Justify your answer in each case.
a
c

the relation x is the father of y


the relation x is married to y

b
d

the relation x is the brother of y


the relation x has the sister y

We can illustrate each of these relations with a mapping.


a
b
Ed

Rocket

Rocket
Charles
Moonbeam

Charles

d
Ed

Martha

Rocket
Charles

Moonbeam
Rocket
Charles

Moonbeam

a Ed is the father of three children, so the relation is one-to-many.


b Both Rocket and Charles are the brother of two others, so the relation is many-to-many.
c Ed is the only element in the domain, and only married to Martha, so the relation is
one-to-one.
d Rocket and Charles each have a single sister, so the relation is many-to-one.

FURTHER FUNCTIONS AND RELATIONS

(Chapter 9)

301

EXERCISE 9F
1 Classify each of these relations as one-to-one, many-to-one, one-to-many or many-to-many.
a
b
c

2 Consider a family consisting of Nanna, Grandpa, their daughter Claire, who is a single mum,
and her two daughters Alicia and Portia. Classify each of these relations as one-to-one, manyto-one, one-to-many or many-to-many. Justify your answers.
a x is the daughter of y
b x is married to y
c x has the child y
d x has the grandfather y
e x has the granddaughter y
f x has the mother y

PROBLEM SOLVING AND MODELLING

G
EXERCISE 9G

1 The cost C, measured in thousands of dollars, of removing a given percentage P , of


10 000P
.
pollutants from an abandoned tailings pond, is given by C =
100 P

a Sketch this function using a graphics calculator, for 0 6 P < 100.


b What is the cost of removing
i 10%
ii 50%
iii 90%
iv 99%
v 99:5%
of the pollutants?
c What percentage of the pollutants can be removed if the budget is $2 000 000?

2 Point P lies on the circle as shown. Find t.

P (3, t)

2
1
-1
-1

x
1

-2

a
, a > 0 and the function y = x.
x
p p
Show that for all a, the graphs of these functions meet at ( a, a).

3 Consider the class of functions y =

302

FURTHER FUNCTIONS AND RELATIONS (Chapter 9)

4 Find the equation of the circle that passes through the origin and the points (0, 4) and (4, 0).

WORDS YOU SHOULD KNOW


asymptotes
inverse variation
one-to-many mapping
rectangular hyperbola

circle
many-to-many mapping
one-to-one mapping

ellipse
many-to-one mapping
reciprocal function

CHAPTER 9 REVISION SET


1 Use your knowledge of transformations to sketch the functions y =

2
y=
x+1

on the same set of axes.

1
x

and

Use a graphics calculator to check your solution.

2 The cost of Overnight Express bags from Australia


Post is based on the weight of the contents as follows:

0 kg to 1 kg
over 1 kg to 3 kg
over 3 kg to 6 kg

$4:50
$9:00
$12:00

Draw a graph showing the cost of posting articles


weighing between 0 kilograms and 6 kilograms.
3 Two meshed gears, A and B, have 32 and 20 teeth respectively. B is also meshed with C,
which has 16 teeth. At what speed should A be driven in order to make C run at 6000 rpm?
4 Given that x2 + y2 6x + 8y +24 = 0 is the equation of a circle, find its centre and radius.
5 Find the equations of the circles whose graphs are given below.
a

2
4
-2

-2

2
-2

FURTHER FUNCTIONS AND RELATIONS (Chapter 9)

303

6 Find the points at which the line with equation y = 6 8x intersects the parabola with
equation y = 2x2 + x 5.
7 Classify each of these relations as one-to-one, many-to-one, one-to-many, or many-to-many.
a
b
c
y

-1
0
1
2
3

-3
-4
-5

8 Use a graphics calculator to find the points of intersection of the two circles in question 5.
9 Prove that the straight lines 3x y = 9, x 2y = 8 and 2x 3y = 13 are concurrent.
10 Find the distance between the centres of the circles
x2 + y 2 2x + 4y = 0 and 2x2 + 2y 2 + 8x 4y 1 = 0
11 Find the value or values of k for which the three lines x y 1 = 0, 2x y + k = 0 and
kx 2y + 2 = 0 are concurrent.
12 Find the coordinates of the points where the circle x2 + y 2 4x 2y 5 = 0 cuts the
x-axis.
13 Find the points of intersection of the two circles x2 +y 2 = 1 and x2 +y 2 4x2y+1 = 0:

CHAPTER 9 TEST (KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES)


1
, sketch by hand the graphs of each of these functions.
x
You may check your answers with a graphics calculator.
a 2f (x)
b f (x + 1) 2

1 If f(x) =

2 Two meshed gears have 24 and 40 teeth respectively. If the speeds (measured in
revolutions per minute) are inversely proportional to the number of teeth, at what
speed should the first gear be driven in order to make the second gear run at 360 rpm?
3 Write this equation of a circle in general form: (x + 4)2 + (y 2)2 = 16.
4 Write in centre-radius form x2 + y2 6x 4y 24 = 0:
5 Sketch the graph of x2 + y 2 10x = 0 on a graphics calculator.
6 Find the points of intersection of the line x + y = 2 and the curve
x2 + xy y 2 = 31.
7 Find the equation to a circle concentric with x2 + y 2 + 8x 2y 15 = 0 and with radius
3 units.

304

FURTHER FUNCTIONS AND RELATIONS (Chapter 9)

EXTENDED MODELLING ACTIVITY

THE COST OF RUNNING A CAR

The running cost of a car depends upon many factors such as the distance driven and whether
the car is driven in town or on the highway. In this modelling activity, we will confine our
investigation to fuel efficiency, which will be measured in kilometres per litre.
Assume a car is driven 15 000 kilometres per year and that petrol costs $1:00 per litre.
1

a What is the annual fuel cost if your fuel consumption is 10 km per litre?
b What is the annual fuel cost if your fuel consumption is 12 km per litre?
c What is your annual savings with this improved fuel consumption?

2 What is your annual savings if you improve your fuel consumption from 12 km per litre
to 14 km per litre?
3 Develop a general algebraic model for a person who travels 15 000 km per year, and
improves the fuel consumption by 2 kilometres per litre. Let x represent the initial fuel
consumption, and y represent the annual savings on fuel costs, in thousands of dollars.
Choose a sensible domain for x.
4 Sketch the graph of your model on a graphics calculator. Comment on the shape of the
graph.
5 What is the predicted savings if you improve your fuel consumption from 6 km per litre
to 8 km per litre?
6 This model gives rise to a rational function. The graphs of rational functions are often very
interesting. For the above function, extend the view window of your calculator to (5, 5,
1; 60, 40, 10). Discuss what you see.
7 In this modelling activity, we investigated the savings if you were able to improve your fuel
consumption by 2 kilometres per litre. Extend your model to the general case, in which
you are able to improve your fuel consumption by n kilometres per litre.

CHAPTER

10

Rate

SUBJECT MATTER
l
l
l
l

concept of rates of change


calculation of average rates of change in both
practical and purely mathematical situations
interpretation of average rates of change as the
gradient of the secant
intuitive understanding of a limit

306

RATE

(Chapter 10)

HISTORICAL NOTE

Zeno was a philosopher who was born about 490 BC. He is famous for four paradoxes, in which he argued that motion is not possible. Here is one of them.
Assume that Archilles and the Tortoise are racing over 100 metres, and the Tortoise is given a 50
metre start. Zeno argued that no matter how fast Archilles runs, he can
never overtake the Tortoise.
He argued as follows: call the point where the Tortoise starts p0.
After a period of time, Archilles reaches the point p0. But by
this time the Tortoise has already

moved forward, say to point p1 . By the time Archilles reaches p1 , the Tortoise has moved a bit
further, to point p2 . By the time Archilles reaches p2 , the Tortoise is at p3 . And so on, and so on.
Each time Archilles reaches a point previously occupied by the Tortoise, the Tortoise has already moved ahead. Hence, Archilles can never catch the Tortoise.
Now we all know that Archilles can catch the Tortoise, so there must be a flaw in Zenos reasoning. Can you figure out what it is?

RATES

A typist is often judged on both typing speed, measured in words per minute, and accuracy, measured
in errors per document. Both batsmen and bowlers in cricket have averages measured in runs per
wicket. Many people measure their pay in dollars per hour. All of these are examples of rates.
A rate is simply a comparison of two quantities of different kinds.
The concept of a rate is fundamental to one of the greatest mathematical discoveries in history,
known as the differential calculus.
Over the next two chapters you will learn why rates are important to mathematics.

EXAMPLE 10.1
Stephen typed 240 words in 3 minutes, with 2 errors. Samantha typed 420 words in
6 minutes, with 3 errors.
a

Who is the faster typist?

Stephens typing speed


240 words
3 minutes
= 80 words/min
=

) Stephen is the faster typist.

Who is more accurate?


Samanthas typing speed
420 words
6 minutes
= 70 words/min
=

RATE

while

Stephens error rate was

(Chapter 10)

Samanthas error rate was


3 errors
420 words
= 1 error every 140 words

2 errors
240 words
= 1 error per 120 words

) Samantha is the more accurate typist.

EXAMPLE 10.2
a Using the information from Example 10.1 convert Stephens and Samanthas error
rates to errors/100 words.
b For large areas, the coverage rate of a weed killer is given in kg/ha, while for
suburban blocks it is given in g/m2 . Convert 120 kg/ha to g/m2 .
c The common speed limit on the highway is 100 km/h. Convert this speed to m/s.

Stephens error rate


1 error
=
120 words

Similarly

Samanthas error rate


1 error
=
140 words

= 0:0083 errors/word

= 0:0071 errors/word

= 0:83 errors/100 words

= 0:71 errors/100 words

b We convert kilograms to grams by multiplying by 1000, and hectares to square


metres by multiplying by 10 000.
120 kg/ha
=

120 kg
1 ha

120 1000 g
10000 m2

= 12 g/m2

c An alternative method of converting rates is to multiply by factors that equal 1.


Note that the units appear to cancel leaving metres over seconds.
100 km
1h
1000 m

1h
3600 s
1 km

or

100 km/h

100 1000
m/s
=
3600

100 km
1h

= 27:8 m/s

100 1000 m
3600 sec

= 27:8 m/sec
So, 100 km/h = 27:8 m/sec

307

308

RATE

(Chapter 10)

EXERCISE 10A
1

a James worked 18 hours for $189, Jeda worked 22 hours for $247:50, while Trixie earned
$75:12 for 6 hours work. Who had the best hourly wage?
b I drove from Rockhampton to Mackay, a distance of 354 km, in 3 hours and 45 minutes.
What was my average speed?
c The new tyres on my car had a tread depth of 12 mm.
After I drove for 60 000 km, the tread had reduced
to 2:5 mm, so I replaced them. What is the rate at
which the tread depth is decreasing? Choose units
for this rate that are easy to understand.

depth of tread
tyre cross-section

d The distance from the Earth to the Sun is about 150 million kilometres. Assuming that
the path of the earth is a circle, what is the speed of the earth around the sun?
e How far does the earth travel in 10 years?
f Joshua sold 120 punnets of strawberries at $1:50 per
punnet, and the remaining 70 punnets at $1:00 per
punnet. What was his average cost per punnet?
g Samantha made 14 typing errors in a 12 page document. If a typical page contains 450
words, express Samanthas error rate in errors/100 words.
h A typical rate for a heartbeat is 60 beats/min. How many times will the heart beat in a
lifetime?
2 Claire received the following marks on her last two assessment items: 30 out of 50 marks,
and 8 out of 10 marks. She converted these to percentages, then averaged the percentages,
and found that she had an overall percentage of 70%:
a Explain how Claire calculated the overall percentage.
b Explain why her method is not correct.
c Calculate the correct overall percentage.
3 A car travelled from Nambour to Gympie at an average speed of 40 km/h. What speed must it
average on the return journey so the overall average speed is 80 km/h?
4 The SP factor for sunscreen lotion is based on
Qp_1p_ mm thick.
the sunscreen being applied q_100

a What is the coverage rate, measured in


m 2/cm 3 for sunscreen?
b What surface area could I expect to
cover with my 500 mL bottle?

5 List 5 rates, other than speed, that you are familiar


with from everyday life.
6 Convert these rates.
a 60 km/hr to m/s
c 12 g/m2 to kg/ha

b
d

100 m/s to km/h


80 c/kg to dollars/tonne

RATE

(Chapter 10)

309

7 The old imperial method of measuring petrol consumption for cars was miles per gallon (mpg).
The metric measure is litres per 100 kilometres.
Knowing that 1 mile = 1:61 kilometres, and 1 gallon = 4:54 litres, convert these rates
to litres per 100 km:
to mpg:

a
c

30 mpg
6:5 litres per 100 km

b
d

12:7 mpg
12:1 litres/100 km

a A typical highway speed in the US is 65 miles/h. Convert this to km/h, given that 1 inch
equals 2:54 cm, there are 12 inches in a foot, and 5280 feet in a mile.
b The QEII is a large trans-oceanic passenger liner. Its fuel consumption is 42 feet per
gallon of diesel. Convert this into equivalent metric units. One gallon equals 4:54 litres.
c A geo-stationary satellite circles the earth at exactly the same speed as the earth rotates,
so it remains above the same spot on the earth. All geo-stationary satellites are 24 600
km above the earth, and the radius of the earth is 6400 km. Express the speed of a
geo-stationary satellite in m/s.
d Typically hair grows about 15 cm per year. Express this in km/h.

9 Research the facts to complete the sentences and then find the answer.
The fastest Melbourne Cup in history was run by ...................... in a time of ................. .
If the length of the race was ................., what was the average speed, in km per hour?
10 The world records in some track events, as of September 1998, are given below. Convert each
record into an average speed, measured in km/h.

11

Mens Records
Race
Time

Runner

Country

Date

City

100 metres
400 metres
800 metres
1500 metres

Donovan Bailey
Butch Reynolds
Wilson Kipketer
H. el Guerrouj

Canada
United States
Denmark
Morocco

27 Jul 96
17 Aug 88
24 Aug 97
14 Jul 98

Atlanta
Zurich
Cologne
Rome

Womens Records
Race
Time

Runner

Country

Date

City

100 metres
400 metres
800 metres
1500 metres

F. G. Joyner
Marita Koch
J. Kratochvilova
Qu Yunxia

United States
East Germany
Czechoslavakia
China

16 Jul 88
06 Oct 85
26 Jul 83
11 Sep 93

Indianapolis
Canberra
Munich
Beijing

9:84
43:29
1:41:11
3:26:00

10:49
47:60
1:53:28
3:50:46

a The Boston Marathon is thought by many to


be the premiere marathon in the world. The
world record holders at the time of writing are
Cosmas Ndeti from Kenya who ran the race
in 2:07:15 in 1994. The womens record is
held by Uta Pippig from Germany who had a
time of 2:21:45 in 1994. Calculate the average speed of each of these runners, given that
the official length of a marathon is 26 miles,
385 yards. (Note: 1 yard = 3 feet. See question 4 for other useful conversion factors.)

310

RATE

(Chapter 10)

b The world record for any marathon was set on September 20 1998 in Berlin by Brazilian
Ronaldo da Costa, running only his second marathon, in a time of 2:06:05. Convert this
speed to kilometres per hour.
c In what time would a marathon have to be run for the average speed to be 20 km/h?
d What would be the average speed required for a marathon runner to break the 2 hour
barrier?

AVERAGE RATES OF CHANGE

In France, long distance trucks are fitted with a tachograph which keeps a record of the distance
travelled at all times on a journey. From this record it may be established when the truck was
stationary, the average speed for different parts of the trip and whether the driver stayed within the
legal speed limits on the trip. This information can be deduced for any journey from the graph of
distance versus time. We shall see later how to deduce this information with the application of the
methods of calculus. Consider a trip from Brisbane to Rockhampton.

Distances and times for the journey of a


truck from Brisbane to Rockhampton
Town or suburb
Distance travelled
AEST
Brisbane, Windsor
0
8:00 a.m.
Brisbane, Chermside
6
8:16 a.m.
Brisbane, Gateway Arterial
16
8:36 a.m.
Caboolture
45
8:58 a.m.
Nambour
107
9:56 a.m.
Gympie
176
10:38 a.m.
Childers
326
12:13 a.m.
Gin gin
382
1:53 p.m.
Miriam Vale
478
3:01 p.m.
Gladstone
542
3:40 p.m.
Rockhampton
649
5:05 p.m.
distance (km)

600
500
400
300

200
100

time (min)
0

100

200

300

400

500

The times and distances for the journey of a truck from Brisbane to Rockhampton is plotted on the
graph above. From the table we can work out the average speed between any two places on the
journey.

RATE

(Chapter 10)

311

EXAMPLE 10.3
a Find the average speed from Brisbane to Caboolture, in
i km per hour
ii m/s
b Find the average speed from Miriam Vale to Gladstone in km/h.
c How could you have told from the graph that the average speed from Miriam Vale
to Gladstone was greater than the average speed from Brisbane to Caboolture?
a Speed =
i

Distance
Time

(algebraically S =

Average speed
45 km
=
58 min
=

45 km
58
60 hr

45 60 km
58
h

ii

D
),
T
Average speed
45 km
=
58 min
45 1000 m
=
58 60 s
= 12:9 m/s

= 46:6 km/h

b The distance travelled is D = 542 478 = 64 km, while the time is 39 min.
Average speed, S =

64 km
39 min

64 km
39
60 h

64 60 km
39
h

= 98:5 km/h

c The units on the gradient of a line segment in the graph are km/min, (which could be
changed to km/h). Hence, the gradient of a line segment represents the average speed
during that part of the journey. The greater the gradient (i.e., the steeper the line) the
greater the speed. The graph is steeper between Miriam Vale and Gladstone, so the
average speed is greater.

DISTANCE, DISPLACEMENT, SPEED


AND VELOCITY

In everyday usage, speed and velocity have the same meaning, namely the rate at which distance is
changing over time. However, often it is important to know not just how fast an object is travelling,
but in what direction.
A cannonball coming towards you at 50 m/s is a different proposition to one going away from you
at the same speed. Similarly it can be important to know not only how far an object is, but in what
direction. A competitor in a race who is 2 metres in front is not the same as a competitor who is
2 metres behind.

312

RATE

(Chapter 10)

If direction is not important then we use the terms distance and speed.
If direction is important we use the terms displacement and velocity. Displacement and velocity
can be both positive and negative.
Travelling away from home, both displacement and velocity are usually considered to be positive.
Travelling towards home, displacement is still positive, but decreasing, while velocity is negative.

I walk to the corner store to get the paper each morning. The graph alongside,
called a travel graph, shows my distance
from home during my walk. Use the travel
graph to answer the questions.

100s of metres

EXAMPLE 10.4
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
a

12

16

20

24

28 32

minutes

How far is the corner store from my house?


What is the gradient of the line segment for the first 4 minutes of the walk?
What was my average walking speed during the first 4 minutes, in m/min?
What is the physical representation of the gradient in this problem?
What was my average walking speed during the first 4 minutes, in km/h?
Make a guess as to what I was doing 6 minutes after I left home.
How many minutes did I spend in the corner store?
What was my average speed on the return journey, in km/h?
What was my average velocity on the return journey, in km/h?
What was the total distance that I travelled?
What was my displacement?
800 metres

gradient
500 m
=
4 min
= 125 m/min

The gradient represents the speed of the walker.

average speed
500 m
=
4 min
500 1000 km
4 60 h
= 7:5 km/h
=

Stopped, and chatted to a neighbour.

8 min

125 m/min

RATE

(Chapter 10)

313

average speed
800 m
=
12 min
=

800 1000 km
12 60 h

800
60 km

1000 12 h
= 4 km/h
=

i
j
k

4 km/h (towards home, so the direction is negative)


1600 metres (800 m to the store, then 800 m home)
800 m + 800 m = a displacement of 0 metres

GRAPHICS CALCULATOR ACTIVITY


The CBR and Data Logger are two devices that attach to a graphics calculator,
and measure distance and time.
The data are stored in lists, and displayed graphically as a travel graph.
Using one of these peripherals, try to create each of the travel graphs given below.

EXERCISE 10C
1 From the table on page 310, determine the average speed for the section from:
a Nambour to Gympie
b Gladstone to Rockhampton
2 The table shows the population of Queensland
and NSW taken from various census figures
over the last 17 years. The data is from the
Queensland Year Book and Census Characteristics of Australia.
Calculate the annual rate of growth of both
Queenslands population and NSWs population, over the periods:

Queensland
Year Population
1982 2 425 000
1986 2 624 000
1991 2 830 000
1996 3 369 000

a 1991-1996
b 1982-1996 (for NSW the first time period will be from 1981-1986)

New South Wales


Year Population
1981 5 125 000
1986 5 402 000
1991 5 732 000
1996 6 039 000

314

RATE

(Chapter 10)

3 This table gives the City of Paris population


from 1890 to 1990.
a

Find the first period in which Paris had


a negative growth in population.

Find the population growth for the period


1890 - 1990.

Year

Population

Year

Population

1890
1910
1926
1936
1946
1954

2 447 957
2 888 110
2 871 429
2 829 746
2 725 374
2 850 189

1962
1968
1975
1982
1990

2 811 171
2 790 001
2 296 945
2 188 918
2 152 423

4 Since the beginning of March, a local reservoir has been losing water at a constant rate. The
Water Resource Department estimates that on 12th March, the reservoir held 200 million kL
of water, and on the 21st March, it held 164 million kL.
a What is the average rate of water loss, measured in million kL per day?
b Hence determine a linear equation relating Q, the volume of water remaining (in million
kL), and n, the number of days since the beginning of March (when the reservoir was
full).
c What is the maximum capacity of the reservoir?
5 A tanker hit a reef in the Barrier Reef, and an
oil slick appeared. Some days after the accident,
it was reported that the slick was roughly rectangular in shape and covered an area 20 km long
and 11 km wide. Four days later it was estimated
that the slick had increased to 50 km long by 15
km wide.
What was the average rate of change of the area
of the slick with respect to time over this period?
6 In a dry climate, the rate of evaporation is a very
important statistic. The graph shows the depth
of water in a shallow dish during one hot day in
Mackay, over a 24 hour period.
Use the graph to answer the following questions.
Show how you arrived at your answer.

km

a What was the average rate of evaporation


between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m.?
b Use the graph to estimate the rate of evaporation at 2 p.m.

14

mm

12
10
8
6
4
2
0

mid. 3 a.m. 6 a.m. 9 a.m. noon 3 p.m. 6 p.m. 9 p.m. mid

40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

h
1

Write a story for this travel graph. Include numerical details such as the speed for various
stages.

RATE

depth of water (cm)

8 The graph given relates the depth of water


in a bathtub and the time in minutes. Write
a story that matches this graph.

315

(Chapter 10)

40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

12

15

18

min
21

24

9 Draw a travel graph to illustrate each of these stories. Put labels and coordinates on the axes.

10 The graph shows the times of


sunrise in Brisbane throughout
the year. The graph shows the
data for a three year period.
This is a periodic function, as
the times of sunrise are the
same each year. There is a
small variation from year to
year, but this is so small that it
can be disregarded for most
purposes.

number of minutes after midnight

a John was walking to the bus stop when he saw the bus come around the corner. He ran to
catch the bus, but he was not even close. As the bus pulled away, he stopped and caught
his breath. He then continued walking to the bus stop to wait for the next bus.
b A boat is at a mooring, moving up and down as the tide first rises, and then falls. For this
exercise, we are interested in the distance the boat moves vertically, and not horizontally.
400

Times of sunrise in Brisbane over a 3 year period

380

360

340

320

300

280

200

400

600

800
1000
1200
number of days after January 1st

a What time does the sun rise on January 1st?


b What is the latest time that the sun rises? On what day of the year does that occur?
c What is the average rate of change in the time of sunrise, between June 22nd and December
22nd of each year (the shortest and longest days respectively)?
11 Here we have a graph of the index which measures share prices. It has been included to show
that not all data has an identifiable trend. Data can often appear unstructured on some time
scales but on other time scales a trend is apparent.

a Ignoring short-term fluctuations, the graph between January 1994 and January 1995 could
be said to be roughly linear. What was the average monthly rate of change in the All
Ordinaries Index in 1994?
b What was the average rate of change in the All Ordinaries Index between January 1995
and September 1997?

12

RATE

(Chapter 10)

The graph alongside shows the velocity of a car


over an 8 minute period. Note that a change in
velocity over time is called acceleration.

km/h

316

40
35
30

25
Describe what the car was doing in the first
minute.
20
b What was the average velocity during this
15
time?
10
c Describe the motion of the car between the
5
1st minute and the 5th minute.
d Describe what may have happened between
0
3
1
2
4
the 5th minute and the 8th minute.
e What was the average acceleration between the 1st and 5th minute?
f What was the total distance travelled between the 1st and 5th minute?
g What was the total distance travelled between the 7th and 8th minute?

min

13 Draw a velocity-time graph for each of these stories.

14 I walk to the corner store to get the paper each


morning. This travel graph shows my distance
from home during my walk. Draw the speed-time
graph for this journey.

100s of metres

a John was walking to the bus stop when he saw the bus come around the corner. He ran to
catch the bus, but he was not even close. As the bus pulled away, he stopped and caught
his breath. He then continued walking to the bus stop to wait for the next bus.
b A car is waiting at a red light. The light turns green, and the car accelerates smoothly
until it reaches the speed limit of 60 km/h.
c A boat is at a mooring, moving up and down as the tide first rises, and then falls. For this
exercise, we are interested in the distance the boat moves vertically, and not horizontally.
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

12

16

20

24

28 32

minutes

15 For each travel graph given below, draw the corresponding speed vs time graph.
a
b
8
8
m

sec

sec

317

RATE (Chapter 10)

VARIABLE RATES OF CHANGE

The previous examples either all exhibited a


steady rate of change over a given length of
time, or we studied the average rate of change
over a particular time period. More interesting
are situations where the rate of change varies
continuously over time. Consider the graph
shown of a car accelerating away from an intersection.

100
80
60
40
20
0

sec

Note that the average speed of the car over the first 8 seconds is 12:5 m/s, since the car has gone
100 metres in 8 seconds. At first the car is travelling much slower than that, and after 8 seconds it
is going considerably faster. How can we determine the speed of the car, say after 4 seconds? The
problem is that the graph is curved. How do we find the gradient of a curved line?
By convention, mathematicians draw the tangent line to the curve at x = 4, and say that
the gradient of the curve at that point is equal
to the gradient of the tangent line. The tangent
line passes through the points with coordinates
(7, 40) and (2, 0), so the gradient of the
40 0
tangent line is
= 8 m/s at time t = 4 s.
72

m
100

80
60
40
20
0

sec

EXAMPLE 10.5
The graph given shows the height of a
hot air balloon (in metres) for the first
50 minutes of its flight.

1600
1400
1200

height (m)

a At what speed was the bal1000


loon rising initially?
800
b When was the balloon neither
rising nor falling?
600
c What was the greatest rate of
400
descent, and when did this
200
occur?
time (min)
0
d How fast was the balloon ris0
10
20
30
40
50
ing in the 50th minute?
e What was the average rate at which the balloon rose during the first 15 minutes?

318
a

RATE (Chapter 10)

The tangent line passes through (0, 0)


and (5, 900), so the gradient
m = 180 m/min.

1600

A graph is neither rising nor falling


when the gradient of the tangent line
is 0, i.e., the tangent line is horizontal.
This occurs at time t = 16, and also at
time t = 37, i.e., the balloon was neither rising nor falling at the 16th and
37th minutes.
The greatest rate of descent occurred
around the 26th minute, as that is
when the graph has the greatest negative gradient. The tangent passes
through the points (15, 1400) and
(35, 730) so the gradient
(730 1400)
m=
(35 15)
= 33.5 m/min

At t = 50, the rate of rise is given by


the slope of the tangent at (50, 1500).
The tangent passes through (40, 0) as
well.
1500 0
) rate =
= 150 m/min
50 40

1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0

10

height (m)

1400

40

time (min)
50

40

time (min)
50

37

20

30

(15' 1400)

1200
1000
800

(35' 730)

600
400
200
0

1600

) average rate of rise


change in position
=
change in time

1000

10

20

height (m)

1400
1200

1240 0
15 0
+ 83 m/min

16

1600

At t = 15, height = 1240 m

height (m)

1400

30

(50' 1500)

(15' 1240)

800
600
400

(40' 0)

200
0

10

20

30

40

time (min)
50

Consider the graph of the function y = x2 4x + 7, together with the tangent line at (3, 4)
shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1

Figure 3

Figure 3

In Figure 2, we have zoomed in on the graph near the point (3, 4). The curved graph appears to
be fairly straight in the neighbourhood of this point.

RATE (Chapter 10)

319

In Figure 3 we have zoomed in even further, and the graph appears to be perfectly straight. The
more we zoom in, the straighter the line appears. Very close to the point, the curved graph and
the tangent line appear to be identical. Using the gradient of the tangent line at a point to find the
gradient of the function at that point is reasonable.
Drawing an accurate tangent line can be difficult. If five students were asked to draw such a line,
not every line would be the same. We need an analytical method of finding the gradient of a
function at a given point.
Consider again the function
y = x2 4x + 7. We will
draw a secant at this point,
from (3, 4) to (4, 7). A secant
is a line that joins two points
on the graph of a function. The
gradient of this secant can be
calculated to be m = 3. The
secant does not have the same
gradient as the tangent line, but
it is reasonably close.

7.5

function

7.0
6.5
6.0

secant

5.5

tangent

5.0
4.5
4.0
3.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

We can do even better by choosing a point that lies on the graph that is closer to (3, 4), say
(3:5, 5:25). The gradient of this secant is m = 1:5. The table below shows the gradient of the
secant as the second point gets closer and closer to the point (3, 4).
x-coord
4
3:5
3:2
3:1
3:01
3:001
3:0001

y-coord
7
5:25
4:44
4:21
4:0201
4:002 001
4:0002

gradient of secant
3
2:5
2:2
2:1
2:01
2:001
2:0001

It appears that as the secant line gets shorter, the


gradient of the secant line approaches the value
m = 2. We might guess that the gradient of the
tangent is exactly m = 2. This turns out to be
correct. You will learn how to calculate this in the
next chapter.
Since the secant gets closer to the tangent as points
that are closer and closer together are chosen,
mathematicians say, The tangent is the limit of
the secant.

EXAMPLE 10.6
Use the above method to determine the gradient of y = x2 4x + 7 at the point (0, 7).
We make a table showing the gradient of
the secant for points closer and closer to
the point (0, 7). Note that a spreadsheet
or lists on a graphics calculator are particularly useful here. From the table, the
gradient of the tangent when x = 0 appears to be m = 4.

x-coord
1
0:5
0:2
0:1
0:01
0:001
0:0001

y-coord
4
5:25
6:24
6:61
6:9601
6:996 001
6:9996

gradient of secant
3
3:5
3:8
3:9
3:99
3:999
3:9999

320

RATE (Chapter 10)

EXERCISE 10D
1 On graph paper, accurately sketch each of the functions given below.
Draw a tangent line to the function at the given point.
Find the gradient of the tangent line, and hence the gradient of the function at that point.
Compare your answer to that of your classmates.
Did everyone get the same answer?
a
b
c
d

Coordinates
2

f (x) = x 4
g(x) = x2 + x + 1
h(x) = x3
i(x) = x3 2x2 + x 1

2 A safe is dropped from the top floor


of the MLC building, with the intent of cracking it open. The travel
graph for the safe is given below,
with the height measured in metres
and the time in seconds. Some useful tangent lines have been added.

(1, 3)
(2, 7)
(1, 1)
(2, 1)
height (metres)

Function

60
50
40
30

a What is the speed of the safe


when it is initially dropped?

20

b How fast is the safe travelling


after 2 seconds?
c

70

10

time (sec.)

When does the safe hit the


ground?

d Where does the safe hit the


ground?
e How fast is the safe moving when it hits the ground?
3 There is water in a water tank, but
unfortunately the tank is leaking
quite badly. The amount of water
left in the tank (measured in thousands of litres) after x hours is
given in the graph alongside.

y
8
6

a How much water was in the


tank originally?

b How much water was in the


tank after 1 hour?

How quickly was the tank losing water initially?

d How quickly was the tank losing water after 1 hour?

x
0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

e How quickly was the tank losing water after 3 hours?


4 Explain in your own words the meaning of the phrase, The tangent is the limit of the secant.

321

RATE (Chapter 10)

5 For each function in question 1, make a table of secants, and hence determine the gradient of
the function at that point. Compare these answers to those you found by drawing the tangent
line.
6 Consider the function y = x2 . Find the gradient of the function at each of these points:
a (0, 0)
b (1, 1)
c (2, 4)
d (3, 9)
e (4, 16)
Can you guess what the rule for finding the gradient at any point might be?

7 Consider the function y = x3 . Find the gradient of the function at each of these points:
a (2, 8) b (1, 1) c (0, 0)
d (1, 1)
e (2, 8)
Can you guess what the rule for finding the gradient at any point might be?

FINDING THE GRADIENT FUNCTION

In this last section, we developed a method of finding the gradient of a function at a given point,
or, more accurately, a method that allows us to make a good guess about the value of the gradient
at the point. We have not yet shown that these guesses are correct.
In question 6 in the above exercise set, you were asked to use these guesses to surmise what the
gradient function of y = x2 might be. A good guess is m = 2x, since the gradient appears
to be twice the x-coordinate, at every point.
From question 7, you may have guessed that the gradient function of y = x3
But again, none of this has been proven.

is m = 3x2 .

For these simple functions, it is p


possible to guess the corresponding gradient function. But guessing
the gradient function for y = 2x + 1 is almost impossible. A more powerful tool is needed to
solve such problems. That tool is differential calculus, which is introduced in the next chapter.

PROBLEM SOLVING

F
EXERCISE 10F

1 Water is flowing into each of the three containers below at a constant rate.
For each container, sketch the graph of the height of the water with respect to time.
a
b
c

2 The following are four travel graphs of a car. For each graph, describe the motion of the car.
c
distance

distance

distance

distance

time

time

time

time

322

RATE (Chapter 10)

3 The graph alongside is is a velocity vs


time graph. Draw the related travel graph,
and hence determine the total distance the
object travelled.

100

m/sec

80
60
40
20
0

4 Find the gradient function for the function f (x) =

8
sec

1
. Justify your decision.
x3

WORDS YOU SHOULD KNOW


acceleration
velocity

rate
gradient

tangent

displacement

secant

CHAPTER 10 REVISION SET


1 Water is flowing into a circular swimming pool at the rate of
15 litres/minute. The pool has a diameter of 4 metres. What is the rate
at which the height of the water in the pool is increasing?
2 The cubit was a measure of length used in ancient Egypt. The Royal Cubit, a piece of black
marble about 52 cm long using todays measurement, was the standard measure. If a
messenger can run one kilometre in five minutes, convert that to cubits per day.
3 The graph alongside refers to a
water tank in the shape of a
cuboid with a base of area
10 000 cm 2 which is filled by
two taps which can be turned on
or off independently. Tap A runs
by itself for a short time and
then tap B is turned on also and
both taps fill the tank until they
are both turned off simultaneously. A short time later a concrete block falls into the tank
and subsequently the water is
drained out to recover the block.

28

height of water (cm)

24
20
16
12
8
4

time (min)
0

10

12

a At what rate in litres per minute is the tank initially filled by tap A?
b At what rate in litres per minute is the tank filled by tap B?
c

What is the volume of the concrete block?

d What is the rate, in litres per minute, at which water drains out of the tank?

14

16

RATE (Chapter 10)

120

distance (m)

100
80
60
40
20
0

323

This is a distance vs time graph for a Year 8 girl


running the 100 metre sprint.
a What was her time for the race?
b How many seconds into the race did she
reach her greatest speed?
c From the graph, estimate her greatest speed.
d Estimate her speed after 4 seconds.
e During which parts of the race
i was she accelerating
time (s)
ii was her speed almost constant
iii was she decelerating?
10 12 14 16

5 Sketch a velocity time graph for this story. The 800 metre sprinter came out of the blocks
fast, and maintained that pace for 200 metres. She then reduced her speed by ten percent,
and maintained that constant pace until the 700 metre mark. She then sprinted home in the
last 100 metres.
6 In Western Queensland the highway
follows the railway. At 12 noon, the
Express train (The Midlander) passes
through a town at 90 km/hr without
stopping.

velocity (km/h)

car (100 km/h)

100

train (90 km/h)

75

At the same time a car, which had


stopped to fill up with petrol, leaves
the town.

50

At what time will the car overtake the


train?

time
12:00 12:10 12:20 12:30 12:40 12:50 1:00 pm

25

7 Make a table of secants to determine a possible value for the gradient of


y = 3x2 x + 1 at the point (2, 15).

CHAPTER 10 TEST (KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES)


1 A jet plane can fly at a speed of 950 km/h. Convert this to metres per second.
2 I drove to my Aunties place last Sunday. Here is a travel graph of my journey to her house.
a What was my average velocity for the
first half hour?
b What was my
i speed
ii velocity in the second half hour?
c What was the
i distance travelled
ii displacement in the first hour?

160 km
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0

h
1

324

RATE (Chapter 10)

d What was my average speed for the entire trip?


e What was my fastest average speed for any section of the journey?
f Draw a velocity-time graph for this trip.

1
.
x
By considering the gradient of the secant as the secant approaches the tangent, find a possible value for the gradient of the function at the point (2, 12 ).

3 Consider the function y =

EXTENDED INVESTIGATION

LOCAL LINEARITY
Earlier in this chapter, we zoomed in on the graph of y = x2 4x + 7 near the point (3, 4),
and saw that the graph looked more and more like a straight line as we zoomed in. This feature
of a graph is called local linearity, which means that near any point on this graph, if we zoom
in sufficiently close, the graph of the function will appear to be linear.
1 On your graphics calculator, graph Y 1 = 3x2 .
2 Choose any point on the curve, and zoom in on that point until the graph looks linear.
3 Turn on TRACE to find the coordinates of a point near the point you have chosen.

y2 y1
to find the gradient of a secant near your chosen point.
x2 x1
What do you think the gradient of the tangent at your chosen point might be?

4 Use m =

5 Repeat for at least four other points on the curve.


6 Make a conjecture about the function that gives the gradient of Y 1 = 3x2
on the curve.

at any point

7 Test your conjecture on at least one other point on the curve.

Repeat this process for at least two other functions of your choosing.
Can you find a function that does not exhibit local linearity at all points on its graph?

In the next chapter, you will learn how to justify the conjectures you have made in this
investigation.

CHAPTER

11

Instantaneous
rates of change
differential
calculus

SUBJECT MATTER
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

interpretation of the average rate of change as the


gradient of the secant
intuitive understanding of a limit
definition of the derivative of a function at a point
derivative of simple algebraic functions from first
principles
rules for differentiation
evaluation of the derivative of a function at a point
interpretation of the derivative as an instantaneous
rate of change
interpretation of the derivative as the gradient
function

326

INSTANTANEOUS RATES OF CHANGE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS

(Chapter 11)

HISTORICAL NOTE

Differential and Integral Calculus are such powerful mathematical tools that it is
impossible to imagine a modern world in which calculus does not exist. They have
applications in science, engineering, economics and finance, to name some areas.
Calculus was developed in
the period 1650 to 1760 as a
scientific tool, primarily by
Isaac Newton and Gottfried
Leibnitz.

Isaac Newton

In this period scientists were interested in four


major problems. The first was the calculation
of the orbits of celestial bodies, and in particular
finding the velocity and acceleration knowing the
displacement. Also during this period the science
of optics was being developed, largely for the
construction of telescopes. Students of physics
knew that materials have a refractive index. To
calculate the refractive index scientists needed to
calculate the angle between the ray of light and
the normal. The normal is a line perpendicular to
the tangent; hence there was interest in tangents
and normals.

Gottfried Leibnitz.
tangent

normal

ray

This period also saw a rapid development in the instruments of war. Calculations of maximum
range of a cannon or the maximum height of a cannonball were problems to which calculus
could be applied. The other major application of calculus in this era was the calculation of arc
lengths, volumes and surface area, all of which yield to the power of Integral Calculus. You
will study this topic in Year 12.

THE IMPORTANCE OF CALCULUS TODAY


There is a set of rules routinely used by many engineers and scientists in their daily work. They underpin the design and manufacture of motor vehicles, aircraft, the building of bridges and skyscrapers
and many other products we take for granted in everyday life. They were developed by Sir Isaac
Newton in the seventeenth century, and are called Newtons Laws of Motion. Newton developed
them to understand Keplers laws of planetary motion. His genius was to realise that these laws
governed not only the motion (i.e., displacement, velocity and acceleration) of the solar system, but
that they also described the motion we observe in our daily lives. This is why they are regarded as
fundamental in applied mathematics.

INSTANTANEOUS RATES OF CHANGE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS (Chapter 11)

327

Newtons second law relates the rate of change of momentum and the forces present. The momentum of a moving object is obtained by multiplying mass and velocity; thus heavy objects can have
a lot of momentum at slow velocities whereas a light object has to move much faster to have the
same amount of momentum.
The key notion of this chapter is that of instantaneous rate of change. If Newtons second law is
to be made precise we have to define what we mean in mathematical terms.

INSTANTANEOUS VELOCITY

A
Consider the following situation:
0
A

10

A grooved piece of timber is 10 metres long. It has very fine lines drawn across at a spacing of
exactly 1 metre. A marble is released at A.
The timber is inclined and made of a material such that the distance of the marble from A at any
time is equal to the square of the time for which it has been rolling.
If s equals the displacement of the marble, measured from A in metres, and t equals the time the
marble has been rolling, measured in seconds, then s = t2 .
We can show its motion in the following table:

t
s

0
0

1
1

2
4

3
9

.......
.......

We can calculate the average velocity from A to B as follows:


average velocity =

distance travelled
time taken

1 metre
1 second
= 1 m/s
=

CLASS DISCUSSION
Now assume this marble had a speedometer attached which we could read.
What would be the speed at the point halfway between A and B? What would be
the speed just to the left of this midpoint? Just to the right? What is the speed at B?
What would the speedometer read at the instant that it passes over one of the lines, say the line at
E? If we assume that the width of the line is zero and hence the time taken to cross the line is 0,
then when we put these numbers into our above formula we get average velocity = 00 .

328

INSTANTANEOUS RATES OF CHANGE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS (Chapter 11)

The expression 00 has no meaning in the real number system, so we need to try another approach.
One way to get some idea of the instantaneous velocity at E is by looking at what happens just
after the marble crosses E.
Consider where the marble is after 2 seconds, and after 2.1 seconds.
0
time
0

2.1

5 seconds

displacement

5 metres
4.41

After 2 seconds the marble is at point E, with displacement 4 metres. After 2.1 seconds the marble
is at P, with displacement of 4:41 metres, found by squaring 2:1. Therefore,
average velocity =

(4:41 4) m
(2:1 2) s

0:41 m
0:1 s
= 4:1 m/s
=

Note that this is the average velocity near E, and not necessarily the speed the marble is travelling
when it crosses E. We can zoom in even closer to E. Consider where the marble is at 2 seconds
and at 2.01 seconds.
0
time
0

2 2.01

4
4

5 seconds
5 metres

4.0401

displacement

EQ

Calculating the average velocity:


average velocity =

(4:0401 4) m
(2:01 2) s

0:0401 m
0:01 s
= 4:01 m/s

It appears that as the time interval shrinks to 0, the average velocity approaches 4 m/s. This still is
not proven. It is only a guess at this stage.

INVESTIGATION 1

CLOSER APPROXIMATIONS
Zoom in closer and closer to the point C, using times of 2.001 sec, and so on.
What can you conclude? Are you absolutely sure?

INSTANTANEOUS RATES OF CHANGE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS (Chapter 11)

329

EXERCISE 11A
1 Consider the velocity of the marble rolling down the incline when it is at J, i.e., after 3 seconds.
By considering the average velocity for small time intervals just after 3 seconds, determine a
likely value of the instantaneous velocity of the marble at J.
2 Assume that the ramp is made steeper, so the displacement s at time t is given by s = 2t2 .
a Where is the marble after 2 seconds?
b What is a likely value of the instantaneous velocity at this time?
3 If the displacement s at time t was given by s = 3t2 , what is a likely value of its instantaneous velocity after 1 second?
4 If the displacement of the marble s at a time t was given by s = 12 t2 ,
a where would it be after 4 seconds?
b Determine a likely value for the instantaneous velocity at this time.
5 Assume that an additional force was acting on the marble, so its displacement was given by
s = t3 . Determine a likely value for the instantaneous velocity at these times:
a 1 sec
b 1 12 sec
c 2 sec
p
6 Assume that the force on the marble was such that the displacement was given by s = t.
a Determine a likely value for the instantaneous velocity after 2 seconds.
b How accurate might this value be?

SMALL CHANGES
What we are doing is considering small changes in time and small changes in displacement.

Mathematicians have a neat way of indicating small changes in a variable. They write t
(pronounced delta t) indicating a small change in time and s indicating a small change in
displacement.
Note that t does not mean t.

t is a single variable indicating a small change in the variable t.


What we have been calculating above is the average speed, which is equal to

s
.
t

Then we considered the process of letting both t and s get smaller and smaller.
We found that as t approaches 0,

s
approaches the instantaneous velocity v.
t

Mathematicians say that v equals the limit as delta t approaches zero of delta s on delta t,
s
.
and write v = lim
t!0 t
Before we can proceed with the formal study of calculus we need to understand what is meant by
a limit.

330

INSTANTANEOUS RATES OF CHANGE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS (Chapter 11)

THE CONCEPT OF A LIMIT

Consider the function f (x) = 3x + 1. What is lim 3x + 1?


x!2

In other words, what value does 3x + 1 approach,


as x approaches 2?

We can make a table, and see what happens.

y = 3x + 1

1:9

1:99

1:999

2:001

2:1

2:01

f (x)

6:7

6:97

6:997

:::

7:003

7:3

7:03

From both below and above, f (x) is approaching 7.

This is hardly surprising, since f(2) = 3 2 + 1 = 7.

Many functions in this course have a graph which is a continuous curve, and for such functions:
If f (a) exists, then

lim f (x) = f (a):

x!a

In words, for functions for which f (a) exists, the limit of the function as x approaches a can be
found by substituting a for x, and then evaluating.
x2 4
Now consider the function f (x) =
x2
Substituting gives us f (2) = 00 :

at x = 2.

There is no real number which equals 00 . Mathematicians


say that the function is not defined at x = 2, so we cannot
find the limit by substituting and evaluating.

-4

Whilst we cannot evaluate this function at this point, we


can still find the limit of f (x) at x = 2 if we let x approach
2 from both above and below:

x2 - 4
y=
x-2

1:5

1:9

1:99

2:01

2:1

2:5

x 4
x2

3:5

3:9

3:99

4:01

4:1

4:5

x
2

-2

-2
-4

Except for x = 2, this looks remarkably like the function f (x) = x + 2. In fact, if we factorise the
numerator and simplify, we have the following:
f (x) =

x2 4
x2

(x + 2)(x 2)
x2
= x+2
with the domain x 6= 2.
=

x2 4
So, the function f (x) =
x2
where x = 2.

is identical to the function f (x) = x + 2 except at the point

INSTANTANEOUS RATES OF CHANGE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS (Chapter 11)

331

We can substitute 2 for x into x + 2, and hence find that the value of f (x) approaches 4 as x
approaches 2.
We can write

x2 4
= 4.
x!2 x 2
lim

GRAPHICS CALCULATOR ACTIVITY


What to do:

x2 4
:
x2
Zoom in on the point where x = 2. What do you expect to find? What do you find?

1 On your graphics calculator, draw the graph of y =

2 You can set a friendly window on any graphics calculator by carefully choosing your window
size. In a friendly window, when the trace is turned on, the x-coordinates have decimal values.
Some calculators have the friendly window as a menu choice, such as (Zoom, Decimal) or
(Zoom, Integer). Does the graph change when you set a friendly window?
3 Use the table command on your graphics calculator to compare the functions

y=

x2 4
and y = x + 2 for x starting at 0 with an increment of 1. Interpret the result.
x2

RULES FOR MANIPULATING LIMITS


Consider

lim x2 + 3x. We can find the limit by substituting 3 for x:

x!3

lim x2 + 3x

x!3
2

= 3 +33
= 18:
Consider

lim x2 + lim 3x: We can find the value of this expression by substituting:

x!3

x!3

lim x2 + lim 3x

x!3
2

x!3

= 3 +33
= 18:
What we have just shown is a special case of:
lim [f(x) + g(x)] = lim f (x) + lim g(x)

x!a

x!a

x!a

When we have a complicated function and we want to investigate its limit it is a good idea to break
it down into a number of simpler functions and find their limits separately. Then we combine the
separate answers. The rules for working with limits are intuitively obvious. Their proofs can be
found on the accompanying website.
Here are the Limit Laws that we will use in this course:

x!a

x!a

lim [f (x) + g(x)] = lim f(x) + lim g(x)


x!a

x!a

lim [f (x) g(x)] = lim f(x) lim g(x)


x!a

x!a

332

INSTANTANEOUS RATES OF CHANGE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS (Chapter 11)

lim [f(x) g(x)] = lim f(x) lim g(x)

x!a

x!a

lim

x!a

x!a

lim f(x)
f (x)
= x!a
, if g(a) 6= 0
g(x)
lim g(x)
x!a

These rules say that if you add two functions you can add their limits. They also say that you can
subtract and multiply them and you can divide them provided the function in the denominator is
not zero at x = a.
We will verify the first Limit Law. Let f (x) = x2 , g(x) = 3x and a = 2.
lim [f(x) + g(x)]

lim f(x) + lim g(x)

x!a

= lim (x + 3x)
x!2
2

x!a

x!a

= lim x + lim 3x
x!2

x!2

= 2 +32
= 10:

=2 +32
= 10:

Verifying the other Limit Laws will be left as an exercise.

GRAPHICS CALCULATOR ACTIVITY

A VERY IMPORTANT LIMIT


Set your calculator to radians. Consider the function f (x) =

sin x
.
x

What to do:
1 Evaluate this function at x = 0. Explain the result.
2 Graph the function. What happens near x = 0?
3 Make a table of values, as x approaches 0 from both the positive and negative sides.
sin x
?
4 What is the value of lim
x!0 x

EXAMPLE 11.1
Find

lim

x!1

3x 8
x+5

lim

x!1

3x 2 8
x+5

As infinity is not a number, we cannot substitute 1 for x. Instead we will determine the value
this expression approaches as x becomes very large.
3x 8
a Let Y1 =
, and make a table in your graphics calculator that starts at x = 0, with
x+5
3x 8
an increment of x = 1000. The value of Y1 approaches 3, and hence lim
= 3:
x!1 x + 5
This could have been determined easily without using a table. As x becomes very large,
the terms 8 in the numerator and +5 in the denominator become insignificant compared
to the terms 3x and x.
3x
, which simplifies to 3.
Hence the expression approaches the expression
x

INSTANTANEOUS RATES OF CHANGE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS (Chapter 11)

3x2
, which simplifies to 3x.
x

b Here, as x becomes very large, the expression approaches

And as x ! 1, 3x ! 1, so

lim

x!1

333

3x2 8
=1
x+5

EXERCISE 11B
1 Evaluate
a
d

lim x2 + 2x + 5

x!3

lim

x!2

x2
x+2

2 On page 332, the identity

lim

x!1

x+4
x+1

c
f

lim 2x3 4x2 + x 3

x!2

lim

x!1

x!a

2x + 1
x3 3x + 1

was verified using

lim [f (x) + g(x)] = lim f(x) + lim g(x)]

x!a

f(x) = x , g(x) = 3x and a = 2.


Using these functions, verify the remaining Limit Laws.
2

lim 5

x!2

x!a

3 By first simplifying each of the rational expressions, evaluate each of the following limits.
Use a graphics calculator to check your answers.
a

lim

x1
x!1 x2 1

x4 16
x!2 x2 4

lim

lim

x!2

x2 + 3x 10
x+5

x2 2x 3
x!3
x3

lim

lim

x2 6x + 9
x3

lim

6x2 + x 12
3x 4

x!3

x!2

4 Evaluate
a
e

lim

5x + 1
x2

lim

x2 + 1
x6

x!1

x!1

lim

6 2x
x2

lim

x3 + 1
x2 2

x!1

x!1

5 By expanding and then simplifying, find

lim

x+1
9x

lim

2x 3
4x2 4

x!1

x!1

lim

7x + 3
4x + 1

lim

5x2 + 1
x5 2

x!1

x!1

(x + a)3 x3
.
a!0
a
lim

6 Suppose I have a ruler of length 1 metre. I cut it in half and put one half aside. I take the
other piece and cut it in half again. I put one of these two pieces with the piece already aside.
a What is the total length of the two pieces I have put aside?
b I continue, cutting the piece I have left into two more equal length pieces and adding one
of them to the pieces I have set aside. Write down the total length of pieces set aside as
a sum of the individual lengths, putting the lengths in a decreasing order of size, after 5
cuts have been made.
c Now consider this process repeated many times, a number n times say. Write down the
total length of n pieces, using the case of n = 5 to see the pattern.
d Finally if this process is continued indefinitely, what is the value that the sum of the
lengths of the pieces approaches as we continue?
e Is it possible to add an infinite number of terms, and get an answer that is a real number?

334

INSTANTANEOUS RATES OF CHANGE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS (Chapter 11)

7 The value of can be calculated by

= 1
4

1
3

1
5

1
7

+ :::: +

(1)n
+ ::::
2n + 1

If you approximate the value of by calculating the sum of the first n terms in the series
above, the error will not be greater than the (n + 1)th term, i.e., the term following the last
one used in the sum.
For example, if you sum the first 3 terms then the error in using the sum of these first three
terms will be less than the next term, 17 .
Calculate this sum for n = 10 and n = 20. Verify that the approximation to the value of
obtained has an error consistent with this result.
8 It can be shown that

1
= 4f ( 15 ) f( 239
) where f(x) = x

x3 x5
x7
+

+ ::::::
3
5
7

Calculate from the formula above using f(x) to the term in x7 .


Compare your value of with that found in question 7.

THE GRADIENT OF A CURVE

You have seen in the previous chapter that the gradient of a curve at a given point is defined to be
the gradient of the tangent at the point of contact. The gradient of a straight line is constant as we
move along the line. However, the gradient of a curve changes from point to point along the curve.
Consider the graph of y = x2 .

To the left of the origin the graph of the function


y = x2 has a negative gradient.

4
3

To the right of the origin the gradient of the curve


is positive.

At the origin the curve sits on its tangent so


the gradient at the origin is 0.

1
x
1

-2 -1

HOW TO CALCULATE THE GRADIENT OF A CURVE


The problem of calculating the gradient of a curve is related to the problem of calculating velocities.
y

Consider the curve y = x2 . We wish to find


the gradient of the curve at the point (2, 4).
4

P (2, 4)

x
2

INSTANTANEOUS RATES OF CHANGE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS (Chapter 11)

In the last chapter we looked at what


happens as the secant approaches
the tangent, and we found what we
thought to be the correct answer. We
can now use limits to prove that our
answer is indeed correct.
Consider a secant joining P and Q.
Let Q be a point very close to P the technical term is a neighbouring
point.

335

Q &2 + D x, (2 + D x) 2 *

P (2, 4)

(!)=!X
M

N
Dx

Let MN = x, which represents a small change in the horizontal direction, from P to Q.


The x-coordinate of P is 2, so the x-coordinate of Q is 2 + x.
To find the y-coordinate of Q we substitute 2 + x in place of x in the equation y = x2 .
The y-coordinate of Q is (2 + x)2 .
Therefore, the gradient of the secant is
y
x
y2 y1
=
x2 x1

f(x1 , y1 ) are the coordinates of P and (x2 , y2 )


are the coordinates of Qg

fsubstituteg

m =

(2 + x)2 4
2 + x 2

4 + 4x + (x)2 4
x

fexpandg

x(4 + x)
x

fthe 4s subtract out, and then factoriseg

= 4 + x
= 4 + a very little bit.

fwe can divide out x, as x 6= 0g

Now we let the secant approach the tangent by allowing Q to approach P along the curve.
y
As this occurs, x approaches 0 (we write x ! 0) and
! 4:
x
We write:

lim

x!0

y
= 4:
x

The gradient of the function y = x2

at x = 2 is 4.

Note that the limit does not approach 4, the limit equals 4.
While the process of x approaching 0 makes us think of calculating a sequence of values, it is
important to realise that the limit is a real number.

336

INSTANTANEOUS RATES OF CHANGE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS

(Chapter 11)

EXERCISE 11C.1
1 Find the gradient of the function using the method explained on the previous page.

at the point (2, 8)

y = 2x2

y = x + 3x at the point (1, 4)

e
g

b
d

y = 3x x

at the point (2, 10)

y = 3x 5x + 3 where x = 1
2

at the point (2, 8)

y = x3

y = 2x

at the point (1, 2)

y = x + 1 where x = 2

y = 4 3x2

In the previous section, we found the gradient of the function y = x2

where x = 0
at a specific point.

Let us now generalise this to find the gradient of the function at any point on the curve

EXAMPLE 11.2

Find the rule for the gradient at any


point on the graph of y = x2 .

y = x2 :

Q &x + D x, (x + D x) 2 *

P ( x, x 2 )

(!)=!X
M

Dx

P is the point with coordinates (x, x2 ) and

Q is the point with coordinates x + x; (x + x)2 .


The gradient of the secant is y
x
y2 y1
=
x2 x1

(x + x)2 x2
x + x x

fsubstituteg

x2 + 2xx + (x)2 x2
fexpandg
x

x(2x + x)
x

fsubtract x2 , and factoriseg

fwe can divide out x, as x 6= 0g

= 2x + x
As Q ! P, i.e., as the secant approaches the tangent,

and

x ! 0
y
! 2x
x
y
= 2x .
x!0 x
lim

Therefore, the gradient of the function at any point on the curve is given by the expression 2x. At
every point along the graph of x2 the gradient is twice the x-coordinate.

INSTANTANEOUS RATES OF CHANGE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS

We use

dy
dx

as a shorthand notation for

lim

x!0

(Chapter 11)

337

y
:
x

dy
y
= lim
dx x!0 x

That is,

EXERCISE 11C.2
1 Using the method of Example 11.1, find the gradient of the function
a

y = 2x2

at the point (x, 2x2 )

y = x3

at the point (x, x3 )

y = x2 + 3x

at the point (x, x2 + 3x)

y = 2x2

at the point (x, 2x2 )

y = 6x2 1

at the point (x, 6x2 1)

e
f
g
h

y = 3x x2
y = x2 + 2x 7
y = 9 3x2

at the point (x, 3x x2 )


at the point (x, x2 + 2x 7)

at the point (x, 9 3x2 )

FINDING THE GRADIENT WITHOUT THE PICTURE


In the last section you saw how to find the gradient of a curve, using a graph to show what was
happening geometrically. In many instances it is not easy to sketch the curve. Let us develop the
algebraic process of finding the gradient function, without a diagram to assist.

EXAMPLE 11.3
What is the gradient of the function y = x2 + 5x + 6 at any point on the curve?
Now the coordinates of point P would be (x, x2 + 5x + 6) and of
Q would be (x + x, (x + x)2 + 5(x + x) + 6)
Therefore the gradient of the secant would be
y
x
y2 y1
=
x2 x1
=

(x + x)2 + 5(x + x) + 6 (x2 + 5x + 6)


x + x x

fsubstituteg

x2 + 2xx + (x)2 + 5x + 5x + 6 x2 5x 6
x

fexpandg

2xx + (x)2 + 5x
x

fsubtract termsg

338

INSTANTANEOUS RATES OF CHANGE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS

x(2x + x + 5)
x

(Chapter 11)

ffactoriseg
fwe can divide out x, as x 6= 0g

= 2x + 5 + x

y
! 2x + 5 and
x

As x ! 0 (and as Q ! P),

lim

x!0

y
= 2x + 5:
x

Therefore the gradient of the function f (x) = x2 + 5x + 6 is given by 2x + 5.


We can write

dy
= 2x + 5 .
dx

Note: We started with the function


2x + 5.

y = x2 + 5x + 6. From it we derived the gradient function

The process of finding the gradient function is called differentiation and 2x + 5 is called
the derived function or the derivative.
When we find the derivative from scratch so to speak, the process is called differentiation from first principles.

EXAMPLE 11.4
Find the gradient function of y = x3 + 6x.
This solution has slightly different setting out.
fthe y-coordinate of the point Pg
fthe y-coordinate of the point Qg

y = x3 + 6x
y + y = (x + x)3 + 6(x + x)

Now y = (y + y) y
)

y = (x + x)3 + 6(x + x) (x3 + 6x)


3

fsubstituteg

y = x + 3x x + 3x(x) + (x) + 6x + 6x x 6x

fexpandg

y = x(3x2 + 3xx + (x)2 + 6)

y
x(3x2 + 6 + 3xx + (x)2 )
=
x
x

ffactoriseg

y = 3x x + 3x(x) + (x) + 6x

y
= 3x2 + 6 + 3xx + (x)2
x
y
y
! 3x2 + 6 and lim
= 3x2 + 6:
As x ! 0,
x!0 x
x
dy
= 3x2 + 6:
) the gradient function is 3x2 + 6, or
dx
)

fwhen x 6= 0g

EXERCISE 11C.3
1 Find
a
d
g

the gradient function of each of these functions.


y = 6x
b y = 9x2
y = 4x2 2x + 1
e y = 7
3
y = 2x 4
h y = 6 2x2

c
f
i

y = 2x3
y = (2x + 1)(x 3)
y = x(x + 1)(x 2)

INSTANTANEOUS RATES OF CHANGE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS

(Chapter 11)

339

D THE GRADIENT OF ANY FUNCTION AT ANY POINT


Now we will generalise this method even
further, and find the rule for the gradient
of any function. Consider the graph of the
function y = f (x).

y
Q&x + Dx, f (x + Dx)*

P has coordinates (x, f (x))


Q has coordinates (x + x, f(x + x))
The gradient of the secant is

P &!' (!)*

f(x + x) f (x)
y
=
x
x + x x

Now
)

y
f(x + x) f (x)
=
x
x

) gradient = lim

x!0

So,

f(x + x) f (x)
x + x x

f(x + x) f (x)
dy
= lim
dx x!0
x

N
Dx

y = (!)

EXAMPLE 11.5
For the function y = x4 , find the derived function, i.e., the gradient of the curve from the definition.
dy
dx
= lim

x!0

f (x + x) f (x)
x

fderived function definitiong

(x + x)4 x4
x!0
x

fsubstituteg

x4 + 4x3 x + 6x2 (x)2 + 4x(x)3 + (x)4 x4


x!0
x

fuse the binomial expansiong

= lim

x(4x3 + 6x2 x + 4x(x)2 + (x)3 )


x!0
x

fsimplify then factoriseg

= lim 4x3 + 6x2 x + 4x(x)2 + (x)3

fdivide out x, as x 6= 0g

= lim
= lim

x!0

= 4x3

fall terms containing a x


go to zerog

340

INSTANTANEOUS RATES OF CHANGE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS (Chapter 11)

EXAMPLE 11.6
1
For the function y =
x
the definition.

find the derived function, i.e., the gradient of the curve from

dy
dx
f (x + x) f (x)
x!0
x

fdefinition of the derivativeg

= lim

1
1

x
+
x
x
= lim
x!0
x

fsubstitute

x (x + x)
x(x + x)
= lim
x!0
x

ffind a common denominatorg

x (x + x)
= lim
x!0 (x) x (x + x)

1
1
for f (x), and
for f (x + x)g
x
x + x

fsimplify using

a
b = ag
c
bc

= lim

x x x
(x) x (x + x)

fexpand the numeratorg

= lim

x
x (x2 + x x)

fsimplify the numeratorg

x!0

x!0

= lim

x!0

x2

1
+ x x

fdivide by x, as x 6= 0g

1
x2

ftake the limit as x ! 0g

1
x

Written as a rational expression:

if y =

Written in index notation:

if y = x1

then

dy
1
= 2
dx
x

then

dy
= x2
dx

Note: In a similar way (and with a little bit of algebra) we can show that if
1
p
y = x = x2
1
dy
= 12 x 2
dx

1
dy
= p
dx
2 x

INSTANTANEOUS RATES OF CHANGE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS (Chapter 11)

341

Exercise 11D

EXERCISE 11D
1 For each of the following functions, find

dy
dx

from the definition of a derivative.

y = x3

y = 4x2

y = x2 6x + 5

y = x3 + x + 1

y = x6

y = 2x3

2 Challenge: Differentiate y = (x 3)2

y = x2 4
y = x5

y = 6 x3

from the definition.

3 Challenge: Differentiate y = x8 .

DIFFERENTIATION BY RULE

Here are some results from the previous exercise.


Example

Function

Derived function

y = x3

dy
= 3x2
dx

y = 4x2

dy
= 8x
dx

y = x2 4

dy
= 2x
dx

y = x2 6x + 5

dy
= 2x 6
dx

y = x3 + x + 1

dy
= 3x2 + 1
dx

y = x5

dy
= 5x4
dx

y = 2x3

dy
= 6x2
dx

y = x6

dy
= 6x5
dx

From some of the above, the following seems evident:


dy
= nxn1 , where the index n is an integer.
If y = xn then
dx
From Example 11.6 and the note on page 340, the implication is that the rule can be extended to
any real values of n (although a general proof of this is outside the scope of this course).
That is,
If y = axn
Note:

then

dy
= naxn1 , for all real values of n.
dx

Some of the functions in this chapter have the domain of the function and/or
its derivative restricted.

342

INSTANTANEOUS RATES OF CHANGE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS (Chapter 11)

Examples c , d and e lead us to conclude:


The derivative of a sum or difference equals the sum or difference of the derivatives.
In other words, if the function f (x) consists of the sum or difference of a number of terms, its
derivative can be found by simply finding the derivative of each term separately and adding (or
subtracting) them.
Finally two special cases should be noted.
Case 1:
If

y = ax
dy
= 1ax11
dx

then
)

dy
= ax0
dx

dy
=a
dx

The derivative of a linear function is a constant,


and equal to the gradient of the function.
In symbols, if y = ax, then

dy
= a.
dx

This makes sense as the gradient of the straight line with


equation y = ax has a constant gradient of a.
Case 2:
The constant function, for example if y = 6, can be
thought of in two ways:
a If

y = 6 x0

then

dy
= 6 0 x1 = 0
dx

b Geometrically, the equation y = 6 graphs as a horizontal line, which obviously has a


gradient of 0.

The derivative of any constant function is 0.


dy
= 0:
In symbols, if y = c,
dx

EXAMPLE 11.7
Find the derivative of each of these functions.
a
c

y = x3
2
y= 2
3x
Applying our rule for differentiation,

b
d

s = 4t4 + 3t3 5t2 4t2 8


1
y=p
x

dy
= 3x4
dx

INSTANTANEOUS RATES OF CHANGE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS (Chapter 11)

343

ds
= 16t3 + 9t2 10t + 8t3 .
dt
Using the variables s and t instead of x and y have no effect on the method used.

b We need to find the derivative of each term, so

dy
= 43 x3
dx
4
= 3
3x
dy
1
3
= 12 x 2
d Rewrite in index notation as y = x 2 . Then
dx
1
= 3
2x 2
c Rewrite the function as y = 23 x2 . Then

1
= p
2 x3

NOTATION
Mathematicians who developed calculus used a variety of notations for the derived function, many
of which have survived to this day. You will need to be familiar with the following:
If y = xn
dy
= nxn1 ........ (1)
dx

From Leibnitz

d n
x = nxn1 ........ (2)
dx

Substituting xn for y into (1) gives us


From Bernoulli

Dx y = nxn1 ........ (3)

Lagrange used function notation, if f(x) = xn


In other words,
d
dx

dy
, Dx y
dx

and f 0 (x) all have exactly the same meaning.

is a mathematical operator. Think of it as an instruction to find the derived function.

EXAMPLE 11.8
Find

f 0 (x) = nxn1 ........ (4)

d
(3x2 6x + 2)
dx
d
(3x2 6x + 2) = 6x 6
dx

EXERCISE 11E
1 Differentiate by rule:
a

y = x4

y = x7

y = x5

y = 3x2

344

INSTANTANEOUS RATES OF CHANGE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS (Chapter 11)

y = 5x

y=5

y = x

y = 13 x3

y = 4x3 4x2 + 7x + 6

k
m
o

y = 2x2 5

y = 12 x3 + 13 x2 14 x +

1
5

y = 12 x
y=0

y = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d

s = t2

2 Differentate by rule:
1

s(t) = 3t3

s(x) = 15x2

y(x) = 6x 2

f(x) = x3 x4

f (x) = x1 + x2 + x3

f(x) =

5
x

f(x) =

1
x2

f (x) =

f(x) =

2
x3

y =x+

1
+5
x
p
y = 2 x

y = x3

y=

p
y=53x

p
y = 2x 4 x

d 1
(p )
dx x

d
5
( p )
dx 2 x

d
1
2
(x + + 2 )
dx
x x

d 3 p
( x)
dx x

1
d 2
(p + 2 )
dp
p

d 3x3 5x2
(
)
dx
x

d x3 3
(
)
dx
x

4
d
(p
)
2
dx
x3

3
x4

p
x

3 Find

j
m

d
(ut + 12 gt2 )
dt

d
1
2
p 2
dt
t t

k
n

d p
( 3 x)
dx

d 1
1
2
dt t
t

d
3
p
dt 3 t

l
o

4 If s = 10t 5t2 ,

ds
:
dt

find

If v = 4 + 5t, find

What is the value of

dv
.
dt

5 If A = r2 ,
a find

dA
. Do you find anything interesting about this result?
dr

b Show that

dA
62.8 when r = 10.
dr

p
d
(4 x 3 x)
dx

d a
b

dt 2t 3t2

ds
dt

when t = 2?

INSTANTANEOUS RATES OF CHANGE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS (Chapter 11)

345

c The formula for the volume of a sphere is V = 43 r3 .

Find

dV
. Do you find anything interesting about this?
dr

THE SECOND (AND HIGHER) DERIVATIVES

Consider the function y = 2x3 3x2 + 2x.


If we differentiate this function we get
Because

dy
= 6x2 6x + 2:
dx

dy
is a function of x, we may differentiate the function again and we get
dx
dy
the derivative of
= 12x 6:
dx

For the derivative of

dy
we write
dx

i.e., if y = 2x3 3x2 + 2x

d dy
d2 y
= 2
dx dx
dx

using a pseudo algebra,

the first derivative

dy
= 6x2 6x + 2
dx

the second derivative

d2 y
= 12x 6
dx2

and we may continue

d3 y
= 12
dx3
d4 y
= 0:
dx4

Alternatively we write f 0 (x), f 00 (x), f 000 (x) etc. or Dx y

Dx2 y

Dx3 y:

The second derivative has graphical and physical significance which you will learn about next year.

EXAMPLE 11.9
Find

d2 y
for the function
dx2

a y = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d

y = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d

1
y= p
2 x

1
1
y = p = 12 x 2
2 x

dy
= 3ax2 + 2bx + c
dx
)

d2 y
= 6ax + 2b
dx2

3
dy
= 14 x 2
dx

5
d2 y
= 38 x 2
2
dx

d2 y
3
=
5
dx2
8x 2

d2 y
3
= p
dx2
8 x5

346

INSTANTANEOUS RATES OF CHANGE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS (Chapter 11)

EXERCISE 11F
d2 y
dy
and
for each of the following:
dx
dx2

1 Find
a

y = x5 2x

p
y=x x

y=

1
5x2
1
y= p
5 x

y=

y = (x2 1)(x4 x + 3)

y = (x2 1)7

e
g

y=

x2 + 2
p
x

2 If y = x2 2x prove that

x
1

4 2x

d2 y
dy
+ y = x2 .
+
2
dx
dx

VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION AS DERIVATIVES

Consider a particle moving in a straight line.


s

s + Ds

Ds

After t seconds it is at A and its displacement measured from O is s.


After t + t seconds the particle is at B, where OB is s + s:
Therefore,

s
t

average velocity over AB is

instantaneous velocity at A is
and so,

v=

and the

s
t!0 t
lim

ds
:
dt

Likewise, if the velocity changes from v to v + v in time t, then

the average acceleration over AB is

instantaneous acceleration at A is
and so, a =

v
t
lim

t!0

and the
v
t

dv
.
dt

Also, instantaneous acceleration may be written as a =

d2 s
:
dt2

INSTANTANEOUS RATES OF CHANGE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS (Chapter 11)

347

EXAMPLE 11.10
An electron is moving in a magnetic field such that its displacement from its source is given
by s = t3 12t2 + 45t: Find
a its velocity at any time t
b its acceleration at any time t
c when it is at rest
d its acceleration when it is at rest
a v=

ds
= 3t2 24t + 45
dt

At rest v = 0.

a=

dv
= 6t 24
dt

Hence,

3t2 24t + 45 = 0
) t2 8t + 15 = 0
fdivide both sides by 3g
) (t 3)(t 5) = 0
ffactoriseg
) t = 3 s or t = 5 s fsolveg
Therefore, it is at rest after 3 seconds and after 5 seconds.

a = 6t 24
when t = 3, a = 6 and when t = 5, a = 6

fsubstituting and simplifyingg

Note: If time is in seconds and displacement is in metres then velocity is measured in metres per
second (m/s) and acceleration is measured in metres per second per second or m/s2 .

EXERCISE 11G
1 The motion of a particle is given by s = t3 6t2 + 9t where t is the time in seconds and s is
the displacement in metres. Find
a expressions for its velocity and acceleration at any time t
b when the particle is at rest, i.e., when v = 0
c when it is travelling with a constant velocity, i.e., when a = 0:
2 The motion of a particle is given by s = t2 3t, where t is time in seconds and s is
displacement in metres.
a
b
c
d
e
f
g

Where is the particle at time t = 0?


Find expressions for the velocity and acceleration at any time t.
Interpret the expression for acceleration.
What is the initial velocity, i.e., at time t = 0?
Does velocity ever equal 0? If so, when? Where is the particle at this time?
Does the particle ever return to its starting position? If so, when?
Sketch on the same set of axes:
i the displacement at time t, s(t)
ii the velocity at time t, v(t)
iii the acceleration at time t, a(t).

3 A particle is moving so that its displacement s metres from the origin after t seconds is given
by s = t2 6t + 5.

Prove that it moves with a constant acceleration.

348

INSTANTANEOUS RATES OF CHANGE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS (Chapter 11)

4 A test rockets height in metres above its launching point is


given by h = 45t2 t3 where t is the time in seconds
after launch.
dh
a Find the velocity
of the rocket.
dt
b At the top of its flight, the velocity of the rocket will
be zero. Find this maximum height.
5 A stone is thrown upwards such that its height above ground level at time t is given by
h = 2 + 6t 5t2 where t is given in seconds and h is given in metres.
a
b
c
d
e
f

Was the stone thrown from ground level? Explain.


When does the stone strike the ground? Answer to the nearest 0:1 sec.
What was the initial velocity of the stone?
When does the stone reach a velocity of 0 m/s?
How high is the stone when it reaches this velocity?
What is the velocity of the stone when it strikes the ground?

6 An astronaut on the moon drops a rock from the top of a crater onto the crater floor. The
height of the rock above the crater floor is given by h = 200 0:8t2 where h is the height
in metres and t is the time in seconds.
a How high is the top of the crater above the crater floor?
b How can you tell from the velocity function that the astronaut did not throw the rock
downwards?
c Why is the velocity negative?
d How long did it take for the rock to reach the crater floor?
e What was its velocity at this time?
f The only force acting on the rock is the acceleration due to gravity. What is the acceleration
due to gravity on the moon?
g How fast is the rock travelling after 10 seconds? Where is it at this time?
h When has the rock reached a velocity of 19:2 m/s? Where is it at this time?

EQUATIONS OF TANGENTS AND NORMALS

TANGENTS
dy
evaluated
The slope of the tangent to y = f (x) at the point where x = a is the value of
dx
at x = a:

EXAMPLE 11.11
For the curve y = x2 5x + 6

a find the gradient at the point P(1, 2)


b the equation of the tangent at P(1, 2)

349

INSTANTANEOUS RATES OF CHANGE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS (Chapter 11)

dy
= 2x 5 which is the gradient at any point on the curve.
dx
dy
y
In particular at P(1, 2)
=215
dx
= 3:
6
Hence, the gradient of the tangent at P is 3.
4

b For the equation to the tangent at (1, 2)


y y1 = m(x x1 )
) y 2 = 3(x 1)
) y 2 = 3x + 3
) y = 3x + 5

y = x 2 - 5x + 6
x
4
6

-2

NORMALS
A line which is perpendicular to the tangent to a curve at the point of contact is called a
normal to the curve.
Recall that:
Given that two lines have slopes m1 and m2 , if they are perpendicular then m2 =

1
.
m1

EXAMPLE 11.12
Find the equation of the normal to the curve y = x2 5x + 6 at the point P(1, 2).
From the previous example, the tangent has slope 3:
Therefore, the gradient of the normal
=
The equation of the normal is
)
)

y = x 2 - 5x + 6
y

1
3

1
3

y y1 = m(x x1 )

y 2 = 13 (x 1)
y 2 = 13 x

1
3

normal

4
P

x
2

-2

tangent

y = 13 x + 1 23

EXERCISE 11H
1 Find the equation of the tangent and the normal at the points where x has the given value.
a

y = x2

x=2

1
2

y=x

x=

y = x(6 x)

x=3

y = 3x 8x + 5

x=3

350

INSTANTANEOUS RATES OF CHANGE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS (Chapter 11)

y = x4

y=

p
x

6
x

x = 1

y=

x=4

1
y=p
x

x=3
x=4

2 Find the point(s) on the curve y = x3 6x2 + 9x + 4 where the tangent is parallel to the
x-axis.
3 Find the point(s) on the curve y = x2 3x + 1 where the tangent is parallel to the line
x + y 3 = 0:
p
4 Find the points on the curve y = x3 where the tangent is perpendicular to the line
y = 2 13 x:
5 Find the coordinates of the point at which f(x) = 2x + 5 will touch
g(x) = x2 + 10x 11. Show that f (x) is the tangent to g(x) at that point.

DIFFERENTIATION OF COMPOSITE FUNCTIONS

Recall from Chapter 8 that a composite function is a function of a function.


For example, if y = u3 and u = x 2, then we can form the composite function y = (x 2)3 .
Consider the problem of finding the derivative of y = (x 2)3 .

Recall that if f (x) = x3 we know f 0 (x) = 3x2 .

Now the graph of y = (x 2)3 is just the graph of y = x3 displaced 2 units to the right.
Consider their graphs as shown.

We can see that the gradient of the tangent


of y = (x 2)3 is the same as the gradient
of the tangent of y = x3 , but at a point two
units to the right.
In other words,
if the gradient of y = x3 is 3x2 , then the
gradient of y = (x 2)3 is 3(x 2)2 .

This argument could be applied to any function of the form y = f (x + a), which gives
the result:

y = x3

y
200

y = (x - 2) 3

100

+2
2

-100
-200

dy
If y = (x a)n , then
= n(x a)n1
dx
Soon we will devise a more general result which includes this one as a special case.

EXAMPLE 11.13
Find the derivative of y =

1
.
x+4

INSTANTANEOUS RATES OF CHANGE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS (Chapter 11)

y=

So,
)

1
x+4

y = (x + 4)1

351

fwrite in index notationg

dy
= 1(x + 4)2
dx

fusing

1
dy
=
dx
(x + 4)2

fwrite as a rational functiong

dy
= n(x a)n1 g
dx

THE COMPOSITE FUNCTION RULE OF DIFFERENTIATION


There is a simple rule for differentiating any composite function.
This rule is

If y = f (x) where u = g(x) then

dy
dy du
=
.
dx
du dx

This is commonly known as the function of a function rule or the chain rule.
This is a fairly obvious rule when it is written in Leibnitz notation, and it follows from the fact that
y u
y
=
since the factor u can be divided out of the right hand side.
x
u x
Note that it is not so obvious in the Bernoulli notation:

Dx y = Du y Dx u

This partly explains why a variety of notations are still in existence. Each notation is the best for
some purposes.
A proof of the composite function rule or function of a function rule or chain rule is given as
a formality. The proof uses the limit laws.
If a change of x in x causes a change of u in u which causes a change y in y, then
y u
y
=
x
u x
lim

y
y u
= lim
x x!0 u x

ftake the limit of both sidesg

lim

y
y
u
= lim
lim
x u!0 u x!0 x

frule for the product of limitsg

x!0

)
)

x!0

y
y
u
= lim
lim
x!0 x
u!0 u x!0 x
lim
)

dy
dy du
=
dx
du dx

fas x ! 0, u ! 0 alsog
fdefinition of the derivativeg

Note that this proof is valid only if u never equals 0. A more sophisticated proof is needed if
u = 0 in any small interval around x, as x goes to 0.

352

INSTANTANEOUS RATES OF CHANGE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS (Chapter 11)

EXAMPLE 11.14
Differentiate
a

y = (x2 3x)10

a Let y = u10

p
x2 3x

y=

y=

where u = x2 3x,
then

dy
= 10u9
du

Now

dy
dy du
=
dx
du dx

du
= 2x 3:
dx

and

ffunction of a function ruleg

= 10u9 (2x 3)

fsubstituteg

= 10(2x 3)(x 3x)


1

b Rewrite in index notation y = (x2 3x) 2 = u 2

Now

freplace ug

where u = x2 3x

du
= 2x 3
dx

1
dy
= 12 u 2
du

dy du
dy
=
dx
du dx
1
2

= 12 u
=

ffunction of a function ruleg

(2x 3)

(2x 3)

fsubstituteg
1
2

fas u

1
2

2u
2x 3
= p
2 x2 3x
c y=

1
x2 3x

1
1

u2

freplace ug

1
= (x2 3x)1
x2 3x

Let y = u1

where u = x2 3x
dy
= u2
du

Now

du
= 2x 3
dx

dy
dy du
=
dx
du dx

ffunction of a function ruleg

= u2 (2x 3)

fsubstituteg

fas u2 =

2x 3
u2
2x 3
= 2
(x 3x)2

freplace ug

1
g
u2

INSTANTANEOUS RATES OF CHANGE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS (Chapter 11)

353

EXERCISE 11I.1
1 Differentiate each of the following functions.
a

y = (x + 7)4

y = (3 x)6

y = (3 5x 4x2 )3

y=

3
x7
p
y = 3 2x + 4

1
y=p
x+3

g
j
m
p

y = 2(x 6)3

y = (x3 3x2 + 1)9

y = (x 5)3

y=

y=

2
(x 5)4
p
y = (x + 3)3

y = (6 x)2

3
y= p
3
3x + 1

y=

1
y=p
3x2 2x + 1

1
x2 + 3x + 1

2 Differentiate each of the following functions using the chain rule.


1
p
5
a f(x) = (15x 23) 3
b f (x) = 2 3x
c
x
1
2
d f(x) = p
e f (x) = p
f
3
3 2x2
1 x2
3

y = (5x 2)3

y = (ax2 + bx + c)7
p
5x 1

f (x) =

p
3
3x 6

3
f (x) = p
(x + 3)(x 3)

a Differentiate y = (2x 1)3 by using the function of a function rule.


b Expand (2x 1)3 by the binomial theorem, then differentiate the resulting expression.
c Show that these two results are the same.

4 The velocity of a raindrop which falls from a cloud at time t = 0 is given by


1
metres per second.
v=2
(t + 1)2

Find the instantaneous acceleration at t = 2 seconds.


5 The concentration of a pesticide d days after application is given by C =

1500
mg per m2 .
d + 30

Find the instantaneous rate of reduction on day 20.


6 If a tank holds 10 000 litres of water which takes 50 minutes to
drain from the tank, then the volume of water remaining in the
tank after t minutes is given by
t
V = 10000(1 )2 ; 0 t 50:
50

Find the rate at which the water is flowing out of the tank after
a 5 minutes
b 10 minutes
c 20 minutes.
7 The theory of relativity predicts that the mass of an object that is moving at a velocity close
m0
where m0
to the velocity of light will increase, with the mass given by m = r
v2
1 2
c
is the mass of the object at rest, v is the velocity of the object and c is the velocity of light.
dm
dm
a Find
b What is the physical interpretation of
.
?
dv
dv

354

INSTANTANEOUS RATES OF CHANGE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS (Chapter 11)

8 If we have a function such that y is a function of u, u is a function of v, and v is a function


of x, then we can extend the chain rule as follows:
dy du dv
dy
=
dx
du dv dx
p
Use this function of a function of a function rule to find the derivative of y = (3 x 1)5 .

CHAIN RULE BY INSPECTION


With practice, it is possible to find the derivative of many composite functions with only a few
lines of working.
If you can learn to do so, you will save time and minimise the number of errors.

EXAMPLE 11.15
Find the derivative of y = (4x + 1)5 by inspection.
We think: For y = (4x + 1)5 we let u = 4x + 1 so that y = u5 .
The derivative of u5 is 5u4 , or, in terms of x, 5(4x + 1)4 .
The derivative of u = 4x + 1 is 4.
We write

dy
dy du
=
dx
du dx

ffunction of a function ruleg

= 5(4x + 1)4 (4)

fsubstitutingg

= 20(4x + 1)4

fsimplifyingg

EXAMPLE 11.16
3
Find the derivative of y = p
4x 3
3
1
= 3(4x 3) 2
y= p
4x 3
)

by inspection.

fwrite in index notatong

dy
dx
3

= 3( 12 )(4x 3) 2 (4)

fderivative of 3u 2 times derivative of (4x 3)g

= 6(4x 3) 2
6
= p
(4x 3)3

EXERCISE 11I.2
1 Differentiate these composite functions, by inspection.
a

y = (3x + 4)2

y = (2x + 1)7

y = (3 4x)2

INSTANTANEOUS RATES OF CHANGE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS (Chapter 11)

y = (2 + x2 )3

y=

2
5 3x

y = (x2 2x + 1)6

y=

3
x2 + 3

2 Differentiate these composite functions, by inspection.


p
p
a y = 3x
b y = 5x + 7

3
y= p
9x

2
y=p
2
x 4x + 1

355

1
3x 4

y=

y=

y=

2
y= p
3
3 2x2

3
5 x x3

p
4 5x3

DIFFERENTIATION OF PRODUCTS

J
THE PRODUCT RULE

An important class of functions are those that are the product of simpler functions.
For example,

y = (2x + 1)(5x 2)
2

y = (3x 4) (2x + 7)
p
y = x 5 3x

is the product of u = 2x + 1 and v = 5x 2

is the product of u = (3x 4)2 and v = (2x + 7)3


p
is the product of u = x and v = 5 3x .

In Mathematics B we usually restrict the function to two factors although the theory can be expanded
to functions that involve three or more factors.
Here is the rule for differentiating products. It will be proved later in the chapter.
Product Rule:

If y = u v

where u = f(x) and v = g(x) then


dy
dv
du
=u
+v
dx
dx
dx

EXAMPLE 11.17
Differentiate y = (2x + 1)(5x 2) by

a using the product rule


b expanding and simplifying, and then finding the derivative of the resulting function.
a Here u = 2x + 1, so

du
dv
= 2, and v = 5x 2, so
= 5.
dx
dx

Because y is the product of u and v,

dy
dv
du
=u
+v
dx
dx
dx
= (2x + 1)(5) + (5x 2)(2)
= 10x + 5 + 10x 4
= 20x + 1

y = (2x + 1)(5x 2) = 10x2 + x 2

so,

dy
= 20x + 1
dx

356

INSTANTANEOUS RATES OF CHANGE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS (Chapter 11)

This example verifies the product rule. Why does it not prove the product rule?

EXAMPLE 11.18
Differentiate y = (5x 2)3 (3 x)6

using the product rule.

This is more difficult, as the factors of the product are composite functions.
We must apply the chain rule first to find the derivative of each factor.
Here u = (5x 2)3
v = (3 x)6

and

du
= 15(5x 2)2
dx

(see Exercise 11I.1, 1c )

and

dv
= 6(3 x)5
dx

(see Exercise 11I.1, 1d )

dy
dx

and

=u

dv
du
+v
dx
dx

= (5x 2)3 [6(3 x)5 ] + (3 x)6 [15(5x 2)2 ] fsubstituteg

fcommon factor of (5x 2)2 (3 x)5 g

= (5x 2)2 (3 x)5 (30x + 12 + 45 15x)

fcollect like termsg

= (5x 2)2 (3 x)5 (45x + 57)


2

fcommon factor of 3g

= 3(5x 2) (x 3) (15x 19)

EXERCISE 11J
1 Differentiate using the product rule.
a
c
e
g
j
2 Find
a
c
e

y = (4x + 1)(3x 2)

y = (x2 3)(2x3 + 5x 1)

s = (3t 4)2 (5 6t)3

y = 2(x + 1)(3x 7)

y = (3x + 1)4 (2x 3)3

dy
if
dx
p
y =x x5
p
y = 2x 3 3x + 1
p
y = (2 3x) x + 1
2

b
d
f

y = x(3x + 1)

y = (x + 1)2 (3x 3)3

y = (2x + 5)(3 2x)

y = (4x2 2x + 1)(x + 3)
y = (x3 3x2 )(2x5 + 5)
y = (x + 3)10 (x 4)8

y = (5x + 3)4 (3x 2)3

p
y = x 3x 1
p
y = (x + 2)3 x
p p
y = x 4x

y = (x + 3)2 (2x 5)3

y = (3 4x2 )3 (5x 7)2

3 Students often ask why the product rule is not applied to functions such as y = 2x. It can
be! Show this, by differentiating using the product rule:
a y = 2x
b y = x2 (think of this as the product x:x)

INSTANTANEOUS RATES OF CHANGE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS (Chapter 11)

4 Find the derivative of


p
p
a f(x) = x + 1 x + 2

p
f(x) = (2x2 + 1) x
f(x) = (3x2 2)3 (2x 3)2

f(x) = (3x 2)x1

f(x) =

1
1
x+1x+2

357

2
2
p
f(x) = p
1x x+1

5 What do you think the product rule for the product of three terms might be? Test your
hypothesis by
a differentiating y = x2 (2x + 1)(2x 1) using your product rule

b expanding y = x2 (2x + 1)(2x 1) and differentiating the resulting expression.

PROOF OF THE PRODUCT RULE


For completeness, the proof of the product rule is given here. This proof uses some of the rules
for limits given on page 331.
y = uv

where u = f (x) and v = g(x)

Let a change x in x produce a change u in u and v in v and hence a change y in y.


)

y + y = (u + u)(v + v)
)
)
)
and
)
)

y = (u + u)(v + v) uv

y = uv + uv + vu + uv uv

fsince y = uvg

y = uv + vu + uv

v
u uv
y
=u
+v
+
x
x
x
x
y
dy
= lim
dx x!0 x

u uv
v
dy
= lim u
+v
+
dx x!0
x
x
x

v
u
u v
dy
= u lim
+ v lim
+ lim
x
x!0 x
x!0 x
x!0 x x
dx

dy
dv
du du dv
=u
+v
+
(0)
dx
dx
dx dx dx

dy
dv
du
=u
+v
dx
dx
dx

fdefinition of derivativeg
fusing Limit Laws 1 and 2g
fmultiply

uv
x
by
g
x
x

DIFFERENTIATION OF QUOTIENTS

Quotients may be differentiated using the product rule.

EXAMPLE 11.19
Differentiate y =

fdividing by xg

2x + 1
:
x7

358

INSTANTANEOUS RATES OF CHANGE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS

y=

2x + 1
x7

which can be written as

If u = (2x + 1)
and if v = (x 7)1

(Chapter 11)

(2x + 1)(x 7)1

then

du
=2
dx

then

dv
= 1(x 7)2
dx

so

dy
= (2x + 1)[1(x 7)2 ] + (x 7)1 (2)
dx

fsubstituteg

(2x + 1)
2
dy
=
+
dx
(x 7)2
x7

fwrite as a sum of algebraic fractionsg

dy
(2x + 1) + 2(x 7)
=
dx
(x 7)2

fwrite as a single fraction g

dy
15
=
dx
(x 7)2

fsimplify the numerator g

THE QUOTIENT RULE


There is a more appropriate rule for differentiating quotients that applies, called the quotient rule.
Consider

y=
)
)

u
v

where u = f (x) and v = g(x)

y = uv1

dy
du
2 dv
= u 1v
+ v 1
dx
dx
dx

dy
u dv
1 du
= 2
+
dx
v dx v dx

dy
1 du
u dv
=

dx
v dx v 2 dx

dy
v du
u dv
= 2
2
dx
v dx v dx

dv
du
u
v
dy
dx
dx
=
dx
v2

u
If y =
v

The quotient rule:

then

du
dv
v
u
dy
= dx 2 dx :
dx
v

EXAMPLE 11.20
Differentiate y =

2x + 1
x7

using the quotient rule.

INSTANTANEOUS RATES OF CHANGE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS (Chapter 11)

359

du
dv
= 2 and let v = x 7 so
= 1.
dx
dx

Let u = 2x + 1 so

du
dv
v
u
dy
= dx 2 dx
dx
v
(x 7)(2) (2x + 1)(1)
=
(x 7)2
2x 14 2x 1
=
(x 7)2
15
=
(x 7)2

fsubstituteg
fexpandg
fcollect like termsg

EXERCISE 11K
1 Differentiate using the product rule.
a

y=

5x 3
2x + 1

y=

3x
2x2 + 1

y=

x
x3 3

y=

(4x + 2)3
(3x 1)5

y=

x3 2x
x2 + 1

y=

(x 4)3
(5 x2 )2

y=

(2x + 1)3
x4

3x + 1
y=p
x3

2 Differentiate using the quotient rule.


a

y=

8x + 5
3x 7

y=

(x 3)3
(2x + 1)2

3 Differentiate, using whichever method you prefer.


a
e

2x + 4
3x 6
p
x+1
y= p
x+2

4 Differentiate y =
a
b
c
d

y=

y=

(2x + 1)3
(x 4)2

3
(2x 1)2

by rewriting as a product, and then using the chain rule.


by rewriting as a product, and then using the product rule.
using the quotient rule.
Which method of differentiating this function do you prefer? Why?

5 Use your knowledge of algebraic fractions and index laws to first simplify these functions, and
then differentiate.
p
4x 3
x2 + 5x + 6
3x 7 x
5x + 4
p
a y=
b y=
c y=
d y=
x
x+3
(5x + 4)3
x
6 Differentiate these functions, using any appropriate method.
a

y = 3(2x 1)2

y = (4x + 1)(3x 2)2

p
y = 3x x 3

y=

y = x(2x 2)(2x + 2)

(4x + 1)2
2x3
p
3 2x
y=p
4x2 + 1

c
f

2
x5
3x 5
y= p
x
y=

360

INSTANTANEOUS RATES OF CHANGE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS (Chapter 11)

7 Differentiate these functions, using any appropriate method.


p
6x
a y= 2
b y = 1 x x2
3x
x1
(3x 1)2
d y=
e y=
1x
3x 1
2x 1
g y = x(x 2)(x + 3)
h y= p
x
r
2x + 1
2x
j y=
k y= p
3
x3
x+1

y=

y=

p
p
2x + 1 2x 1

(3x 1)2
3x
1
y=
(3x + 4)2
p
5x
y= p
3
5x

i
l

FUNCTIONS, DERIVATIVES AND GRAPHS

When using the chain rule, product rule and quotient rule for differentiation, students often forget
what a derivative is, and start to view differential calculus as just a collection of rules. It is easy
to forget why the rules are used. Recall that a derivative is the gradient function; it is the rule that
defines the gradient for every value of x in the domain.
In this last section, we will take a new look at the meaning of a derivative, by studying the graphs
of functions and their derivatives.

FEATURES OF GRAPHS
y

turning point
(local maximum)
x

a zero

function increasing
increase
in y

turning point
(local minimum)

point of
inflection
(the graph changes
from concave up
to concave down)

function decreasing
decrease
in y
increase
in x

increase
in x

EXAMPLE 11.21

A graph of a function, f(x), is given.

(-3' 2)
(-5' 0)

(6' 0)
(-1' 0)
(-\Q_w ' -2)
(2' -4)

INSTANTANEOUS RATES OF CHANGE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS (Chapter 11)

What are the zeros of the function?

What are the coordinates of the functions turning points?

For what values of x is the function


i positive
ii negative

iii

zero?

For what values of x is the function


i increasing
ii decreasing

iii

stationary?

For what values of x is the derivative of the function


i positive
ii negative

iii

zero?

For what values of x is the derivative of the function


i increasing
ii decreasing

iii

stationary?

d
e
f

361

a These are the values of x for which the function is zero. These are 5, 1 and 6.
b (3, 2) and (2, 4).
c The function is positive above the x-axis, negative below the x-axis and zero where
it crosses the x-axis.
i 5 < x < 1 and x > 6
ii x < 5 and 1 < x < 6
iii x = 5, x = 1 and x = 6

d If you think of someone walking along the function, from left to right, they are walking uphill to (3, 2), then downhill to (2, 4) and then uphill again.
i x < 3 and x > 2
ii 3 < x < 2
iii x = 3 and x = 2
e The derivative at a point is the gradient of the function at that point. The gradient
is positive when the function is increasing, negative when the function is decreasing,
and zero at the stationary points. Questions d and e are two ways of asking the same
question, so the answers are identical.
i x < 3 and x > 2
ii 3 < x < 2
iii x = 3 and x = 2
f This question requires careful thinking.
Consider how the gradient is changing, as
a point moves along the curve from left
to right. The diagram gives the gradient
at various locations along the curve. As
we move from left to right, we have these
values for m: 3, 1, 0, 1, 0, 1, 3

m=1

m=0

m=-1

m=3

x
m=3

m=-4

m=1
m=0

The gradient decreases from 3 to 1, and then increases from 1 to 3.


At the point of inflection, with coordinates ( 12 , 2), the gradient reaches its minimum value of 1.
i x > 12
ii x < 12
iii x = 12

EXAMPLE 11.22
A function has a gradient of zero at (1, 2) and (3, 2). The gradient is negative for
values of x < 1 and x > 3, and positive for 1 < x < 3. Draw a sketch of the function.

362

INSTANTANEOUS RATES OF CHANGE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS (Chapter 11)

The graph has a minimum at (1, 2) and


a maximum at (3, 2). Here is a sketch that
fits the criteria.

y
(3' 2)
x
(-1' -2)

EXAMPLE 11.23

A function has a gradient of 2 at (1, 3), a


gradient of 0 at (2, 6) and a gradient of 1
at (5, 3). Its zeros are at x = 3 and x = 7.
Sketch a possible graph of this function.

6
4
2
x

-4

-2

-2

CLASS DISCUSSION
What special point on the function corresponds to the minimum value of
the derivative?

GRAPHICS CALCULATOR ACTIVITY

GRAPHS OF DERIVATIVES USING A GRAPHICS CALCULATOR


Almost all graphics calculators have the facility of graphing a function and its derivative on
the same set of axes. This is a powerful tool in the study of the graphs of derivative functions.
What to do:
1 Let f (x) = 0:1(x + 4)(x 1)(x 3).

a On the same set of axes, sketch f (x) and f 0 (x). Use a window with nice xcoordinates, and with the same scale horizontally and vertically (for example, so a
circle looks like a circle).
b Use Trace to explore the relationship between
i points on the function, and corresponding points on its derivative
ii the zeros of the derivative and the turning points of the function.
c Find the coordinates of the point of inflection.

2 Repeat for these functions (or ones of your own choosing).


p
1
a f (x) =
b f (x) = 9 x2
x

f (x) = jx 1j

363

INSTANTANEOUS RATES OF CHANGE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS (Chapter 11)

EXERCISE 11L
1 For each function below, for what values of x is the
i function zero
ii function positive
iv gradient zero
v gradient positive
a

(-4' 0)

(-1' 0)

(-2' 0)

-1

function negative
gradient negative

iii
vi
y

-1\Qw_

(3' 0)

x
(2' 0)

(-\Q_w ' -1)

y
x

x
x=3

2 For each function in question 1, for what values of x is the gradient of the function increasing?
3 Draw neat sketches of functions for which
a the gradient is positive and the gradient is increasing
b the gradient is positive and the gradient is decreasing
c the gradient is negative and the gradient is increasing
d the gradient is negative and the gradient is decreasing.
4 For each of these functions, draw a neat sketch of the gradient function.
a
b
y

(-3' 5)

x
x

(2' -3)

d
y

x=-2

(0' 5)

y
(0' 1)

364
5

INSTANTANEOUS RATES OF CHANGE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS (Chapter 11)

a A function has a gradient of zero at (1, 4) and (0, 1). The gradient is positive for values
of x < 1 and x > 0, and negative for 1 < x < 0. Draw a sketch of the function.

b A function has a gradient of zero at (0, 0) and (2, 16). The gradient is negative for values
of x < 0, and positive for 0 < x < 2 and x > 2. Draw a sketch of the function.
c A function has a gradient of zero at (2, 16) and (0, 0). The gradient is positive for all
other values of x. Draw a sketch of the function.
d Draw a sketch of a function whose gradient is negative for all values of x.
e A function has a gradient that is constant and equals 3. The function passes through
(0, 2). Sketch the function.
6

a A function has a gradient of 3 at (2, 3), a gradient of 3 at (2, 3) and its only zero is
at the origin. Sketch a possible graph of this function.
b A function has a gradient of 3 at (2, 3), a gradient of 3 at (2, 3) and its only zero
is at the origin. Sketch a possible graph of this function.
c A function has a gradient that equals 1 for all values of x. Sketch a possible graph of
this function.

Here are some challenging questions of this type.


d A function has a gradient that is always positive. Its domain is all real numbers
x = 0. Its graph has no x-intercept and no y-intercept. Sketch a possible graph
function.
e A function has the property that the gradient at any point on its graph equals
coordinate of that point. Sketch a possible graph of this function.
f A function has the property that the gradient at any point on its graph equals
coordinate of that point. Sketch a possible graph of this function.
7

except
of this
the xthe y-

a A function is positive for all values of x. What does this tell you about the gradient of
the function?
b The gradient of a function is positive for all values of x. What does this tell you about
the function?

8 Each of these news stories is about a rate, and how it changes. Sketch a graph to illustrate
each. Include a title, and label your axes.
a Our country is in danger of becoming overpopulated. There is some good news, though.
Although the population is still growing too fast, the growth rate has decreased significantly each year for the last decade.
b While the number of incidents of SIDS is still on a downward trend, the rate at which it
is decreasing is slowing.
c There is good news in the fight against drink driving. The decline in the number of drink
drivers has been increasing each year.
9 For each of the graphs below, make up a news story to match.
a
b
c
y

population

x
year

deaths

x
year

frequency

x
month

savings

x
cost

365

INSTANTANEOUS RATES OF CHANGE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS (Chapter 11)

MODELLING
1 Alongside are two graphs showing the amount of
aspirin (measured in mg per litre) in the bloodstream at a time t hours after the aspirin was
taken. One graph is of a slow-release tablet,
while the other is a fast-acting aspirin.
a Which is the graph of the fast-acting tablet?
Explain how you arrived at your decision.

amount
y
1.5
1
0.5

t
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
time (hours)

b What is the maximum concentration of the


i fast-acting tablet
ii slow-release tablet?

c For each tablet, estimate the rate at which the drug is entering the bloodstream after
one hour.
d For each tablet, estimate the rate at which the drug is entering the bloodstream after
two hours.
e Which tablet will have the most effect two hours after the drug was taken? Explain.
f Which tablet will have the most effect four hours after the drug was taken? Explain.

PROBLEM SOLVING

M
EXERCISE 11M

1 P(1, 3) is a point on the curve with equation y = x(4 x). If the normal to the curve
at P cuts the curve again at point Q, find the equation to the tangent at Q.
2 f 0 (x) is one symbol used for the derivative of a function.

f 00 (x) is a symbol used when we differentiate a function twice.


We call f 00 (x) the second derivative.
For example, if f(x) = x2 5x + 6
then f 0 (x) = 2x 5
and f 00 (x) = 2:
If f(x) = ax +

b
, a, b 2 R, prove that f (x) = xf 0 (x) + x2 f 00 (x):
x

3 The angle of intersection of two curves can be


defined as the acute angle between the tangents
to the curves at the intersection points. Find the
angle of intersection of the two curves
2

y = x + 3
y = x2 5:

4
-4

-2

2
-2
-4
-6

y
2

366

INSTANTANEOUS RATES OF CHANGE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS (Chapter 11)

4 A space vehicle is moving on a path which is


2
2d
where
described by the equation y = d 3 +
3
y is the vertical distance from the launch point
and d is the horizontal distance from launch point
in kilometres.

When the horizontal distance is 27 000 km, the


space vehicle is to fire an exploratory rocket into
space tangentially on a straight line course for
Bega Nova, an abandoned space station which is
located at a horizontal distance of 93 300 km and
a vertical distance of 1.3 105 km from earth.
Will the rocket lay a course which will dock with
Bega Nova?
5 If pv1:5 = k

(a constant), prove that

dP
1:5P
=
.
dv
v
Newtons Law of Gravitation states that
the gravitational force between two particles of mass m1 and m2 at a distance r is
Gm1 m2
. Find the rate
given by F =
r2
of change of force between the particles
with respect to r (i.e., assume m1 and m2
are constant).

m2
m1

F
F
r

7 The time it takes a pendulum to complete one


swing is called its period. The period, T ,
is a function
of its length, l, and is given by
r
l
T = 2
where g is the acceleration due to
g
dT
.
gravity (which is constant). Find
dl
8 Consider the following table of values:

x
y

1
3

2
8:485

3
15:59

4
24

5
33:54

If these values are from a function of the form y = axn , find the gradient of this
function when x = 2:5.
r
1
T
where
9 The frequency of vibrations of a vibrating violin string is given by f =
2L
L is the length of the string, T is the tension in the string, and is its linear density.
Find the rate of change of the frequency with respect to
a L, if T and are constants
b T , if L and are constants
c , if L and T are constants.
10 Prove that the derivative of an even function is odd, and that the derivative of an odd function
is even.

INSTANTANEOUS RATES OF CHANGE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS (Chapter 11)

367

WORDS YOU SHOULD KNOW


chain rule
composite functions
derivative
derived function
differentiation

gradient
indeterminate
instantaneous velocity
limit
neighbouring point

normal
product rule
quotient rule
secant
tangent

CHAPTER 11 REVISION SET


1 Differentiate using the definition: y = x3 2x
2 Differentiate by rule:
a

y =x+

y=

2
1
+
x x2

3x 4
2x + 5

y = (3x4 5)5

y = (x3 2)2 (x2 2)

3 A ball is thrown vertically upwards and its height after t seconds is s metres where
s = 30t 5t2 . Find
a
b
c
d
e

its velocity at 2 seconds


its acceleration
when it is momentarily at rest
the greatest height reached
the time taken to reach the ground again.

tangent ii

normal to the parabola y =

x2
at the
4

Find the equation of the i


point (6, 9).

Find the distance between the points where the tangent and normal meet the y-axis.

5 A companys annual profit P is related to time t, by the equation P = 0:03t2 + 5, t 6 3


where P is the profit in millions of dollars for the tth year the company has been operating.
a Find the rate of change of profit in the second year. Is the profit increasing or decreasing
at this point?
b If the rate of change of profit remains constant at and beyond the third year, find the
equation relating P and t for t > 3. Calculate the profit for the 6th year.
6 If y = x x prove that
2

d2 y

dx2

7 If y = xm (xn + 1) prove that


8 If h(x) =

a
x2

dy
dx

2
+2

dy
= 4(x y) 1.
dx

dy
= (m + n)xm+n1 + mxm1 .
dx

and h0 (1) = 4 find the value of a.

368

INSTANTANEOUS RATES OF CHANGE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS

(Chapter 11)

CHAPTER 11 TEST (KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES)


1

a Differentiate from the definition of the derivative: y = 2x2 x + 3


dy
y
b Draw a diagram to show why

when x is chosen close enough to 0.


dx
x

2 Differentiate by rule:

4
x2

y = 3x2 + 2x

y = (3x + 1)3 (2x 4)

y = (3x2 2)(x + 1)

y=

y=

p
4x2 + 9

(1 8x)2
x+1

a Differentiate y = (3x + 4)3 using the function of a function rule.


b Expand y = (3x + 4)3 by the binomial theorem and differentiate.
c Show that these results are identical.

4 The position of a particle is given by s = 2t3 2t + 1. Find its instantaneous velocity


after 2 seconds.
5 The graph of y = x2 x 2 cuts the x-axis at points A and B.
a Find the gradient of the curve at each of these two points.
b Find the equation of the normal at B.

6 The amount of pollution P units in a stream is found to be P = (t 4 + 1)4 where t is the


time period measured in months. At what rate is the amount of pollution changing after
8 months?

CHAPTER

12

Revision
exercises for
chapters
7 to 11

Review exercises are reproduced as student worksheets


on the CD and are accessible
by clicking on this icon

370

REVISION EXERCISES FOR CHAPTERS 7 T O 11

REVIEW OF CHAPTER 7

A
1

(Chapter 12)

a Express in index notation.


i 88888

ii

c Simplify
i 2z 5 3z 2

ii

a2 b a3 b5

ii

12uv2 w3
8v

ii

6(w4 )2
4(w5 )2

3xxxyyyy

i Express 273 as prime factors.


ii Express in factor form (5s4 t3 )2

d Simplify
21d8
i
7d7
e Simplify
i

(x3 )2

f Write without brackets, simplifying where possible.


i (ef )3
ii 5ab4 (2ab)3
g Simplify
i 3a 2b c

h Simplify
i 3a2 b 5ab2 (ab)3
2

ii

(3m)3 (m)5

ii

(2p2 q)2 (2p3 ) (3q 2 ) (2p)

a Simplify without using a calculator.


i 57:8o
ii e0
b Evaluate without using a calculator, simplifying where possible.
i 16 82
ii 71
c Express with positive indices.
i p2 q 2
ii

1 12 6 3
( 27
s t )

d Evaluate without using a calculator, simplifying where possible.


1
1
i 125 3
ii (18 72) 4
e Evaluate without using a calculator, simplifying where possible.
2
5
i 8 3
ii 64 3
f Write using radicals.
5
i 16 2

ii

(3p) 5

g Write using index notation. Simplify if possible.


1
9
i p
ii p
3
z
49g 6
h Simplify, without using a calculator.
7
1
i 3 23
ii k 3 k 3
i Simplify
3n 27n+1
i
92n2

ii

82n 64n2

REVISION EXERCISES FOR CHAPTERS 7 TO 11 (Chapter 12)

j Use index laws to determine which of the following are equal.


1
1
1
1 13
A 27 3
B
C ( 27
)
D
E
1
1
27 3
27 3
3

q
3

1
27

1
p
3
27

a Write each of the following in the equivalent logarithmic form.


1
i 81 = 34
ii 15 = 25( 2 )
b Write each of the following in the equivalent index form.
1
i log2 32 = 5
ii log10 ( 100
) = 2
c Find the value of
i log5 125

ii

loga ax

a Evaluate the following:


i log 47 + 2 log 72 log 14
36 log 18
b Express as a single logarithm.
i log 4 + log 5
ii

5 Solve for x:
a log(x + 4) log x = 1

ii

log5

p
p
100 + log5 50 log5 20

2 log 7 3 log 5

log x + log(x 3) = 1

6 Simplify without a calculator


a

log 27
log 3

log 2
log 8

logx x1

log 9
log 13

7 Simplify
a
8

loga a5

a Use a calculator to evaluate


i

log9 11

ii

log500 10

ii

logp q logq r

b Evaluate without a calculator


i
c

log2 8 log7 8 log2 7

i Simplify logk2 k logk3 k 2

ii Calculate z if log3 10 log10 3 = logd z


d If log3 2 = p and log2 5 = q, express the following in terms of p and q.
i

log9 36

ii

log15 20

ii

loga b2
loga c2 logc b2

ii

p
( 5)x = 0:2

ii

6x1 = 32x

e Simplify
i
9

logb2 a loga3 b

a Solve for x.
i

4x = 7

b Solve for x.
i

5x1 = 9

371

372

10

REVISION EXERCISES FOR CHAPTERS 7 TO 11 (Chapter 12)

a Find the value of the unknown variable.


A

i
ii
iii
iv
v

$54 000
$20 000
$4000
$1 million

P
$2000
$15 000
$550
$300 000

i
7.4 % p.a. compounded monthly
1.5% p.a. compounded annually
...... compounded annually
...... compounded monthly
11.5% p.a. compounded monthly

n
15 years
12 years
8 years
20 years

b It is anticipated that an investment will grow to $60 000 after 4 years, with an annual
interest rate of 7% p.a. If interest is compounded annually, what initial amount must be
invested?
c Forty thousand dollars was deposited in an account that pays interest compounded monthly.
It has grown to $100 000 in 8 years. Calculate the value of i, the annual interest rate.
d How many years will it take for an investment of $1000 earning 7.5% p.a. compounded
annually to grow to $1500?
e The formula for growth due to inflation is F V = P V (1 + i)n

where

F V = the future value (cost of a commodity in the future)


P V = present value (cost of a commodity now)
i = the annual percentage increase of the cost, as a decimal (e.g., 4% = 0.04)
n = the number of years
i A house is worth $235 000 today. If its cost increases by 5% per year, what will it
cost in eight years?

ii A bottle of milk triples in price over a fifteen year period. What was the annual
percentage increase in its cost?
iii How many years will it take an investment that increases in value by 15% per year
to grow in value from $80 000 to $300 000?
11 Under testing a jet engine is accelerated from 8000 to 10 000 revolutions per minute (rpm).
The instrumentation records the following data:
time (seconds)
speed (rpm)

0:08
9590

0:10
9720

0:12
9810

0:14
9870

0:16
9910

0:18
9940

0:2
9960

a Assume that the relationship between the engine speed n and the time t is in the form
m = atk where m = 10 000 n. By first taking logs of m and t, find the values of
a and k.
b Construct a residual plot of the transformed data. Using this residual plot, comment on
the appropriateness of the model.

B
1

REVIEW OF CHAPTER 8
a Which of the following are polynomials? For those that are not, explain why they are not
polynomials.
4x
i f (x) = 3 + x
ii g(x) = 2
iii k(x) = (x + 1)(x2 + 3x 1)
x + 15
b Evaluate each of the following polynomials for the given values of x.
i f (x) = x4 4x2 + 7, f (0), f (2) ii h(x) = 7 x 2x2 + 4x3 , h(3), h(9)

REVISION EXERCISES FOR CHAPTERS 7 TO 11 (Chapter 12)

2 Expand each of these polynomials.


a g(x) = 3(x 5)(x + 4)
3

373

F (t) = (t 4)(t + 4)(2t 1)

a Expand and simplify, using the binomial expansion for (a + b)n


i (x + 3)3
ii (3 2z)4

b Express in the form (x + a)n


i t3 3t2 + 3t 1

ii

x4 8x3 + 24x2 32x + 16

c Write the equations of three polynomials that intersect the x-axis at x = 3, 0 and 2.

d Write the equations of three polynomials that intersect the y-axis at y = 7.

e Write the equations of three polynomials that pass through the point (1, 3).
4

a Form the composite function y = f (x) if


i y = u + 2 and u = 2x 12
ii y = t2 2t + 3 and t = x2 1

b Consider the function f (x) = x 2x2 . Find an expression in simplest form for
i f (z)
ii f(2c)
iii f (2t2 + 1)
c f (x) = x2 + 2x 1 and g(x) = x 4. Find
i

ii

f [g(x)]

d f (x) = 3 x + x3
i

f g

f [g(1)]

iv

f [f (1)]]

and g(x) = 2 x. Find


ii

gf

e Solve the following:


i (y + 2)2 3(y + 2) + 2 = 0
5

iii

g[g(x)]

ii

(x2 3x 1)2 12(x2 3x 1) + 27 = 0

a Sketch the graphs of these polynomials using a graphics calculator. Adjust the window
to include all points of interest. State the coordinates of the zeros, the y-intercept, and
the local maximum and minimum values.
i y = x(x + 3)(x 1)
ii y = x4 + 2x3 x2 2x

b Sketch the graphs of


i y = x4
iii

ii
2

y = (x x + 4)(x x + 4)

y = x(x + 3)(x 2)(x 1)

simultaneously in the window (3, 3, 1; 25, 20, 4). Now change the window to
(40, 40, 4; 50 000, 50 000, 10 000). Comment on what the two different views of the
functions show you.
6 Answer the following questions using your knowledge of zeros of a function. Check your
answers using a graphics calculator.
a What are the zeros of the polynomial g(x) = (x + 1)(x 3)(x + 2)? What happens
to the function for large positive values of x? For large negative values? Draw a sketch
of what you think the graph may look like.
b By hand, sketch both g(x) and h(x) = 2(x + 1)(x 3)(x + 2) on the same set of
axes. What is the effect of the factor of 2? How does the factor of 2 affect the zeros of
g(x)?
c Use a graphics calculator to find the coordinates of the local maximums and local minimums of g(x) and h(x). Comment on your answers.

374
7

REVISION EXERCISES FOR CHAPTERS 7 TO 11 (Chapter 12)

a Draw on your graphics calculator the graphs of the functions below. Set your window to
show all points of interest.
i y = (x 1)(x + 1)2
ii y = 2(x + 2)(x + 1)2 iii y = (x + 2)2 (x 3)3
b Find the equation of a cubic function for which all of the interesting points lie in the
window (1, 1, 1; 1, 1, 1).

a Describe in words how the graphs of each of these functions is a transformation of the
graph of f(x).
i f (x + 2)
ii f (x 2) + 1
b If f(x) = x4 , sketch by hand the graphs of each of these functions above. Check your
answers with a graphics calculator.

a The owner of a small business estimates that the profit from producing x items is given
by the function P (x) = 0:002x3 1:5x2 + 350x 1000
i If current production levels cannot exceed 300 items due to limits on space and
resources, how many items should be produced to maximise profit?
ii If, through a re-organisation of the business, production levels can be increased to
400 items (with the same profit function), how many items should be produced to
earn the maximum profit?
iii What is the maximum profit that can be earned at this increased production level?
b A business has won a contract to make a large number
of rectangular bins. The bins are to be open on top and
have a square base. These bins must have a volume
1
of 20
m3 . To minimise costs (and therefore maximise
profits) you are given the job of designing a bin of the
required volume that has the minimum surface area.
The formula for the volume V of a bin of side s and
height h is V = s2 h while the formula for surface
area is AS = area of vertical sides + area of square
base, or AS = 4sh + s2

i Use the volume formula and the fact that the volume of the bin is
expression for h in terms of s.

s
1
20

m3 to write an

ii Hence express the surface area in terms of s only.


iii Use a graphics calculator to sketch the graph of AS (y-axis) against s (x-axis).
iv Hence find the dimensions of the bin to be manufactured if the surface area is to be
a minimum.

REVIEW OF CHAPTER 9

C
1

1
, sketch by hand the graphs of each of these functions.
x
You should check your answers with a graphics calculator.
i f (x) + 3
ii f(x 2) 7

a If f(x) =

b Use your knowledge of transformation of functions to sketch the following sets of graphs
by hand. Use a graphics calculator to check your solution.

REVISION EXERCISES FOR CHAPTERS 7 TO 11 (Chapter 12)

y=

2
1
1
, y= , y=
x
x
4x

ii

y=

1
1
1
, y=
, y = +3
x
x5
x

iii

y=

1
1
1
, y=
1, y =
1
x
x+2
3x

c A manufacturer has sheets of metal


to be stamped out as circular discs
for identification tags for a chain of
pet shops. The sheets of metal are
6 metres by 2 metres. Let the discs
be d mm in diameter, and assume
that the discs are stamped out in a
regular rectangular pattern with no
gaps between the discs. The independent variable is the diameter of
the discs, and the dependent variable
is the number size of the discs.

375

...

...

i Find a function that gives the number of discs stamped from one sheet in terms of
the diameter of the discs (assume a fractional number of discs is possible here).
ii Sketch the graph of the function.
iii Using your function in part i, determine the number of discs with diameter 33 mm
that could be stamped from one sheet.
iv A grade 9 class works out correctly, using mensuration, that the number of discs of
diameter 33 millimetres that can be stamped from one sheet is 10 860. Comment on
the reason why this does not agree with your answer to iii above.
2 On a overland train journey breakfast, lunch and dinner are at 8 am, noon and 6 pm for prices
of $10, $15 and $25. A journey of 1800 km takes 36 hours and costs 30 cents per km. Plot
the cost of a journey leaving at midnight and arriving 36 hours later assuming that meals are
paid for as they are taken. Plot the cost versus the number of elapsed hours of travel time.
3

a A Pennyfarthing bicycle has one large wheel at the front and a small one at the rear. The
front wheel is 150 cm in diameter and the rear wheel is 30 cm in diameter. What is the
rotational speed in revolutions per minute of the rear wheel if the front wheel is rotating
at 30 revolutions per minute?
b The momentum of a body is equal to the mass times the velocity of the body. A collides
with B. During the collision mass A moving at 7 metres per second is stopped and mass
B moves off from rest. Mass A is half that of mass B and the momentum of mass A is
transferred to mass B during the collision. What will be the velocity of mass B after the
collision?
c For a cylinder with a given volume, the square of the radius of the cylinder varies inversely
with the height.
i Explain why this is true.
ii A cylinder with a base radius of 40 cm has a height of 25 cm. If the volume is to
remain constant, what is the height if the base radius is 3 cm?

376

REVISION EXERCISES FOR CHAPTERS 7 TO 11 (Chapter 12)

a Sketch the graph of each of these equations:


i x2 + y 2 = 4
iii 2(x 2)2 + 2(y + 4)2 = 50

b Give the equation of each graph below:


i
ii
y
4

-4

x
-4

-2

ii

(x + 2)2 + y2 = 16

iii

2
2

-2

1.5

-2

-4

-2

0.5

-6

-4

-8

-1

-0.5

x
0.5

-0.5

c Write each of these equations of a circle in the general form:


i (x + 3)2 + (y 4)2 = 9
ii 2(x 3)2 + 2y 2 = 6

d Write each of these equations of a circle in the centre-radius form:


i x2 4x + y2 + 3 = 0
ii x2 + y2 6x + 4y 11 = 0
2
2
iii x + y 3x + 2y = 0

e Sketch the graph of this circle on a graphics calculator: x2 + y 2 6x + 4y 11 = 0

a Show that the lines 2x + 4y 2 = 0, x y 4 = 0 and x 7y 10 = 0 are


concurrent.
b

i Find the points at which the line 4x + y 5 = 0 intersects the parabola


y = x2 3x + 3

ii Find the points where the line y + x 3 = 0 meets the circle x2 + y2 = 5

iii Prove that the line 2y x 2 = 0 touches the circle x2 + y2 + 2x 6y + 5 = 0

iv Show that the circles x2 + y2 = 5 and x2 + y 2 8x + 16y + 35 = 0 touch


each other.

i Find the points of intersection of the line x + 2y = 11 and the hyperbola


xy = 15
ii Solve algebraically this system of equations: 2x + y 5 = 0 and xy 2x2 = 0

d Use a graphics calculator or graphing software to find the points of intersection of the
following curves:
the circle x2 + 2x + y 2 6y 3 = 0 and the parabola y = x2 + 3x 3
6

a Classify each of these relations as one-to-one, many-to-one, one-to-many or many-tomany.


i
ii
iii
iv

REVISION EXERCISES FOR CHAPTERS 7 TO 11 (Chapter 12)

377

b Consider a family consisting of Nanna, her daughter Claire, who is married to Steve and
their two daughters Alicia and Portia. Classify each of these relations as one-to-one,
many-to-one, one-to-many or many-to-many. Justify your answers.
i x is the daughter of y
ii x is married to y
iii x has the granddaughter y
iv x has the child y

REVIEW OF CHAPTER 10

D
1

i In comparing two silicon chip manufacturing processes, a production manager counted


11 defective chips in a batch of 2000 chips from process A, and 8 defective chips in
1500 chips from process B. Which process was more reliable?

ii The distance from the Moon to the Earth is about 385 000 kilometres. Assuming that
the path of the Moon is a circle, what is the speed of the Moon around the Earth?
iii A stall holder at a local market sold 35 leather wallets at $14 each, and a further 21
wallets at the discounted price of $10 each. What was the average price per wallet?
i Fred received 27 out of 30 marks for the mid-semester exam, 90 out of 100 for
assignment work and 52 out of 70 in the final exam. Fred added the marks gained
and the total marks available and calculated the percentage of marks gained.
If assignments count 10%, the mid-semester test counts 20%, and the final exam
70%, did Fred calculate his final percentage correctly? If not, how should he have
calculated it?

ii A car travelled from Kenmore to King George Square at an average speed of 40


km/h. What speed must it average on the return journey so the overall average speed
is 50 km/h?
iii A 4 litre can of paint is said to be sufficient to cover 8 sq. metres. What average
thickness of paint does this imply, before evaporation takes place?
c In Queensland before metric measure was adopted, land was often measured in perches,
an abbreviation of square perches in fact. One linear perch is 5.5 yards and one square
perch is 30.25 square yards. An acre is 4840 square yards. How many perches are there
in one acre?
Given that one yard is 36 inches and 1 metre is 39.37 inches, how large in square metres
is a suburban block of 24 perches?
2

a From the table on page 310, determine the average speed for the section from:
i Gympie to Gladstone
ii Nambour to Rockhampton
b The table shows the population of Australia over
45 years.

Calculate the annual rate of growth of Australias


population over the periods:
i
ii

1950 - 1970
1990 - 1995

Year
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995

Population (millions)
8267
10 361
12 660
14 616
17 033
17 269
17 493
17 700
17 893
18 079

378

REVISION EXERCISES FOR CHAPTERS 7 TO 11 (Chapter 12)

The graph below shows the depth of water in a shallow dish during one hot day in
Cairns, over a 24 hour period.
Use the graph to answer the following questions. Show how you arrived at your answers.
.
14

mm

12
10
8
6
4
2
0

mid.

3 a.m.

6 a.m.

9 a.m.

noon

3 p.m.

6 p.m.

9 p.m.

mid

3 The graph on the right shows the velocity of


a car over a period of sixteen seconds. Recall
that a change in velocity over time is called
acceleration.
a
b

km/hour

i What happened between 3 a.m. and 6 a.m.?


ii When is the rate of evaporation the greatest?
iii Use the graph to estimate the rate of evaporation at 3 p.m.

24
21
18
15

Describe what the car was doing in the


first six seconds.

12

What was the average velocity during this


time?

9
3
0

8 10 12 14 16
seconds

Describe the motion of the car between


the sixth and tenth seconds.

d
e
f

What did the car do from the tenth to the fourteenth second?
What was the acceleration between the fourteenth and sixteenth second?
What was the total distance travelled in these sixteen seconds?

5 The height of a hot air balloon after its launch


is shown in the graph. Draw the graph showing vertical speed (in metres per minute) for
this balloon.

metres

4 Draw a velocity time graph for this story. You should supply your own distances and times.
Every morning, Jenna walks briskly to the coffee shop. She has her coffee while reading the
Courier Mail. She walks briskly to the corner shop, where she usually buys a few items.
Carrying her purchases, she strolls back home.
320
280
240
200
160

120
80

40
0

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
minutes

REVISION EXERCISES FOR CHAPTERS 7 TO 11 (Chapter 12)

379

Three children, aged 8, 5 and 3 had a


bath together. The graph below shows
the water level at various times. Make
up a story to match the graph.

depth (cm)
40
30
20
10

time
6:00 pm

6:05 pm

6:10 pm

6:15 pm

6:20 pm

6:25 pm

7 Shown below is a height versus time graph for a parachutist doing a parachute jump.
height (m)
1500

Q
R

1000
500

S
4

12

T
16

time (min)

a The jump can be divided into four portions - from P to Q, from Q to R, from R to S and
from S to T. Explain what is happening during each of these portions.
b During which stage of the jump was the parachutist falling fastest?
c Estimate how fast he was falling in metres per second during this section.
d How fast was he falling between S and T?
e At what speed did he hit the ground?
f Estimate how fast he was falling between Q and R.
8

a On graph paper, accurately sketch each of the functions given below. Draw a tangent line
to the function at the given point. Estimate the gradient of the tangent line, and hence the
gradient of the function at that point.
Function

i
ii

Coordinates
3

h(x) = 3 x

i(x) = x2 3

(1, 2)
(1, 2)

b For each function in a, make a table of secants, and hence estimate the gradient of the
function at that point. Compare these answers to those you found by drawing the tangent
line.
c Consider the function y = 1 x2 . Estimate the gradient of the function at each of
these points:
i (0, 1)
ii (1, 0)
iii (2, 3)
iv (3, 8)
v (4, 15)
Can you guess what the rule for finding the gradient at any point might be?

380

REVISION EXERCISES FOR CHAPTERS 7 TO 11 (Chapter 12)

REVIEW OF CHAPTER 11

E
1

a Refer to the diagram on page 327. Consider the velocity of the marble rolling down the
incline when it is at B, i.e., after 1 second. By considering the average velocity for small
time intervals just after 1 second, determine the instantaneous velocity of the marble at B.
b Assume the displacement s at time t is given by s = 13 t3
i Where is the marble after 3 seconds?
ii What is a likely value instantaneous velocity at this time?

a Evaluate

lim

x!3

x5
x+2

ii
x
3

b Using f(x) = 2x2 , g(x) =

lim 3

x!2

and a = 3, verify the Limit Laws.

c By first simplifying each of the rational expressions, evaluate each of the following limits.
Use a graphics calculator to check your answers.
x+1
x2 + 2x 8
i
lim 2
ii lim
x!1 x 1
x!2
x2
d By writing as a single simplified fraction, find

(x + a)1 x1
a

lim

a!0

e Evaluate
i
3

lim

x!1

1
x+2

ii

lim

x!1

8x + 4
2x 3

a Use your graphics calculator to evaluate 1 +

1
3

iii

1+

1
3

lim

x!1

1
9

x2 30x 1000
x1

1+

1
3

1
9

1
27

b Continue this pattern for another three terms.


c Make a conjecture about the value of 1 +
number of terms.
4 For each of the following functions, find

y = x4

y = x3 6x + 5

a Differentiate by rule.
i y = x5
iv y = 3
vii y = t3

ii
v
viii

b Differentiate by rule.
i

1
3

+ 19 +

1
27

+ ::::, i.e., if we sum an infinite

dy
from the definition of a derivative.
dx

y = 4x3
1
y=
(x + 1)

y = 3x2 x 1

y = (2x + 1)(x 3)

y = x6
y = x2
y = 4x4 4x + 7x2

iii
vi

y = 5x2
y = 13 x4

s(t) = 3t2

ii

s(x) = 5x1

iii

f (x) = x2 + x4 + x6

5
x1

g(x) =

2
x4
p
y = 2 x

vi

y=

iv

f (x) =

vii

y = x3

viii

ix

1
+5
x2
p
y = 2 x 4x

381

REVISION EXERCISES FOR CHAPTERS 7 TO 11 (Chapter 12)

c Find

d i

d
dx

iv

d
dx

3
p
4 x
3
p
x3

34
1
p
x2
x

d
dx

p
d
(4x 2 4 x)
dx

If s = 3t 7t3 , find

ii

ds
:
dt

ii

iii

d
dp

vi

d
dt

What is the value of

p 7p2
p2

ct
b

2t2 7t4

ds
when t = 2?
dt

e The formula for the volume of a cone of height h and base radius r is is V = 13 r2 h
i Find
ii Find
6

dV
dr
dV
dh

assuming that h is constant.


assuming that r is constant.

7t2
2t3

+ 3t where t is the time in


3
2
seconds and s is the displacement in metres. Find
i expressions for its velocity and acceleration at any time t
ii when the particle is at rest, i.e., when v = 0
iii when it is travelling with a constant velocity, i.e., when the
acceleration, a , is zero.

a The motion of a particle is given by s =

b A test rockets height in metres above its launching point is given


by h = 90t2 2t3 where t is the time in seconds after launch.
dh
of the rocket.
i Find the velocity
dt
ii At the top of its flight, the velocity of the rocket will
be zero. Find this maximum height.
150 000
+ 5x, where x is the
c The annual inventory cost for a manufacturer is C =
x
order size when the new stock is purchased. Determine the rate of change in inventory
costs when the order size = 50.
7

a Find the equation of the tangent and normal at the points where x has the given value.
i y = x(4 x), x = 3
ii y = x3 10x + 5, x = 3

b Find the point(s) on the curve y = x3 + 6x2 + 12x + 4 where the tangent is parallel
to the x-axis.
c Find the coordinates of the point at which f (x) = x 1 will touch
g(x) = x2 5x + 3. Show that f (x) is the tangent to g(x) at that point.
8

a Differentiate each of the following functions.


i y = (x 8)4
ii y = (3x 2)2
iv

vii
x

y = (x3 3x2 + 1)9


2
y=
(x 5)4
1
y=p
2x2 3x + 4

viii

y = (x 5)3
p
y = 3 2x + 4

iii
vi
ix

y = (3 x)6

y = (6 x)2
1
y= 2
x + 4x 2

382

REVISION EXERCISES FOR CHAPTERS 7 TO 11 (Chapter 12)

i Differentiate y = (x 1)4

ii Expand (x 1)
expression.

by using the function of a function rule.

by the binomial theorem, and then differentiate the resulting

iii Show that these two results are the same.


c The velocity of a tilt train over a section of its journey is given by
1
v = 2
metres per second. Find the instantaneous acceleration at t = 3
(t + 1)2
seconds.
d If a tank holds 3000 litres of water which takes 20 minutes to drain from the tank, then
the volume of water remaining in the tank after t minutes is given by

2
t
V = 3000 1
, 0 6 t 6 20
20
Find the rate at which the water is flowing out of the tank after
i 3 min
ii 20 min

9 It is known that the intensity of light at a point


P on the ground, from a light x metres above the
x
ground, is given by I = 3
d
The diagram shows a point AB which is 8 metres
horizontally from P. The light at A is x metres
above the ground.

A
d
x
8m
B

a Find I as a function of x.
b On your graphics calculator, draw a graph of I versus x for [1, 10, 0:1; 0:001, 0:01,
0:001].
c From the graph, find the value of x which gives maximum intensity at P.
10

a Differentiate using the product rule:


i y = (3x + 1)(2x 2)
iii y = (x2 3x3 )(6x4 + 1)

ii
iv

y = 3(2x + 1)(x 7)
s = (2t 3)4 (6 5t)3

dy
if
dx
p
y = (x + 1) x 1
p p
y = x 3+x

ii

p
y = (x + 3)3 x

iv

y = (x2 + 3)2 (2x 5)3

b Find
i
iii

c Students often ask why the product rule is not applied to functions such as y = 2x. It
can be! Show this, by differentiating using the product rule:
i y = 4x
ii y = x3 (Think of this as the product x x2 )
11

a Differentiate using the product rule:


(3x 5)
(2x + 4)3
i y=
ii y =
(x + 2)
(5x 3)5
b Differentiate using the quotient rule:
8x + 5
(x 5)2
i y=
ii y =
3x 7
(4 x2 )3

REVISION EXERCISES FOR CHAPTERS 7 TO 11 (Chapter 12)

383

c Differentiate, using whichever method you prefer:


i

y=

3x 6
2x + 4

d Differentiate y =
i
ii
iii
iv

ii

y=

(x 4)2
(2x + 1)3

x+3
y=p
3x 1

iii

2
(3x 1)3

by rewriting as a product, and then using the chain rule


by rewriting as a product, and then using the product rule
using the quotient rule.
Which method of differentiating this function do you prefer? Why?

e Use your knowledge of algebraic fractions and index laws to first simplify these functions,
and then differentiate.
i

y=

3x 4
x

ii

y=

4x + 5
(4x + 5)2

12 Differentiate these functions, using any appropriate method:

3
x + 35

y = 2(4x 1)3

y=

y=

5x 5
3
x2

y = x2 (2x 3)(3x + 2)

(4x + 1)2
2x3
p
5x
y=p
x3 + 2
y=

13 For each function below:


i
ii
iii
iv
v
vi

For
For
For
For
For
For

what
what
what
what
what
what

values
values
values
values
values
values

of
of
of
of
of
of

x
x
x
x
x
x

is
is
is
is
is
is

the
the
the
the
the
the

function zero?
function positive?
function negative?
gradient zero?
gradient positive?
gradient negative?
b

(1' 2)

(0' 1)

(-2' 0)

(-5' 0)

(-1' 0)

(0'-1)

(-1' 0)

(3' 0)

(4' 6)

(-2'-2)

(6' 0)

y
x

x=2

14 For each function in question 13, for what values of x is the gradient of the function increasing?

384

REVISION EXERCISES FOR CHAPTERS 7 TO 11 (Chapter 12)

15 Draw neat sketches of functions for which


a
b
c
d

the
the
the
the

gradient is
gradient is
gradient is
gradient is

positive and the gradient is increasing


positive and the gradient is decreasing
negative and the gradient is increasing
negative and the gradient is decreasing.

16 For each of these functions, draw a neat sketch of a gradient function.


y
y
a
b

(2, 2)

@=4-!S

x
x

(-2,-4)

@=3!+4
x
x
x=2

17

a A function has a gradient of zero at (2, 5) and (0, 3). The gradient is positive for values
of x < 2 and x > 0, and negative for 2 < x < 0. Draw a sketch of the function.

b A function has a gradient of zero at (3, 9) and (0, 0). The gradient is negative for all
other values of x. Draw a sketch of the function.
c A function has zeros at 2 and 6, and a zero gradient at (1, 3).
18

a The gradient of a function is zero for all values of x. What does this tell you about the
function?
b The gradient of a function is negative for all values of x. What does this tell you about
the function?

19

a A function has its derivative equal to 2 at (4, 2), turning points at (2, 1) and (0, 4)
and its only zero at (3, 0). Sketch a possible graph of this function.
b A function has a domain that consists of all real numbers, is positive for all values of x,
and has a derivative that is negative for all values of x. It has a horizontal asymptote at
y = 1. Sketch a possible graph of this function.

deaths

thousand $

20 For each of the graphs below, make up a news story to match the graph.
a
b
y

year

year

APPENDIX
Maintaining
basic
knowledge
and
procedures

SUBJECT MATTER
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

measurement
percentage
basic algebraic procedures
rational numbers and expressions
linear equations and inequations
formulae
Pythagoras Theorem
distance and mid-point formula
sigma notation

386

MAINTAINING BASIC KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES

(APPENDIX 1)

MEASUREMENT

A
LENGTH AND PERIMETER

The metric system uses prefixes to indicate an increase or decrease in the size of a unit.
Prefix

Symbol

terra
giga
mega
kilo
hecto
deka

T
G
M
k
h
da

Meaning

Prefix

Symbol

1 000 000 000 000


1 000 000 000
1 000 000
1 000
100
10

deci
centi
milli
micro
nano
pico

d
c
m
m
n
p

Meaning
0.1
0.01
0.001
0.000 001
0.000 000 001
0.000 000 000 0001

The measurement of length, area and volume is of great importance. Constructing a tall building,
building a long bridge across a river, rendezvousing in space to repair a satellite, all require use
of measurement with skill and precision. Builders, architects, engineers and manufacturers need to
measure the sizes of objects to considerable accuracy. The most common system of measurement
is the International System of Units commonly called the Metric System.
The tables alongside summarise the units of
length and conversion factors. The basic unit
of length in the International System of units
is the metre.

1 kilometre (km) = 1000 metres (m)


1 centimetre (cm) =
1 millimetre (mm) =

1
100 m
1
1000 m

= 0:01 m
= 0:001 m

Conversions:
1 m = 100 cm
= 1000 mm
1
km
= 1000

1 km = 1000 m
= 100 000 cm
= 1 000 000 mm

1 cm = 10 mm
1
m
= 100

1 mm =

1
10 cm
1
1000 m

PERIMETER FORMULAE
The distance around a closed figure is its perimeter. For some shapes we can derive a formula for
perimeter. The formulae for the most common shapes are given below:

Square
P = 4l

Note:

Rectangle

Triangle

Circle

P = 2(l + b)

P =a+b+c

C = 2r
or C = d

l=

Arc

360

2r

The formula for the length of an arc is relatively simple to derive using the formula for
the circumference of a circle. See if you can derive this for yourself.

MAINTAINING BASIC KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES

(APPENDIX 1)

387

EXAMPLE 13.1
Find the perimeter of
a

4 cm

2 cm

2 cm
1 cm

6.4 m

5m

3 cm

7.8 m

3 cm

Perimeter
= (2 + 3 + 1 + 3 + 2 + 4) cm
= 15 cm

Perimeter
= 5 m + 6.4 m + 7.8 m
= 19.2 m

EXERCISE 13A.1
1

a Find the circumference of a circle of radius 13:4 cm.


b Find the length of an arc of a circle of radius 8 cm and angle 120o :

2 Find the perimeter of the following shapes:


a
b
5 cm

c
3 cm

10 cm

4 cm

3 Solve the following problems:


a Determine the length of fencing around an 80 m by 170 m rectangular playing field, if
the fence is to be 25 m outside the edge of the playing field.
b A soccer goal net has the shape shown. If the
5m
netting has 5 cm by 5 cm square gaps, what is
the total length of cord needed to make the
2m
back rectangle of the net?

Ideal athletics tracks are 400 m long with two


straights and semi-circular ends of diameter
80 m. Find
i the length of each straight to the nearest cm
ii the distance the athlete in the next to
innermost lane must start in front of the
athlete inside him so they both run 400 m.
Each lane is 1 m wide.

80 m

d A cyclist used a bicycle with a ratio of pedal revolutions to wheel revolutions of 1 : 6. If


the diameter of a wheel is 70 cm, how long would it take the cyclist to travel 40 km if
the cyclist averaged 32 pedal revolutions per minute?

388

MAINTAINING BASIC KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES

(APPENDIX 1)

AREA
The area of a closed figure is the number of square units it contains.
As for the length measurements, we will use the International System of Units. The relationships
between the various units of area can be obtained using the conversions for length.
For example, since 1 cm = 10 mm
then 1 cm 1 cm = 10 mm 10 mm
i.e., 1 cm2 = 100 mm2

1 cm
10 mm

AREA UNITS & CONVERSIONS


1 cm2 = 10 mm
1 m2 = 100 cm
1 ha = 100 m
1 km2 = 1000 m

10 mm = 100 mm2
100 cm = 10 000 cm2
100 m = 10 000 m2
1000 m = 1 000 000 m2

fsquare centimetreg
fsquare metreg
fhectareg
or 100 ha.

The formulae for calculating the area of the most commonly occurring shapes should be familiar
to you and are given below:
Rectangle:

Triangle:
height

breadth
base

length

base

Area = 12 (base height)

Area = length breadth


Parallelogram:

Trapezium:
height

height
base

Area = base height

average length of
distance between
Area =

parallel sides
parallel sides

Circle:

Sector:

r
q

Area = r2

Area =

r2
360

MAINTAINING BASIC KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES

(APPENDIX 1)

EXAMPLE 13.2
Find the area of each of the following figures:
a
b

7 cm
60

10 cm

a Area = 12 (base height)

1
2

Area =

10 7 cm2

= 35 cm2

8 cm

360
60
360

r2

82

+ 33:51 cm2

EXAMPLE 13.3
Find the shaded area of the following figures:
a
b
6 cm
12 cm
10 cm
18 cm

a Area = trapezium area triangle area

12 + 18
=
12 12 10 6
2

= 15 12 5 6
= 150 cm2

5 cm

3 cm

Area = area of large semi-circle


area of small semi-circle
1
= 2 ( 82 ) 12 ( 52 )
= 61:26 cm2

EXAMPLE 13.4
A sector has area 25 cm2 and radius 6 cm. Find the angle subtended at the centre.
Area =
)
25 cm 2
q

6 cm

25 =

360

360

r2

62

10
) = 250
250
) =
+ 79:58

) the angle measures 79:58o :


)

25 =

389

390

MAINTAINING BASIC KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES

(APPENDIX 1)

EXERCISE 13A.2
1 Convert
a 12 cm2 into mm2
d 9 m2 into mm2

b
e

7 m2 into cm2
200 mm2 into cm2

2 Find the area of the following figures:


a
b

2 km2 into m2
13 ha into m2

6 cm

5 cm

c
f

4 cm

50 m

10 cm

100 m

14 cm

3 Solve the following problems:


a Find the angle of a sector with area 30 cm2 and radius 12 cm.
b What is the cost of laying instant lawn (turf) over an 80 m by 120 m rectangular playing
field if the turf comes in 12 m wide strips and costs $15 for 10 m?
c A cropduster can carry 240 kg of fertiliser
at a time. If it is necessary to spread 50 kg
of fertiliser per hectare, how many flights are
necessary to fertilise a 1:2 km by 450 m rectangular property?

SURFACE AREA
Solids with plane faces
The surface area of a three dimensional solid with plane faces is the sum of the areas of
the faces.

EXAMPLE 13.5
Find the surface area of the rectangular prism.

3 cm
6 cm

The figure has


and

4 cm

2 faces of 6 cm 4 cm
2 faces of 6 cm 3 cm
2 faces of 3 cm 4 cm.

Total surface area = [2 6 4 + 2 6 3 + 2 3 4] cm2


= [48 + 36 + 24] cm2
= 108 cm2 :

MAINTAINING BASIC KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES

(APPENDIX 1)

391

Solids with curved surfaces


There are three shapes for which a simple formula can be derived:
Cylinder:

Cone:

Sphere:

r
s

h
r

Area = area of ends


+ area of curved surface

Area = area of base


+ area of curved surface

Area = 4r2

Area = r2 + rs

Area = 2r2 + 2rh

(s is called the slant height)


The formulae for a cone and a cylinder can be proved relatively easily as shown below, but the
proof for a sphere is beyond the level of this course.
Cylinder: The net for a cylinder is used to derive the formula for the surface area.
r

2pr

r
r

cut

Notice that the curved part of a cylinder is made from a rectangle of length 2r and width h.
Surface area of closed cylinder = 2 (area of circle) + area of rectangle
= 2(r2 ) + 2rh
= 2r2 + 2rh
Cone: The curved surface of a cone is made from a sector of a circle with radius equal to the
slant height of the cone. Also, the circumference of the base must be the same as the arc
length of the sector.
A

r
cut

2pr

s
B

392

MAINTAINING BASIC KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES

arc AB =

2s
360

But arc AB = 2r

2s = 2r
)
360
)

r
=
360
s

(APPENDIX 1)

Hence, the total area


A = area of circle + area of sector

2
= r +
s2
360
r
= r2 +
s2
s
= r2 + rs

EXAMPLE 13.6
Find the surface area of a solid cone of base radius 5 cm and height 12 cm.

Let the slant height be s cm.


s2 = 52 + 122
) s2 = 169
p
) s = 169 = 13
s cm
12 cm
5 cm

fPythagorasg

Now A = r2 + rs
) A = 52 + 5 13
) A + 282:7
Calculator:

5 x2

fas s > 0g

13

Thus the surface area is approximately 282:7 cm :


2

EXERCISE 13A.3
1 Find the total surface area of
a a box 20 cm by 15 cm by 8 cm
b a sphere of radius 6 cm
c a hemisphere of base radius 10 m
d a cylinder of base radius 9 cm and height 20 cm
e a cone of base radius and perpendicular height both 10 cm
f a cone of base radius 8 cm and vertical angle 60o

2 Solve the following problems:

60

8 cm

a The cost of manufacturing a hemispherical glass dome is given by $(5200 + 35A)


where A is its surface area in square metres. Find the cost of making a glass hemispherical
dome of diameter 10 m.
b Determine the cost of painting the exterior walls and top of a cylindrical wheat silo which
is 40 m high and 20 m in diameter, given that each litre of paint costs $7:25 and covers
8 m2 :
c Determine the total area of leather in 20 dozen cricket balls each with diameter 7 cm.

MAINTAINING BASIC KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES

(APPENDIX 1)

393

VOLUME AND CAPACITY


The volume of a solid is the amount of space it occupies, i.e., the number of cubic
units of space it occupies.
The capacity of a container is the volume of fluid, (liquid or gas), that it may contain.
The units of volume and capacity are very closely related and are summarised below:

Volume and capacity - units and conversion


1 cm3 = 10 mm 10 mm 10 mm = 1000 mm3
1 m3 = 100 cm 100 cm 100 cm = 1 000 000 cm3
1 mL = 1 cm3
1 L = 1000 cm3 = 1000 mL
1 kL = 1000 L = 1 m3
1 ML = 1000 kL

fcubic centimetresg
fcubic metresg
fmillilitreg
flitreg
fkilolitreg
fmegalitreg

The following volume formulae are very common and have been considered in previous years.

Prisms (solids of uniform cross-section)


Rectangular prism

Cylinder

height

Uniform solid

height

base

base

height

base

Volume of prism = area of base height

Pyramids and cones


Square-based pyramid

Triangular-based pyramid
or tetrahedron

Cone
height

height

height

base

base

base

Volume of a pyramid or cone = 31 (area of base height)

Spheres

Volume of a sphere =

4
3
3 r

394

MAINTAINING BASIC KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES

(APPENDIX 1)

EXAMPLE 13.7
Find the volume of the following:
a

b
10 cm

4.5 cm
16.8 cm

8 cm

a Volume = area of base height


= length breadth height
= 16:8 8 4:5 cm3
= 604:8 cm3

14 cm

Volume = area of base height


= 72 10 cm3
+ 1539 cm3

EXERCISE 13A.4
1 Find the volume of
a
b
c
d
2

a rectangular box 12 cm by 15 cm by 10 cm
a cone of radius 10 cm and slant height 18 cm
a cylinder of height 3 m and base diameter 80 cm
an equilateral triangular prism with height 12 cm and triangles of side 2 cm

a A sphere has surface area 100 cm2 . Find its volume.


b A sphere has volume 27 m3 . Find its surface area.

3 Solve the following problems:


a The contents of a rectangular tank 4 m by 3 m by 2 m are emptied into a cylindrical tank
of base diameter 5 m. How high will the water level rise?
b

1.5 m

Determine the volume of water required to fill a


swimming pool with dimensions shown alongside.

25 m

3m
8m

c A concrete path 1 m wide and 10 cm deep is placed around a circular lawn of diameter
20 m. Find the volume of concrete required to lay the path.
d How long would it take to fill a rainwater tank which is cylindrical with base diameter
2:4 m and height 4 m, if the water enters it at 80 litres per minute?
e A cubic metre of brass is melted down and cast
into solid door handles with shape as shown.
How many handles can be cast?

2 cm

MAINTAINING BASIC KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES

(APPENDIX 1)

395

PERCENTAGE
Percentages are comparisons with the whole amount (which we call 100%).
% reads per cent which is short for per centum.
Loosely translated from Latin, per cent means out of every hundred.

If an object is divided into one hundred parts then each part is called 1 per cent, written 1%:
Thus,

1
100

and

= 1%

100
100

= 100%

From this it may be seen that a percentage is really a special case of a fraction where the denominator
is 100. Consequently all fractions and decimals may be easily converted into percentages.

EXAMPLE 13.8
Convert the following into percentages by multiplying by 100%:
a 35
b 0:042

3
5

3
5

100% f100% = 1g

= 60%

0:042
= 0:042 100%
= 4:2%

f100% = 1g
fshift dec. point 2 places rightg

EXAMPLE 13.9
Express as decimals:

88%
= 0:88
= 0:88

88%

b
b

116%
116%
= 1:16
= 1:16

fshift decimal point 2 positions leftg

EXAMPLE 13.10
A TV set has a sale price of $550 after it has been marked up by 25%.
At what price did the shopkeeper buy the TV set?
cost price multiplier = selling price
) C 125% = $550
) C 1:25 = $550
$550
) C=
1:25
) C = $440
i.e., it cost the shopkeeper $440:

396

MAINTAINING BASIC KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES

(APPENDIX 1)

EXERCISE 13B.1
1 Convert the following into percentages:
a

14
25

3
4

0:92

1:16

1:024

11
20

105%

15%

2 Express as fractions in lowest terms:


a 85%
b 42%
e

33 13 %

7 12 %

6 14 %

132%

16 23 %

48%

160%

0:25%

3 Express as decimals:
a 92%

106%

112:4%

88:2%

7:5%

1%

256%

0:05%

1150%

0:0037%

342:8%

63:7%

4 A bicycle costs $160 and is sold for $280. Calculate the profit as a percentage of the
a cost price
b selling price.
5 A greengrocer buys fruit and vegetables from the market and sells them at a 25% mark up.
On one particular morning, her fruit and vegetables cost her $500.
a What will be her profit if she should sell all of her produce?
b Express this profit as a percentage of her sales.
6 A 30 m roll of wire mesh was bought wholesale
for $216. If it is sold for $8:50 per metre, find
the profit and express it as a percentage of the
wholesale (cost) price.
7 Find the cost to a retailer who sells a television
set at $640 for a 25% profit on the cost price.
8 An electrical firm sells a washing machine for
$585, having made a 30% profit on the wholesale
(cost) price. Find the wholesale price.

SIMPLE INTEREST
If $P is borrowed for t years at r % p.a. (per annum) simple interest, then the simple interest, I,
can be calculated by using the formula
I = P r t
where

P
r
t

is called the principal


is called the rate of interest, (p.a.)
is the time in years

MAINTAINING BASIC KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES

(APPENDIX 1)

397

EXAMPLE 13.11
Find the simple interest payable on an investment of $20 000 at 12% p.a. over a period of 4
years.
P = $20 000

r = 12% = 0:12
)
)
)

t = 4 years

I = P rt
I = $20 000 0:12 4
I = $9600
simple interest is $9600

EXAMPLE 13.12
Find the simple interest payable on an investment of $10 000 at 8% p.a. over a period of 9
months.
P = $10 000

r = 8% = 0:08
)
)
)

t = 0:75

fas 9 months =

3
4

year = 0:75 yearsg

I = P rt
I = $10 000 0:08 0:75
I = $600
simple interest is $600

EXERCISE 13B.2
1 Find the simple interest payable on an investment of
a $4000 at 8% p.a. for 5 years
b
c

$2500 at

10 12 %

p.a. for 2 years

$1500 at 11% p.a. for 6 months


$20 000 at 12 14 % p.a. for 9 months

2 How long will it take for a $10 000 investment to earn $10 000 interest if it is invested at 10%
p.a. simple interest?
3 $8000 becomes $9800 when invested over a 10 year term where simple interest is paid annually.
What rate of interest is being paid to the investor?

COMPOUND INTEREST
We can write a formula for Compound Growth:

where

A=
P =
i =
(1+ i) =
n=

A = P (1+ i) n

final amount , (i.e., principal + interest)


principal (the original amount)
interest rate per annum (expressed in decimal form)
the multiplier
the number of years

398

MAINTAINING BASIC KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES

(APPENDIX 1)

Notice that the formula for A above gives the total final amount (i.e., principal plus interest).
To find the interest only we use:
Compound Interest = final amount principal = A P

EXAMPLE 13.13
What will $5000 invested at 8% p.a. compound interest amount to after 2 years?
How much interest is earned?
An interest rate of 8% indicates a multiplier of 1:08.
After 2 years it amounts to

$5000 (1:08)2
= $5832

) interest earned = $5832 $5000


= $832

EXERCISE 13B.3
1

a What will an investment of $3000 at 10% p.a. compound interest amount to after 3 years?
b What part of this is interest?

2 $5000 is invested for 2 years at 10% p.a. What will this investment amount to if the interest
is calculated as
a simple interest
b compound interest?
3 You have $8000 to invest for 3 years and there are 2 possible options you have been offered:
Option 1: Invest at 9% p.a. simple interest.
Option 2: Invest at 8% p.a. compound interest.
a Calculate the amount accumulated at the end of the 3 years for both options and decide
which option to take.
b Would you change your decision if you were investing for 5 years?
4 What percentage increase will occur if I invest any amount over a 4 year period at 10% p.a.
compound interest? [Hint: Let the principal be $1000.]

BASIC ALGEBRAIC PROCEDURES

ALGEBRAIC SUBSTITUTION

input, x

Consider the number crunching machine alongside:

5x 7 calculator

output

MAINTAINING BASIC KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES

(APPENDIX 1)

399

If we place any number x, into the machine, it calculates 5x 7, i.e., x is multiplied by 5 and
then 7 is subtracted.
For example, if x = 2,

5x 7
=52 7
= 10 7
=3

and if x = 2,

5x 7
= 5 (2) 7
= 10 7
= 17

EXAMPLE 13.14
If p = 4, q = 2 and r = 3, find the value of
p
a
2pq r
b
4r + pq

2pq r
= 2(4)(2) 3
= 16 3
= 19

pqr
rp

pqr
rp

p
4r + pq
p
= 4(3) + (4)(2)
p
= 12 8
p
= 4
=2

=
=

4 (2) 3
34

4+23
1

3
1
= 3
=

EXERCISE 13C.1
1 If p = 4, q = 3, r = 2 and s = 1, evaluate
6pq
a 2q 3p
b
c (2r s)2
s
p
3
e
p2 + q 2
f
g 2q 3
pr

sp

p+qr
pq+r

2 For u = 5, v = 4, w = 2, x = 1, y = 6 and z = 3, evaluate


2u v
4y
a (2u)2
b 2u2
c
d
x
3z
u
v
uv + w
x + z2
x
e
f
g
h
w
w2
yu
2u

PRODUCTS AND EXPANSIONS


A product of two (or more) quantities is the result obtained when multiplying them together.
To make products easy to perform, follow the procedure below:
Step 1:
Step 2:
Step 3:

multiply the signs


multiply the numerals (numbers)
multiply the pronumerals (letters)

sign

3x
coefficient

variable

400

MAINTAINING BASIC KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES

So,

(APPENDIX 1)

3x 2x2 = 6x3
+ =

3 2 = 6

x x2 = x3

EXAMPLE 13.15
Simplify the following products:

3 4x

2x (x2 )

4x (2x2 )

3 4x
= 12x

2x (x2 )
= 2x3

4x (2x2 )
= 8x3

Other simplifications are possible using the expansion (or distributive) rules:
a(b + c) = ab + ac
a(b c) = ab ac
Geometric Demonstration:
c

b
a
b+c

The overall area is a(b + c), and could also be found by adding the areas
of the two small rectangles, i.e., ab + ac.
Hence, a(b + c) = ab + ac fequating areasg.

EXAMPLE 13.16
Expand the following:

a
a

Note:

3(4x + 1)
3(4x + 1)
= 3 4x + 3 1
= 12x + 3

2x(5 2x)
2x(5 2x)
= 2x 5 2x 2x
= 10x 4x2

2x(x 3)
2x(x 3)
= (2x) x (2x) 3
= 2x2 + 6x

In practice we do not usually include the second line of working.


In c , observe the placing of a bracket around 2x.

EXAMPLE 13.17
Expand and simplify

a 2(3x 1) + 3(5 x)

2(3x 1) + 3(5 x)
= 6x 2 + 15 3x
= 3x + 13

x(2x 1) 2x(5 x)

x(2x 1) 2x(5 x)
= 2x2 x 10x + 2x2
= 4x2 11x

MAINTAINING BASIC KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES

(APPENDIX 1)

401

EXERCISE 13C.2
1 Simplify the following:
a 2 3x
e 2x x
i 2x (x)
m (a)2

b
f
j
n

4x 5
3x 2x
3x 4
(2a)2

c
g
k
o

2 7x
2x x
x2 (2x)
2a2 a2

d
h
l
p

2 Expand and simplify.


a 3(x + 2)
e 2(x + 4)
i a(a + b)

b
f
j

2(5 x)
3(2x 1)
a(a b)

c
g
k

(x + 2)
x(x + 3)
x(2x 1)

d (3 x)
h 2x(x 5)
l 2x(x2 x 2)

3 Expand and simplify.


a 3(x 4) + 2(5 + x)
d 3(y + 1) + 6(2 y)
g 2(b a) + 3(a + b)
j x2 + x(x 1)
m 4(x 2) (3 x)

b
e
h
k
n

c
f
i
l
o

2a + (a 2b)
2(y 3) 4(2y + 1)
x(x + 4) + 2(x 3)
x2 x(x 2)
5(2x 1) (2x + 3)

3 4x
3x x2
3d (2d)
a2 (3a)

2a (a 2b)
3x 4(2 3x)
x(x + 4) 2(x 3)
x(x + y) y(x + y)
4x(x 3) 2x(5 x)

RATIONAL NUMBERS (FRACTIONS)


Rational numbers can be written as a ratio of two integers in the form

a
:
b

Rational numbers appear in many forms.


For example, 4, 2, 0, 10%, 47 , 5 : 3, 1:3, 0:6 are all rational numbers.
i.e., they can be written as ratios:

4
1,

2
1 ,

0
1,

4
7 ,

1
10 ,

5
3,

13
10 ,

2
3

Note that 4, 2 and 0 are integers, and 10%, 47 , 5 : 3, 1:3 and 0:6 are fractions.
We can extend our classification

RATIONAL NUMBERS

of numbers as follows:

INTEGERS

NEGATIVE INTEGERS

ZERO

FRACTIONS

POSITIVE INTEGERS

A common fraction consists of two whole numbers, a numerator and a denominator, separated
by a bar symbol. For example,

2
3

numerator

bar (which also means divide)


denominator

402

MAINTAINING BASIC KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES

(APPENDIX 1)

TYPES OF FRACTIONS
4
5

is a proper fraction

fas the numerator is less than the denominatorg

7
6

is an improper fraction

fas the numerator is greater than the denominatorg

2 34 is a mixed number
1 3
2, 6

fas it is really 2 + 34 g

are equivalent fractions

fas both fractions represent equivalent portionsg

RULES FOR OPERATING WITH FRACTIONS


The rules for adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing number fractions are essential to learn,
as they are important when we operate with algebraic fractions.

Addition and subtraction:


To add or subtract two fractions we convert each one to an equivalent fraction with a common
denominator and add or subtract the new numerators.
a b
a+b
+ =
c c
c

i.e.,

or

a b
ab
=
c c
c

EXAMPLE 13.18
Find

3
4

=
=
=
=

5
6
5
3
4 + 6
3
3
5
4 3 + 6
9
10
12 + 12
19
12
7
1 12

2
2

fLCD = 12g

fto achieve a common denominator of 12g

EXAMPLE 13.19
Find 1 23 1 45
1 23 1 45
=
=
=
=

5
9
3 5
5
5
9
3
3 5 5 3
25
27
15 15
2
2
or 15
15

fwrite as improper fractionsg

fto achieve a common denominator of 15g

MAINTAINING BASIC KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES

403

(APPENDIX 1)

Multiplication:
To multiply two fractions, we multiply the numerators together and multiply the denominators
together and then simplify if possible, i.e.,
a c
ac
=
b d
bd

EXAMPLE 13.20
Find a

a
=
=

1
4

1 23

(3 12 )2

1
2
4 13
1
5
4 3
5
12

fconvert 1 23 to
an improper fractiong

(3 12 )2
= 3 12 3 12
=
=

7
7
2 2
49
or
4

fconvert 3 12 to
an improper fractiong
fconvert to a mixed numberg

12 14

Division:
To divide by a number, we multiply by its reciprocal, i.e.,
a c
a d
=
b d
b
c

EXAMPLE 13.21
Find a 3

2
3

2
3
23
32

2 13

2
3

3
1
3
1
9
2

4 12

=
=

2 13
=

fTo divide by 23 , multiply by 32 :g

=
=

7
3
7
3
7
2

2
3

2
3
3
2

= 3 12

EXERCISE 13D.1
1 Find
a

3
14

7
9

2
9

7
16

5
8

4
7

1
2

1 12 +

2 12 + 4 16

2 12 4 16

2
3

5 23 3 18

2 13 + 3 34

6
14

3
4

2
16

3
4

5
8

1 12

+4

2
3

2 13 3 34

2 45 1 13

5
6
5
8

404

MAINTAINING BASIC KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES

(APPENDIX 1)

2 Calculate
a

3
4

1 12

5
6

5
8

4
7

1
2

(2 13 )2

3
4

3
4

2
3

(1 12 )3

1 38

7
3
12 4
3
1
4 22

2
5

4 23 1 17

3 12 4 13

( 23 )4

(1 13 )3

4
3

4
11

3 Evaluate
a

3
4

1 12

2
3

5
6
5
8

2
3

2 13 3 34

3
4

3
4

2
3

4 Calculate
a

4 38 + 2 25

7
12

5 38

3
4

1 12 2

3
4

1
4

1
2

63

1
2

1 ( 12 + 35 )

1
2

3
5

63

3
4

3
4

1
2
2
3

( 34 )2 2 12

RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS IN ALGEBRA


Cancellation
Simplification of algebraic fractions is sometimes (but not always) possible.
If the numerator and denominator of an algebraic fraction are both written in factored
form and common factors are found, we can simplify by cancelling the common factors.
This process was observed when we cancelled number fractions such as
i.e.,

12
28

43
47

3
7

12
28 ,

where the common factor 4 was cancelled.

Similarly, algebraic fractions can be simplified by cancelling common factors if they exist.
For example,

4ab
2a
=

22ab
2a

2b
1
= 2b

ffully factorisedg
fafter cancellationg

It is a good idea to check both numerator and denominator to see if they can be expressed as the
product of factors then look for common factors which can be cancelled.

Algebraic fraction

Express both
numerator and
denominator as a
product of factors.

If there are common factors,


simplify by cancelling.
If there are no common
factors, you cannot simplify.

MAINTAINING BASIC KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES

Illegal cancellation
Take care with fractions such as

(APPENDIX 1)

405

a+3
:
3

The expression in the numerator, a + 3 cannot be written as the product of factors other than
1 (a + 3) as a and 3 are terms of the expression not factors.
1

a+3
a+1
=
= a + 1.
31
1

A typical error in illegal cancellation is:

You can check that this cancellation of terms is not correct by substituting a value for a.
For example,

if a = 3,

3+3
a+3
=
= 2,
3
3
RHS = a + 1 = 4.

whereas

LHS =

EXAMPLE 13.22
Simplify if possible

a2
2a

a2
2a
aa
=
2a
a
=
2

6a2 b
3b
6a2 b
3b

6aab
3 b1
1
2aa
=
1
= 2a2

EXERCISE 13D.2
1 Simplify
a

a2
2a

a
2a2

a3
4a

4a2
a2

6t
3t2

4d2
2d

ab2
2ab

4ab2
6a2 b

2 Simplify if possible
a

(2a)2
a2

(4n)2
8n

(a)2
a

a2
(a)2

(2a)2
4

(3n)2
6n

(x + y)2
x+y

2(x + 2)
(x + 2)2

3 Simplify if possible
a

2(a + 3)
2

4(x + 2)
2

6(c + 3)
3

406

MAINTAINING BASIC KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES

(APPENDIX 1)

2(d 3)
6

4
2(x + 1)

12
4(2 x)

3(x + 4)
9(x + 4)

12(a 3)
6(a 3)

(x + y)(x y)
3(x y)

2xy(x y)
6x(x y)

5(y + 2)(y 3)
15(y + 2)

x(x + 1)(x + 2)
3x(x + 2)

ADDING AND SUBTRACTING ALGEBRAIC FRACTIONS


Pronumerals are used in algebraic fractions to represent unknown numbers. Because of this we
can treat algebraic fractions in the same way that we treat numerical fractions as they are in fact
representing numerical fractions.

EXAMPLE 13.23
Simplify

x 3x
+
2
4

a
=

x 3x
+
2
4
fhas LCD of 4g

a 2a

3
5
a 2a

3
5

3x
x 2
+
2 2
4

2x 3x
+
4
4
2x + 3x
=
4
5x
=
4
=

fhas LCD of 15g

a 5 2a 3

3 5
5
3

5a 6a

15 15

a
15

EXAMPLE 13.24
Simplify

4 3
+
a b

4 3
+
a b

5
4

x 3x

4 b 3 a
+
a b b a

5
4

fhas LCD of 3xg


x 3x
4
5 3
=
x 3 3x

4b 3a
+
ab ab

15
4

3x 3x

4b + 3a
ab

11
3x

fhas LCD of abg

MAINTAINING BASIC KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES

(APPENDIX 1)

EXAMPLE 13.25
Simplify

b
+1
3

b
+1
3

a
=

b 3
+
3 3

b+3
3

a
a
4

a
a
4
a a 4
=
4 1 4
a 4a
=
4
4
3a
=
4

EXERCISE 13D.3
1 Simplify, i.e., write as a single fraction.
a a
b
b
+

a
b
2 3
5 10

c 3c
+
4
2

x x

7
2

a b
+
3 4

5t
t

3
9

m 2m
+
7
21

5d d

6
3

3p 2p

5
7

m m m
+
+
2
3
6

a a a
+
2 3 4

x x x
+
4
3
6

2 Simplify
a

7 3
+
a b

3 2
+
a c

4 5
+
a d

a
2a

m
m

b
a
+
x 2x

1
3

a 2a

1
4

x xy

a c
+
b d

a x

b
y

2 a
+
3 2

x 3
+
3 4

x 2
+
y
3

y
1
3

a
+a
2

3 Simplify
x
+1
a
2
d

b
3
4

x
4
2

2+

a
3

x
5

2+

1
x

2
x

407

408

MAINTAINING BASIC KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES

a+

2
a

(APPENDIX 1)

3
+b
b

x
2x
3

4 Simplify (miscellaneous)

x 2x
+
2
5

4x 3x

5
2

3
2
+
a 3a

4
3

y 2y

5 3
+
a b

4
5

3a b

x
+2
7

x
4

2a

a
3

MULTIPLYING AND DIVIDING ALGEBRAIC FRACTIONS

EXAMPLE 13.26
3
m

m
6

Simplify

m
3

m
6

3
m2
m
3
m2
m

=
=

3 m1
1m 6 2

m2
3

m
1

3m2
m
3 m m1
=
m1
3m
=
1
= 3m

1
2

EXAMPLE 13.27
4
2
2
n n

Simplify

2
4
2
n n
=

4 n2

n
2

4 n2
n2

22nn
n2
= 2n

3
2
a
3
2
a

b
=

3 1

a 2

31
a2

3
2a

MAINTAINING BASIC KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES

(APPENDIX 1)

409

EXERCISE 13D.4
1 Simplify
x y

a
2 5

a 3

2 a

a
a
2

2
a

4 3a

c 1

5 c

c
c

5 2

a c

b d

a b

b a

1
m

m2
2

m
4

2
m

3
m
m2

a x

x
b
2
2
x

1 a b

a b c

a 2
b

4
m

2 Simplify
a

a a

2 3

2 2

a 3

3 4

4 x

4
3

x x

2
1

n n

c
5
5

c
c
5

m
n

3
4
g

9
3
2
g g

m
2

3 Simplify

2
m

(miscellaneous)

2a
6

3
4a

2 b

9 3

2c 3c
+
5
4

a b

c 2

7 3a

b
2b

2
8

3a a

ab ab

cd cd

5
a
+
3b 2b

LINEAR EQUATIONS
Linear equations are equations which are in the form (or can be converted to the form)
ax + b = 0, where x is the unknown (variable) and a, b are constants.

EXAMPLE 13.28
Solve for x
a

a 5 3x = 6
5 3x = 6
) 3x = 6 5
)

3x = 1

1
3

x=

x = 13

3x 4 = 2x + 6

fsubtracting 5 from both sidesg


fdividing both sides by 3g

410

MAINTAINING BASIC KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES

3x 4 = 2x + 6
3x 2x = 6 + 4
) x = 10

(APPENDIX 1)

ftake 2x from both sides, add 4 to both sidesg

EXERCISE 13E.1
1 Solve for x
a 2x + 3 = 7
x
+ 2 = 1
d
3
2 Solve for x
a 2x 3 = x + 6
d x = x + 4

b
e

b
e

3 Solve for x
a 2(x + 8) + 5(x 1) = 6
c 5(x + 2) = 2(3 2x)
e 4 x (2 x) = 6
g 3 2x (2x + 1) = 1

3 4x = 11
x+3
= 2
4

6 = 11 2x

1
2 (5

4x 2 = 5 x
12 7x = 3x + 8

c
f

4 5x = 3x 7
5x 9 = 1 + 6x

b
d
f
h

x) = 3

2(x 3) + 3(x + 2) = 0
3(x + 3) 2(x + 1) = 2
5 3(1 x) = 2 x
3(4x + 2) 2x = 7 + x

FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS
Fractional equations are simplified by multiplying both
(LCD). Consider the following fractional equations:
x
x
=
The equation
2
3
5
3x
The equation
=
2x
5
x
x7
=
The equation
3
2x 1

sides by the least common denominator


has LCD is 6
has LCD is 10x
has LCD is 3(2x 1)

EXAMPLE 13.29
Solve for x:

3+x
x
=
2
5

3+x
x
=
2
5

3+x
x
10 =
10
2
5
) 5x = 2(3 + x)
) 5x = 6 + 2x
) 3x = 6
) x=2

has LCD = 10
fmultiplying both sides by 10g
fcancelling common factorsg
fexpandingg
fsimplifyingg
fdividing both sides by 3g

MAINTAINING BASIC KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES

(APPENDIX 1)

EXAMPLE 13.30
4
3
=
x
4

Solve for x:

4
3
=
x
4
3
4
4x = 4x
x
4

has LCD = 4x

16 = 3x

16
3

fcancelling common factorsg

=x

fmultiplying both sides by 4xg


fdividing both sides by 3g

EXAMPLE 13.31
Solve for x:

2x + 1
3
=
3x
4

2x + 1
3
=
3x
4

3
2x + 1
4(3 x) = 4(3 x)
3x
4
)

4(2x + 1) = 3(3 x)
) 8x + 4 = 9 3x
) 8x + 3x = 9 4
) 11x = 5
5
) x = 11

has LCD 4(3 x)


f both sides by LCDg
fcancelling common factorsg
fexpandingg
fadd 3x, take 4 both sidesg

EXAMPLE 13.32
Solve for x:

x 1 2x

= 4
3
6

x 1 2x

= 4
3
6

x
1 2x
6 6
= 6 4
3
6
)

2x (1 2x) = 24
) 2x 1 + 2x = 24
) 4x 1 = 24
) 4x = 24 + 1
) 4x = 23
) x = 23
4

has LCD of 6
fmultiplying both sides by 6g
fcancelling common factorsg
fexpandingg
fadding 1 to both sidesg

411

412

MAINTAINING BASIC KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES

(APPENDIX 1)

EXERCISE 13E.2
1 Solve for x
a

x
3
=
2
7

3
x
=
5
6

x
x2
=
5
3

2x 1
x+1
=
3
8

5x
2x
=
3
4

2x 5
3x + 2
=
3
2

2 Solve for x
a

3
5
=
x
5

2
6
=
x
7

7
4
=
3
x

5
3
=
2x
4

3 Solve for x
a

2x + 3
4
=
x+1
3

x+1
3
=
1 2x
5

2x 1
2
=
4 3x
3

1
x+3
=
2x 1
2

4x + 3
=6
2x 1

3x 2
= 5
x+4

4 Solve for x
x x
=4
a
2
6
x x+2
c
+
= 1
8
2
2x 1 5x 6

= 2
e
3
6

b
d
f

2x
x
3=
4
3
x+2 x3
+
=1
3
4
x
x+2
= 4
4
3

LINEAR INEQUALITIES
Rules for handling linear inequalities
Examples such as, if 5 > 3 then 3 < 5, and if 2 > 3 then 3 < 2, indicate that if we
interchange the LHS and the RHS then we must reverse the inequality sign.
Note: > and < are reverses; > and 6 are reverses.
Recall also that
if we add or subtract the same number to both sides the inequality sign is maintained,
if we multiply or divide both sides by a positive number the inequality sign is maintained,
if we multiply or divide both sides by a negative number the inequality sign is reversed.

Consequently, we can say that the method of solution of linear inequalities is identical to that of
linear equations with the exceptions that

interchanging the sides reverses the inequality sign,


multiplying (or dividing) both sides by a negative, reverses the inequality sign.

MAINTAINING BASIC KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES

(APPENDIX 1)

413

Graphical solutions
If we solve an inequality and finish with x > 4, this means that every number which is 4 or greater
than 4 is a solution to the original inequality. We could represent this on a number line by
x

4
The filled-in circle
indicates that
4 is included.

The arrowhead indicates


that all numbers on the
number line in that direction
are included.

Likewise if we finish with x < 5 our representation would be


x
The hollow circle indicates
that 5 is not included.

EXAMPLE 13.33
Solve for x and graph the solution: 3 2x < 7
3 2x < 7
2x < 7 3
2x < 4
4
2x
>
)
2
2
)
)

x > 2

fsubtract 3 from both sidesg


fdivide both sides by 2 , ) reverse < to <g
x

-2

EXAMPLE 13.34
Solve for x: 3 5x > 2x + 7
)

3 5x > 2x + 7
5x 2x > 7 3
) 7x > 4
7x
4
)
6
7
7
)

fsubtract 2x, subtract 3 both sidesg


fdivide both sides by 2 , ) reverse > to 6g

x 6 47

- uR_

EXERCISE 13E.3
1 Solve for x and graph the solution.
a 3x + 2 < 0
b 5x 7 > 2
d 5 2x 6 11
e 2(3x 1) < 4

c
f

2 3x > 1
5(1 3x) > 8

414

MAINTAINING BASIC KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES

2 Solve for x
a 3x + 2 > x 5
c 5 2x > x + 4
x 2x

> 2
e
2
5

b
d
f

(APPENDIX 1)

2x 3 < 5x 7
7 3x 6 5 x
5 2x < 15 2(1 + x)

FORMULAE
A formula is an equation which connects two or more variables.
The plural of formula is formulae or formulas.

In a formula it is usual for one of the variables to be on one side of the equation and the other
variable(s) and constants to be on the other side.
The variable on its own is called the subject of the formula.
For example, C = 2r is the formula for finding the circumference of a circle. C has been
written in terms of the radius, r, and the constants 2 and : C is the subject of the formula.
In this chapter we deal with

SUBSTITUTION

substitution into formulae,


formulae rearrangement, and
formula construction.

If a formula contains two or more variables and we know the value of all but one of them, we can
use the formula to find the value of the unknown variable.
The Method:

Write down the formula.


State the values of the known variables.
Substitute into the formula to form a one variable equation.
Solve the equation for the unknown variable.

EXAMPLE 13.35
When a stone is dropped down a well the total distance fallen, D metres,
is given by the formula D = 12 gt2 where t is the time of fall (in seconds)
and g is the gravitational constant of 9:8. Find
a the distance fallen after 5 seconds
1
b the time (to the nearest 100
th second) taken for the stone to fall 100 m.

D = 12 gt2 where g = 9:8 and t = 5

a
)

D=

1
2

9:8 52

) D = 122:5
) the stone has fallen 122:5 metres.

D = 12 gt2
)

100 =

100 = 4:9t2

1
2

where D = 100, g = 9:8

9:8 t2

Calculator:
0:5

9:8

5 x2

MAINTAINING BASIC KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES

100
= t2
4:9
r

100
4:9

t=

t + 4:5175:::::

time taken is approx. 4:52 seconds.

fas t > 0g

Calculator:

(APPENDIX 1)

( 100

415

49 )

EXERCISE 13F.1
In this exercise, unless it is otherwise stated, give your answer correct to 1 decimal place where
necessary.
1 The formula for finding the circumference, C, of a circle of diameter d, is
C = d where is the constant with value approximately 3:14159. Find
a the circumference of a circle of diameter 11:4 cm
b the diameter of a circle with circumference 250 cm.
2
D

When a cricket ball is dropped from the top of a building the


total distance fallen is given by the formula D = 12 gt2
where D is the distance in metres and t is the time taken in
seconds. Given that g = 9:8, find
a the total distance fallen in the first 3 seconds of fall
b the height of the building, to the nearest metre, when
the time of fall to hit the ground is 5:13 seconds.

3 The formula for calculating the circumference C, of a circle of radius r, is C = 2r.


Find
a the circumference of a circle of radius 8:6 cm
b the radius of a circle of circumference 100 metres.
4 When a car travels a distance d kilometres in time t hours,
the average speed s km/h for the journey is given by
d
the formula s = . Find
t
a the average speed of a car which travels 200 km in
2 12 hours
b the distance travelled by a car in 3 14 hours if its average speed is 80 km/h
c the time taken, to the nearest minute, for a car to travel 865 km at an average speed of
110 km/h.
5 A cylinder of radius r, and height h, has volume given by V = r2 h:
Find
a the volume of a cylindrical tin can of radius 12 cm and height
17:5 cm
b the height of a cylinder of radius 4 cm given that its volume is
80 cm3
c the radius, in mm, of copper wire of volume 100 cm3 and length
2 km.

416

MAINTAINING BASIC KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES

p
The formula D = 3:56 h gives the approximate distance (D km) to the horizon which can
be seen by a person with eye level h metres
above the level of the sea. Find
a the distance to the horizon when a
persons eye level is 10 m above sea level
b how far above sea level a persons eye
must be if the person wishes to see the
horizon at a distance of 30 km.

6
h

(APPENDIX 1)

Earth

7 The following formula was discovered around 100AD by the Greek mathematician, Heron. It
now bears his name, Herons formula:
To find the area of a triangle with sides a, b and c units long we
c
find s, its semi-perimeter, using the formula
a
p
a+b+c
s=
, and then use A = s(s a)(s b)(s c).
2
b
If a triangle has sides of length 5 cm, 6 cm and 7 cm, find
a its semi-perimeter and hence
b its area.

FORMULA REARRANGEMENT
For the formula a = bx + c we say that a is the subject. This is because a is expressed in terms
of the other variables, b, x and c.
In formula rearrangement we require one of the other variables to be the subject.
For example, if a = bx + c, we might wish to write x in terms of a, b and c, i.e., to make x
the subject of the formula.
To rearrange a formula we use the same processes as used for solving an equation for the
variable we wish to be the subject.

EXAMPLE 13.36
Make x the subject of a = bx + c:
If a = bx + c
then bx + c = a
)
)

bx = a c
x=

ac
b

EXAMPLE 13.37
Make x the subject of ax + 3 = bx + d:

fsubtract c from both sidesg


fdivide both sides by bg

MAINTAINING BASIC KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES

ax + 3 = bx + d
ax bx = d 3
x(a b) = d 3
d3
) x=
ab

)
)

(APPENDIX 1)

417

fterms containing x on LHS, all others on RHSg


fx is a common factor on LHSg
fdivide both sides by a bg

EXAMPLE 13.38
Make z the subject of
a

a c=

c=

m
z

m
z

a
z
=
z
b
a
z
=
z
b

cz = m
m
) z=
c

ab = z 2

fmultiply both sides by bzg

z 2 = ab
p
) z = ab

EXAMPLE 13.39
Make t the subject of s = 12 gt2

where t > 0.

s = 12 gt2
)

2s = gt2

2s
= t2
g

)
)

t2 =

2s
g
r

t=

fmultiply both sides by 2g


fdivide both sides by gg

2s
g

fas t > 0g

EXERCISE 13F.2
1 Make x the subject of
a a+x=b
d y = mx + c
g a bx = m

b
e
h

ax = b
ax + by = c
cx=t

c
f
i

2x + a = d
3 tx = p
8 = p dx

2 Make x the subject of


a 3x + a = bx + c
d 8x + a = bx

b
e

ax = c bx
a x = b cx

c
f

mx + a = nx 2
rx + d = e sx

418

MAINTAINING BASIC KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES

(APPENDIX 1)

3 Make z the subject of


a

az =

b
c

a
=d
z

2
3
=
d
z

z
a
=
2
z

b
z
=
z
n

m
z
=
z
ab

4 Make
a

the subject of A = r2 , (r > 0)

the subject of V = 43 r3

x the subject of y = 4x2 7

x5
a
n
x the subject of D = 3
x
x the subject of N =

Q the subject of P 2 = Q2 + R2

THE RULE OF PYTHAGORAS

A right-angled triangle is a triangle which has a rightangle as one of its angles.


The side opposite the right-angle is called the hypotenuse
and is the longest side of the triangle.
The other two sides are called the legs of the triangle.

se

tenu

o
hyp

legs

THE RULE OF PYTHAGORAS

In a right-angled triangle, with


hypotenuse c and legs a and b,

c2 = a2 + b2 .
b
c

In geometric form, the Rule of Pythagoras is:

c2

In any right-angled triangle, the area of


the square on the hypotenuse is equal
to the sum of the areas of the squares
on the other two sides.

PYTHAGOREAN TRIPLES
The simplest right-angled
triangle with sides of integer
length is the 3-4-5 triangle.

a2

b2
b

3
4

The numbers 3, 4, and 5 satisfy the rule 32 + 42 = 52 .

MAINTAINING BASIC KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES

(APPENDIX 1)

419

The set of numbers f3, 4, 5g is called a Pythagorean triple since it obeys the rule a2 + b2 = c2
where a, b and c are integers.
Other examples are:

f5, 12, 13g, f7, 24, 25g, f8, 15, 17g.

EXAMPLE 13.40
Find x, given

6 cm

x cm

5 cm

x2 + 52 = 62 fPythagorasg
) x2 + 25 = 36
) x2 = 11
p
) x = 11
p
But x > 0, ) x = 11.

2
Note: If xp
= k,
then x = k
and
p we then reject
k. Why?

EXAMPLE 13.41
1 cm

Solve for x:

Qw_ cm

x cm

x2 +
)

1 2
2

= 12

x2 +

1
4

=1

3
4

x =

fPythagorasg

q
x = 34

x=

p
3
2

fas x > 0g

EXAMPLE 13.42
Find the value of x:

xm

2x m

6m

(2x)2
) 4x2
) 3x2
) x2
)

= x2 + 62 fPythagorasg
= x2 + 36
= 36
= 12
p
x = 12
fas x > 0g

420

MAINTAINING BASIC KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES

(APPENDIX 1)

EXERCISE 13G.1
1 Find the length of the third side of the following right-angled triangles. Where appropriate
leave your answer in surd (square root) form.
a

10 cm

7 cm

x cm

x cm

6 cm

8 cm

x cm

f
5 cm

7 km

xm

2m

6 cm

x km
1 cm

x cm

5 km

2 Solve for x.
a
1
3

1 cm

cm

1 cm
1
2

x cm

x cm

3 Find the value of x.


a
12 cm

cm

b
2x cm

x cm

xm

4x m
7m

3x m

3x m

24 m

3x cm

x cm

1 21 cm

c
13 cm

2x cm

2 cm

2x m

15 m

3x m

3x cm

5 cm

4x cm

4 Find the value of any unknown.


a
b

2 cm

x cm
5 cm
4 cm

h cm
12 cm

1 cm

x cm

7 cm

MAINTAINING BASIC KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES

(APPENDIX 1)

421

PROBLEM SOLVING USING PYTHAGORAS RULE


Things to remember

Draw a neat, clear diagram of the situation.


Mark on known lengths and right-angles.
Use a symbol, such as x, to represent the unknown length.
Write down Pythagoras rule for the given information.
Solve the equation.
Write your answer in sentence form (where necessary).

Right-angled triangles occur frequently in problem solving and often the presence of such triangles
indicates that the rule of Pythagoras is likely to be used.

EXAMPLE 13.43
A rectangular gate is 3 m wide and has a 3:5 m diagonal. How high is the gate?
Let x m be the height of the gate.

3m
xm

3.5 m

Now (3:5)2 = x2 + 32 fPythagorasg


) 12:25 = x2 + 9
) 3:25 = x2
p
) x = 3:25 + 1:803 m
So, the gate is approximately 1:803 m high.

EXAMPLE 13.44
A man travels due east by bicycle at 16 kmph. His son travels due south on his bicycle at
20 kmph. How far apart are they after 4 hours, if they both leave point A at the same time?
A

N
W

64 km

Man

E
S

80 km

x km

Son

After 4 hours the man has travelled 4 16 = 64 km


and his son has travelled 4 20 = 80 km.
Thus x2 = 642 + 802 fPythagorasg
i.e., x2 = 4096 + 6400
) x2 = 10 496
p
) x = 10 496 + 102:4
) they are 102:4 km apart after 4 hours.

SPECIAL GEOMETRICAL FIGURES


All of these figures contain right-angled triangles where Pythagoras rule applies.

dia

l
na
go

rectangle

square

rhombus

isosceles triangle

equilateral triangle

422

MAINTAINING BASIC KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES

(APPENDIX 1)

EXERCISE 13G.2
1 A yacht sails 9 km due west and then 7 km due south.
How far is it from its starting point?

2 A square has diagonals of length 8 cm. Find the length of its sides.
3 Town A is 80 km south of town B and town C is 150 km east of town B. Is it quicker to travel
directly from A to C by car at 90 kmph or from A to C via B in a train travelling at 130
kmph?
4 An isosceles triangle has equal sides of length 8 cm and a base of length 6 cm. Find the area
of the triangle.
5 A cone has a slant height of 13 cm
and a base radius of 5 cm.
How high is the cone?

13 cm

5 cm

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO POINTS


Consider the points A(1, 3) and B(4, 1). The distance
from A to B can be found by joining A to B using a
straight line then drawing a right-angled triangle with
hypotenuse AB and with sides parallel to the axes.
It is clear that d 2 = 22 + 32
) d 2 = 13
p
) d = 13

fPythagoras ruleg

A (1, 3)
2

d
B (4, 1)

fas d > 0g
p
) the distance from A to B is 13 units.
To avoid drawing a diagram each time we wish to find a distance, a distance formula can be
developed.
If A(xA , yA ) and B(xB , yB ) are two points in a plane, then the distance, d,
p
between these points is given by
dAB = (xB xA )2 + (yB yA )2
q
or dAB = (x-step)2 + (y-step)2 :
[Note: We use the symbol dAB

to represent the distance between points A and B.]

MAINTAINING BASIC KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES

(APPENDIX 1)

423

EXAMPLE 13.45
Find the distance from A(2, 1) to B(3, 4).
x-step = 3 (2) = 5
y-step = 4 1 = 3

p
52 + 32
p
) AB = 34 units

) AB =

EXAMPLE 13.46
Use the distance formula to determine if the triangle ABC, where A is (2, 0), B is (2, 1)
and C is (1, 3), is equilateral, isosceles or scalene.
A to B

x-step = 2 (2) = 4
y-step = 1 0 = 1
p
) AB = 42 + 12
p
= 17 units

A to C

x-step = 1 (2) = 3
y-step = 3 0 = 3
p
) AC = 32 + (3)2
p
= 18 units

B to C

x-step = 1 2 = 1
y-step = 3 1 = 4
p
) BC = (1)2 + (4)2
p
= 1 + 16
p
= 17 units

As AB = BC, triangle
ABC is isosceles.

EXERCISE 13H.1
1 Find
a
c
e
g

the distance between the following pairs


A(3, 1) and B(4, 2)
b
O(0, 0) and P(3, 4)
d
G(0, 2) and H(0, 3)
f
R(1, 2) and S(1, 1)
h

of points.
C(1, 2) and D(5, 2)
E(3, 0) and F(7, 0)
I(2, 0) and J(0, 4)
W(3, 2) and Z(1, 4)

2 Use the distance formula to classify triangle ABC, as either equilateral, isosceles or scalene.
b A(1, 0), B(3, 1), C(7, 3)
a A(5, 3), B(1, 8), C(6, 1)
p
p
p
c A(2, 1), B(0, 3), C(4, 1)
d A( 2, 0), B( 2, 0), C(0, 6)
p
p
e A(2, 0), B(1, 3), C(1, 3)
f A(a, b), B(a, b), C(1, 0)

MIDPOINT FORMULA
In general,
if A(xA , yA ) and B(xB , yB ) are two points then the midpoint M of AB has coordinates

xA + xB yA + yB
,
:
2
2

424

MAINTAINING BASIC KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES

(APPENDIX 1)

EXAMPLE 13.47
Find the coordinates of the midpoint of AB for A(1, 3) and B(4, 7).
1 + 4
2
3
=
2
= 1 12

x-coordinate of midpoint =

3+7
2
=5

y-coordinate of midpoint =

) midpoint of AB is (1 12 , 5).

EXERCISE 13H.2
1 Find the coordinates of the midpoint of the line segment joining the following pairs of points:
a (6, 3) and (2, 5)
b (4, 1) and (0, 1)
c (3, 0) and (0, 5)
d (1, 6) and (1, 6)
e (3, 1) and (1, 0)
f (1, 3) and (3, 1)
g (6, 8) and (3, 4)
h (2, 3) and (5, 1)

SIGMA NOTATION

Sigma notation
is a mathematical shorthand way of writing sums of numbers having a definite
P
pattern.
is an upper case Greek letter which for our purposes stands for the sum of.
Instead of writing the sum 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + :::::: + 50, that is the sum of the first 50 whole
numbers, we write
50
X

i=1

This reads
the sum of all numbers of the form i where i runs through the integers 1, 2, 3, ..... etc. up to 50
If we actually add the terms we say we have found the sum.

EXAMPLE 13.48
Evaluate

10
X
i=1

10
X

10
X

x2

x=5

i=1

= 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 + 10
= 55

10
X

x2

x=5

= 52 + 62 + 72 + 82 + 92 + 102
= 25 + 36 + 49 + 64 + 81 + 100
= 355

MAINTAINING BASIC KNOWLEDGE AND PROCEDURES

(APPENDIX 1)

EXERCISE 13I
1 Expand and find the sum of
a

8
X

i=1

5
X

i=1

5
X
1
x
x=1

10
X

5
X

8
X

(i + 1)

(2n + 1)

n=0

i=1

n=0

(3 2n )

2 Sigma notation is used in statistics.


For example, the mean (x) is given by the formula
n
X

x=

fi xi

i=1
n
X

where xi is a score and fi is its frequency.


fi

i=1

x
x1
x2
x3
x4

Write

f
f1
f2
f3
f4

is a frequency table.
Write the mean x, in sigma notation.

f1 x1 + f2 x2 + f3 x3 + :::::: + f20 x20


f1 + f2 + f3 + :::::: + f20

in sigma notation.

ii Describe what this fraction represents in statistical terms.

425

APPENDIX
Chapter 3
survey on
statistics

CHAPTER 3 SURVEY ON STATISTICS (APPENDIX 2)

Conducting Student Surveys:


Materials:

427

INSTRUCTIONS TO TEACHERS

one survey per student, 9 plastic cups, scissors.

Make enough copies of the survey form so each student has one copy. The page contains five
surveys, each consisting of nine questions. Distribute the surveys to the students. You will get
better data if the survey questions are discussed. For example, does a typical week include the
weekend? The desired outcome is for each student to interpret the questions in the same way.
The students circle Male or Female for each question, and then answer each survey question as best
they can. While they are doing this, you should label each cup with a survey topic (for example,
Hours of T.V.) and place them in a row at the front of the room.
Once the students have completed the survey, they cut the questions apart, and place each completed
survey question in the appropriate cup.
The class now needs to form nine groups, one for each survey topic. Each group will collate the
data for their question, as shown in this example:
Hours of TV watched in a typical week
Male
Female

20
15

18
15

14
23

16
35

10
16

16
20

9
0

::::
::::

The data should then be entered into a graphics calculator in three lists - a Male list, a Female
list, and a Combined list. If your calculator has the functionality, use descriptive list names, for
example, TVM, TVF, TVC.
Once the students have checked and double-checked the data to ensure it is accurate, they should
transfer their lists to the teachers calculator.
Visit the mathematics-for-queensland.com website for a method of storing these datasets in programs in your graphics calculator. This is our recommended method of storing and sharing datasets,
because:

it is the only way to store the lists for future use in low-end calculators such as the TI-82
the students and the teacher only have to store 9 programs rather than 27 lists
the data for each question is always copied into List 1, List 2 and List 3 when the
program is run. This simplifies the teaching, as exactly the same keypresses will
work for each dataset.

The survey form is also available in Word format from the website, so it is easy to modify if you
wish to change the survey questions.
Just remember that this section of the chapter is dealing with quantitative data, so questions such
as, How did you get to school today? will not be able to be analysed using the methods outlined
in the chapter.

428

CHAPTER 3 SURVEY ON STATISTICS (APPENDIX 2)

Male Female
I guess the width
of the room to be
_______ metres
Male Female
The numbers of
hours I watch TV
in a typical week is
__________
Male Female
The number of
hours I am on the
computer in a
typical week
is _________
Male Female
The number of
hours I spend on
the telephone in a
typical week
is _______.
Male Female
The number of
hours I spend
doing homework
and assignments in
a typical week
is _______.
Male Female
The number of
hours I do paid
work in a typical
week is
________ hrs.
Male Female
The amount of
money I earn/am
given in a week is
$_________
Male Female
The number of
hours I spend
playing sport in a
typical week
is ________,
Male Female
The number of
CDs I own
is ________

Male Female
I guess the width
of the room to be
_______ metres
Male Female
The numbers of
hours I watch TV
in a typical week is
__________
Male Female
The number of
hours I am on the
computer in a
typical week
is _________
Male Female
The number of
hours I spend on
the telephone in a
typical week
is _______.
Male Female
The number of
hours I spend
doing homework
and assignments in
a typical week
is _______.
Male Female
The number of
hours I do paid
work in a typical
week is
________ hrs.
Male Female
The amount of
money I earn/am
given in a week is
$_________
Male Female
The number of
hours I spend
playing sport in a
typical week
is ________,
Male Female
The number of
CDs I own
is ________

Male Female
I guess the width
of the room to be
_______ metres
Male Female
The numbers of
hours I watch TV
in a typical week is
__________
Male Female
The number of
hours I am on the
computer in a
typical week
is _________
Male Female
The number of
hours I spend on
the telephone in a
typical week
is _______.
Male Female
The number of
hours I spend
doing homework
and assignments in
a typical week
is _______.
Male Female
The number of
hours I do paid
work in a typical
week is
________ hrs.
Male Female
The amount of
money I earn/am
given in a week is
$_________
Male Female
The number of
hours I spend
playing sport in a
typical week
is ________,
Male Female
The number of
CDs I own
is ________

Male Female
I guess the width
of the room to be
_______ metres
Male Female
The numbers of
hours I watch TV
in a typical week is
__________
Male Female
The number of
hours I am on the
computer in a
typical week
is _________
Male Female
The number of
hours I spend on
the telephone in a
typical week
is _______.
Male Female
The number of
hours I spend
doing homework
and assignments in
a typical week
is _______.
Male Female
The number of
hours I do paid
work in a typical
week is
________ hrs.
Male Female
The amount of
money I earn/am
given in a week is
$_________
Male Female
The number of
hours I spend
playing sport in a
typical week
is ________,
Male Female
The number of
CDs I own
is ________

Male Female
I guess the width
of the room to be
_______ metres
Male Female
The numbers of
hours I watch TV
in a typical week is
__________
Male Female
The number of
hours I am on the
computer in a
typical week
is _________
Male Female
The number of
hours I spend on
the telephone in a
typical week
is _______.
Male Female
The number of
hours I spend
doing homework
and assignments in
a typical week
is _______.
Male Female
The number of
hours I do paid
work in a typical
week is
________ hrs.
Male Female
The amount of
money I earn/am
given in a week is
$_________
Male Female
The number of
hours I spend
playing sport in a
typical week
is ________,
Male Female
The number of
CDs I own
is ________

APPENDIX
Glossary

430

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GLOSSARY (APPENDIX 3)

acceleration

(Ch 10)

Acceleration is a measure of how the velocity of a moving


object changes over time. This is the time rate of change in
velocity.

arc (of a circle)

(Ch 5)

An arc of a circle is a part of the curved boundary of a circle.

asymptotes

(Ch 9)

An asymptote is a line (or curve) to which a graph of a curve


continually gets closer to but never touches it.

average

(Ch 3)

An average of a data set is any measure of its centre. Usually


the average which is used is the mean.

axis of symmetry

(Ch 2)

An axis of symmetry of any shape is a straight line about


which the shape may be reflected so that it leaves the shape
unchanged.

base number

(Ch 7)

In index notation, the base is the quantity which is raised to


the power. For example, in a3 and 54 the base numbers are
a and 5.

bearing

(Ch 5)

The bearing of point P from point Q is the direction in which a


person would travel in a straight line from Q to P. It is usually
given as a compass angle.

binomial expansion

(Ch 8)

In (x + 2)3 = x3 + 6x2 + 12x + 8, x + 2 is a binomial and


x3 + 6x2 + 12x + 8 is a binomial expansion.

bivariate data

(Ch 3)

Bivariate data is data which contains two variables that are


under consideration. For example, data consisting of height
and weight of kangaroos.

boxplot

(Ch 3)

A simple boxplot is a representation of a set of data with a


box between the lower quartile and the upper quartile with the
median shown between, and with whiskers out to the lowest
and highest values on either side of the box. Other forms of a
boxplot show outliers.

Cartesian plane

(Ch 1)

The Cartesian plane is the number plane which contains a set


of coordinate axes and points in it can be described by using
ordered pairs of numbers.

centre

(Ch 3)

The centre of a circle is the point which is inside it and always


the same distance from any point on the circle.

chain rule

(Ch 11)

The chain rule is a rule for differentiating composite functions.


dy
dy du
For example,
=
.
dx
du dx

chord

(Ch 5)

A chord of a circle is a straight line which joins any two points


on the circle.

circle

(Ch 9)

A circle is the set of points which are a fixed distance from a


given point.

circular functions

(Ch 5)

Circular functions are the trigonometric functions:


S(x) = sin x, C(x) = cos x and T (x) = tan x.

class intervals

(Ch 3)

The class intervals of a dataset are the intervals (usually of


equal length) into which the data is subdivided. The end points
of each interval are called class limits.

GLOSSARY

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(APPENDIX 3)

431

coefficient

(Ch 2)

A coefficient is a constant which is multiplied by a variable


quantity.
For example, 3x, 4x2 , 5xy have coefficients 3, 4 and 5.

coefficient of
determination

(Ch 4)

The coefficient of determination is r2 where r is the correlation


coefficient. It is used to interpret the strength or weakness of
correlation between two variables.

common logarithm

(Ch 7)

The common logarithm of a number is its power of 10.


For example, as 2 = 100:3010:::: then log10 2 = 0:3010::::

composite function

(Ch 8)

A composite function is a function which is made up of a


function within a function.
For example (2x + 3)4 is u4 where u = 2x + 3.

constant term

(Ch 2)

A constant term is a term in a polynomial which does not


contain the variable.
For example, in x3 + 5x2 4x + 6, the 6 is the constant
term.

continuous variable

(Ch 1)

A continuous variable is a quantitative variable describing a


characteristic of a population which takes values over a certain
range. It can have any value within the range and is often a
result of measuring.

correlation coefficient

(Ch 4)

The correlation coefficient is a measure of the degree of correlation (linear association) between two variables in a bivariate
dataset.

corresponding sides

(Ch 5)

When two triangles are similar, their corresponding sides are


opposite their equal angles.

cosecant

(Ch 5)

The cosecant of angle (cosec ) is the reciprocal of sin


1
i.e., cosec =
.
sin

cosine axis

(Ch 5)

The cosine axis is the horizontal axis (x-axis) when doing unit
circle trigonometry.

cosine of an angle

(Ch 5)

In a right-angled triangle the cosine (cos) of an angle is the


ratio of the side adjacent to the angle to the hypotenuse.
A

cosine rule

(Ch 5)

a2 = b2 + c2 2bc cos A or

cos A =
B

b2 + c2 a2
2bc

cotangent

(Ch 5)

The cotangent of angle (cot ) is the reciprical of tan


1
i.e., cot =
.
tan

coterminal

(Ch 5)

Angles are coterminal if they have the same position on the


unit circle diagram, for example, 42o and 402o .

counter-example

(Ch 2)

A counter-example to a statement is an example which shows


that the statement is not true.

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GLOSSARY (APPENDIX 3)

cubic function

(Ch 8)

data

(Ch 3)

degree of a
polynomial

(Ch 8)

dependent variable

(Ch 1)

If y is a function of x, then y is the dependent variable as its


values depend on the values of x.

derivative

(Ch 11)

The derivative (or derived function) is the function which gives


the slope of the curve for all values in its domain.

derived function

(Ch 11)

See derivative.

difference of squares

(Ch 2)

differentiation

(Ch 11)

The difference of squares is one perfect square subtracted from


another, for example, x2 9.

direction of a point

(Ch 5)

The direction of a point from another is the number of degrees


East or West of either the North or South direction.

discrete variable

(Ch 1)

A discrete variable is one describing a characteristic of a population in numerical terms where only certain values are possible
(usually whole numbers), for example, the number of children
in family. A discrete variable is often derived from counting.

discriminant

(Ch 2)

displacement

(Ch 10)

For the quadratic ax2 +bx+c, the discriminant is defined


as = b2 4ac.

domain

(Ch 1)

The domain of the function y = f (x) is the set of all numbers that x may have which produce real values of y.

ellipse

(Ch 9)

An ellipse is the oval shape traced out by all points for which
the sum of the distances to two fixed points is a constant.

expanded form

(Ch 8)

experiment

(Ch 3)

The expanded form of a polynomial consists of terms connected


by + and signs and contains no brackets. For example,
(2x 3)(x + 4) has expanded form 2x2 + 5x 12:

A mathematical experiment is the process of examining a particular series of events and gathering the information obtained.

exponent

(Ch 7)

The exponent (power or index) is the superscript which shows


how many times the base number is multiplied.
For example, in x3 the number 3 is the exponent.

extrapolation

(Ch 4)

An extrapolation for a dataset is the estimation of the possible


value of the variable which is outside the known dataset. This
estimation is however based on the known dataset.

factorial notation

(Ch 8)

n! is the product of the first n whole numbers.


For example, 5! = 5 4 3 2 1 = 120.

A cubic function is any function of the form ax3 +bx2 +cx+d


where a 6= 0 and a, b, c, d are constants.
Data are pieces of information collected about a situation.

The degree of any polynomial is the highest power that the


variable can have.
For example, f (x) = x4 3x2 + x 5 has degree 4.

Differentiation is the process by which we differentiate a function. It is the fundamental process of differential calculus.

Displacement is the distance between the initial position of an


object and its final position.

GLOSSARY

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(APPENDIX 3)

433

factorisation

(Ch 8)

Factorisation is the process of writing a polynomial expression


into a product of linear factors (or linear and quadratic factors).

factorised form

(Ch 8)

family of functions

(Ch 2)

Example: The factorised form of


x2 3x + 2 is (x 1)(x 2)
x3 8 is (x 2)(x2 + 2x + 4)

fitted values (fit)

(Ch 4)

Fitted values are values which seem to fit a given functional


relationship.

five-number summary

(Ch 3)

A five-number summary of a set of data consists of the lowest


value, the lower quartile, the median, the upper quartile, and
the highest value.

frequency table

(Ch 3)

A frequency table is a table which summarises the count of the


number of times a category occurs in the data.

function

(Ch 1)

A function is a relation in which no vertical line can cut its


graph more than once.

gradient

(Ch 1)

The gradient (or slope) of a curve at a point is the gradient of


the tangent at that point.

histogram

(Ch 3)

A histogram is a frequency diagram which consists of vertical


rectangles whose heights are proportional to the frequency for
each class interval.

identity (algebraic)

(Ch 2)

An identity (algebraic) is an algebraic equation which is true


for all values of the variable(s).
For example, x2 + 2x = x(x + 2) and xy + 4y = y(x + 4)
are identities.

independent variable

(Ch 1)

If y is a function of x then x is the independent variable, as y


depends on it.

index

(Ch 7)

See exponent.

instantaneous velocity

(Ch 11) Instantaneous velocity is the velocity of an object at a particular


ds
is its instantaneous
instant in time. If s = f(t) then
dt
velocity.

interpolation

(Ch 4)

An interpolation for a dataset is the estimation of the possible


value of the variable which falls within the range of the dataset.
The line of best fit is usually used.

interquartile range

(Ch 3)

The interquartile range is the difference between the upper


quartile and the lower quartile of a set of data.

inverse variation

(Ch 9)

Two variables have inverse variation if an increase in one of


them causes a proportional decrease in the other.

irrational number

(Ch 2)

An irrational number is a real number which is not rational.


It has a decimal expansion which is non-recurring and nonterminating.

A family of functions is a collection of functions which have a


particular characteristic, for example, the functions of the form
f(x) = x2 + c where c is a constant.

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GLOSSARY (APPENDIX 3)

knot

(Ch 5)

A knot is a speed measure in navigation. 1 knot is one nautical


mile per hour.

least squares
regression line

(Ch 4)

The least squares regression line gives a method for finding the
line of best fit. It is the line which gives the smallest sum of
the squares of the residuals.

limiting value

(Ch 11)

A limiting value of a function is a number which is being


approached as x approaches some particular value.

line of best fit

(Ch 4)

It is a line that best fits a set of points. It is also called a


trendline.

linear relation

(Ch 1)

A linear relation is a function of the form f (x) = mx + c


where m and c are constants. Its graph is a straight line with
slope m and y-intercept c

local maximum

(Ch 8)

A local maximum is a point of a graph for which the y-value is


greater than the y-values for all other points in the neighbourhood.

local minimum

(Ch 8)

A local minimum is a point of a graph for which the y-value is


less than the y-values for all other points in the neighbourhood.

logarithm

(Ch 7)

If a = bn then we write n = logb a and say that n is the


logarithm of a in base b.

many-to-many
mapping

(Ch 9)

A many-to-many mapping is a mapping where at least one value


in the domain maps to two or more values in the range and at
least one value in the range is mapped onto two or more values
in the domain.

many-to-one
mapping

(Ch 9)

A many to one mapping happens when more than one member


of the domain is mapped onto one member of the range.

mapping

(Ch 1)

A mapping is a matching of members of the domain to the


members of the range.

mathematical model

(Ch 1)

A mathematical model is a way of representing a real-life situation mathematically.

maximum

(Ch 2)

The maximum value of a function is the greatest value it may


take for all values of x in the domain.

mean

(Ch 3)

The mean is the average of a set of data values found by summing all the values and dividing by the number of values.

mean deviation

(Ch 3)

The mean deviation of a dataset is the average of the differences


between each member of the set and the mean of the set.

median

(Ch 3)

The median is the middle point of a set of data values. It may


be one of the data values (for an odd number of values) or
the average of the two middle values (for an even number of
values).

minimum

(Ch 2)

The minimum value of a function is the least value it may take


for all values of x in the domain.

GLOSSARY

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(APPENDIX 3)

435

modal class

(Ch 3)

The modal class is the class which has the greatest frequency
of data in it.

mode

(Ch 3)

The mode of a dataset is the score which occurs with the greatest frequency.

multimodal

(Ch 3)

If two or more modes exist for a dataset we say that the dataset
is multimodal.

natural log

(Ch 7)

The natural logarithm of a number is its power of e, that is, if


a = eb then b = loge a:

nautical mile

(Ch 5)

A nautical mile is a distance measure based on travelling


through 1 minute of arc on a great circle on the earths surface.
1 nautical mile = 1.852 km.

normal

(Ch 11)

The normal to a curve at any point is the line which is perpendicular to the tangent at that point.

one-to-many mapping (Ch 9)

A one-to-many mapping is a mapping in which one member of


the domain maps onto more than one element of the range.

one-to-one mapping

(Ch 9)

A one-to-one mapping occurs when each member of the domain


is mapped onto one member of the range without using any
member twice.

ordered pairs

(Ch 1)

Ordered pairs are used to represent points in the number plane.


For example, (2, 3) is found by starting at the origin, moving
2 units x-wards and then 3 units y-wards.

outlier

(Ch 3)

An outlier is a data value significantly different from the majority of data values.

parabola

(Ch 2)

A parabola is a curve which results when a quadratic function


is graphed.

Pascals triangle

(Ch 8)

1
1
1
1
1

3
4

1
3

6
10

Each new row is


constructed by adding
the two numbers
directly above it.

1
2

1
4

10

1
5

1
etc.

perfect square

(Ch 2)

As 16 = 42 where 4 is a whole number we say that 16 is a


perfect square.

piecewise function

(Ch 2)

A piecewise function is a function which can be described algebraically by giving two or more different rules, each defined
over a given domain.

polynomial

(Ch 8)

power

(Ch 7)

A polynomial is a function made up of two or more terms of the


form axn where a is a constant and n is a positive integer..

See exponent.

product rule

(Ch 11)

If u and v are functions of x and y = uv then the product


dy
dv
du
rule of differentiation is
=u
+v
dx
dx
dx

436

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GLOSSARY (APPENDIX 3)

quadratic equation

(Ch 2)

quadratic formula

(Ch 2)

quadratic function

(Ch 2)

quartic function

(Ch 8)

quartile

(Ch 3)

quotient rule

A quadratic equation is an equation which can be simplified to


ax2 + bx + c = 0 where a 6= 0.
p
b b2 4ac
2
which
If ax + bx + c = 0 then x =
2a
is called the quadratic formula.
A quadratic function has form f(x) = ax2 + bx + c where
a, b and c are constants and a 6= 0.

A quartic function has form f (x) = ax4 + bx3 + cx2 + dx + e


where a, b, c, d and e are constants and a 6= 0.

If a data set is placed in ascending order then Q2 , the second


quartile, is the score which divides the set into two equal groups
(the bottom half and the top half). Q2 is the median, Q1 is the
median of the bottom half. Q3 is the median of the top half.
u
then the quotient
(Ch 11) If u and v are functions of x and y =
v
dv
du
vu
dy
dx
dx
.
rule of differentiation is
=
dx
v2

radian

(Ch 5)

radical sign

(Ch 2)

range (statistics)

(Ch 3)

The range of a dataset is the di