Prof. dr bab. Maria Bogucka Prof, drAIbert J. Hailey --..

CONTENTS

Recenzenci

MAPS,.,,,,,.,,.,,,,,,,,,,,.,,,,,,,,,,,,.,,,,, .. ,,,,,.,,.,,.,,,,,.' .. ,"''', .. ,."'', .. ,.".".,,., .. ,.,'''''', .. , .. ,., ,... 9

INTRODUCTION , "." ,"'" "." " " 12

PART ONE.: OUTLINE OF BRl_TISH HISTORY , 19

I. THE FrnST BRITONS, 4000 BC TO 55 BC , , 21

1. BRITAIN DESCRIBED BY BEDE " " "." " " 22

© Copyright by Muriusz lViisztal, Krakbw 1997

n. ROMAN BRITAIN 55 BC-C.410 AD , 23

2. BRITAIN DESCRIBED BY JULIUS CAESAR .. " 24

3. THE ROMANIZATTON OF BR1TAIN"." " " " , 25

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m. THE MAKING OF BRITAIN, 4..00 AD- 1066 , " 26

4 .. THE GERMANlC INVASIONS " " " " 27

5. CAEDMON'S HYMN " " """ .. "" ,, 28

6. ST AUGUSTINE LN KENT " 28

7. CONVERSION OF NORTHUMBRlA. ANI) THE SYNOD OF WHITBY, 664 "" 30

8. SYNOD OF HERTFORD, 672 " 31

9. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE DANISH. WESSEX AND ENGLISH ROYAL

HOUSES 34-

10. LIFE OF KING ALFRED EY ASSER " .. " 36

11. THE LA WS OF ALFRED THE GREAT 3"8

12. VTCTORY AT BRUNANBURH, 937 .. " " " ", 39

13. STATEMENT OF SERVICES RENDERED AT HURSTBOURNE PRIORS 4.2

Larnanie, druk i oprawa

IV. ENGLAND UNDER THE NORMANS, 1066-1154 44-

14. THE NORMAN KINGS OF ENGLAND 44

15. WILLIDI I THE CONQUEROR 45

16. INVASION OF ENGLAND BY WILLiAM THE CONQUEROR 46

17. WILLlAM I AND GREGORY vn 47

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HeclakcjalDzial Promocji 31-116 Krakow, ul. Studencka 5 tel.lfax (012) 430-09-83, e-mail: wydawnictwo@wsp.lmtkow.pl

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18. SALISBURY OATIl, 1086 , 48

19. THE DOMESDAY SURVEY, 1086 49

20. SELECT PASSAGES FROM THE PIPE ROLLS 53

21. THE CONCORDAT OF WESTMINSTER, llO7.. 54

22. ST. ANSELM'S PROOF OF THE EXISTENCE OF GOD 55

118. WOLSEY ON THE DlVORCE, 1527 104

19· MORE'S UTOPIA, 1516 105

50. TYNDALE'S CRITICISM OF THE ENGLISH CHURCH,1528 107

51. EXCOM'M1JNICATION 109.

52. THE SUPPRESSION OF MONASTERIES, 1535 UO

53. THE ROYAL INJUNCTIONS OF 1538 1]2

54·. AN ACT ABOLISHING DNERSITY lN OPIN10NS, 1539 113

55. laNe EDWARD VL 116

56. QUEEN MARY TUDOR 118

57. PROTESTANT MARTYRS, 1558 U9

58. THE BURNING OF ARCHBISHOP CRANMER, 1556 121

59. QUEEN ELIZABETH 123

60 .. SIR HENRY SIDNEY TO HIS SON PHILIP, 1566 125

61. EXCOMMUNICATION OF EliZABETH, 1570 127

62. DISCOVERY OF TOBACCO 129

63. EXECUTION OF MARY, QUEEN OF SCOTS, 1587 130

64. QUEEN ELIZABETH TO JAMES VI OF SCOTLAND 1587 131

65. THE ARMADA SEEECH AT TILBURY, 1588 132

66. THEINVINCrBLE ARMADA, 1588 133

67. DZIALYNSKI'S AUDIENCE WITH ELIZAHETH, 1597 135

63. THE POOH LAW ACT, 1598 135

69. EUZABETH'S "GOLDEN SPEECH" TO THE COMMONS, 1601.. 136

V. THE HOUSE OF ANJOU-PLANTAGENET, 1154-1399 59

23. KLNGSOF ENGLAND OF THE HOUSEOFANJOU-l'LANTAGENET 59

24. K.lNG HENRY II. 60

25. THE CONSTITUTIONS OF CLARENDON, 11M .' 63

26. THE 'EVENTS LEADING UP TO THE MURDER OF THOMAS BECKET 65

27. NARRATIVE OF THE MURDER OF THOMAS BECKET 65

28. DESCRIPTION OF THE SCENE AFTER THE MURDER OF THOMAS BECKET 67

29. THE PENANCE OF HENRY n AT CANTERBURY .. , 68

30. ASSIZE OF CLARENDON, 1166 68

31. THE PERSECUTION OF JEWS, 1190 70

32. MAGNA CAlHA LIBERTATUM, 12]5 72

33. TtLE REGULA nON OF ORDEALS 77

34. KING EDWARD L 79

:35. Tl:IE MODEL PARLIAMENT. 1295 80

36. THE CON1i'IRMATION OF THE CHARTERS, 1297 31

37. EDWARD III's CLATMTO TBEFRENCH CROWN 84

38. THE BATTLE OF CRECY, 1346 84.

39. THE PEASANTS' REVOLT, 1381 87

40. WYCLTFFE'S DOCTRINES, 1382 88

4.1. THE DEPOSITTON OF RICHARD u, 1399 90

-vIII. THE HOUSE OF STUART, 1603-1714 139

70. GENEALOGICAL TABLE OF THE STUART L1NE 139

71. KING JAMES VI OF SCOTLAND AND I OF ENGLAND 140

72. THE MILLENARY PETlTION, 1603 141

73. THE HAMPTON COURT CONFERENCE, 1604 142

74. DIVINE RIGHT OF ICINGS, 1610 144

75. DACON'S "IDOLS", 1620 145

76. THE PROTESTATION OF THE COMMONS, 1621. 146

77. KING CHARLES 1 14-8

78. THE PETITION OF RIGID', 1628 149

79. CHARLES 1 ON THE PETITION OF HIGHT, 1628 151

80. THE nrsoumos OF THE COMMONS, 1629 152

131. SEJP MONEY, l637 ] 53

VI. THE HOUSE OF LANCASTER AND THE WARS OF THE ROSES,

1399-1485 , 91

42. THE I:IOUSE OF LANCASTEH AND THE HOUSE OF YORK 91

43. TONG HENRY VI 94

44 .. JOAN OF ARC'S LEyrER TO THE ENGLISH CO_MMANDERS 95

VII. THE HOUSE OF TUDOR, 14·85-1603 100

45. GENEALOGICAL TABLE OF THE TUDOR LINE 100

4·6. KlNG lfENRY Vll 101

4.7. KING HENRY VIIJ. 103

~---

7

82. THE GRAND REMONSTRANCE, 1641.. 155

83. CHARLES {IS ANSWER TO THE NINETEEN PROPOSITIONS,lM2 157

84·. THE SOLEMN LEAGUE AND COVENANT. 1643 161

85. PURITAN DEMOCRACY, 164.9 163

86. CHARLES lIS DEATH SENTENCE, 164.9 163

. -.' -. 165

87. ABOUTLON OF THE MONARCHY, 1649 .

88. OLIVER CROMWELL , .. , .. , , 166

89. A LEVELLERATIACK ON THE COMMONWEALTH. 164-9 167

90. DECLARATION OF BREDA, 1660 169

91. KING CHARLES li , _ ,.171

92. ORDER FOR THE EXHUMATION OF OLIVER CROMWELL. 1660 172

93, THE GREAT PLAGUE, 1665 173

94 .. THE FIRE OF LONDON, 1666 174

95. THE COFFEE-HOUSES , , ,.175

96. THE POPISH PLOT, 1678 " "" 176

97. THE HABEAS CORPUS ACT, 1679 , 178

93, JOHNSON1SDEFINITION OF "WHIGS II " 179

99. JAIMES II ~ " , 181

100. THE DECLARATION OF INDULGENCE. 1687 " 132

101. POPULATION ANDWEALTH, 1688 183

102. WILLIAM Ill , 185

103. THE BILL OF RIGHTS, 1689 186

104. JOHN LOCKE'S IDEA OF TOLERATION " " 188

] 05. AN ACCOUNT OF THE BIRTH OF MY CHILDREN. 1709·20 " 190

106. WHIGS AND TORillS , ,., , _ 192

107. THE BATTLE OF BLENHElM, 1104 , 193

108. THE DISSENTERS , , , 195

109, WITCH TRlAL , , .. , , , .. ,." ,, .. , .. , , 197

IX. THE HOUSE OF HANOVER AND SAXE-GOTHA, 1714··1917 198

110. THE HOUSE OF HANOVER 198

111. KING GEORGE 1 , .. , , ", , 199

112. A BURLESQUE BILL FOR COSTS FOR A TORY ELECTION, 1715 " " 200

113. ENGLISH SOClETY, 1724 , 201

114,. THE OFFICE OF PRIME MINISTER 202

- . 2M

US. KING GEORGE II AND QUEEN CAROUNE ..

116. A MODEST PROPOSAL 1729 205

117. METHODISM , , 207

118, AGHIClILTURALREVOLUTlON , , , ,.208

119, THE HAT ACT, 1732 " 210

120. THE DlSARMlNG ACT, 174.6, 211

121. THE GIN ACT, 1751. 212

122. BRlnSH TRADE, 174.7, , 215

12'3. KING GEORGE III , 2] 8

124, WTLKES AND LIBERTY, 1763 219

125 .. AMEIDCAN COLONIES; TAXATION, 1766 220

126. El'I"D OF THE AMERTCAN REVOLUTION, 1782 222

127. THE VlCA11. OF BRAY, 1725, 223

]28. PURCHASING A SEAT IN THE UNREFORMED PARLIAMENT. 1767 225

129, JENNERIS VACCINATION, 1807 , 226

130. BURKE'S REFLECTIONS ON THE REVOLUTION IN FRANCE, 1790 " 227

131. AFRICAN SLAVE TRADE , " " " " 229

132. THE DUKE OF WELLINGTON " " " " 231

133. CORN LAW RHYMES , , ~ " 232

134,. THE LUDDlTES, 1812 " " " .. " 234

135. THE GREAt REFORM BILL, 1831. " " .. " " 238

136, CHILD LABOUR IN ENGLAND." " " 240

137. QUEEN VICTORIA AND WILLIAM EWAHT GLADSTONE " 243

138. THE CHARTIST FET1TJON, 1839, " 245

139. SMITH'S THE WEALTH OF NATIONS, 1776, , ". 247

140. DARWIN'S THEOHY OF EVOLUTION, 1859 250

141. NEWMAN'S APOLOGIA PRO VTI'A SUA, 1864 " 251

142. STUDIES AT OXFORD, 1780 254

14.3. THE NEW IMPERIALISM, 1872 " 255

144. GLADSTONE1S SPEECH ON THE IRISH HOME RlJLE, 1886 " .. "" " 257

145. ATTACK ON THE HOUSE OF L011.DS, 1910 " "",, 261

X. TEE HOUSE OF WINnSOR, 1917 263

146. JUSTIFICATION FOR WAR, 1914 " " " " " 265

147. VOTING RlGHTSFOR WOMEN, 1928 "" " " 266

148. THE COMMONWEALTH OF NATIONS. 1926 " , 267

149.ADD1CATIONOFEDWARDVm,]936 , : ". 270

6

ISO. AGREEMENT OF MUTDAL ASSISTANCE WITH POLAND 272

151. CHURCHILL'S SP_EECH BEFORE THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN. 1940 2H

152. THE ATLANTIC CHARTER. 1941 275

153. NATIONAL HEALTHSEB.VICE ACT. 1946 276

154. NORTHERN IRELAND " 279

155. BRITAIN AND THE COMMON MARKET, 1973 283

MAPS

156. THE MISSION OF 5T COLUMBA, 565 287

157. THE CLERGY OF THE CELTIC CHURCH 288

158. FIUA SPECIALISBULL OF HONORIUS ill, 1218 289

159. HOMAGE OF ALEXANDER III TO EDWARD I, 1278 29b

160. SC01TISH DEFENSIVE ALLIANCE WITH FRANCE, 1296 291

161. DECLARATION OF ARBROATH, 1320 " 292

162. SCOTI'ISH SOCIETY, 1521 " 295

163. MARY STUA.RT AND ELIZABETH TUDOR: THE ENGLISH SUCCESSION

Q1JESTION 296

164. THE ACT OF UNION BETWEEN SCOTLAND AND ENGLAND, 1707 298

1. ROIYIA1\l BRITAIN 23

2. THE HEPTARCHY 26

3. THE SPREAD Of CHRISTlANTTYlN BRITAIN 030

4. ENGLAND AFTER THE TREATY OF WEDMORE. 878 35

5. THE CONTINENTAL INHERITANCE OF HENRY II 62

6. TMPORTANT BATTLES OF THE WARS OF THE HOSES 97

7. THE CIVIL WAH: ENGLAND IN 1642 AND IN 1645 " 160

8. THE COMMONWEALTH OF NATIONS " 269

PART TWO: HIGHllGHTS OF SCOTTISH mSTORY TO 1707 236

APPENDIX LBRITISH PRIME MINISTERS 301

APPENDIX II. THE BRITISH EMPIRE 303

ANNOTATED INDEX 307

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

In a volume of this sort the editor's debt to others has of course been very great. Anyon» who is familiar with earlier collection of sources arid readings will immediately recognize how much lowe [0 my rnany pTedecessor~ in this field. Snob a work as this could never have been successfully undertaken had .not. the way been prepared by such distinguished scholars as Stuhhs", Prothero", Cheyney", Dickinson", or Adams", to name bUT a few6• They have all been an inspiration and an example in om common task of teaching the student lb. learn his history at first hand.

1 wish most cordially to thank the reviewers of the Outline, Prof. Maria Bogucka of tile Polish Academy of Sciences and 1l1'0f. Albert J. Bailey of Madonna University, Michigan, [or their invaluable remarks and suggestions. I would also like to thank.Mr Donald Williams of the English Teacher ITUining College, Cracow Pedagogical University, who kindly agreed Lo proofread the manuseriprs and I hope no. language mistake escaped his expert eye ..

1 am truly grateful to the past, present, and futuro students at English Teacher Training College of tho Cracow Pedagogical University and the [aworzno Community College who [or the past six years .have suffered my teaching of British History and who are ultimately responsihle [or the writing ofthis book. Docendo discimus.

I William Stubbs, ed. Select Charters and Other lllustrations oj English Constitutional History from tile Earliest Times /0 ,1111 Reign oJE(/w(II'a the First. Oxford: Clarendon Press, I R70.

1 .

~ G. W. Prothero, eel. Select Statutes allff Other Documents or file Reigns of Elizabeth and .I(1l/1esJ. Oxford:

Clarcnuon Press 1913. 3

Edward P. Cheyney, ell. Readings in English History Dmll'll .from tli« Origina! Siillrces Intended (0

Illustrate '(I SIIol'/ Hisiory of fllg-Jmul'. London: Ginn anti Company. 19li~.

4 W. C. Dickinson el al., eds, A Source Book Oj Scottisti History,:3 vols 2nd edn. London: Thornas Nelson and SOilS, Lttl, 1953-58.

;

. George Burton Adams am) H. Morse Stephens, eds., Seled Documents ofEnglish Constitutionat ms~OI'y.

New York: The Macrnilun Company, 190 I.

6 The most representative selection of documents covering the whole British history - with the exception of the period 1559-lfi03 - is to be Found in the multi-volume Englisn Historical Documents, gen. cu. David C. Douglas, publishedby Oxford Univcrsay Press. '1953.

USEFULNESS OF DOCUMENTS

INTRODUCTION

The beginning student frequently assumes that history consists of the compilation of facts, the mere learning of which imparts knowledge and wisdom. With experience, however, he comes LO the realization that the study or history is essentially a continuing process by which an Individucl historian asks questions of the evidence he has 'at hand or can discover, Written history consists or the answers that various historians have arrived at and recorded. It varins according to thc questions posed and the beliefs and prejudices of the historians asking the questions and- searching for evidence, It is not surprising, therefore, that each generation rnus:

write its history anew - not only contemporary history but also that of all previous limes.

There is, nevertheless, a constant factor in history, a factor essential if historians are Lo be prevented Irom wandering ali into wilderness of their own imagination. This factor is the f'vjelcnce used by historians in aJlswe(lng the questions they have raised,

A historian's evidence also provides a means by which other historians Gall judge the validity of his answers. This evidence is often called "documents".

On advancing beyond the earliest stage of historical inquiry, a true student finds his pleasu re and profit in hearing about a period from its own lips, A double inducement prompts him to read thus at rust band. He is helped to draw his own inferences (which is better than abje'r:t dependence on the opinion of a Macaulay, or a Eroude, or a Trevelyan), and he gets [rorn contemporaries a certain flavour which the most accomplished moderns cannot distil into their works, Differenl opinions on a document lead to lively discussions which is what every teacher dreams of,

The abdicating king, Edward VTTl, speaking across the seven seas over the radio, summed up the intervening centuries: "At long last T am able to say a few words of my own.v.." The documents in this volume allow many more .historical personages to speak for thomselvcs.

The' definite gains Emma moderate and carefully directed use of sources are manifold, first and lcrcmost is the stronger sense of reality produced by coming in direct contact with the men who helped to make history, 0)' with these who actually witnessed the events they describe; also, a deeper, a more lasting impression is secured. To the average student, historic personages are heroes or bores, as the case may be, .hut never men, To remedy this would be a long step toward success in the teaching of history, and here the value of the original leucr

or description is al once apparent. '

Hitherto 110 selection oJ documents over the whole range of English history has been attempted in Poland. Nor - to the best of my knowledge - has a similar selection combined with <I chronological outline and an annotated index been attempted anywhere else.

PURPOSE OF THE VOLUME

The JJlimm-y plITpose of this volu me is to make studying British I Lis tory more interesting and 'njo),ablc, lt is to be realized in the threefold way:

I·'irsl. to give studen ts an OUtlU1P' or British history;

secondly. to put some flesh ou the bare facts of the outline by the use of illustrative documents:

thirdly, to explain a number of terms connected with British history.

But it also aims at training the student to follow "the dictates of good sense" in his study or the past - to read diverse materials in an intelligent -yet critical fashion, to evaluate these materials judiciously, to distinguish fact from opinion and prejudice, to sUJ)press his own predilections, and to formulate objective judgements of historical events.

In his study (of the documents) the student will also gain an insight into the complexity of history, the tangle of instincts and forces, that lies behind any historical event. It is true, or course, that the real significance 01' history's complexity will not become apparent WiUlO11t a sound knowledge of the narrative history and for this 1 count ltpOn the lecture or textbook, with the Outline being just the first step in this direction.

III teaching history using these documents al the Englisb Teacher Training CoUege for the last four years, Lhave found that college students take genuine pleasure in working at the stuff of history for tliemsclvca. I believe that this work in original materials, if properly organized, may profitably be made the central rather than a supplementary part of the course, and that the techniques of the historian, taught in this fashion, will contribute much to the intellectual powers of every student.

OUTLu'iE

All outline sketch cannnt, by its nature, be more than a bare recital of facts; or, adapting the phrase La this ease, all outline sketch of a COUIlLJ)"S history can be little more than a chronology of politics. A good writer will certainly explain where he can the action of Gause and effect in public affairs. but such comment will be cut very short by the li mils of his space. J-Ie must either .restrict his topics, or else reduce that factor of intimate detail which makes history a lively subject. As a rule he decides to give the _purchaseI' frill value or information, with the result tha] his pages are obtrusively dry.

My purpose of this volume is to supply an element which the outline, and, indeed, mall)' existing text-books lack - not. because they m'e in themselves deficient, but because by virt ie of their conception lhG')' dealwith facts instead ofwith the spirit of history.

Cl-lOICE OF DOCUMENTS

111 organizing a book. of this sort, and one that must be kept to a useful size, the most difficult task is Ural of selection.

Ever), teacher of history has 11i5 own ideas of the relative importance of documcn ts, and ihis compilation cannot expect to escapecriticism either [or its selections or for its omissions, There "'<IS no difficulty in deciding upon the insertion of the documents thai eveTybody considers essential. such as the Magna Carta and the mil of Rights, But from all tho other accu mulated records of twenty-one centuries just what shall be taken'? Constantly faced with the embarrassing duty of excluding one document in order to include another, I have tl'ied Lo adopt the attitude of Alfred the Great. when he compiled the laws of his predecessors. A Irred

liaid: "I hsl'u not venturecllo place in writing much of my own, being, Ullcertain what might plcas« I hose who came alter I~S. SO I have here collected the. dooms, thal. seemed. to me most jusl". \Vlwre Allred adds that he did what.he did with the advice of his W~tan, 1 .mlght say ~at in selection and annotation I have fortified my own judgement by years of eXJJenence teaclung Brltish History ill the English Teacher Training Colleges at. tim Cracow Pedagogical University, at the J agiellouian University, and in the] awerzno Community College.

Included materials can be classified under ecclesiastical, legal, economic, cultural, social or colonial history, but I have made 110 effort to give by way of examples any full or c~nti:lluous account of the Church, the common law, trade and industry. the classes of the people, or the

separate parts of the Empire. .

The wide variety of docllments presented - chronicles. statutes, charters, state papers,

O'ovcrTllllental and psrllamentary records, warrants, law reports and decisions, speeches, memoirs and diaries, Jelters and missives, poetry and pamphlets - will make the student aware or the spectru m of evidence available to him.

a part. AIleI' each Litle comes Ole date of the event, whiJe the author's date is given under the bibliographical reference.

Words in parentheses should be read as part or the original rext. Square brackets, on the cOOLraJ'Y, always indicate words supplied 1'01' one reason or another by the' editor. Three points ( .. ,) show omitted passages. without regard to length,

Logical uniformity in the proper names is impossible. 'Inconsistencies are .hard to avoid, bUI as a rule the Dictionary of National Biography forms have been used, In case of the nobility and their titles, the form most common in historical writings bas been used (e,g .. Bllckingham,and not Villiers), and under such a heading it has also been entered in the Annotated Index,

VARIETY AND lMPORTANCE OF DOCUMENTS

EDlTTNC

To facilitate the study of the document I have provided a certain amount of consistency in their arrangement. The documents are placed in chronological order in the Outlin~. and ~o attempt has been made to group them topically, Each document is a self-contarned .UDlt, sufficiently complete 'with its introduction to be understood and apprecl,ated, by 1~c;:1I. No svsternalic inleTprctation of the documents has heen attempted. However, ~l~vnLtng the i~trodllctions, which set the scene by furnishing necessary background and .indicating the reason for studying the specific issue arhand, I have been conscious of the place of each document in English llistol'Y·

Care has been taken to keep both passages and comment within the compass of the, knowledge of tll~ Polish students of English. They may meet with a certain n.l1mJ~er ol unfamiliar nllusions 01' terms. bUL few. which a glance at the Annotated Index or a dictionary

will not clear lip.

The problem with regard to many a document has been one of ah~clgement,. The mll~h zreater length of tIle later documents (after 1485.) made it often impossible to print them IfI [lin, A few of the most important documents have been printed in full, but most of (hem have been cut down in length, either by the omission of less important clauses or by inserting ( ... ) ill

the lJlace of legal repetitions.

The spelling and style or printing have been modernised wherever 1 feared tlIa: all archaic guise might prove a stumbling-block. Some will consider this a piece of vandalism, but, rather unwillingly, 1 sacrifice the picturesq1leness of a sixteenth or seventeenth century page lor the sake or rend ring its text more intelligible.

Liberties of a minor sort have often been taken to improve the sense of a text. In many enumerations" and" .01' its substitutes have beeninserted or omitted at will, "The latter" , "the [orrner"; or occasionally a name in brackets bas been put in place of an ambiguous pronoun.

Throughout the book all bibliographical citations which follo~ the h~ading. "Source" relat .. to the quarler'Whellce the selection has been immediately derived. Wlth their h~lp the reader can in most cases go directly to the full text, of which the passage here printed IS only

During the course of the eightcenth century the Benedictines of Sl Maur compiled a valuable series called L'Art de Verifier les [Iaies. ille aim of this work is to furnish an accurate synopsis of events, wiihout the least effort at producing a literary effect or establishing a point in debate,

HUL after agreement is reached regarding the actual occurrence, differences regarding the motive will arise [or standards of right and wrong vary according to time and circumstance and individual belief. Even though. we accept the same set of facts, our interpretation of them will depend on whether we are by temper conservative or radical, peaceful of warlike, romnntic or prosaic,

The great benefit which the student oJ documents may expect to receive is a new perception of the difference between various kinds of materials, some Faithful, others misleading, But there is no sucli-thing as a had dccument. Every text will, if properly studied, surrender its quota of genuine 'informeticn. However. firmly we may believe 1118t each piece has sOme merit, it is 110 less clear that the degrees of value vary infinitely. Criticism has an endless task ill deciding what should b kept. and what rejected, bow much weighrcertain statements should carry. and whether certain authors could have had precise knowledge or only repeated current gossip and scandal,

In assorting records according to their merits, let us first consider the most trustworthy.

One class of documents is untainted: that, namely, in which writings tell their own colourless story without ornament either from friend or foe. Take the whole body of public and official documents: statutes (eg, Nos 21, 25, 30, 10.3, 119), charters (eg, No, 32), legal notices (eg, Nos. 81, 124), bulls (Nos. 61, 158). parliamentary writs and returns (eg, Nos 76. 136). memorials, and in [act the original text of any important measure. No room for distortion exists ill such cases. because, once granted that the words have been honestly preserved. the writing proves itself and is final. In this volume the student will find among the following passages numerous examples of those sound and final authorities.

Speeches count among documents for the spoken word once correctly reported is stereotyped into a bit of lite rature , Before shorthand abbreviations were introduced (in 15808), a slow speaker's utterance was so rapid that it outstripped the hearer's pen, and the torrent of words poured out by a fast speaker Wg_S -baflling. Hence the verbatim fidelity W6I8 wanting thl'OligilOut the Middle Ages. Hut in the speeches quoted. in theselection [cg, Nos 125, 'J 35,

r d

145, 14·9, 15l, 155) the text verges closely upon exact precision, and thus we can bold these speakers responsible for their words with a strictness which wouLd bc unreasonable in the Medieval records. Elizabeth Tudor's three speeches (Nos 65, 67, 69) are among the best exa In ples in British history.

Official and private letters possess an importance [or the historian which entitle I hem to a sub-section under the most esteemed species of his documents. Of course onc docs no! imply that thcy are uniformly truthful, but even when they intentionally convey falsehood lhey are worth much as proceeding directly from the individual and reflecting his mind or. temper though they conceal his morals. Intended, too, in the majority at cases for one person or for a small circle, and often surrounded hy utmost seorecy, they convey tidings, which can be entrusted to no other form of communication. Diplomatic correspondence (eg. Nos 4·7, 55, 56), in particular, is stamped with this mark of privacy, and as a rule the world is kept waiting for generations before independent historian can gain admission to tile archives of ambassadors and foreign ministers. Several letters from sovereign are included, and all or them alford glimpses of character, No 17. is an example of how in a few words say a lot. In No 64. Elizabeth displays the fujJ measure of her taot >- 01' hypocrisy - in negotiations. Besides these letters. Sir Henry Sidney's advice to his son (No 60) discloses the best moral standards which were set. before youths in the reign Qf Elizabeth.

Having glanced at formal and official documents, original texts of different sorts and letters, we pass to contemporary narratives, which are descriptive of an event or episode (eg. Nos 57, .58, 66, 93, 94). Description enters very largely into the subject matter of letters, but the difference between them and the sources now to be considered is that the Iauer are meant for publication. As compared with letters they may lack something in freshness and unreserve; by way of compensation. they not infrequently gain from the care which an author devotes to style and finish. If a politician or the partisan of any cause, he must guard against the possible attacks of opponents; if he has the masses in view, he must be clear and easily understood; if he would reach the fastidious, he must spare no pains: in pruning his ideas and revising his phrases. As II rule, a book is a much more studied performance than a leuer, and tells its story with greater regard to consequences.

A utohiography is a typical form of the contemporary record at its best, The closer one comes to the act, the Giller are his chances of knowing all about it; and when one has seen a thing done or shared in its achievement, TIe rises to the level or an ultimate authority. He may have motives for distorting the facts and require close watching, but, unless his .memory luis completely failed, he will certainly set down much that is correct. Other f&CIDI'S besides immediate observation, which such sources require before they can reach the highest

excellcnce , are dignity of the event, magnitude of the writer, and power to depict skilfully or with force. This splendid combination of opportunity, greatness and literary skill are rare, and its product js always a historical classic (best example Caesar's De Bello Gallieo). Lesser luminaries shine according to their strength, and sometimes a person, otherwise insignificant, connects himself lastinglywith a stupendous scene, as did Grim with Becket's murder (No 27).

All writings which reflect real life and stirring experiences have one characteristic ill common: they are entertaining. And then :in the same class with personal recollections one may rank the comments and criticism of an eye-witness - a foreigner's remarks about the

country he visits (No 59), a biographer's opinion of the friend whom he has long known (eg, Nos. 10,77, 1l5). ctc.

Next in order of merit come pieces by contemporary writers who stood at a distance from the event, but who look trouble to satisfy themselves concerning it. When U'P. original records a~e lost these take their place, and often through special circumstances they enjoy great credit without owmg il to an accidental cause. The important points are that the author should be a competent person.' and should also have investigated the matter in a proper way. Many of the medieval chran.Ides were not uniformly well educated, and they lacked means of sifting what they heard. Still the common news came their way, and by preserving it they have left us the possibility of judging them and their times.

Or the selections contained in this volume a large number has been taken from the works of men who were Iiving at the moment but were neither actors no]' spectators. Some of our authors seem bent on sincere and impartial description (eg. Nos 39), while others displ.ay a warmth and prejudice which at once impair OUT confidence in them (eg. Nos 4.3). Controversy always exists, and the historian cannot overlook it, therefore such documents as No 49 .. No 95., or No 58. demand insertion here.

Contrast with any extract among those just cited Nos. 3., 31.,113, or 162. T1N~ subjects themselves are removed from faction, and in the calm, disinterested tone we detect the sagacious observers and critics. No virtue or vice escapes their watchful eye, and jf their arrnours have weak spots it must be sought in defective knowledge rather than in mental bias.

Lastly we reach the non-contemporary selections. They are very few, inasmuch as, after Bede, every epoch in English histOTY can produce its own living authorities who must recei ve preference. The selections that date from 11 later generation than their subjects are limited to B.ede and "Fr~issaIt_ Bede (Nos 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 156, 157) preserves the th read of early Saxon history, and IS lLnchallenged master of the domain which without Iiirn would be a blank and desert waste. Froissart's version of U1C battle of Cree] (No 38) is chosen because it represents his picturesque style. .

T.his rapid analysis shows all that is needful: namely, the diversity which original authorities present, and the enormous range in their values. Each document, we assume, is worth something. his the business of a painstaking criticism to decide how much.

This Introduction is also a declaration that history is something besides pure dullness, 01' pure story telling, or a means of lauding friends and reviling Ices. It is a fascinating detective story. For isn't il a fascinating job finding out how much truth and how many lies may be there in each piece? So, let's 'get to work, SherTocks!

77

(}Jart one

Outline of (]3ritisfi History

21

1. crJ-PE P ItRSrr (}31?j'TO:NS 4000 (}3C 'TO 55 cBC

THE PLAN OF STONEHENGE

Ca 6500 RC. the land bridge joining Britain 10 Europe i~ flooded by the melting glaciers. and Britain

becomes all island.

Ga 4000 B.C, the Iberian people develop farming.

Ca 3600 RC.,. the Neolithic enclosure at Maiden Castle is built. en 3200 RC., 'stone housesat.Skara Brae, Orkney are buill. Ca 2400 B.C" the *Be:u<cr people arrive from Europe.

Ca 2000-1300 B.C., Wessex Culture in Southern Britain develops. Ca 1500-150 B.C., the Age of Hill- Forts.

Ca 1400 D.C., *Stonehengc, started in Neolithic times is completed. en 700 B.c., the '~Celtic imrnigratiollstarts.

Ca 32511.C., the first written reference to Pretanic (or Britannic) Islands by Pytheas of Marseilles. Ca150 B.C., beginning ciJ*Belgic inunigration.

1. BRITAIN DESCRIBED BY BEnE

Beeda; the Venerable Bede (637-735), a monk of [arroui in. Bernieia, was the flower of Nonluunbruui scholarship during the Dark Ages. in his later years he was celebrated throughout all parts oj Christendom. After his death his bones were removed to the Cathedral of Durham, and a shrine was erected til his memmy, but both the relics and shrine 'Were destroved. i,n the reign 0/ Henry VlfT Tudor.

As a historian he certainly meant to be truthful, atui if legend enters into his history it is because he was not always in a position to sift jact from fiction, In his work, apart from various classical authors, he used. numerous documents and. letters, as well m oral tradition.

Bede's Historia Ecclesiastica Gemi« .Anglorum (Ecclesiastical History of the English Church andPeople) is the primary aut/writy for the early Church and the major source for our knowledge of poiuicol. history up to 731.

Bede was the first umter to use for historical purposes the dating by the incarnation (ie anna domini, "in the year of our Lord", instead of by. "indiction), ana owing to·Anglo-*Sa:t:on influence this practice spread on the Continent and eventually became general.

The jollm.lJing description of the beginnings of Britain is based on oral tradition rather than on any documents.

Britain, formerly known as Albion, is an island in the ocean, lying towards the north west at it considerable distance from thecoasts of Germany, Gaul, and Spain, which together form the greater part of Europe...., At (he present time lie CB 700] there are in Britain .. , Iour nations- English, British, *Scots, and *Piels""

Al first the only .inhabitants of the island were the *Britons, from -whom it takes its name, and who. according to tradition, crossed into Britain from", [Brittany], and occupied the southern parts.... It is said that some "'Picts from Scythia Fe Scandinavia), put to sea in a few lorigships, and were driven by storms around the coasts of Britain, arriving at length on the north coast of Ireland, Here they found the nation of the "Scots, from whom they asked permission to settle; but their request was refused. Ireland is the largest island after Britain, and lies to the west ofit. ... So the *Picts crossed into Britain, and began to settle in the north of the island. since the Britons werein possession of the south ....

As time went on, Britain received a third nation, that of the "'Scots, who migrated from Ireland under their chieftain Reuda and by combination of force and treaty, obtained from the *J'icts the settlements that they still hold. From the name of this 'chieftain, they are still known as Dah'eudians, for in their tongue "clal" means a division.

(Source: .Bede, Historic Ecclesiastica Centis Anglorum, transl, J.A, Giles (London: G. Bell and Sons, 1878), Book I: 1.)

22

II. ~09r1j1:N CJ3CJ?]'TJlIN 55 CJ3C - C. 410 Jlq)

I! ROMAN BRITAIN II

I",~~j Celtic (rib"

___ Roman advanccs.43·84 A.D,

o Celtic towns

.. Roman forts.with dateof foundsrion 1.11 A.D.)

•..•.. ,... Boudicca revolt against the Romans 61 A.D. 0

jO

100 mil~

MAP 1, RUMAN BRITAIN 23

The Romans first come to Britain in

55 and 54 BC, (Doc. 2.), when Julius Caesar makes two inconclusive raids.

2. BRITAIN DESCRIBED BY JUlLIDS CAESAR

The observations of [ulius Caesar concerning Britain. uiere set down in his "Commeiuories JI or memoir.s. While probably not accurate in all respects, they give tIS inualuable injormation on the inliobiuuus of th.e south-eastern part of the island as he saw them.

The country was so named by Julius Caesar, who believed that his predecessors, the *Belgic invaders of Bruain, Ulere Britanni. Earlier Greek trunellers had called it the Pretanu: Islands, perhaps because the inhabitants were named I'retani.

The inland parts of Britain are inhabited by those whom fame reports to be the natives of the soil. The-sea coast is peopled with Belgians, drawn thither by the love of war and plunder, ... After they had waged war they remained there' and began to cultivate the soil. The island is well peopled, full of houses, built after the manner of the Gauls, and abounds in cattle. For mmley the)' use either brass coins or iron rings of a certain weight. ... Their brass is ail imported .... They consider it contrary to divine law to eat the hare, the chicken, or the goose; yet Lhey breed them lip for their own amusement and pleasure .. _.

By far the most civilized are those who dwell in Kenl. Their entire country borders on the sea, and they do not differ much from the Gauls in customs. The greater part of those within the country never sow their lands, but live on flesh and milk, and go dad in skins. All the*Brilons p·ai.nI themselves with woad lie a dye-producing plant, later superseded by indigo], which gives a bluish cast to the skin, and makes them took. dreadful in battle. They permit their hair to grow long shaving all pa11S of the body except the head and the upper lip. Ten and twelve have wives common among them, especially brothers -with Drothers, and parents with children; if any children are born they are considered as belonging to those men to whom the maiden was first married ....

(Source: Julius Caesar, De Bello Gallico, trans!' (with some changes) W. Duncan (London, 183-2),.. Book V, chaps. 12-14.)

N ot until

43 A.D., couquest of Britain is determined by Claudius. The Romans invade Wales and,

61. massacre the "'Druids and women ofihe island of Anglesey. Apart from [he revolt of*Boudicca. 61, they are virtually unopposed. The Romans advance well into the Scottish Highlands,

78-84, but,

122, the northern frontier of the *province is established by the construction of the "'Hadrian Wall (TyneSolway), which remains the main barrier to invasion from Scotland. despite the construction,

142. further north (Forth-Clyde) of the * Antonine WaU. Under Agricola, the British population begins to acquire Roman civilization and Latin becomes very popular (Doc. 3.). Towns, trade and fanning "villas) flourish.

24

3. THE ROMANU:ZATION OF BRITAJ[N

Cornelius Tacitus, the foremost of Ronion. historians, was the son-in-law oj Agricoln, Governor of Britain, 78-84. From his Vita Agricolae, which deals with Agricol(J IS conquests aut! his policy 0/ Rnmnnisation, it is evident that the conquest of Britain by the Romans, effictillefy begun in ltD, 43, by the 80s had already barn fruit: in the introduction, spread and, /,0 a degree, acceptance of the Roman lila), of life- But Agri.cola is not yet quite sausjied: "lith his policy: "The "'Britolls themseloes bear cheerj'u.Uy the conscription; the taxes, and the other burdens unposed. on them by the Empire if there. be no oppression, OJ this the._y are impatient; t.hey nre reduced to subjection, not (IS ret to slavery".

In order that these men lie the natives] living far apart, unskilled. and eager for war might, by a taste of pleasure, become accustcrned to peace and quiet, he [ie Agricola I personallv urged and publicly ai.ded them to build temples, market places, and homes by ~ssjsting those who seemed so disposed, and by censuring the inactive; thus rivalry for honour look the place or oompulsion. Further, he provided a liberal education for the sons of the chieftains .. .; so much so that those who recently were unfavourable to the Roman language, were now eager for its literature. So our dress came to be held in honour, and the toga was often seen. Gradually tbey rell a prey to the allurements of vice, the porticoes, the baths, the dainties of the banquet; this in the judgement of the ignorant was called civilization, although it is really characteristic of slavery, ...

(Source: Cornelius Tacitus, Vitae Agricolae, transl, A. Church and W. Brodribb (London, 1877), chaps. XIII, XX!.)

160(?). The first church is built at Glastonbury.

Martyrdom of St Alban,

304, a Roman legionary who is converted by a Christian to whom he gives shelter. The period of decline of

Roman rule ill Britain ~l<l.rL~, en 350, especially after.

363·67. invasions of ·Picts lind "Scots. 1.11 the face of barbarian pressure (410, Rome is sacked by the Goths). ca 408, Roman rule in Britain comes to an end. The *Britons in their extreme misery make a final appeal,

446, "the groans of the "Britons", to the Romans for help against *Picts, "Seols. and *Saxons but no help comes.

III. TfFE 'M.Jl1(INq OP CJ31?jrrjUN 400 }l (jJ - 1066

Lenhelpless by rae Roman>. "BriLons appeal for h-elp. 4411, to the *Angles. which eventually leads to.

en 450'Cll 600, migration and settlement llf*Angles, "Saxuns ami *-lutes (Doc, 4.) The allies invited by a British king, Vorugcm. tn come to England 10 help him drive back the invading *StOI5 and "Pic's, change soon, 455. into invaders. They drive the "BriLuns to Wales, Cornwall, Scotland and Brittany and establish the "Heptarchy consisting of [he seven states: Kent (""Jutes); Northumbria, Mercia, East Anglia (Angles); Essex, Sussex, Wessex ("Saxons).

The Heptarchy

in.the 7th Century

NORTH 8KA

MAP 2. THE .HEPTARCHY

Nnrlhumbria's dorninatiou during the 7th century i, L"nlloweu by that ol' Mercia -,

Sth ccnurry. expanding tel Cornwall and Wales,

26

4. THE GERMANIC INVASIONS

There are no contemporary descriptions a/the inuasions of the ~'Angles, "Saxons and *Jutes, Bede describes them in some detail in his Historia Ecclesiastica. Although Bede fixes a precise aate for the conquest of Briuiin. by the Germanic tribes (449), the process itself must have covered a long period. It is noteworthy that Bede treats Englan.d as a unit" populated by one people despite its political division. into the "Heptarchy.

Though he lived more than tioo centuries later, Bede demonsiraies considerable ability in

"co-ordinating the fragments of in/ormation which came to him through tradition, th.e relation. of friends or dacumentary evidence" (Frank Stenion).

... Then lie 449}l11e nation of the Angles, 01' *Saxons, be-i:ni:\ invited by ... [Vortigern, a British king, to repel the northern tribes], arrived in Britain with three long ships, and had a place assigned them to reside in by· .. , [Vortigeml in the eastern part of the island, that they might Lhl1S appear to be fighting for their country. whilst their real intentions were to enslave it ....

AccOl:a.ingly they engaged wi.th the enemy, who 'were come from the north to give battle, and obtained the victory; which being known at horne in their own country, as also the fertility of the country and the cowardice of the *Britons, a more considerable fle_et was quickly sent over bringing a still greater number of men, which being added to the former, made up an invincible army ....

Those W110 came over were of the three most powerful nations of German)' -*Saxons, Augles, and *J utes ....

In a short time swarms of the aforesaid nations came over into the island, and they began to increase so much that they became terrible to Ute natives themselves who had invited them. Then, having on a sudden entered into league with the *Piels, who they had by this time repelled by the force of their arms, they began to turn their weapons against their confederates ....

... the barbarous conquerors ... plundered all the neighbouring cities and country, spread the conflagration [rom (he eastern to the western sea, without any opposition, and covered almostevery part of the devoted island. Public ,,!S well as private structures were overturned; the priests were everywhere slain before the altars; the prelates and the people, without any respect of persons, were destroyed with fire and sword; nor were there ,any to bury those who had been thus cruelly slaughtered. Some of the miserable remainder being captured in the mountains, were butchered in heaps. Others, spentwith hunger, came forth and submitted themselves to the elJemy for food, being destined to undergo perpetual servitude, if they were not killed even upon UIe. spot. Some. with sorrowful .hearts, fled beyond the seas, others, continuing in their own country, led arniserable life among the woods, .rocks, and mountains, with scarcely enough food to support life, and expecting every moment to be their last.

(Source: Bede, Historia Ecclesiostica; Book I: 23-25.)

St Patrick, a *Britoll who as a youth is cupturedand enslaved by Irish raiders. later escapes to the Continent, lim!

ca 450, is sen! back as bishop and converts all Ireland.

King'" Arthur('!). defeats an English (ie Anglo-Saxonl army, 500 or 515, at the battle or Mount Badon, but is killed,

27

537, in battle near *HaLirian's WAIl.

St David, "the water-drinker", renowned for his rigid asceticism, begins, ca 550, his mission in Wales, founding a monastery at St David's.

560. The abbey al Bangor in lreland is founded,

SL Columba, an Irish bishop, arrives at Scotland,

563, and founds a monastery or [ann, which becomes the centre of the *Cellic Church (Docs. 156, 157) ill Britain.

ca 657, Cacdmon begins writing poetry (DO(;. 5.).

5. CAEDMONfS HYMN

Caedmon is tlie tuuhar of the earliest suroiving poem in. Old English (ca. late seventh century}. This 'work is known from its uunscripiion. by Bede, who .W;;y.1 tluu. Caedmon ioas an ox.herd on. the estates of Whitby A bbey who miraculously received. the gift of song: JI ••• while he slept some one stood by him. in a dream, greeted him, called him by name, and said, "Caedmon; sing me sometluag', To tliis he replied, '! know nat hou: to sing .... r Bfa the one. who WaS I.nlking with him answered, . No matter, you. are to sing jar me.. I 'Well, then,' said he, 'what is it that / TTl ust sing?' 'Sing, I mid the other, 'the beginning of created things', A I this reply he immeiluueiy bego;/l, to sing ver.,es in praise oj Goa the Creator, verses that he had never heard ".

Caedmon's Hymn is ollueraied; and each line i.s divided by a ruuurai IJoice-pause into two Jw.lf I inas.

N II scylun hergan ;vIeLudres ma-ori uerc uuldurladu-, eci Dryctin,

He eerist scop heben til hrofe, Tha middungeard eci Dryctin,

firum Ioldu,

!terre nrieses U ard,

end his niodgidano, sue he uundra gihuaes, or astelidse.

relda barnum

haleg Scepen, moncynnzes Uard, refler tiad ee

F rea allmeetig.

INow should we praise the heavenly Guardian, the might of the Maker, the thought of his mind, the works of the Father of glory; how He, the everlasting Lord, established every wonder. He, the holy Creator, first madeheaven as a roof for mankind, then made the earth as a Iloor for them; He, the Lord everlasting, U1e Almighty God.1

(Source: Bede, Historia Ecclesuxsuca; Book TV: chap, 24.)

St Augustine, the fir~t Archbishop or Canterbury, arrives in Kent,

j'J7. founds ti Benedictine rr onastcry at Canterbury and lays foundations for the establishment of (Roman) ChrbLianity in Engtand (Doc. 6.).

6. ST AUGUSTINE IN KENT

The IlUBt important event. ill. the hiswry of England at this time is undoubl.edlj' the reconversion of the inhabitants 0/ England to Clirislianity. For although Christianity had been introrluce,L 10 Britain under I. he Romans and the Scoto-Irish Ch.urch ruas vigorously ali.ve nl: litis

28

date, the Celts had been pushed 1.0 Wale~ and Scoiland by the English (Anglo- *Sa.xom) who had never been Christianized. Thus Britain at the end of the sixth century uias overwhelmingly pagan.

Bede was born: seuensy-six ),ears aft.er Pope Gre150ry the Great sent St Augustine to Englund, and with 597 his Ecclesiastical History approaches us greatest importance. Indeed, the bn:nging 0/ Christianity ana civilization to I. he btuisarian *Anglo- "Saxons is the mai.n (heme 0/ his History. No wonder, then, that Bede acknoioledges the role of God as prime rnouer in history and accepts miracles as [act» of life.

Heal' descnbes how Gregol)' (be/ore becoming Pope), seeing English fair-haired slaves and learning tfU1L they are still pagan, said:

"Alas, what a pity that the author of darkness is possessed of men or such Iair countenances; and that being remarkable for such graceful outward appearance, their minds should be void of inward gral'P". He therefore agaill asked what the name of that nation WiIS, and was answered iha; they were called * Angles. "Hight", said lte,lIfoi' they lllll'c angelic faces, and it becomes such to be co-heirs with the angels in heaven I'. [Nol([ bene; In Latin "'Allgles are Angli and angels - angeliJ. The-n he proceeded, "What is the name of the *provillce from which Lhey are brought?" It was replied that the natives of thaL province were callcrl Deiri [from Deira, part of Northumbria]. "Truly me they De ira"; said he, "withdrawn Irorn wrath and called to the nlercy of Christ". IIRow is the king of Ihal province called?" They told him his name was AElla, and he, alluding to the name, said, II A Elloluia; the praise of God the Creator must be sung in those parts".

Il7hen Gregory became Pope Gregor}1 the Great, Augustine, a Benedictine monk, with abou: forty companions, was sent 10 Eng/and in 597 to loork for conversion Their efforts IMre directed toumrds the conuersion. of Kent; here Kmg lEtheLbert, who had married a Christian, galle them afrierrdly reception tuui was subsequentlx converted. The mission i.~ thus described by Bede.

And when they [Augustine and his monks] had entered the lodging given to thetn, they began to imitate the apostolic life oJ the primitive Church ....

A.nd whon he [King Aethclbert of Kent], among the rest, was attracted by tho pure lire of tltp holy men, and by their pleasant promises, the truth of which they had confirmed also by the rnanifcstatioa of many miracles, and, believing, was baptized, greuter nu rn hers began daily 1.0 flock Lo hear the word, and abandoning the practices or heathenism, to join themselves by faith to the unity of the Holy Church of Christ. It is said that the King, while 11" rejoiced greatly in their faith and conversion, would compel no one Lo Christinnity; only he showed more affection to the belie vers , as [eHow-citizens ,vitli him of the kingdom or hCllVCIL For he had leaIIIL from those who taught and Leu him to salvation, that the se rvice of Christ should be voluntary, and not by compuision.

Nor was it long before he granted 10 his teachers a place J01" their see, suitable to their degree, in his capital of CaJiterblll'l', along with possessions 01" various kinds that were necessary for them.

(SOllrCC: Bcde, Histona Ecclesiosiica; Hook IT: chap. 1: 67; Book I, chap. 26: 39-40.)

King Oswald or Northurnbria, invites lona to send him a mission.

634. the result being AiLian'~ loundation or Liudisfurne and the effective [oundation or the nOI"lheIII English Church.

29

MAP 3. THE SPREAD OF CHRTSTIANITY IN BRITAIN

Differences between the Celtic and Roman Churches (e.g. over the dale of Easter) are resolved,

664. in favour of Rome al the Synod of Whitby (Doc, 7_), ending the influence of *Celtic Christianity in Britain and allowing the centralized organization of the English Church under Theodore of Tarsus, after lhe del iberations,

672, of the Synod of Hertford (Doc, 8.), where Canterbury is given authority over all the English Church,

7. CONVERSION OF NORTHUMBRIA AND THE SYNOD OF WHITBY, 664

The nex: important step in the conversion of England was taken abous thilty years after Augustine's mission, when Paulinus, a folloue: of Augustine, presented a letter from the Pope to Edwin, King of Northumbria, who called a council of his leading men to consider the matter, and when one of his counsellors in support of the conversion to Christianity delivered the [amous /Iamb le of the spmmw:

The present life of a man on earth, 0 king, seems to me, in comparison of that time which IS unknown to us, like the swift flight of a sparrow through lice room wherein you sit at sllpper in winter, with your commanders and ministers, and a good fire in the midst, whilst the storms of rain and snow prevail abroad; the sparrow, I say, !lying in alone door and immediately out at another, whilst he is within is safe from the wintry storm; but after a short

30

spa e of fair weather he immediately vanishes oul of your sight, into the dark winter from which he had emerged. So this life of man appeal-S for a short space, but of what went before, or what is to follow, we are utterly ignorant. II, therefore, this new doctrine lie Christianiry] contains something more certain, it seems justly to deserve to be followed.

(Source: Bede, Historia Ecclesiasuca, Book IT: chap. 13: 95-6.)

Nonhumbrie -was converted but soon. reverted back to paganism and had to be reconoerted, this time to ·the Celtic Christian tradition. *Celtic, or Columban., Christianity €_-.tended into. the north: of England when King Oswald ofNonhumbria in 635 obtained from lona the services of Aidan, (L Celtic monk, as abbot-bishop ofLindisfame fie Holy Island]. Meantime, from southern England, where Augustine had landed in the year of Columba's death, a church in close fello-wship 'with Rome was advancing northwards. The Celtic and Roman parties clashed in Nonhumbria, where a decision ?Vas made in favour of the loiter at the so-called Synod of Whitby i-n664.

A priest 0/ the time, Eddi;us Stephanu.1 (d. co. 7Q9),gives u.s a,n occouni of the Council in his Life of Bishop Wilfrid, written in the early eighth century.

On a certain occasion ... the abbots and priests and .men of all ranks in the orders of the Church gathered together in a monastery called Whitby ... to considerthe question of the pToper date for the keeping of Easter - whether in acccrdance with the British and Scottish

manner Las ordained by St Columba] , 01' whether the plan of the apostolic see lie Rome] was

better .. __

[After Colman, Bishop of Lindisfarne had spoken on the Celtic side, and Wilfrid on the Roman] King Oswiu [of 13ernicia and Northum bri.a] , with a smile, asked them. all: "Tell me which is greater in the kingdom of heaven, Columba or the Apostle Peter?" The whole synod answered with aile voice and one consent: liThe Lord settled this when he declared: "Thou art Pete r and upon this rock I will build my Church .... And ] will give thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven; and whatsoever thou shah bind on earth shall be bound ill heaven, III

The King wisely replied: "He is the porter and keeps the keys. With him I will have no differences nor will I agree with those who have such, nor in any single particular will I gainsay his decisions so long as Llive .... "

(Source: Eddins Stephanus, The Life of Bi.slwp Wiifiid, ed. arid trans). B. Colgrave (Cambridge University PTCSS, 1927): 20-23).

8. SYNOD OF HERTFORD, 672

17w uruficauon. and more eJficient organizauon of the Engli.:;h Chu.rch was significantly ./illthered by Theodore of Tarsus, appointed Archbishop of Canierbury in 668, the first. such preloie to whom. the entire Church submitted.

A general council oj the English Church. at Hertford, in 672 - at which the English Chwch.jor tlu: first time acied. as one body - regulated monastic and episcopal discipline, created the basis for It .crurai ecclesiastical administration (with Canterbury- given authority' over the uihole English Church), and laidfoundationsfor a settled system of panshes, 'I,()hir.h increasingly served in place oj the ministrations of itinerant missionaries attached to manasteries.

31

Below are printed ten. canons, or ecclesiastical rules, recommended by Theodore as qj" prime importance.

In the name of the Lord God and OLl]" Saviour Jesus Christ, and under the everlasting gov·cmance and guidance of His Church by the same Lord Jesus Christ, it was thought right tlrat we should assemble in accordance with the custom of venerable canons ,0 deliberate concerning the necessary affairs of the Church. We therefore assembled on (he 24th day of September, the first *indiction, at the place called Hertford; that is myself, Theodore, though unworthy, Bishop. of the See of Canterbury by the authority of the apostolic see ... , 1'.1150 present were our brothers and fellow-bishops .... When all the above had assembled and taken their places in due order, I said: "My dearest brothers, for the love and reVercnB€ you bear OUI Redeemer, I beg that we may al] dclihcrato in harmony rOT cur Faith, preserving inviolate the decrees and definitions of our holy and respected Fathers."

r dealt w'ilh these and many other matters relating to charity and the preservation of the Church's urrity, And ... I asked each in [urn whether they agreed to observe all the canonical decrees of the ancient Fathers .. , and I asked that all should devote special attention to [the following chapters of the canon law:J

Chapter 1. That we all unite in observing the holy day of Easter 011 the Sunday after the Iourtccnth day of the moon of tbe first month [Nota bene: the new year .started on March 25],

Chapter 2. That no bishop intrude into the diocese of another, but confine himself to the gui.dance of the people committed to his charge,

Chapter 3, That no bishop shall interfere in any way with monastcciesdedicatcd to God, 110]'" take anything from them forcibly ....

Chapter B, That no bishop claim precedence over another ant at ambiticn: seniority of corrseeration shall alone determine precedence.

Chapter 10. That lawful wedlock alone is permissible; incest is forbidden; and no man may leave his lawful wife except, as the gospel provides, for fornication ....

After discussing these chapters and reaching decisions hy our common consent, in order that no occasion [or unedifying controversy or differences between ourselves may arise, it has been thought right that each of us should ratify our decisions by his own signature ...... Therefore if anyone shall presume in. any way to contravene 01' disobey these decisions confirmed by our agreement and ratified by our signatures, according to canonical decrees.Tet him take notice [hat he incurs suspensiort from every priestly function and exclusion from our fellowship.

May divine ~race preserve us all in safety, who live in the unity ofHis Holy Church. (Bede, Hisioria Ecclesiastice, Book IV: chap. 5.)

The Illuminated Gospel Book ."OJ DUTrow (Ireland), the earliest known example of the new *Celtic Christian art is completed,

ca 690, and the Lindisfarne Gospels are written and illuminated. The Venerable Bede, a monk of Jarrow-on-the- Tyne,

731, completes his History of llt~ English Church and People, and hi. death, 735, marks the-end of a golden age of Northumbrian art and learning.

With the reign of OFFA the Mighty of Mercia,

75'7-96, (he b'J"ealest king that had ever reigned in England, the supremacy of Northumbria over the *Heplarchy pu~se5 10 Mercia.

32

OFFA of Mercia defeats the West *SaxOns at Benson,

779. and i~ regarded as =brctwalda of all England, with the chief of East Anglin. Essex, and Kent it, hi,

*va~saJs. To protect his kingdoms from Welsh attacks,

779, an immense OFFA', dyke is cunsLruued from the Dee to the Wye. The Nonhmcn, L·U· Danes, begin to ravage anti plunder England,

787, and with the sack of [he monasteries of Lindislarue and Jarrow, and rona, 793-95, the Viking Age begins.

WiUl the death olOFFA theMighty,

796. the suplt!maey IJf the English Kmgilorns passes from Mercia to Wessex, and as King EGBERT OF WESSEX,

802-39, who g,-e", up at (he. COLIn of Charlemagne, attains dominance over the "Anglo- "Saxon states, he may be wnsidercu as the "First. King of all the English". EGBERT is the ancestor ol'all the subsequent English Kings IJfGng;Iil.IlLJ. down 10 the present time, except CANUTE, the LWO HAROLDS, and WILLIAM J (he COllljllef(Jl" (D,,~ .. ~,),

33

EGBERT 802-39

I

.AETHELWULF

839-56

AETJkLBALD 855-60

I AETHELBERT

860-66

AETHkLRED 866-71

I

ALFRED the GREAT

871-99

I

EDWARD the Elder

.899-924

I

ATHELSTAN 924-39

EADRED 946-55

SWEIN

KinC:) of Denmark 985-1014

AeJfgifu

HAROLD I 1035-40

Ri cha'rd II

D of Nbnuandv

I -

Robert I

D of Normandy

EDMUND 939-46

1

I EDGAR

959-75

I

Richard I

D. 6f Normandy

I

1 EDWY

955-59

I

EDWARD the Martyr

975-78

Godwine Earl of Kent

Edith HARClLD II 1066

(1) CANUTE (2) = E~ma

AETHELRED

9. RELATIONSIDPS BETWEEN THE DANISH, WESSEX AND ENGLISH ROYAL HOUSES

-the Unready' 978-1016

1016-35

HARDACNUT 1040-42

EDWARD the Confessor l042-66

34

During EGBERT's reign the incursions of the Vikings (Danes) multiply, but it i~ only in

855 lhat they start to settle in England. The Great Army of Vikings begins the systematic conquest or the Island, 866, anti SOllO parts or England north of the Thames {East Anglia, Northumbria, and Eastern Mercia). become seuled by Danes.

After the Treaty of Wedmorc,

878

NORTH SEA

MAP 4. ANGLO-SAXON ENGLAND AITER THE TREATY OF WEDMORE, 878

After severe struggles (establishmeru of *burhs, reorganization of "fyrd, and building of a fleet) ALFRED THE GREAT, King of Wessex (Doc. 10,},

871 -90 1. defeats the Danes,

May 878, at Edington and seizes London, 886·. Although the Treaty of Wedruore,

879, with the Viking leader, Guthrum, gives [he Danes control over much or eastern England (*Danelaw), by 890, ALFRED's authorhy is acknowledged over all of the remainder uf England. the importance or ALFRED

THE GREAT rests also in his activity as law-giver (DO(;, I j .) ami translator of historical and ethical writings (St Augustine. Boethius, Bede).

35

10. EXTRACTS FROM ASSER.'§ UFE OF KING ALFRED

It was m leader in the struggle wit/uhe Danes that King Alfred obtained his principal fam», although he had many other interests and. amhitions: he was a lm.l!giver and a sinci administrator Ql justice; he reorganized the ~fyrd; he is the "[asher of the Engiishfleet"; he resiored monasteries; he «ncouragei] iewning by founding schools, inlliting scholars }TaITt abroad, and himself translating froni Latin into Engl.tsh; he.finally, orderedth« compilation a/the *lI.nglo-Saxofi Chronicle.

Alfred's wan with the Dnnesarui his wretched health were such a. draui upon lus energies that we tnust jeel. surprise at the extent of his activities, and we mustuionder if ever any man combined in his tnon: person so much excellence in war, legislation, and. learning.

The main source ofour klWwledge about A.Iji·e.d is his Life by Ass!!.r (d. 909?). Asser, bishop of Sherborne, had lioed. and worked together with A !fred. fie 1Vas probably wliting Life in 893. " tells us much. of Anglo-Saxon. affairs in the ninth CEntWY, and of AIji'ecl in. particular, 'which uould othenoise lusoe been unknown. Asser's Life has its fauu», though: the material drawn from the autlior's own experience lS often cOlnbinect with parts of the Allglo·.}a.;wn Chronicle; also, "'ficr the. ueilknouni Saints' Lives, Asser stresses too much, and probctbly exaggenues, those aspects a/Alfred's character which are in. accord 'with thea genre.

To my venerable and most pious lord, .ruler of all the Christians of the island of Britain, Alfred, King of the Anglo-Saxous, AsseT, lowest of all the servants of God, wishes thousandlolri prosperity 'in both the present and Iuture W'e, according to his prayers and desires.

Chap.22 ..... [Alfred] was loved by his falher and mother, and indeed by everybody with a united EU1ci immense love, more than all his brothers, and was always brought up in the l:oyal call rt. and as he passed through his. childhood and boyhooclhe appeared fairer in Corm than aU his brothers. and more pleasing in his looks, his words and his. ways. And [rom his cradle a lnnging for wisdom before all things and among all the pursuits of (hi.s pr'esent .lifc, combined wi\ll his liable birth .. ,; but, alas, by tha unworthy carelessness of his parents and tutors,nc remained ignorant of letters until his h'lel£rh year, or even longer. But he listened attentively to *Saxtin poems day and night, aod hearing (hem often recited by others committed them to his retentive memo!,)'. A keen 'huntsman., he toiled unceasingly in every branch of hunting, and not in vain; for he was without equal in his skill and good fortune in that art, as also in all other gifts of God, .. '"

Chap. 25, He often affirmed with frequent laments and sighs from the bouorn of Iris heart, rhatamong aU Ius difficulties and hindrances iti this present life this was the greatest: that, du ring the time when he had youth and leisure and aptitude foJ' learning, he bad 110 teachers; but when be was more advanced in years, he did have teachers and writers to some extent, wheu he was not able to study, because he was harassed, !lay .rather disturbed, day and night beth with illnesses unknown to all the physicians of this island, and with the cares of the royal office at home and abroad, and also with the invasions of pagans by land and sea. Yet, among all the difficulties of this present life, from infancy unto the present day, he 11<15 never abandoned that same insatiable longing, and even now [probably ill 893, nt the age of 44.1 still yearns for it ....

Chap. 91. Tho King was pierced hy many nails 01' tribulation, although placed ill royal power .... IHel was troubled ... by the constant inroads of foreign peoples lie Danes], which he constantly sustained by land and sea without any peaceful. interval. What shall I say of" bl:; Irequontcxpcrliuons and battles agair1st the pag·an.s and tlrc .ir.cessant cares of governmenL'?

36

What of his t;laiJy [solicitude] fOJ the nations, which dwell from the Tyrrhenian Sea to the farthest end of Ireland?.. WTlat of the cities lind towns he restored, and the others, which he built where none had been heforc? Of the buildings made by his instructions with gold and silver, beyond compare? Of the royal residences in stone, moved at the royal command from their ancient sites and beautifully erected in more suitable places? And what of the great trouble and vexation (besides his illness) he had with 11]5 own people, who would veluntarily submit ic.liule or no labour Jar the common needs of Lh.e Kingdom? Yet, just as the skilful pilot strives to bring his ship, laden w.ith great riches, to the longed-for harbour of his native land, though nearly all 1116 sailor's are worn out - he, upheld by divine aid, would not allow the helm of the Kingdom he had once received to totter ITT waver, thOLlgh set alone in the midst of the ranging and manifold whirlpools of this present liievFcr he most wisely bruught oyer and bound to his own will and to the common profit or the whole Kingdom Iris bishops and *ealdotmen and nobles, and the *thegnswho Were clearest to him, and also his *reeves to whom, after God and the King, the control of the Kingdom seems rightly to belong, by gently instructing, flattering, urging, commanding them, and, after long patience, b), punishing sharply the disobedient, and by showing in every way hatred of vulgar Jolly and obstinacy .....

Chap, 99. Taking counsel from all high, he ordered his officers first to divide into two equal parts ail his annu al revenue.

Chap. 100. "V11en this was clone, be adjudged that the first part should be devoted to secular uses, and ordered that this should be further divided into three parts. The first or these shares he bestowed annually on his fighting men, and also on his noble *theg115 who dwelt by turns in his court,.serving .him in niany offices ....

Chap. 10L ... and the second to the craftsmen, whom he had with him in almost countless number, collected and procured from many races, who were men skilled in every kind of earthly .raft; and the third share to strangers [Tom every race, who flocked to Iiim from places far and near asking him fOT money, aud even to those who did not ask, to each according La his rank. Regave in praiseworthy manner with a wonderful liherality, and cheerfuTIy, since it is written: "The Lord Ioveth 3 cheerful giver" [Corinthians 9:7].

Chap. 102. But the second part of all his wealth, wllieh came to him every year from revenue of every kind, and was paid into his treasury, he devoted ... , with all his will, to God, and ordered his officials ~o divide it most carefully Into four equal paris ill such a way, that the first pan of this division was to be prudently dispensed to the poor of every race who came 10 him .. '" A.L1d the second parthe gave to the two monasteries which he himself had had built, and La those serving God in l11Ctn, ... ; and the third 10 a school which he had collected very zealously hom many nobles of his own race and also boys no! of noble birth; and the fourth part lo the neigh bou r,ing monasteries throughout the "Saxun. Kingdom and Mercia ....

(Selecled from Assor, De Re/JUs Gesus Aelfiedi Jl!/agni, transl. J. A, Giles in Six OLd English Chronicles (London: H .. G. Bohn, 1848): 51.77.)

37

11. SELECTIONS FROM THE LAWS OF ALFRED THE GREAT

The Anglo-Saxon dCOT7lS lie laws, decrees} are the best examples of Germanic law, In England there was no legacy of Roman law whatsoever, and Germanic law continued in operation in its pristiuefomi uruil the eleventh century.

The aim of the Anglo-Saxon law court uias not to provide justice, but simply to provide alternatives to the blood feud, The greater part of Anglo-Saxon law wa.s oral and customary; the so-called Anglo-Saxon. law codes are not really codes at all, but merely statements on nouei or con/usingpoint-s oflau:

The dooms are in. many parts attempts to put moral law or biblical teaching into legal form; in other parts they are efforts to put the familiar customary law into more concrete shape; in still other parts they are similar to the tables of modem insurance companies in their detailed provisions/or the payment of fines and compensations fie bo_t and *wergild) to an injured party, in proportion to the extent of the injury,

Introduction 43. Judge thou very fairly, Do not judge one judgement for the rich and another for the poor; nor one for the one more clear and another for the one more hateful [GfExodus 23:3],

Introduction 49,7, After it came about that many peoples had received the faith of Christ, many synods were assembled throughout the earth, and likewise throughout England, after they had. received the faith of Christ, of holy bishops and also of other distinguished wise men; they then established, for that mercy which Christ taught, that secular lords might with their permission receive without sin compensation in money fOT almost every misdeed at the firsl cilence , which compensation they then fixed lie bot and *wergild); only for treachery to a lord they dared not declare any mercy, because Almighty God adjudged none for those who scorned him, nor did Christ, the Son of God, adjudge any for him who gave him over to death; and he charged [ev0ryone] to love his lord as himself.

Introrluntion 49,8. They then in many synods fixed. the compensation for many human misdeeds, and they wrote them in many synod-books, l1ere one law, there another.

Introduction 49.9, Then 1, King Alfred, collected these together and ordered to be written many of them which our forefathers observed, those which I liked: and many of those which I did not like, r rejected with the advice of my councillors, and ordered th-em to be differently observed, ...

Introduction 49.10, Then I, Alfred, King of the West *Saxons, showed these to all my councillors, and they then said that they were all pleased to observe them,

1. First we direct, what is most necessary, that each man keep carefully his oath and pledge .. "

4. If any plot against the king's life, directly or by harbouring his exiles or his men, let him be liable to forfeit his life and all that he owns.

5, Also we determine this *sanctuary for every church which a bishop has consecrated: if a man exposed to a vendetta reaches it running or riding, no one is to drag him out for seven days, if he can live in spite of hunger, unless he himself fights [his way] out.

6, 1£ anyone steals anything in church, he is to pay the simple compensation and the fine ... , and the hand with which he did it is to he struck. off. ...

38

14. If anyone is born dumb. or deaf, so that he cannot deny sins or confe-ss them, the farber is to pay compensation for his misdeeds .. "

25- If anyone rapes a *ceorl'5 slave-woman, he is to pay live *shillings compensation La the ceorl, and 60 *shillings fine,

25.1. If a slave rape a slave-woman, he is to pay by su£fering castraticn.i..

32, If anyone is guilty of public slander, and it is proved against "him, it .is to be compensated for with no lighter penally than the cutting off of his tongue, with the proviso that it be redeemed at no cheaper rate than it is valued in proportion Lo the *wel"gild.

40. Forcible entry into the Icing's residence shall he 120 "shillings; into archbishop's, 90 "'shillings; another bishop's or an "'ealdorman's, 60 * shillings; that of a man of a twelve-hundred *wergild, 30 * shillings; of a man of a six-hundred *wergild, 15 *shilUngs; forcible entry into a *ceml's enclosure, five *shillings ... _

[Compensation Ior injuries]

49, If a man strike out another's tooth in the front of his head, let him make compensation for it with 8 * shillings; if it be the canine tooth, let 4 *shillings be paid as compensation, A man's grinder is w01.1h 15 * shillings,

57. II the shooting lie [OTe] finger be struck off, the compensation is 15 *shillillgs; for its nail it is 4 *shiUings.

If the great toe be struck off, lei 20 *shillings be. paid him as compensation: if it be lhe second toe, let 15 "'shillings be p-aid as compensation: if the middlernost toe be struck off, there shaJl.be 9 "shillings as compensation .. "

He who smiteth his father or Ius mother shall perish by death, ...

(Selected from the full text edited in B. Thorpe, Anc:ient Laws and lnstiuues <!fEng'lan.d,2 vols. (London: C. E. Eyre, J840), I: 44-101)_

The Danish states were subjected by ALFRED THE GREAT's successors: EDWARD THE ELDER,

90i-924. and ATHELSTAN,

924-39, who.

937,defe~ling the allied Danes, *SctllS and Welsh at Brunanburh

(Doc, 12.)_ gains direct control over England and, being considered the mOSL powerful monarch in the West. of Europe. establishes diplomatic ties with Germany and France,

12. VICTORY AT BRUNANBURH, 937

At Bnuuuilnuh, Atluilsuu: Ullerty defeated a great confedenuiotvformed: against him, consisting o/Anlaf; King fit" the Danes of 'Irelarui, Consuuuine, King of the. Scots, Owen, King of Cum.b,ia, and the Northumhruui Danes, As the result of the victory the "Scots, the Welsh, and the Dones all did "liomag» to /uhelstan. Also, tlie victOlY seuled the fact that I:he "Danelaiu was to be incorporoied uiuh. the realm of the Wessex * Hreuocldas, and that there -was to be IIlLl. one nasion; the Engh'sh, between the Filth of Forth and the Engli.sh Channel.

The ioar baluui of Brunanburh; one oftlie oldest; and. noblest of English. national lays, is included ill the Anglo-Saxon. Chronicle,

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is (L histolY in unnalistic form 0/ Ang[()-ScLW/t England. It is ioriuet: in. Old English, It exists in seven contemporary' manuscripts, sOllle of which caner the period from 60 B. C. to Il54,_A,J].

39

It o~oinated in, the reign of Alfred the G,·eat. (871-99), 1IJM may have directed its compilaiion.

The CIiI'OIIl'cle was compiled from such sources as oral reports and earlier histories. Next to Bede's Histaria Ecclesiastica Geruis Afiglonmz, it is the most important narrative source of pre-Conquest English history.

Thefollowing translation flam Old English is by Lord Tennyson. Altfwugh it does notfollou: the rhythm of the original, it gives the spirit oj the old AnglocSa..o:an poem.

Aethelslan, king,

Lord among" earls, Bracelet-bestower and "'Baron of barons, He with his brother, Edmund *cAetbeIing, Gaining a lifelong GI01yinbattle,

Slew with the sword-edge There by Brunanburh; . Brake the shield-wall. Hewed .thelindenwood, Hacked the battles.hield,-

Sons of Edward with hammered brands,

sons = Athelstan and Edmund

n

Theirs Was a greatness

Got from theiJ.grand~ires -Theirs that So often in 8trJe with their. enemies

Struck [or their hoards and their hearths ani! their 10Q1e8.

lU

Bowed the spoiler, Bent the Scotsman, Fell theshipcrews Doomed to the death.

Alllhe "field with blood of the fighters

Flowed, from when first the great Sun-star of morningtide,

Lamp of the Lord God,

Lord everlasting,

Glowe-d over earth, till the glorious creature Sank La his setting.

IV

There lay many a man Marred by the javelin, Men of the Northland Shot over shield. There was a Scotsman Weary of war.

40

V We the West-Saxon~, Long as the daylight Lasted, in companies

Troubled the track of the host that we hated,

Grimly with swords that were sharp from the grindstone, Fiercely we hacked at the flyers before U~.

VI

Mighty the Mercillll, Hard was his hand-play, Sparing not any of Those thai with Anlaf, Warriors over the Welledngwaters

Borne in the hark's bosom, Drew to this island:

Doomed to the death.

XII

Then with their nailed prows Parted the N orsernen, a Blood-reddened relic of Javelins, over

Thejarring breaker, the deep-sea. billow, Shaping their way toward Dublin again, Shamed in their souls.

XliI

Also the brethren, King and " Aetheling, Each in his glory,

Went to his own in his own W1est-Smwnland, Glad of the war.

XIV

Manv a carcasethey left to be carrion,

Many 11 livid one, mallY a sallow-skin --

Left for the white-tailed eagle to tear it, and Left for the llorny-nibbed raven to rend it, and Gave to th€! garb aging war-hawk to gorge it. Hlld That graybeast, the wolf of the weald.

XV

Never had huger, Slaughter of heroes

Slain. by the sword-edge -Such as aid writers

Have writ of in histories "~ Haptin this isle, since

Up from the East hither "Saxnn and Angle from

41

hapl = happened

Over the broad billow

Broke into Britain with Haughty war-worker. who Harried the Welshman. when, "'Earls that were lured by the Hunger of glory gat

Hold of the land.

(Source A. S. Cook and C. B. Tinker, eds., Some Transuuionsjrom.

Old English PoetfJ' (Boston: Ginn and Company, 1902): 26-30.)

EDGAR the PEACEA8LE.

959.75. ruler of all England, is crowned am] anointed by SI Dunstan. Archbishop of Canterbury (Doc. 13.1.

973. as Killg of all the English In EDGAR's reign the country l~ first called "Engla-land" lie the lund of (he Angles or Engfish].

13. STATEMENT OF SERVICES RENDERED AT HURSTBOURNE PlUORS, HAMPSIDRE

Dunstan, Abbot of Gla:5wnbury, teas the jirst oj'l.he great ecclesiastical statesmen qj'Englancl: ln. 960 he became the Arcbbishop of Gmterbury, and jar sixteen ye.ars ioas l!,'dga,t's ch.ief aduiser. He improued. tulm inistnuioti of lhe Kingdom by iruroducing the division of *shires into *"hundreds. He did ITLIleh to unite the English and the Darush: races by giving the men o] the *" Danelaui equal social nd'llo,ntage.s with the men a/Essex. lt. is thanks to DW1Stan tho: Edgc.lr'J reign was the most prosperous a/all the Old English Kings,

Dunstan. wu;s also responsible jar monastic refom« in England. Monasteries played an important role in the christiauieing of Britain, The founding and. endowing of these instiuuions ioen: on through. most. ofthe Allglo-SCLwn period and continued after the Norman Conquest, reaching a. peak in the twelfth century, Although the ninth century saw the ouenltroiu of most o] the renowned monasteries, Dunstan managed to reform. the monasteries by enforcing the rule 0/ SI Benedictine:

"pOV(~ltx, chasti./)" aru] obedience" on the monks, arld celibacy on the secular clergy lie the parisii priests].

The monasteries would sub-lei their lands to their * vassals. The jollowing dowment is interesting because it not on.ly illustrates the obligations of peasants to th« monastery they held lond 0.(; /lUI also sheds some light.s oft the lvay oflfle afthe common. people,

Here arc recorded tIle dues which t1e peasants must render at Hurstbourne. First li'olll every "'Jude tlley must render 40 pence at tile autumnal equinox, and 6 church "miuan' lea 8 bushels] of alp and 3 seaters of wheal [or: bread, and they must plough 3 acres in their 011'11 time, and SOIl' them with their own seed, and bring it to the barn in their own time, and give 3 pounds of barley as rent, and mow half an acre of meadow as renl in their own time, and make it into a rick, anri supply 4 fothers of split wooJ as rent, made into a stack ill their own time, aud supply ] 6 poles of fencing 85 rent likewise in their own time, and at Easter they shall give 2 ewes with 2 lambs - and w reckon 2 young sh 'cp to H full-grown sheep - and I.hl') must wash tilP sheep and shear them in their 01'111 lime. and work as they arc birlrlcn L'V('I')' week except three - one al midwinter, the second at Easter, the third at lilt: RogilLioJl Days lie the week of' lite Ascension].

(Source: A. J. Hobcrtson, eel. and trans. Anglo-Saxon Cluu: us. (Cambridge University Press, 1930): 207.J

42

AETl-lELRED THE UNREADY lie uncounselled, [01' he would not listen to the 'rede ' or counsel ofothers], 978.1016. attempts in vain to prevent Danish incursions, which begin agnin in

980, by levying heavy tribute, on his subjects in the Iorrn or the *Dane.geltl. His long reign is but a series of disasters, which after the.lust Battle of Malden,

991. allow the Danes to conquer all England, 1013, and AETl:IELRED is fnrced into exile.

CANUTE (CNUT) THE GREAT. King of Denmark. is elected king by the Danish army ill England.

1016-35. und makes England [be centre of his North Sea empire. CANUTE marries AETHELRED's widow and becomes a Christian.

Except for the bodyguard (*housecarle) the Danish army is discharged and sent home. anti CANUTE soon is depending on English more than Danish advisers. His peaceful reign is marked by legal and military reforms After his death. CANUTE's sons rule until

1042, and then [he English line of kings isrestored by (he election of EDWARD THE CONFESSOR,

1042.1066, son of AETHELRED. wbo during CANUTE'S reign lived in exile in Normandy. After his corcnation the family of his wiJe dominates royal policy and EDW!\RD loses popularity by placing Normans in high offices, In his last years EDWARD more and more turns (rum secular affairs. leaving control of the country to his wife's brother, HAROLD, Earl of Wessex, who on EDWARD THE CONFESSOR's death,

1066, is elected.king by the +witan, but on

14 October 1066, at the battle of Hastings, HAROLD is defeated and killed by a etairnant to the throne of England - WILLIAM, DUKE OF NORMANDY,

10/. P/NqLjlJ{([) VNCJYE(j( TJfC£ NOrJ<;M_}l1VS 1066-1154

Robert 1 Duke of NOrmandy 10,;n~35

I

WILLIAM r Matilda of Flanders

l066~87

D.of Normandy

1035

WILLllM II RUFUS 1.087 -1100

0.0£ Normandy, 1096

Matilda of Scots

I Stephen=Adela

Count I

of Blois

Geoffrey Plantagenet Count of Anjou 112l-S1 D. of Normandy 1144-49

(2) Matilda (1) of Scots

Henry V emperor

STEPHEN 113.5 - 54 D. of Normandy 1135~41

HENRY II, 1154-89

Duke of Normandy, 1149 Count of Anjou, 1151 Duke of Aquitaine, 1152

14·. THE NORMAN KINGS OF ENGLAND

44

1066-87, Reign ofWILLlAlVll THE CONQUEROR (21 years)

Tille: By conquest

Succeeded at tile age of 39 (b. J 027 or 1(28) Married: (1033) Matilda of Flanders

Children. Robert (future Duke of Nonnumly). William (future WILLIAM Il). Henry (future HENRY L).

Adela (mother of future SThE'HEN)

Characteristics. Centralized the ~feudal system in England, His greatest deed was the compilation of the Domesday Book. Punished his opponents with remorseless severity. Introduced mutilation as punishment and *wager of battle as a form of trial, but abolished the death penalty, Those acts were counter-bulanced by the good order and peace which he kept. He ruled with an iron hand but brought prosperity,

Some majorpoiitical figures of the reigll:

Stigand (d. 1(77), Archbishop of Canterbury Lantranc (d. 1(89), Archbishop of Canterbury

15. WILLIAM I THE CONQUEROR

The +Angio-Saxon Chronicle r.t}ru still kept up at two or three monasteries at the time of the Norman Conquests. The.following estimate 0/ th.e Conqueror, under Year 1087, i..s of sperial interest as coming fiom. one a/the conquered and one who had himselflil!ed in the King's court. Full credit is gillen WiUialilfor his mildness toioards churchmen (after all, tlte 'Writer W(/,S a monk), and for the good order which he preserved. His avarice, his prh1e and the cruelty of his forest laws are all remembered. But Wi.Uiwn's miluary skill. and staiesmanship (I,e not meruioned.

H any would know what manner of man King William was, the glory that he obtained, and of how many lands he was lord, then will we describe him as we have I DOWn him, we, who have looked upon him, and who once lived in his court. This King William, of whom weare speaking, was a very wise and a great man, and more honoured and 1TI000e powerful than any of his predecessors. He was mild to those good men who loved God, but severe beyond measure towards those who withstood Ills will .. " In his days the great monastery at.Canterbury was built, and many others also throughout England; moreover, this land was 6lled with monks Wl10 lived after the rule of 51.. Benedict; and such was the state of religionin his days that all that would might observe tbat w-hich was prescribed by their respective orders.

King William was also held in much reverence: he wore his crown lie held meetings of the Great Council) three times every year when he was in England: at Easter he wore it at WillcbeSLeT, at Pentecost at Westmlnster, and at Christmas at Gloucester. And at these times, all the men of .England were with him, archbishops, bishops, abbots. and *t::-arls, "Lhegns and *knights. So also, was he a very stern and a wrathful man, so that none durst do anything against his will, and he kept in prison those earls who acted against his pleasure. He removed bishops from their Sees, and abbots from their o Ifices, and he imprisoned *thegns, and at lengt_h he spared not his own brother Odo [Bishop of Bayeux. who was thrown into prison for Ei years] ....

45

Among other things the good order that William established is not to be forgotten; it was such that any man, who was himself aught, might travel over the Kingdom with a bosom-fuU of gold unmolested; and no man durst kill another, however great the injury he might have received [rom him. He reigned over England, and being sharp-sighted to his own interest, he surveyed the Kingdom so thoroughly that there was not a single *hide of land throughout the whole of which he knew Hot the possessor, and how much it was worth, and this he afterwards entered in his register fie Domesday Book]. The land of the "Britons [ie Wales] was under his sway, and he built castles therein; moreover, he had full dominion ave]' the Isle of Man; Scotland also was subject to him, from his great strength ....

Truly there was muchtrouble in these times, and very great distress; be caused castles to be built, and oppressed the ~pOol'. The. King was also of great sternness, and he took from his subjects many *marks of gold, and many hundred pounds or silver, and this either with or without right, and with little need. Be was given to avarice and greedily loved gain. He made large forests for the deer and enacted laws therewith, 50 that- whoever killed a h.art or a hind should be blinded. As he forbade killing the deer, so also the boars; and he loved the tall stags as if he were their father. ...

The rich complained and the pOOl' murmured, but he was so sturdy th.at he reeked naught of them; they must will all that the King willed, if they would live, or would keep their lands, or would hold their possessions, or would be maintained in their rights ....

(Source: The Anglo-So..wn Chronicle, ed. and transl, J.A. Giles (London, 1847): 461-3.)

After the victorious battle of Hastings (or Senlac) (Doc. 16.), WTLUAM l the Conqueror is crowned, Christmas 1066, king at Westminster.

16. INVASION OF ENGLAND BY WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR

Normans were descendants of Danes or Vikings, the same race who came to England inthe 8th century, wlw about the same time settled in France and founded Normandy, which flourished and fonned a great, practically independent dukedom. The Normans fuu1 COme into contact with the Roman cioiliuuiot: a/Gaul (France), and luui Ta.pi.dlr absorbed the language, religion, and manners of the French. Thus, they were nwre civilized in the 11 th century than the English.

On Edward the. Confessor's death the '" Witan chose Harold, the sori of Godwin, as King.

William, Duke of Normandy, sent ambassadors to claim the Crown of England, but as his claim was rejected, he invaded the country. His pretexts for the invasion were:

- that Edward the Confessor fwd promised him the Crown

- that Harold had sworn; not to stand in the way of his claim

- tho: his wife, Matilda, descendedfrom Alfred the Great, and

- that the Pop« sanctioned his claim.

None of these claims was really valid, however, as the "'Witan had the sole right to elect King.

The following narrative is taken from the seventh. book of the Gesta Normasnorum DlICWll of William of [umieges (d. ca 1090). It was written on, or velY sfwrtly after 1070, so that its aiuhor is a contemporary allt7writy.

Edward, King of the English, being, according to the dispensation of God, without an heir, sent Robert, Archbishop of Canterbury, to tlie Duke [of Normandy, William II], with a message appointing the Duke as heir to the IGngdom which God bad entrusted to him. He also at a later time sent to the Duke, Harold [Earl of Wessex] the greatest of all the COUDl~ in Iris lGngdom alike in riches and honour and poweL

46

This he did in order that Harold might guarantee the crown to We Duke by his *iealty and conGrm the same with an oath according to Christian usage ....

Harold ... tarried with the Duke for some time, and performed *fealty to Iiim in respect of the Kingdom with many oaths. After this the Duke sent him back to the King with many gifts.

f IJ due course ICing Edward completed the term of his happy life, and departed from this world in the year of the Incarnation of our Lord 1065 [old use; 5 January 1066}. Then Harold immediately seized the Kingdom, thus violating the oath which he had sworn to the Duke ....

[The Duke] therefore hastily built a fleet of three thousand ships, At Length he brought this Heel to anchor at 51. V alery in Ponthieu where be filled it with mighty horses and most valiant men, with hauberks and helrnets. Then when a favourable wind began to blow he set sail, and crossing the sea he landed at Pevensey where he immediately buill a castle with a strong rampart. He left this in charge of some troops, and with others he hurried to Hastings where he erected another similar fortress. Har:old, rejecting caution, advanced against this, and, after riding all night, lIe appeared on the field of battle early in the morning.

But the Duke Iiad taken precautions against night· attacks by the enemy, and as the darkness app.roached he had ordered his men to stand by until dawn. At first Ilght, haYing disposed his troops in three Jines of battle, he advanced undaunted against the terrible enemy. The battle began at the third hour of the day, and continued amid a weller of carnage and slaughter untilnightfaU. Harold himself fighting amid the front rank of his army, Jell covered wiih deadly wounds, Ana the English, seeing their king dead, lost confidence in their own safety, and as night was approaching they turned and fled ....

[William] was chosen king by all the magnates both of the Normans and of the English on Christmas Day; he was anointed with the holy oil by the bishops of the Kingdom; and he was vested with the royal crown in the year of' the Incarnation of our Lord 1066.

(Source: William of Jwnieges, Gesta Normannoruni Ducum, ed. Jean Ma= (Soc. Hist. Norm., ] 9H): 132-136.)

WILLiAM refuses.

H)8[), to do *homage to tlfe Pope lor his English Crown (Doc. 17.).

17. WILLIAM I AND GREGORY VII

WiLLiam's policy towards the Church was to keep it completeby under his control, but al the sC!me tune to uphold. its pOloer. He claimed and exercised for him.self absolute al!thority over the Church; and. passed several laws to that. 4fect (e.g., that no Papal Bull should have (J.n:y force in:

Englund unless npnrooer! by him; that 110 tenant-in-cliuf sh.ould be "excommunicoied. witliou: his permission, and that the light of inuesting bishops with the ring and crosier should belong to the Cro·wn). He separated the ecclesiastical jurisdiction from. the secnlur. He also deposed I1l'chbdwp SCigand, lI1ald1l.g *La;nfmtic, Abbot of Bee, Archbishop 0/ Canterbury, and. made the bishops do *flOmage.for I heir lands like the temporal. barons.

In I 080, Gregory fill, [ormerly the monk Hildebrand, expressed the theory of the relation between 1;l1e spuiiua! and. the temporal power of which he. was the principal exponent and sugglJSted thru William uould be uell advised to uike the same view ofit. It is proliable that whctl amounted to a fomia! demand of *fealty 011 the King's part La the Pope was presented orally by llu: papal Legale. III lite Imel'liPlIl'lJ belou: William bluntly refused fealty. As it has been remarked: "No statesman has euer .\pIIJed 11 major issue in/ewer uiords or more conclusively",

47

To Gregory, most excellent shepherd of holy Churr.h , William, IGng 0[' the English and Duke of the Normans, greeting find friendship,

Your legate, Hubert, most holy father, coming to me on YUUI' behalf, llas admonished me to profess allegiance to you and YOUl- successors, and to think better regarding the money which my predecessorswere wont to send to the Church of Rome. I have consented to the one but not to the other. I have not consented to pay *fealty, nor will 1 now, because I never promised it, nor do lund my predecessors ever paid it to your predecessors. The money has been negligently collected during the past three years when I was ill France: but now that I have returned by God!'s morcy to my Kingdom, I send you by the hands of the aforesaid Legate what has already been collected, and the remainder shall be forwarded by the envoys of our trusty Archbishop Lanfran« whr-n the opportunity for so doing-shell occur.

Pray for us and for the state of OUl' realms, for we always loved YOU]' predecessors and it is OIH earnest desire above all things LO love you most.eincerely, and 1O heal' you rnost o be'(hently .

(Source: Ellis, Original Letters Illustnuive of English flistOIY, 3rd Series, 4~Dls.(Lond6n, 1846), 1: Nd IX.)

Having defeated a number of English rebel lionsagainst the Norman rule, WTLLlAM conquers all England andintroduces (he *fet;dal system: the rebellious Anglo-Saxon nobility is deprived of their pcssessiuns and the lands are granted to WILLIAM's followers, who,

1086, at Salisbury do "homage to WLLLlAM ami take the oath of <fealty (Doc. 18.) tor the lands they keep of WILLIAM.

18. SALISBURY OATH, 1086

D1 the Old En.gli$h fie pre-Norman] system o] govemm.ent the King was regarded with the 'greatest reverence by the people as being the descendant of their principal. god, Woden. He was the leader of t/;e army in war, nnd. had great power, bu: could not make a grant of land, tiltet the laws, or leuy a tax without the 'consent a/the t.vitenagenWt fie the meeting of the unse men}. When the King clied the *witan generally elected his eldest son King, but if he was young, or otherwise incapable of ruiing he was passed over, and the late King'~ brother elected King.

GenemUy speaking, the Old Eng'lish system worked fror« belxn», upuuirds, /rpm the freeman. to the King, euel)' man holding his own land us his right, chaosing. his own "earldonnen; who in tum helped to choose the King.

The Normnns introduced the *feudal system of govemment. The Norman system worked.from aboce, doumuanls. Tlie King oumed. all the. larul, and gave it to his *knights, "earls, and "bcrons under certain mutual coruiiuons (e.g., knig/ll service or mihtary tenure; payment of *aid.'i, *reliqs, etc.). In this way he gathered up, and concentrated in hinue/j; the whde pO'wer of the state.

One peruliarfeoiure of the *}eudal system in England, arui one which restrained the fJ,Towth o.l tlie power of the "barons, was that all laruioumers, whether tenants-in-chief or sub-tenants, took the otuh. of allegiance for the [Mel they held, not only to their immediate lords; but also to the King. This principle 'Will invoked at a meeting of the court at Salisbury in 1086, at whu;h William received *horr:wge amI *fealty from his barons and. theiJ· more important *'Vll.'isals.

The meeting ofthe coust at Salisbwy is thus described in the *Allgio.Suxon Chronicle:

1086 - This year the IGog wore his crown and held his court al Winch~ster for Easter, and travelled so as to be at Westminster for Whitsuntide, and there be dubbed his son,

48

Henry, a knigbt. Then he travelled about, so as to come to Salisbury at Lammas lie the wheat-harvest Iestival, August L]; and there his *witan, and all the landholders of substance in England, whose *vassals soever they were, came to him; and they all submitted to him and became his *V38sruS, and swore oaths of allegiance to him, thal they would be 10yaJ to him against all other men ....

(Source: The Anglo.Saxon Chronicle, trans!' Giles, 4.59.)

ENGLAND

CONTINENT

KING

KING

oath of fealty to King

Sub- tenant does not swear fealty to King

oath of fealty

oath of fealty

t

TENANT -IN-CEIIEF e.g .. Earl

j

oath of fealty saving rights of King

TENANT -IN-CHIEF e.g, Count

I

oath of fealty with

no reservation

in favour of King

j

SUB-1ENANT e.g, knight or freeholder

SUB-1ENANT

e. g. knight or

freeholder

DIFFERENCES IN .RELATION BETWEEN KING

AND SUB-TENANTS IN ENGLAND AND O~ THE CONTINENT

To facilitate the cullectlon of taxes, WILLIAM orders,

1.086, a survey of all the properties of the realm recorded according to their annual yields, which later, 1088, makes [he Domesday Book (poe. :I 9).

19. THE DOMESDAY SURVEY, 1086

At Chri.stmGS 1085, Wi,lli.am. the Conqueror, holding his corm: at Gloucester, ordered. that a special survq should be made ofhis Kingdom, and. during the next year, tluu. is 1086, he:

.v.sent his men all over England into every *shi.re and caused them La ascertain llOw many hundred *hides of land were in the *shires or what of land and of cattle the ICing himself owned in (his country and how much revenue he ought to receive yearly from each

49

I~'

l*shlreJ. Aha he caused t1em to write down how much land belonged to his archbishops and his bishops, his abbots and his "earls; what and bow much in land and in cattle each man possessed who was an occupier of land in England, and how much money it was worth. So very narrowly did he cause the survey to be made that there was not a single *hide nor a rood of land, ]1QT - it is shameful to relate that which he thought no shame to do - was there an ox or a cow or a pig left that was not set down on the accounts. And afterwards ali these writings were hrougiit to him.

Vie commissioners who thus 'Went through the "shires of England receiued. SHiOm 'verdicts concerning these thi.ngs from selected jurors. The verdicts were recorded terruorialiy, that is to say, pWage uy village, and *ltundred by hundred. Suhsequently this material was summarized and rearranged upon (L *feudnL plan, ie according to the fwldings in each "slure 0/ the King's "tenanis-in-chief It is this rearranged. digest which is contained in the two volumes 'Officially known as the Domesday Book.

The name has various explanations: one that it arose ill the] 2th century when it wa.5 decided that there was IW appeal against the book (as there will be IW appeal OJ] the Domesday, or Judgement Day}, another thai. it is deiioedfiom. Demus Dei in Winchester Cashedral where it. was deposued.

The coinprehensioe investigation which made possible the compllaiion. of the Domesday' Book was a remarkable instance of administrative 4ficiency on the pari. of the early Nomuui gouemmeni, and it is an oiusuuuling example o/the use a/the rnethod. of suora inquest to obtain infO/mation/or administrauue purposes.

The statemesus of the Domesday Book are not velyeasy to understand; but the following extract is gioen. here 10 show clearly the character 0./ that most famous of William's acts.

TITLE OF THE DOMESDAY INQUEST FOR ELY

Here is written down the inquests of lands, in what manner the King's barons have made inquisitiou , namely, by oath 01' the "sheriff of the "shire, and of all tile barons and of their F'rellchrnen aoJ of the whole *hundred, of the priest, the *reeve, and six- *villeins of each vill, Next the name of the "manor, who held it in the time of King Edward, who holds it now; the number of * hides; lhe number of plows on the *dcmcsne, the number of those or the men; the number of villeins; ... ; the number or "'serfs; the number of freemen; ... ; the amount of forest; the amount of meadow; the numher of pastures; the number or mills; the number of fishponds; how much it has b ell increased or diminished; how much it was all worth then lie in the time of King Edward]; and how much now; how much each freeman held and holds there. All this three times Oyer, namely, in the time of King Edward, and when King William gave it, and as it IlOW is, and if more can be had than is had.

(Source: George Burton Adams and H. MOl'S!:! Stephens, eds., Selects Docunietus of English Conssuuuonai History (London: The Macmillan Company, 1901), No 3.)

50

EXTRACTS FROM THE SURVEY OF HUNDINGDONSHlRE IN DOMESDAY BOOK

1. The land or the King Hurstingstone *hundred

A *manor. In Hm·trmd King Edward had 15 *hides .... There is land for 17 ploughs. Rannulf the brother of Ilger keepsit now. There arc 4. ploughs now en the "demesne; and 30 "villeins and 3 *cottagers have 8 ploughs. There is a priest, 2 churchea; 2 mills rendering 4 pounds; and 4·0 acres of meadow. Woodland lor pannage, 1 league in length and hal! a league in breadth,

T,Lempore] R.[egisl E.[dwar:di] it was worth 24 pounds; now 15. pounds.. . .

(Source: F. M, Stenton, ed., Vl.Ctona County HIStory: Huruingdonslure (London: A. Constable, 1926), 1: 3.37-55.)

WILLIAM I the Conqueror died,

1087, bequeathing Normandy lO Roben, England [0 William, and a large sum 0[' money to Henry,

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1087·1100, Reign of WILLlAl\1IIRUFOS (THE RED FACE) (13 years)

Tille: second son Of WILLIAM I U)C Conqueror Succeeded a/ IIIE age of 27 (b. 106.o?)

Married: never married

Children: no children

Characterisucs: William Rufus was a good soldier. He was ,OUI1COUS and energetic: but could be harsh and tyrannical at limes. He certainly disliked [he clergy and was utterly devoid ill' principle and had 110 sense of duty. He was strong enough III keep the *Baroll$ III check, despite his tyranny and abuse ul' the feudal rights,

Major.figure of the reign:

St. Anselm of Bee (d. 1109), Archbishop of Canterbury and philosopher

The Norman "barons under Odo, Bishop of BaYCIlX (the commissioner of the famous *Bnyeux Tapestry), .revolt,

10118. against WILLIAM II in favour of ROBERT, Duke of Normandy, his elder brother, as they dislike the separation of their possessions in France from those in England. The rebellion is crushed, and the brothers make a ueaty,

1090. at Cuello agreeing that the survivor should succeed to the dominions.cfbis brother. WILLIAM Il conquers, 1090, large parts of Wales, and,

1091, forces MALCOLM 111 of Scotland to pay him "bomage. Lanfrauc, Archbishop of Canterbury. dies in 1089. but not until

1093. his successor, Anselm, Abbot of Bee, is appointed. As Anselm opposes WLLLIAM Il's rapacious policy towards the Church. he is,

1097, forced [0 retire to Rome.

While hunting in We New Forest. WILLIAM 11 is, 11 10. killed by an arrow.

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1100·1135, Reign ofl-mNRY I "LION OF JUSTICE" (35 years)

Tille: third SOIl of WILLIAM I [he Conqueror (although lie throne was rightfully due 10 his elder brother,

Robert, Duke of Normandy) Succeeded {II the age of 32 (b. 1068)

Married: (1100) Matilda, daughter of Malcolm U! of Scotland, thus unitlng ine "'Saxon and Norman lines. Children: William, Matilda (future MATILDA)

Cham.c/eri.~lics: Ambitious, elficrent, energetic, and. for the times, scholarly (was nicknamed "Beauclerc", ie the tine scholar), he was at limes oppressive and stern in passing judgements, but fair. the main Interest of his Teign lies in the orderly increase of the Norman system of centralization ami 10 remarkable for the growlh and rauonalizauon of the royal administration and judicial systems, which W,L~ done by reforming the *Grcllt Council by requiring constant uuendance of a select group; requiring the *Curia Regis to collect and give receipts for all expenditures (*Exchequer); extending the King's justice through *itinerant judges, thus developing the English *cornmo)1 law. with Leges Henrie! Primi, providing a comprehensive record of contemporary law. His reign marks U1e beginning of limitation of royal power (Charter of Liberties).

After WILLIAM lls death his younger brother HENRY 1 has himself crowned king. To conciliate all parties. anti make his position as a usurper secure, he grants,

1100, a CHARTER OF LIBERTIES, promising: to the Church tilat he would fill up all the vacant sees aud *benefice~; to the Barons, that he would abolish all oppressive *feudal laws; to the People. that be would restore the laws ot'EDWARD THE CONFESSOR (Dnc. 20,).

Wilh the support of the English. HENRY invades Normandy, defeats his brother, Robert, Duke of Normandy,

110.6. at Tincherbray and reunites Normandy and England.

20. SELECT PASSAGES FROM TIlE PIPE ROLLS

The King's revenue was derioed from.fines, thefeudal dues. the *Dan.egeld, ·which now became the general I,(LX, and, mostly, fron: the *fmm, ie money raised in the *shires by the *sheriffs from. the rents 0/ royal uuid: To rnanage the financial qffairs of the Crown the GOUlt of the *Exchequer {scaccariunt) was created. Th» *sherilfi had to account for their in come from the farm twice n year, a: Easter and Michae[maJ fie 29 September] all. pipe rolls (after 1130/31).

Phxsically a pipe roll consisted of a number of membranes, each of which is mode up of two pieces 0/ sheepskin sewn together and inscribed on both sides. Each membrane thus composed was tenn.ed o.pipe.

A pipe roll opens with all. account of the *sheriffs *farm a/the "shire. On. each pipe first there is a statement {[s to tli« amount which the sheriff has actually paid iruo the Treosury, and secondly n suueinent of the disbursements (£lId allowances he has made on the (wthori.t)' of the king. if the tota] of all these items adds up to the sum [or which he 'faml:5/ the "shire; then he is recorded as being "quit". lfhestill has some money iii hand, this sum i,~ recorded afier the words "tuui he owes If.

53

THE PIPE ROLL OF 31 HENRY I:

THE ACCOUNT OF GLOUCESTERSHIRE (1130)

Miles of Gloucesrer accounts for 80 pounds and ] 4 pence ... for the old *" farm II of the *shire. Fie has paid this in the Treasury, And he is quit.

The same "sheriff accounts for the new "Iarm" of the "shire. He has paid 222 pounds

and 13 *shillings" , in the Treasury. And he has disbursed: 111 fixed "tithes 6 pounds .. "

In fixed alms 11 pounds, 2 *shillings and 11 pence ....

lIT liveries for a *knight and serjeants and a door-keeper and a watchman in the castle of" St. Briavels 14 pounds, 5 *shillings and 7 pencc....

To the ead of Gloucester 20 pounds ... for his snare of the country.

Inland .Ior cultivation which has been taken within the park of AlvestolJ, 72 "sbillings. .. ; and for the *tithe of the same land 8 *SllillingS, ..

For the transport of wine by the King's writ to Worcester and Bridgnerth 12 *sbillings and 10 pence". to Gilbert of Argentan.

And he owes 16 pounds and 9 *shlllings and 10 pence.".

(Source: English Historical Documents, ed. David Douglas et al.In.d.), II: 572.)

ll07, The Concordat of Westrninter terminates the =investiturc struggle (Doc. 21.).

21. THE CONCORDAT OF WESTMINSTER, 1107

It had been customary in. England for «bishop or abbot after his appointment to his bishopric or abbey to be "i,west;ed II by the king, with a ring and a crosier as emblems oJhis office, On the same occasion he did *lwmage to the king. This was followed by the conseaauon; a reli,gious service in which the new bishop was inducted by the archbislwp into the religious functions of his position.

In the l lth. centUlY in England and elsewhere a long-drawn coruronersy developed as to whether the right of "inuestiuae in high ecclesiastical position should be exercised by the temporal or the spiritual authoriues. Since bishops and abbots were frequently great landholders, holding by mili-taJY service, the Crown felt impelled to control their appointment and to receive *homage .from them, The Church repudiated this claim in 1075. ConseqlLently, Anselm; Archbishop of Canterbury, refu5ecl to stoear the oath of *fealty to Henry 1, which led to his exile and to the English "investiiure struggle. Henry refused to give up the old custom. of investiture, and Anselm. would not consecrate any bishops uiho hall been invested and ha.d paid *lwmage to the King.

The struggle 'was ended by the Concordat o/Westm.inster, It was based. on the distinction [qf luo of Chartres] between the temporalia, i. e., secular estates given in Irfl4S, and the spiritualia, i. e., ecclesiastical dignity. The 1107 "free election fI of the bishops at the court of the. King uasfolloioed by the latter's confirmation; by mean.s of a document Ute King then con/en'ed the temporalia upon the elected beJ<jre he was consecrated; the elected was obliged to render homage to the King (his feudal lord) in exchange, The King surrendered the right to invest ecclesiastics with the symbols of their sp iritual office.

171£ following fragment is taken from Historia Novorum in Anglia by Eadnier (ca 1064· ca 1144). He W(lS a monk of Christ Church, Canterbury. His Historia, uiriueri ca II 09, was concerned ('hid(\' with events of his own lifetime and dealt with the career of his friend and patron Anselm,

54

ArchbishoTJ of Canterbury. Eadmer was regarded by his contemporaries as a uery competent historian; a jl!,cigement endorsed in the main by modem scholars. His His/aria is the chief nurrati·ue. source for the history of the *In-vestitu.re Controversy in Englan~l.

On the first of August [1107] an assembly of bishops, abbots and lay magnates of the realm was held in London in tho King's palace, and for three whole days the matter of the * investitures of churches was fully discussed between the King and the bishops, Anselm [Archbishop of Canterbw'yl being absent. Some of them urged that the King should perform them after the custom of his Iather and brother. and not according to the command of the Pope. For the latter, while standing firm on the decision which had been promulgated thereon, had made 11 concession in respect of the *homage which Pope Urban [il] had forbidden equally with *inveslitures, and by this had obtained the King's consent 011 the point of *invcsti:tlll'es"., Thereupon, in Anselm's prescnce,wlrile the assembled multitude stood by, the King gran led and decreed that from that time Ionh [or evermore no one should be invested in England with bishopric or abbey by the gift of stafl' or ring, either by the King or the hand of any layman; Anselm also making the concession GWl no one elected to a prelacy should be refused consecration on account of *homage done to the King.

These matters. having been thus settled, Iathers-in-Cod were

appointed by the king, on the advice of Anselm and the magnates of the realm, in almost all the churches in England whiebh.ad been long widowed of their pastors, and this without any *investitllTe of pastoral staff or ring, .. ,

(Source: Eadmer of Canterbury, Historic. Nooorum: in Anglia, cd. Martin Hulc.

Rolls Series, no. 81 (London: Longman, 1884): 186, translated in Cheyney, 127.)

110" Sl Anselm (Doc. 22.), Archbishop of Canterbury, dies,

22. ST. ANSELM'S PROOF OF THE EXISTENCE OF GOD

One of the most significa;nl developments of the. so-called twelfih.century Renaissance was the attempt to slioui that science and religion were not incompatible, that the truths of faith could be supported by conclusions attained by reason, and that consequently Christian doarine was founded on both revelation and reason. The pioneer in this important intellectuai development, which is us £lull)' called scholasticism, was St. Anselm,

St. A nselm. (? 1033-1109) was an italian, orisiocrat turned Norman. monastic leuler, wlw ended his career as Archbishop of Canterbury. He was famous for his holiness, his dispute with the English A:illgS over episcopal "uwesucures (IT 07), and Ius theological treatises on the existence of God and the incarnation.

The following ontological proC?l/or the e",ilUmce of God is based on the assumption of the reality of uniuersals, or general concepts, which we Iuuie in our minds, tuui reveals St. A nseim. a.~ one a/the chiejtuloocaies of realism, which was one ofthe leading schools of medieuai philosophy.

There is a being which is best and gn~ales[, and highest of all existing beings.

rr an)" mall, either from ignorance or unbelief, bas 110 knowledge of the existence of I he 01"1(' !\atllre which is the highest of all existing beings, which is also sulfioie nt to itself ill its et mal blessedness, and which confers upon and effects in all other being;;, through its

55

omnipotent goodness, the very fact of their existence, and the fact that in any way their existence is good; and if he has no knowledge of many other things, which we necessarily believe regarding God and his creatures he still believes that he can at least convince himself of these truths in great part, ellen if his mental powers arc very ordinary, by the force of reason alone ,

And, although he could do dill in many ways, I shall adopl one which I consider easiest for such 11 man. For, since all desire to enjoy only those things which they suppose to be good, it is natural that this man should, at some time, tum his mind's eye to the examination of that cause by which these things are good, which he does not desire, except as .he judges them to he good. So that, as reason leads the way and follows up these considerations, he advances rationally to those truths of which, without reason,he has no knowledge, And if, in this discussion, I use any argu ment which no greater authority adduces, r wish it to be received in this way: although, on the grounds that I shall see fit to adopt, the conclusion is reached as if necessarily, yet it is not, for this reason, said to be absolutely necessary, but merely that it call appeal' so for the time being,

It is easy, then, for one to say to himself: Since there arc goods so innumerable, whose great diversity we experience by the bodily senses, and discern by our mental faculties, must we not believe that there is some one thing, through which all goods whatever are good? Or are they good, one through one thing, and another through another? To be sure, it is most certain and clear, for all who are willing to see, that whatsoever things are said to possess any attribute in such a way that in mutual comparison they may be said to possess it in greater, or less, or equal degree, are said to possess it by virtue of some fact, which is not understood to be one thing in Doe case and another in another, but to be the same in different cases whether it is regarded as existing in these cases in equal or unequal degree. For, whatsoever thi,.gs are said to be just, when compared one with another, whether equally, Of more, or less, cannot be understood as just, except through the quality of justness, which is not one thing in one instance, and another in another.

Since it is certain, then, that aU goods, if mutually compared, would prove either equally or- unequallygood, necessarily they are all good by virtue. of something which is conceived of as the same in different goods, although sometimes they seem to be called good, the one by virtue of one thing, the other byvirtue of another. For, apparently it is by virtue of one quality, that a horse is called good, because he is strong and by virtue of another, that he is called good, because he is swift. For, though he seems to be called good by virtue of bis strength, and good by virtue of his swiftness, yet swiftness and strength do not appe-ar to be the same thing.

But if a horse, because he is strong and ·swift, is therefore good, how is it that a strong, swift robber is bad? Rather, then, just as a strong, swift robber is had, because he is harmful, so a strong, swift horse is good, because he is useful, A.nd, indeed, nothing is ordinarily regarded as good, except either for some utility - as, for instance, safety is oalled good, and those things which promote safety - or for some honourable character - as, for .instance , beauty is reckoned to be good, and what promotes beauty.

But, since the reasoning which we have observed is in no wise refutable, necessarily, again, all things, whether useful or honourable, if they are truly good, are good through that S,lIlH: being through which all goods exist, whatever that being is, But who can doubt this very

56

being, through which all goods exist, to be a gt'caL good? This must be, then a good through itself, since every other good is through it.

It follows, therefore, that all other goods are good through another being than that which they themselves are, and this being alone is good through itself, Hence, this alone is supremely good, which is alone good through itself. For it is supreme, in that il so surpasses othel' beings, that il is neither equalled nor excelled. But that which is supremely good is also supremely great. There is, therefore, some one being whioh is supremely good, and supremely great, that is, the highest of all existing beings,

The same subject continued

Bill, just as it has been proved that there is a being that is supremely good, since all goods are good through a single being, which is good through itself; so it is necessarily inferred that there ~s something supremely great, which is great through itself.

But, I do not mean physically great, as a material object is great> but thut which, the greater it is, .is the better 01' the more worthy, - wisdom, rot instance, And since there can be nothing supremely great except what is supremely good, there must be a being that is greatest and best, id est the highest ofall existing beings lie God].

(Source: St. Anselm, Proslogium, Monoiogium, transl. S. N. Deane (Chicago: The Open Court Co, 1903): 37.41.)

His only son. William, having drowned, HENRY]'

1126. forces the nobility to recognize his daughter Matilda as heiress In the throne. She marries Count Geoffrey

of Anjou,

(illS), who was nicknamed Plantagenet lie sprig of broom - after his helmet decoration I. but HENRY I's death

is followed by the accession of hisnephew. STEffiEN of Blois.

57

lJ3S-1l54, Reign of STEPHEN (L9 years)

Title. SOIl of Adela. daughter of WILLIAM 1 the Conqueror Succeeded at lite age 0/ COl 41 (b. ca 1094)

Monied: (J 135) Matilda of Bou[ogne

Children; Eustace

Characteristics STEPHEN possessed brave .

. . ' . . . . .' . ravery, generosuy, anti the other simple virtues of a soldier, but his

P()~IIIOJ1 required him 10 be false: he might have been more successfu] if' he had bee [

I . n more unscrupurous

or ess honest. Bad a~ il was, STEPHEN's reign showed the need of a strong ruler and a Wible

government. one In which a king rather tha the bl I d T

.' n e no es ru e. he anarchy of his reign Was so bad thai it

was openly said to have been the period When "Christ ami his saints slept".

STEPHEN OF BLOIS, supported by the Church,

1135, gains the. throne. to the eXclusion 6'1' MATILDA To 0";'] the support f t'l' "b I II

", ,. . , ' • . b~ 0 1 0, Ie aroas le a ows them [0 build

castles On [hell own estates, which led to mcessanj warfare among them

DAVID I of Scotland, .

1138. invades England in support of his niece MATILDA b ( " A. d

, U JS uereate at Northalleno» the Bailie if II

Standard (sa called because the Engtlish bois d " ..,.. . '. Q . Ie

f iste on a tall mast a Silver casket contaJ[lJl1g' H "onse"I'ated

Wll CI', as a s.tanu.<lrll). ' . ~ ~ ,

Arter MATILDA's lanll.ing in England.

1139, a period,of anarchy ensues (civil wars), which strengthens the position of the nobility and Church Willl

the help of Robert of Gloucesler, her natural brother, MATILDA, defeats STEPHEN . -

114], .and takes him pnson~r at Lincoln. STEPHEN, being released in exchange fa;: Raben of Gloucester

resumes the war, which finally ends, . ,

n53~r\~~~i~~if:~~,r-lcmy, MATILDA's son, asserts his right to the throne, invades England, and by the Treaty 1153, is ackuowledger! as STEPHEN's sU<:cessOl:, beeorninu Kin' of En 'land

1154, after STEPHEN's death. g g g ,

0/. TJ{C£ J{oVSP. OP fi:J\fJOV-P£JINI'.Jlqp/NE/r 1154-1399

Matilda (2)

Geoffrey "Plantagenet" Count of Anj ou

HENRY II 1154-89

Eleanor of Aquitaine

1

RICHA.RD I, Coeur de Lion

1189-99

I

JOHN "La ck l.and " (2)

1199-1216

Isabel of Angouleme

Eleanor of Provence ~ HENRY III 1199-72

&leanor of Castile

(ll EDWARD I (2) = Margaret

1272-1307 of France

Isabel of France

BDWARD II 1307-27

,

EDWARD III 1327-77

I Joan

Philippa. of Hainault

David T.I of Scots 1329-71

I Edward, the

Black Prince

RICHAPJ) II 1377 -abd .1399

I I
John of GaLlnt Edmund
Duke of Lancaster Duke of York
I I
HOUSE OF LANCASTER HOUSE OF YORK Joan of Kent

23. KINGS OF ENGLAND OF 'tHE HOUSE OF ANJOU-PLANTAGENJET

1154-1189, Reign of IDiNRYII (3.5 years]

Tille: SOil or Matilda, daughter of f-1ENRY r SLJCCe~dBd at the age of 21 (b. 1133)

Married: (1152) Eleanor of Aquitaine, divorced wife of Louis Vii 1)[ Prance,

Children: Henry (d. I Un), Richard (future RICHARD I, Coeur de Liou), Geoffrey (u. 1)83), and John (future JOI-IN llwLACI<.LAND)

C"amcleriSlic.~:HENRY U was a restless, energetic, .passionute, and highly capable ruler. who was equally fond of books and outdoor life. Throughout his career he sought 10 promote the welfare of his subjects, 10 advance his own interests, and 10 check the power of the Church. He i~ best known fur his judicial reforms ,IOU especially by the introduction of grand juries,

Major potttical figure of tt:« reign:

SI Thomas Becket (I 118-70), Archbishop of Canterbury

24" KING HENRY n

The.fallowing descliption of Henry IT was written by Peter of Blois (d. 12QO?), hid secretary,

You .nury know that our king is ruddy, except as old age and whitening hair have changed his colour a Iiule. He is of medium stature ... _ His head is spherical, as if the abode of great wisdom and the special sanctuary of lofty intelligence .... His eyes are full, guileless and duvelike when lie is at peace. gleaming like fire when his temper is aroused, and in bursts of passion they flash Jike lighting. As to his hair he is in no danger of baldness, but his head has been closely shaved. He has a bread, square, lion-like face. His feel arc arched arid he has Lim legs of a horseman. His broad chest and muscular arms show hiru to he a strong, bold, active man. His hands show by their coarseness that he is careless and pays lillie attention to his ]1r;rSQfI, for he never wears gloves except when he goeshawking .... Although his legs are liru ised and livid from hard riding, he never sirs down except when on. horseback or at meals. 011 a single clay, if necessary, he travels a journey of JOUl' of five clays, and thus anticipating

. the plans of Iris enemies he ballles their devices by his sudden rnovemcnts.... He is a passionate lover of the woods, and when not engaged in war he exercises with birds and, dogs .... HB does not loiter in his palace like other kings, hut hurrying through IIH~ provinces he investigates what is being done everywhere, and is especially strict in his judgement or 11108e whom he has appointed as judges of others. There is no one keener ill counsel, of more J1uent eloquence. 110 OlH' who has less anxiety in danger or more in prcspcrity, or who is more cou rag<:ous in ;] lversiiy. If he has once loved any one, he rarely ceases to love him, wlnle OIH~ for whom 111' has once taken a dislike he seldom admits to his Iavour. FIe always bas his

60

< d in consultation or at his books. When his cares and

.' his hands when not eng<lge ... .

weapons In ~ he occnr» l' . If with reudina or In a Circle of clerks tnes to

'.' II ·1' t breathe e occupIes urnse " b

anXlelJeS a Ow lim 0

solve some knouy qUCStiSlH.... (Somee: Peter of Blois, Epi.slnlrw. TransL A. B. Hawes.

Ed. J. A. Giles (Oxford, 1847), 1: 193-5.)

. I ., . TIl"elher with Englund. his "1181's he.1L1 from [he French Crown. ie:

HEN" Y 1.I inherils extensive {UmlI1IIlIlS .. e

_ Norrmmuy am] Briltany [rum his nll>l~er,

. .. M· l e arul Tuuraine from his lather;

_ Anjol1. all

_ Aquitaine from his wife Eleariur,

rurrn the "'Angevin E.mpire. . . .. 1.' Ille '/in"uom by recalling gran!, of royallal1ds made by

. . I '. 'e' m With re~toflng nruet In r .... " ' . u

HENRY II sluts us t.l.g . s , . .•• Ie, built durin" the previous reign by the noble, an

STEPHEN; dernulisuing the =adulterine cast , . '"

introuucing. . .

h disar . g; the "'teudailliis. h'

1159. *.cutage, I us isarrnm . h' . 0< •• .r ur the reforms in the realm, HENRY [I makes un,

Thinking Thomas Becket would assist irn In C<l.n~lllg ~l -

d CI' f Cl k of the " ClI/'IG Regis, anti, -

1155 *Chancellor an lie er. u A .hbisl of Canterbury Thomas Becket changes hIS

, . . . bOb· vmg been ma e rc IS10P • .

1162, ArchbIshop 011 Canter ury. n u .. ' . l 11'1 01'.a rigid ec~lesiaslic, resigns hi.~ temporal clfices, and moue or life lrorn that oj a gay couruer 0 18

es HENRY 1I in his Church reforms.

nppos '. . . ... ,.'. b

HENRY It tnes LO restore luyal prerogallves. y.. . . r King's right III punish the clerks who arc

1164. the ConMilulions 01' Clarendon (Doc. 25.), asserting, {mel" ca.. .

I"ountl guilty in Church courl~.

61

ENGLISH CHANNEL

km 0

160

1"----~-01

100

mi 0

BAY OF BISCAY

MAP S. THE CONTTI\fENTAL INHERITANCE OF HENRY II

62

25. THE CONSTITUTIONS OF CLARENDON~ 1164

Since early in the reign oj WILLfA M the Conqueror, the Church had had her own courts, which HENRY II considered too lenient: the courts could punish only by mea,ns of censures, *'e.xcoll1.ntunications or *interdict, and penance, and could nos inflict corporal punishment. The pretensions of the ecdesiasticol cOLtr! had beenfavoured by the anarchy of STEPHEN's reign; now, however. HENRY IT thought it wlabsolute nece!i.~itJ to assert the supremacy of the .Slate over the clergy (I.rld laity alike.

To regulate relations between civil and ecclesiastical. authorities, prouisions known as the Constitutions of Clarendon (named aji.er the royal htmt.ing"tocige of Clarendon) ioere drawn by (l. commit.tee of bishops and *ba.ron.~.

Of particular impolta'nce is the tfiiril section of the Constiuuions, relating to cleric; charged with climinal offences fie criminous clerks]. It seems dear tho: HENRY fl did not ciain: the right to Ily clerks accused of crime, but he asserted his right 1.0 "moue" the Church courts and to punish. defies 1riho were there found guilty. Clerks included thousands of Sf:rvaltts i!)ho obtained. the "benefi: of clergy by being able to read a ver:;e in the Psalter

The. nuutier of Thomas Becket preuertied the execution of this scheme in it, entirety.

En the year 1164, from OUl' Lord's Incarnation, being the Iourth of the pontificate of Alexander [llIl, and the tenth of Henry II, most illustrious king of the English, in the presence 01 the said king was made this record and declaration ofa certain part of the customs, liberties and privileges of his ancestors, that is, of King Henry, his grandfather, and of other things which ought to he ebserved and maintained in the realm. A nd by mason of lhe dissensions and discords which had arisen between the clergy and the justices of the lord king rie the crirninous clerks controversy] and the *barolis of the realm concerning the customs and privileges of the realm, this declaration was made in the presence of the archbishops, bishops and clergy, and of the *ear15, "barons and magnates of the realm. And these same customs were acknowledged by the archbishops and bishops, and the earls, *bal'QlJs, nobles and elders of the reulm ....

Now of the acknowledged customs and' privileges of the realm a certain part 150 contained 111 the present document, of which part these 'are the heads:

1. II a dispute shall arise between 'laymen, 01' between clerks and laymen, or between clerks, concerning * advowson. and presentation to churches, let it be treated and concluded in the court of the lord Icing lie the * Curia Regis}.

2. Clurrchcs within the *!lcf or the lord king cannot be granted in perpetuity without his consent and concession [ie churches on the king's estates must not be alienated],

3. Cledes cited and accused of anT matter shall, when summoned by the Icing's justice, come before the lung's court to answer there concerning matters which shall seem to tbc king's court to be answerable there, and before. the cccleeinstical CO\lJ't for wliat shall seem to be answerable there, but in such a way that. the justice of the king shal] send to the court of holy Church to see how the case is there tried, And if the Clerk he convicted or shall confess, the Church ough t 110 longer to protect him.

il, It is not Ia.wful foy arch bishops, bishops and beneficed clergy of tll1~ realm to depart [rnm the Kil'lgdom without the Lord King's leave. And if they do so depart, they shall, if the KIUg so please, give.secur.ily that neither in going, nor in tarrying, nor in returning will they contrive evil or injury against the King or the Kingdom ....

63

7. No one WJlO holds of the king in chief nor any of the officers of his *demesnc shall be "excommunicated, nor the lands of anyone of them placed UDder *interdict, unless application shall first be made to the lord king, if he be ill the realm, or to his chief "justice, if he be abroad, that right may be done him; in such wise that matters pertaining to the royal court shall be concluded there, and matters pertaining to the ecclesiastical court shall be sent thither to be dealt with.

8. With regard to * appeals, if they should arise, they should proceed [rom the archdeacon to the bishop, and from the bishop 10 the archbishop, An.d if tIle archbishop should fail to do justice, the case must finally be brought to the lord king, in order that by his command tl1e dispute may be determined in the archbishop's court, in such wise that it may proceed no Jurther without the assent of the lord Icing [ie no if. appeals may p1'oceed to Rome without the king's consent] ....

11, Archbishops, bishops and all *beoeficed clergy or the realm, who hold of the kingin chief, have their possessions from the lord king by barony and are answerable for them to the king!s "justices and officers; they observe and perform all royal rights andcl!stoms and, like other *bamns, ought to be present at the jlldgements of the king's Court together with the *barOf~s, unti] 11 case shall arise of judgement concerning mutilation or death [by canon law no ecclesiastic could be present at, or take part in, 'shedding of hlood': hence they are to be allowed to retire [rom the *Curia Regis when sentences of this nature are pronounced).

12, When an archbisboP1ic or bishopric is vacant, or any abbey 01' priory of the king's "demesne, it ought to be in his own hand, and he shall receive from it, all revenues and pro:fi.:ts as part of his *demesne_ And when the time bas come to provide for the church, the lord king ought to summon the more important of the *beneficed clergy of the church, and the election ought La take place in the lord king's cbapelw.ith the assent of the lord king and the advice of the clergy of the rerum whom he shall summon for this purpose, And the clerk elected shall there db *homage and *lealty to the lord king and Iris liege lord fOJ his life and limbs and his earthly hOhOlU', saving his order, before he is consecrered.. ..

14. The chattels of those who are under * forfeituJ'e to the Icing may 110b be retained by any church or oemetery against the king's justice, because they belong to the king, wbether they be found within the churches or without.. ..

16. Sons of "villeins ought not to be ordained without the consent of the lord 011 whose land tlley are known to have been born,

This record of the aforesaid custo.IDsand privileges of the Crown was drawn IIp by the al'ehbishops, bishops, *earls, *baronfj, nobles and elders of the realm at Clarendon on the fourth day previous to the Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary [29 January 11641 in Lhe presence .of the lord, Henry [afLerwards "the young king"], and of his father the lord king, There m'e,moreover, many other great cU8tomsand privileges pertaining to holy Mother .. ChuTcband to the lord king and his *baro.ns of the realm which are not c{)ntained in this document. Let them be safe- for holy Church and for our lord the king and his .heirs and the *ba:rons of the realm. And let them be inviolably observed for ever and ever.

(Source: Select Chalters and Ocher fllustrations of English. Constitutional History, ed. William Stubbs (Oxford: At the Clarendon Press, 1895): 137 .. 140, translated in Adams, No_113.)

An atiministralivc purge called (he inquest of *sbeliffs,

J 170. checks corruplion and increases efficiency of *sheriffs and officials,

64

. c· - - . f Clarendon. shortly afterwards he rejects them, defies the King

Although Becket signs the onstuuuons 0 .

and,. T:' rs later Becket is reconciled with HENRY [I and returns to England.

nil 1166 flees La france. i-our yea ., , . . I d

Decc ler '_ *excommunkating the bishops who oppose him, This ea s,

U70, but renews the struggle by '. .. 26 ?7 28) Only three years later.

", b 29 1170 to the murder ofThomas Beckel (Docs, ., _'. ..

-"""cern er, , ... f I' HENRY II

1173_ Thomas Becket is canonized. To satisfy public ee ing, ,

11 74. does pellance at Becket's tomb (Doc. 29.).

26 THE EVENTS LEADING UP TO THE MURDER OF llIOMAS . BECKET AS DESCRIBED BY WILllAM FITZ STEPHEN

.. F.' C' I U 1190:;>,) intimate with the Archbishop till his de.ath,fromfirst to last,

WLllwm 'It.z Step wn lU- . , '.1:.-: if I

. , '. .I' I' I· 'dhest value a.nd may be regarded as the best and most satUJJ"llg 0 ,t ze

IS an auuioruy OJ £11, LI", ' hi I lai nd if h/,S

" IT , r hi eli. I'] was the [ellour-ciuzen. of my lord, IS C uip am, a a

biographers. rre says OJ Uill v» '. 1/

h I ld 1l d b his mouth to be the sharer of hIS ceres , , , .

()use; {. ca~. :ber 1170 archbishop of York and bishops of Salisbury orui LandonJOI:~ed KUJg

zar y in. t?ce . b h hi ti .. that they fwd been *excommumca,ted by

Henry II in Normandy and mug t Lm Ie news .

Archbishop Beekei,

d th f the *excommunication and suspension of the bishops, which,

. ... They. relate e .story a knew, The laid all the blame on the Archbishop of however, 50 il was reported, he already 'h y . J I' in his absence when he was

C b . th charaed him with treason, t ey accuser urn .' ..

anter ury. ey " d heari Theil' evil accusanous were

d f I f, 'in lest he should be summone to a earmg .. " .

e ence ess, ear g. . . d h kina that the Archbishop was careering about the

doubled by falsehood. It was repOf!e to tf ~ -'d . 1 The king asked the bishops for their Kingdom at the head of a strong rorce 0 arme mel, d *k . I '

. . hbisho of York replied, "Seek advice from your "barons an your . ntg l~S,

ad~ce, The AIc . . PWhal should be done II. At length one of them said, ITMy lord, while it IS nOlo [01' us to say, . . d d . II At this such fury, bitterness

li . will not have peace or quiet or .see go.O ays. .

Thojmas ives, yo. u l the. Archbishop took possession of the ldng, that they appeared on his

aile passion agallls . '.. . 1 - [ ~ knizhts

. '. ,p -.'. his emotion and eager to win lIS .avour, iour kmg .

countenance and Ins geslwe~, ~rcelVlIl~, 'd' T. " Huh of Morville and Richard Bl110,

of his household Reginald Fitz Urse, William e racr, g .

1. . .··t as said to encompass the death of the Archbishop, quitted t.be court.. ..

uaving sworn, so 1 W , '.K . ls f: I rt: t cf Thomos

(Source: William Fitz-Stephen, Vita Sancti Thomae ui lV.latena~ or t ie.ius ory ,

Becket, ed. J. C. Robertson, Rolls Series, no, 67 in 7 parts (London, 1875 .. 85), 3, 127 .. 8,)

27 .. NARRATIVE OF THE MURDER

OF THOMAS BECKET BY EDWARD GRIM

h tler iori . fr cular testimony. Edward Grim IS (fl,1170-

Of the jive accounts of t e mur er umiten. . am 0 '.. l

7 ma be reearded: as the most detached and impartial, smce he was a stranger ~nly late :y come 117 ) y" { . th A,. hbishop_ GriTt~ wets in the cathedral. and dose to Becket to Canterbury for the purpose () seemg e c. if / de All the

when the murder took place and was himself seriousby wounded by one 0 t ze /nUT; rers.

inciderus he records are confirmed by the other ocular witnesses.

65

S~·~i~hIW~Y these sacrilegious men, with drawn swords, entered the house of peace and reconciliation [ie We church] cauaing no little horror to those present by the mere sight of them and Lhe clash of their armour ....

It! a spirit or mad fury the knights called out, "Where is Thomas Becket traitor to th king and the realm?" When he rUle Archbishop] returned no answer. they cried out the mol':

loudly and insistently, "Where is the Archbishop?" At this quite undaunted as it l' ·Lt,

"Th . h .. . ,~ S WD en

e rrg teous shall be bold as a lion and without fear," he descended from the steps, whither

In~. had been dragged by the monks through their fear of the knights and in a perfectly dear

voice answered. "Lo! here am I no traitor to the kill" but a priest ·WbaL d k r.

) 10>,' 0 you see rrom

me'?" And whereas be had already told them that he had no fear of them. he now added II Heholr], j am ready to suffer in His Name who redeemed me by His Blood, Far be it Irorn me 1.0 Dee from yOUl" swords, or to depart from righteousness" , ...

"Ab 1 II II 'd'" .

. . so ve, ley cneo , ann restore to commuruon those whom you have

*excommUl11cateCl, and the Junctions of their office to the others who have been suspended", H~ answer~d,. IITheT~ has bee~ nOllsatisfacti~n made, and I will not absolve them", "Then you

shall du;:: this instant • they cried and receive your desert" "I too" said I II d

. . . .. .,.". le, am rea y to

di fur my Lord, that m my blood the Church may obtain peace and liberty; but in. the name of Almighty God I forbid you to harm any of my men, whether clerk or lay",

'l.'hen ,they made a rush at him and laid sacrilegious hands upon him • .Fulling and dJagglrlg 111m rouglJy and violently, endeavouring to get him outside t.he wails of the church and there slay him, or bind him and carry him off prisoner, as they afterwards confessed was their intention, But as 11.e could riot easily be moved", orre of them seized hold of him and cinng to ,~lim more closely. The Archbishop shook him off vigorously, calling him a pander and saying, Touch me not, Heginald; you owe me *fealty and obedience: you are acting like a madman, )~ou an~ your accomplices". Ail aflame with a terrible fury at this rebuff, the bug1,:t brandished his sword against that consecrated head, "Neither faith", .he cried, "nor obedience do lowe you against my *fealty· to my lord the ''''' .. gl' 1'1 . th ere d

. JilJ] • len e unconquere

martyr understood that the hour was approaching that should release him from the miseries of this mortal lifc: and that the crown of immortality prepared for him and promised by the Lord was already nigh at h~n~, Wlm:reupon, inclining his head as one in prayeT and joining his hands together and uplifting them, he commended his cause and that of the Church to Cod .. " Scarce had he utlercd t11e, words than the wicked knight, Searing lest he should be rescued by the people and escape alive, leapt suddenly l[pOn him and wounded the sacrificial lamb of God, in the head, cutting off the top of the crown which the unction of thc sacred chrism had dr.dleated to Cod., ..

Next he received a second blow on the head, but still he stood firm and immovable, At

the third blow he fell on his knees and elbows offering Iiimself livi g. rID d . .

• . , '. < a \1m sac ee an saymg HI

a nl~w ,:'ou';" "~or tI~e I~ame o~ J~sus and th~ protection of the Church 1 am ready to embrace dc aLh , Blit Lhe third k,l1lghl inflicted a terrihle wound as he lay prostrate, By this stroke the swore] was. clashed against the pavement and the CrOWl] of his head, which was large, was

SI'pUI a.lcd lrom the head ill such a way that the blood white with th .hrai .1 I b '

. . . e ram ano 'l Ie ra1l1 1]0

less red Iroui the blood, dyed the Hoar of the cathedral Th I· tb 1 'I d I 1"[

,. .. .,. . e our uug II war ec 0 . allY

"~\Q sought to intervene .... But the fifth - no knight he, but that same clerk who had entered

wll.h the klllg~lts - that. a ~lh :)low mi~hl not be wanting to the martyr who in other things had imitated C hrist, placed hisfo.o.t 011 the neck of the holy priest and precious martyr and,

66

l]orrible to relate. scattered the brains and blood about the pavement, erying out to the others, "Let us away, knights; this fellow win rise no more",

in all his sufferings the illustrious martyr displayed an incredible steadraslness, ;.Jl'iLlwr

with hand nor robe, as i.s the manner of human frailty, did he oppose the fatal stroke. \lor when smttten did he utter a single word, neither cry nor groan, nor any sound indicative or pain. But he held moLionles5 the headwhieh he ll~d bent to meet ~he uplifted sword until, bespalled with blood and brains. as though in an alULllde of prayer, Iris body lay p(Qne on the

pavement, while his soul rested inA.braham's bo~om.. ' . .

[Source: Edward Crim Vita SanctL Thomae, in Matenalsfor the History of Tluunas Becket, Il:

435-438, trans]. W. H. Hulton in Charles W. Colby, Selettionsfrom the Sources of Engli~h History Being a Supplement to Tea- Books of English History, Be 55- AD 1832 (New -y ork:

Longmans, Green .. and Co, 1899): No 23.)

28. DESCRIPTION OF THE SCENE AFTER THE MURDER OF THOMAS BECKET AS GIVEN l1Y BENEDICT OF PETERBOROUGH

Benedict of Peterborough 1<JaJ in 1170 a Canterbury monk, His Passion of St Thomas was completed in 1 171, and therefore i.t stands first in chrono[ogi.wl order among original 50 urces,

Before they rode al (Jay the knight~ 5acked the. Archb ishop 's palace. A t last the monks succeeded: iri dearing the church. of the crowd which. came in to view tlie bvdy, and the doors were closed. They then took ILp the body in preparationfor tnaial.

While the body still lay 011 the pavement, some of them LPeopJe of Canterbury] smeared their eyes with blood. Others brought bottles and canted off secretly as much .of it as they could. Others cut off shreds of clothing and dipped them in the blood .... Some of the blood left over was carefully ana cleanly collected and poured into a clean vessel and treasured up

in the church ....

Tlms the night passed in lamentation and mourning, groans and sighs ... , The monks.

fearing lest UlC corpse should be shamefully abused and so precious a treasure be taken Irom them, prepared to bury it with all speed, They therefprc had no time to wash and embalm the

bod:y, according to the custom of Canterbury, ...

They therefore stripped him of his outer garments to put. on him his pontifical vestments;

in so doing they discovered that the body was covered in a hair-shirt, no less painful Irorn its

'" .

stiffness than Irom other causes** and -a circumstance of which we have neither mad nor

heard of an example in the case of any other saint - they found the body covered. in sackcloth.

even [rorn the thighs down to the knees, ...

** All the bishop's under-garments were discovered to he full of Iicc, so that, as Grim

puts it. 11 anyone would have thought tlIat the martyrdem of the day was less grievous than that

which these small enemies continually inflicted".

(Source: "Benedict of Peterborough, Passio et Miracul» Santi Thomoe,

in Materialsfor the History ofTliomos Becket, 2: 15-17.)

67

29. THE PENANCE OF HENRY II AT CANTERBURY AS DESCRIBED BY GERVASE OF CANTERBURY

Aft,e.r the murd~r" the murderers were * excommunioued, the "inierdia was launched against I,he c~ntule/ltf1.l dominions of Henry' 11 and the King himself was ordered by the Pope to refrain from. :;rtenng a church. In May, 1772 Hen:)' 11 was reconciled with the Church: the King's oat.h of "abjUmtlOn, and the absolution w/uch followed, were both enacted at A umnrlies,

On 21 February /173 Thomr,l.! Becl~ct !.IIU.I canonized by Pope Alexander IJ!.

The follouiing ruurtuiue describes the dramatic ,Icene of Hell./)' ll's penance at the Archbishop I tomb at Canterbwy in luly 1174.

'" l~',e king returnr-rl to England at the beginning of July ... and .irnrncdiately 00 landing set out. with a perutcnt heart 10 ,the lomb of St Thomas at Canterbury. Accordingly on Saturday, 12 July he lefl the church of 51 Dunstan, which is sited a good distance outside the city, and walked barefonl and cl~d in a .woollen smock all the way to the maJ"tyrls lomb, There he lay pl'os~-ate [or a great while and m devout humility, and of his own free will was scourged by ali the bishops and. ahhots there r~resenl and each individual monk of the church of Canterbury. Th.ere he remained constant HI prayer before the holy martyr all that day and night. He neither took food Hot went Oltt. to relieve nature, but, as he had come, 50 he remained, anti would not permit a rug or anything of the kind to be provided for him. Afler lauds he made a tOUI of the altars in the choir of the church and the bodies of the saints interred there and then returned to the tomb of SI, Thomas In the crypt. At dawn on Sunday he heard Mass.' Last of all he drank of the water [from the w 11 of the holy martyr] and was honoured with tile gift of a phial jofthe martyr's blood"] .. "

[Source: Ccrvase of Canterbury (fl. ] 188). The Historical Works, ed, William Stubbs, Rolls Series, no 73 in .2 vols. (London: Longman and Co, J 870-80),1: 24.8..)

'rh~ Bull Laudabiiiter issued by the mil)' English bum Pope, Adrian IV, empowered HENRY [0 invade ,Ireland. and, having subdued parts Or it around Dublin. the "English Pale".

I J7L HENRY adds to his officiul rirles the one of "Lnrd of Ireland".

In the interext.ufpuhlic order HENRY II,

1166, issues *A~slze ofClarcmloll (Doc. 3(),), then reissued ami expanded, Ll76, in 'be Assize of Northampton, cstabtish'ing trial by Grand Ju;'y.

30. ASSIZE OF CLARENDON, 1166

The word "assize ('assisa' in LatillJ, denoting a meeting of the king's council, came to be nppl£prl to an ordinance or de~ree made at such ri ineeting, and it is the !lame that was cOInmon.Ly £Wf'll tAe 11!{J1slatw€ measures m the lime of Henry II.

JiiJ/trJll!illg a period ,o,/civil war in. ~nglan.d, during 'which the strong monardey ofHenry I sank to 101/J ebb, He!!I)' II realv:ed the need C?! restoting law and order, repressing violence and crime, tuu! strpl,g:~leniJig ~'Oyal.C2wh.ori~)' agains: the disruptive ejjects of *jeutlnl an(,rchy,

nil' ASSI;:P of Clarendon, the first of the important legislative enactments of his reign, is remarkable ill. the history of Ellglish criminal law: L't j017nally institutes and gives legislcuu:e J(!('O/j'lllILOII 10 (he employment of tlie indicting, or charging,il.try in criminal trials.

68

The Assize provided. that a commission should be sent round to each *shire, before whom, in. conjunction. with the *sheriff, juries consisting of twelve men from ever), "Iuuulred and four from elJery toumship should present persons accused or suspected of robbery, t.heft, or murder. All such were to be arrested nnd. brought before the nearest "'justice, there to submit to the *ordeal of Il)atEr. The adoption of presentment and "ordeal had. the effect of abolishing in the '"'sh;:re courts the practice 0./ *compILrglllion,

The Assize oj Clarendon was reissued. and. expanded in 1 I 76 in. the * Assize of Northampton.

Now the country was divided into six *cirwits, and *il:ineranl justices appointed to each, called "[usuee in: * Eyre II fie "justices on jo wney ''l, A./so, the gradual discrediting of the "ordeal as a mean..l' of determining the guilt or innocence of the accused is strongly marked here,

Here beglns tbe *Assize of Clarendon made by King Henry U with tht: assent of the archbishops, bishops, abbots, *earls, and *barons of all England.

1. In the first place the aforesaid King Henry, by the counsel 01' all his *bal'On6, has ordained that. for the preservation of peace and the enforcement of justice, inquiry shall be made in every county and in every * hundred through twelve of the more lawful men [ie jurors] of the *hul1dTed and through four of the more lawful men of each. vill, on oath to tell the truth, whether in their *hundred or in their vill there is any man accused 01' publicly known as II robber or murderer or thief, or 311yone who has been a receiver of robbers or murderers or thieves, since t11£ lord King has been king. And let the *[iLinerantJ justices make this investigation in their pre.senee and the *sberiffs in their presence,

2, And whoever is found by the oath of tho afuresaid men to have been accused or publicly known as a robber or murderer or thief, OJ: a .receiver of them, since the Lord King has been king, shall be seized; and he shall go to the *ordeal of water and swear that, to the value of 5 *shilli:ngs, so far as he knows, he has not been a robber or murderer or thief, or II receiver of them, since the lord King has been king.v.

14 .. The lord King also wills that those who make their law and me cleared by the law, if they are of vcry bad reputation, being publicly and shamefully denounced by tile testimony of many lawful men, shall "abjure the lands of the King, so that they shall C1'OS5 the sea within eight clays unless they are detained by the wind; then, with the first [favourable] wind that they have, they shall cross the sea and thenceforth not return to England, except ai the mercy of the lord ICing; so that they shall there he *outlaws and shall he seized as outlaws if they return, ,

(Source: Select Charters, ed. Stubbs, 14i3-146, translated in Adams, No 14.)

HENR Y ll's sons, wishing III gain independeru dominions, revolt"

1173, against their father. but the revolt is crushed, Dunng the second revolt, 1183, two of his sons, Henry and Geoffrey die. HENR Y II dies,

U89, o:' a broken heart, when he finds the name of his favourite son, John, at the head or the lis; of the cnnspirators. He is succeeded by RICH.ARD.

69

1189-99, Reign of RICHARD I, COEUR DE UON (10 years)

Title: second son of HENRY n Succeeded at the age of 32 (b, 1l57) Married: (1191) Berengaria of Navarre Children: had no children

Charocteristlcs: Richard 1 was a warlike "knight, who loved adventure and conflict and typified the chivalry of the lime, His military expedition made him a hero of medieval legend, but be was a worthless ruler, and lacked most Of the mora! virtues belonging to a good *knighl. He was fickle and persistent, proud, cruel ami treacherous, He was called "Richard Yea and Nay," because he was so ready [0 change the plans on which he had before determined, His great power was ill his physical and mental capacity as a soldier. All but six. months of his ten years' reign he spent abroad, either on a crusade or on the Continent. Due CO his

absences the 'baronial party in England became more powerful and .i ndependent, -

Being (he eldest surviving SOil of llliNRY It RICHARD is crowned without opposition, The first months of his reign are marked,

1190, with persecutions of the Jews (DOl:. 3'1,),

31. THE PERSECUTION OF JEWS, 1190

Jews settled in EnglaTUi shortly after the Norman Conquest; some historians claim they were to be fou;nd in the island lIS early as the eighth century: As non-Christians they were disoiminased against and at times ri.ctively persecuted; they lacked the rights of citizens and lived segregated in the towns and were forced 1.0 wew' a special type of dress, The Jewish gabardine was a badge of coruempt, and iolvu freedom from pillage they enjoyed was mainly secured by bribery of rulers, According to medieval. views of political economy, it was a sin against nature to e:.w.ct interest for the use of mOILey, because mane)" unlike cattle or grain, does not reproduce itself. Unlike the ChristiOJls, the Jews were not forbiddeiv to lend money at interest, and conseaueraly came to occupy a prominent position in the financial affairs of the realm.

A,fter the death of Henry J the security which the Jews had previau.sly enjcy)'ed rapidly ueokened.

Preachers of the Crusades, stined. cOTlStan~l)' to a faruuical hatred against the Jews, which, combined with the resentment of debtors, ultimately led to particular!:y iruenseorai-jeuub: feeling in the early months of Richard lis r~rrn.: the cloak of a religious expeduion ums often thrown over a sheer repuduuiaii of debt.

Some Jews, h.aving presented themselves at Richard lis cororuuion. contrary to the Royal command were cmelly massacred. This 'WUlJ followed by similar massacres at Norwich, Stamford, and York.

The description. of the attack the Jews suffered at York is taken froni a chronicle by Roger of Hoveden (d. 1201 ?), an indispensab le SOLU'ce for the reign of Richard Coeur de Lion:

In the same month of March, on the seventeenth day before the calends of April lie March 17, by the Roman calendar], being the sixth day before Palm Sunday, the Jews of the

70

, j' Y k ' b five hundrecl men besides women and children, shut themselves up

Olty 0 or, In num er ' . ,

, b t of' York with the. consent and sanction of the keeper 01 the tower, and of the

LIT I e owe I' , .. ,.' ''I<' '

d. h 'jf ' l' their dread of the Christians; but whon the said sherilf and the

·"S en Jl1 consequence °

,f'constnble sought to regain possession of it, the [ews refused l~ rl,eliver ~t l~P',ln, consequence

f h' 1 1 I tl city and the strangers who had come WIthin the jurisdlction thereof, at

ot trus t 'J{': peop e 0 ic c ," '

the exhortation of the "sheriff and the *constable with 011(;:. consent made an attack upon the

Jews, . h J ['1" 1 I L

Al'ler they had made assaults upon the tower day and rughl. t e rews onerec the peope

L f II, w them to delJart with their lives, but this the others refused to

a Brae sum 0 money to aD· "

" .'" U II " one s.killed in their laws arose anrl said: "Men of Israel, listen to my advice, It IECClVe, - pan 1L:;, ,. " r I 11

is better that we should kill one another, than faJl into the hands of the enemLes, U 0111' aw.

Accordingly, all the Jews, both men as weTI' as women~ ~ave their assell~ to his adVIce: and ,ea~ll

f f il beginning WI'Lh the chief persons of his hOl.Ls.ehotd, with a sharp knif, e fu~t cut

master ° a am y, o~ " ,,_.

I 1 fl ' 'r d sons and daughters and (hen of all his servants, and lastly his own, l Ie throats 0 us wlie an . SOLl " . , , •

SonLI; 01' them also threw their slain over the walls among thepeople; while others shut up then'

1, , h TI':_ 's u and burned them as well as the King's houses, Those who had slam the

s am LJ1 t e rung souse ' " . ,

'I . af d killed by the people In the meantime, some of the Chnstl3ns set fire La

ot leTS were ' lerwar s' ,., ,

th J 'sho J plundere d them' and thus ali. the Jews in the city 01. Y ork were destroyed.

e ews s uses aou "."

and all aclmowledgements of debts clue to them were bumL, . ,

(Source: Cluonico. Magi.'itri Rogeri de.Houedene, ed. a~d transl, Hem)' T. Riley, 2 vols. (London: G, Bell and Sons, 1853), 2: 137-138}.

Three months after his I.:oronation, RLCHARD J leaves England \0 join the Third Crusade, 1189-92. He joins 'Philip of France, reduces,

1190, Cyprus, and, pro.:eeding to Palestine, lakes. . . ',,' , ' " 1191, Acre, Having defeated the Saracens under Saladin, at the battle or ALsont, he concludes,

un, a peace with Saladin, which gives. Christian ,pilgrims free ac<.:~ss to Jerusalem, On his W<1y home,

RICHARD is imprisoned by Henry IV. Emperor 01 Germany, and LS Ilb~Tated only, " ' .,

, ," l' Illl) 000 "'marks (being' more than twice the whole revenue ul the Crown)

11,94, after the enormous I ansorn 0 '. ,. ,"

has been paid,

After a short visit LO England he leaves again for France. , '

" , , , "hb' 'I I' C' l bury and "Justiciar

During RICHARD l's ahsence his munster, Hobert ,~ulte~, Arc, IS iop 0, . an er, '

virtually rules England and continues the legal and admlnisuauve reforms which HENRY [l ~lOmoted,

meEARD] dies in Fn\IlGe,

11,99, while besieging the obscure Castle-of ChBllls,

71

1199-1216, Reign of JOHN THE LACKLAND(17 years) Title: fourth sou of HENRY 0

Succeeded 01 the age of 30 (b. ) 166)

Married: f/ (1l89)Hadwisa of Gloucester

2/, (1200) Isabel of An goulerne Children; Henry (future HENRY In) by Isabella

Characteristics: John seemed to lack. all those qualities w " .

ueacherous to both Iris father and brothers I f ~ch should be found In a good king. He was French, the Pope and the "barons and "ungra e U , cruel, and cowardly. He had [rouble with the

. ' ., came ou t second best with all th ree H . b

granung the Magna Carta, JOHN Was nickua '." e IS est remembered tor

.. Angevin Empire. amed Lockland as he received no share ill his father's

Major political figure a/the reign:

Stephen Langton (d. ) 2,28.), Archbishop of Canterbury

JOHN's reign starts with the Con Lest with his elder brother '. . .

Crown of England JOHN is slrOllgly suspected of havin ." Geoffrey s son, Prince Arthur, who claims the [he loss, g caused the murder of Ar~U1UT. The contest resuhs in

1204,ofNonnandy.

As the result of JOHN's dash with Pope I: . [

. England is laid, nnocent ,IT over the election of the Archbishop of Canterbury,

1208. under an "interdict for four years and Ih Ki hi .

1209 ' * . , e JJlg lmseJf

. ,IS 'excommunicated, He submits because of h .' '. , ..

France and, t e Impendmg UlVaSIOIl 'Of England by Philip ll Augustus of

1213: receives England as a "fief from the Po 10HN.· . ". -

PI ili II .. pe. , allies himself with Otto E f G

]1 ip .but the allied armies are defeated ' rnperor 0 ermany to crush

1214, in the battle of BOuv:iJles and after the peac .1' CI" ."

h E I· . eo unon <resultinv in loss of all [ '( ,

- I e ng ish barons rise, Deserted by his army JOHN' t" em 'ones north of the Loire

15 June 1215 t h .. ,IS creed, -

• 0 gran! t e Magna Carla LibertO/lim (Doc. 32.).

32. MAGNA CARTA LmERTATUM, 1215

The Magna C;rta Libertatum is the tnost famous document in E lish hist

. In the 17th century the Magna Carta became the S' ibol 0 ~ ~ , ory.

pnncLples - primar':l')' that the powers of the ki h yn if Englrsh liberties arulfun.damental

. d ~ '.f mg or t e government are limit d bid r

remmne so in the popular mind ever since. e y aU) - an tuis

, The Great Charter of Liberties is still sometimes l'ese" d . . . . . '

d/ecc, tl looks. bade to a *Jeudal situation that I Pd' bnte as a s: r d.loo.kmg document. ! n

. ,was a reaay ecomina obsolet d tri

onarchic conditions existirur be'ore roval l' ~.J d '""O~ .. e an es to restore the

Th. 1:> "j' J power I.{LU, starte to encroach on trad 't ' lfi udal

e product of a feudal age, it is naturally feudal in form . ~ . £ WM ~ e, rights.

antI. custom in matters which were of Concem to th *b an~ tx: a statement ofJeudallaw provisions intended for the benefi; of othe I" e ~lloma class pnmanly, though it contains r c asses as ioeu. The document differs wholly from the

72

American Decloraiion of Independence or from the French Declaraiiori of tlie Right, of Man, as they denlwith abstrac: and natural privileges, the. Maglla Carta canfinas iu notice to concrete abuses.

The Maglla Carta comprises a preamble and. si.-r;ty-three clauses. A qtuuter 0./ the sixty-three clauses deed with matters conceming inheritance and tenure; nine ochers limit royal financial exactions; eight curtail the power of royal officiaL~; while. others guarantee the expulsion. of royal mercenaries and make concessions to *baronial allies. The most notable clauses of the Charter, and tlie ones which. giv.e it it.s symbolic importance as a statement of the superioritv of {aw ouer arbitrary nile, are Nos. 39 and 40,

There is little to show thai. any of the signatories believed the MaglIO Carta 1uould be effeaiue.

The barons mistrusted. the King (See No, 61), and 'with good reason for he had no intention of Iceeping promises that intended to whittle away his power. And indeed, the document uas soon repudiated by the King and condemned by the Pope; it failed to preueni the outbreak of the first Barons I War, but was reissued with sante changes in 1216, 1217, and 1225. Ihe 1225 version was c0I1fimwd not fewer I./WrL thirty-eigh: times.

The term. "great II does not imply contemporary recognition of any special constitutional signijica;nce, and refers rather to the Charter's unusual length .

In the folloioing extracts the passages omitted in the final I 225verswn are printed. in italics.

John, iJy the Grace of God, King of England, Lord of Ireland, Dulce of Normaruiy and Acquiuune, and Earl of ArrJ(JU, to his Archbishops, &5}WpS, AbiJOts, "Earis, *Barons, *jw;ticianes, Foresters, *Sherijfi, Governors, Officers, and to all *Bailfffi, and hisfaithful subjects - Greeting.

Know ye, that We, in the presence of Gad, and for the salvation of our own soul, and of the souls of all O[lT cnceszozs, and of our heirs, to the honour of God, and. the exaltation of the Holy Churdv and amendment of our Kingdon., by the counsel of our venerable fathers"., of the noble persons ... , and others our liegemen;

IWe] have in the first place granted to God, and by this OUT present Charter, have confirmed, for us and our heirs forever:

1. That L1,e English Church shall be free, and shall have her whole rights and her liberties inviolable; and we will this to be observed in such a man ner, that it may appear [rom thence. that the freedom of elections whieh was reputed most requisite to the English Church, which we granted, and by OUI Charier confirmed, and obtained the Confirmation of the same, from our Lord Pope Innocent the Third, before the rupture between us and our *Bal'Ons. was of OlU' free will; which Charter we sball observe, and we will it to be observed with good faith, by OUI heirs forever,

We have granted to all the freemen of our Kingdom, for us and our heirs, forever. all the underwritten Liberties, to be enjoyed and held by them and by their heirs, Irorn us and from our heirs.

2. If Hny of aLIT *Eads or *BaroIl5, or others who hold '0£ us in chief by military service. shall die. and at his death his heir shall be of full age, and shall owe a *relief, he shall have his inheritance by the ancient relief; that is to say. the heir or heirs of an Earl, a whole Earl's Barony for one hundred pounds; the heir or heirs of a Knight, for a whole *Kightls fee, by one hundred *sbillings at most; and he who owes less. shall give less, according to the ancient custom of fees,

3. But if the heir of any such be under age, and in *wards~hip when he comes to age he shall have Ills inheritance without "relief and without fine.

73

4. The warden or the land of such heir who shall be under age, shall not take from the lands or the heir any but .reasonahls issues, and reasonable customs, and reasonable serVices ....

6. Heirs shall be married without disparagement, so tluu. before the marriage be contracted it .Ih(Ltl be nOl~fied to the relations of the heir by consanguinity.

7. A widow after the death of her husband shall immediately, and without difficulty, have her marriage and her inheritance; nor shall she give anything for her dower, or for her marriage, Dr f01' her in heriLllnce, which her husband and she beld at the day of Ius death; and she may remain in her husband's house forty days after his death, within which Lime her dower shall be assigned.

8 .. 0 widow shall be distrained to man:y herself, while she is willing to live without u husband; but yot she shall give security that she will not marry herself without OIH consent, if she hold of LIS, or without the consent or the lord of whom she does hold, jf she bold of another.

9. Neither we, nOT our "Bailiffs, will seize any land or rent for any debt while the chattels of the debtor are sufficient for the payment of the debt; ....

10. lJ anyone hath borrowed anything from the Jews, more or less, and die before that debt be paid, the debt shall pRy no .interest so long as theheir shall be under age, of whomsoever he may hold; ....

12. No scutage nor "aid shall be imposed in our Kingdorn, unless by the common council of our Kingdom; e.xcepting to redeem our person, to make our eldest son a *knight, and once to marry our eldest daughter, and not for these, unless a reasonable aid shall be demanded.

13. In like manner let it be concerning Ole * aids of the City of London. And the City of London shall have all its ancient Iibertiee, and its free customs, as well by land as by water. Furthenuore, we will and grant that all other Cities Burghs, and Towns, and Ports, should 11!lVe all their iiberties and free customs.

1. 4. And also to luuse the common council of the Ki.ngclom, to assess and aid, otheruuse than in the three to-lies aforesoid: and for the assessing (he *scutages, 'we 'will calise to be summoned the A rcltbishops, Bislwps, Abbots, *Earls, and great *Barorls, individually by Our letters. An.d besides, we will cause to be summoned in general by Our *Sheriffs and *Bailiffs, all those uiho hold. of 1lS in chief oi a certain day, that is to say at the distance of fimy days (bifore the meeting), at the least, and. to a certain place; and in all the letters ofsumnums, we will express the cause of the summons; and the SI~TI'UnOllS being thus made, the business shalt proceed on. the day appointed, according to the counsel oj those 1.1111.0 shall be present, although all who have been summoned luu)« not come ....

16. None shall be distrained to do more service for n *Knight's fee, [lot for any other free tenement, than what is due from 'theuce.

T 7. *COlllJ1JOU Pleas shall not follow our Court, but shall be held in an)' certain place .... 20. A free-man shall not be *ameroed for a small offence. but only according to the degrc(' of the offence; and [or a gi'cal dclinqucnny, aCCOl,c1iog to the magnitnde of the delinquency, saving his contentment: a Merchant shall be * amerced in the same manner saving his merchandise, and a "villein sha11 be amerced after the same manner, saving Lo his \Vai.nage lie means oflivc1ibood] ....

21. *Eads and "Barons shall not be "amerced but by their *Pecl's and that .only according to the degree of their deonqllcncy ....

74

27. (f any frl'.e~mal1 shall rlie intestate [i.e uiithoui leaving his will), his chattels shalf Ilr distributed by the hands of his nearest relations an(I.frirmds, under superoision. of th» Church; SOiling

to everyone the debts which the defunct owed. .

28. No "Constable nor other *Bailiff of ours shall take the corn or other goods, ol My one without instantly paying money for them, unless he call obtain I":spite from the free-will of the seller.

29. No "'Constable [Governor or a Castle] shall compel any "'Knight to give money for castle-guard, if he be willing to perform it in his OWn peJ'son, or: by another able man if he cannot perform it himself for a reasonable cause; and if we have carried or scm him into the arm}' 11e shall he excused from castle-guard, according to the Lime tbat shall be in the army by our command ....

35. There shall be one measure of wine throughout all our Kingdom, and one measure of ale, and one measure of corn, namely, the quarter of London; and one breadth of dyed cloth, and of russets, and of halborjects, namely, two ells within the lists. And it shall be the same with weights as with measures,

38. No * Bailiffs, [or the future, shall put any man to his law, upon his own simple affirmation, without credible witnesses produced for that purpose.

39. No Iree-man shall he seized, or imprisoned, 01" dispossessed, or "outlawed, 0'[ In any way destroyed; nor will we condemn him, nOT will we commit him to prison, excepting by the leg'al judgement of his *peers, or by the laws of the land.

40. To none will we sell, to none will we deny, to non'! will we delay riglil or justice.

4.1. All Merchants shall have safety and security in coming into England, and going out of England, and in staying and in travelling through England, as well by land as by water, to buy and sell, without any unjust exactions; according to ancient and light customs, excepting in the time of war, and if they be of a country at war against us: and if such are found in our land at the beginning of a war, they shall be apprehended without injury of their bodies and goods, until it he known to us, or to our Chief *J usticiary, how the Merchants of OIU' country arc treated who are found in the country at war against us' and if ours be in safety there, the others shall be in safety in our land.

42. It shall be lawful to any peTson, Ior the future, to. go out of Our Kingdom, and to return, safely and securely, by land or by water, saving his allegiance to us, unless it be in time of war, fOT some short space, for the common good of the Kingdom: excepting prisoners and "outlaws, according to tile laws of the land, and Q£ the people of the nation at. war against us, and Merchants who shall be treated as it is said above ....

45. We unll nat. make * '[usticianes, *Constables, * Sheriffs, or * Bailiffs, excepting such as know the La'1l}S of the land, rum are well disposed to observe them.

46. All "Barons who have founded Abbeys, which they hold by Charters from the Kings of England, or by ancient tenure, shall have the custody of them when ·they become vacant, as they ought to have ....

5L ... immediately after the conclusion of peace, we will remove out of the Kingdom all Ioreign >I< knights, crossbow-men, and stipendiary soldiers, who have come with horses and arms (0 the molestation ofthe Kingdom ....

54. No man shall be apprehended OJ" imprisoned on the *appeal of a woman for the death of any other man than her husband.

75

5.5. Alljin.es that have been made by us unjustly, or contralY to the laws of the land, and all *amercements that have been imposed wyUSI:ty, or contrary to the laws a/the land; shall be rdwUy remiued, or orderet] by the verdict of the twenty-five ". Barons, of uihom. mention is made below, for the security of the peace, or by the verdict of the greater part of them ....

60 .... all these customs and liberties aforesaid, which we have granted to be held in our Kingdom, for so much of it as belongs to LIS, all our subjects, as wen clergy as laity, shall observe towards their tenants as far as concerns them.

61. But since we haue granted all these things aforesaid, .for God and for the amendment of our Kingdom, an.dfor the better cxtingui.lhing the discord which has arisen between us and aUf "Barons, we being desiraus that these things should possess entire and unshaken. stabilitY.lorevel~ give and gnuu to them the security underusuten; namely, that the *Barons may elect twenty-jive "Barons of the Kingdom, whom they please, who shall with their w/wle power, observe, keep, and cause to be observed, the peace and liberties which we hU11C granted to them" and have. confirmed by this, our present charter, in this manner; that is to sa)', if tue, or our "[usticiory, or our *Bailiffi, or our qffic(~r:;, shall haue injured anyone in anything, or shall have violated any article of the peace or securiry, and the. injury shall have been shown to four of the aforesaid twenty jive *Bamns, the said four Barons shall come to u.s, or to our *JIL~ticiary if we be out of the Kingdom, and making known LO us the excess lie infiingementJ committed, petition that we cause that excess t.o be redressed without delay. A nd if within a period of f011.y days, counted from. the time that, notiticaiior; is made to us, we shall not have. redressed the excess, or, ifwe have been. out of the Kingdom" our "[usticiar does not redress it, the jour *Barons cforescid. shall refer that case 10 the rest qf the twentyjive "Barons, together 'with the community of the entire country, shall distress and injure us in all. ways possibLe _ lIanr.f'Ly, by capturing our castles, lands, and. possessions and in all ways that they Can _ until they secure redress according to their own decision, saving our person and [dieperson] of our queen and fthe persons] of our children. And when the redress has been made, they sh{Lll be obedient to us as they were before. And anyone in the land uiho wishes shall wear that, for carrying out the aforesaid matters, he will obe-y the commands of the twent:yfive "Barons, aforesaid and that he , with his men, will injure us to the best of his abdity; and we publiciy andfreeiy give license of (thus! swearing to' euel:Y one who unshes to do so, and to no one will we ever fJrohil1it [such] suiearing, Moreo1!el; all those of tli« la,nd uho of themselues and by their Dum .fre.e will are ull'willilig to take the oath ./br the ucenty-fiue *Barons, will. them to distress and injure us, we. will 11)' our nuuulace muse to 5wefLr[such a.n. oath'; as aforesuid, ....

By theusuiess of the aforesaid men [Langton and other deA~ignaled ecclesiastical magnates] and of many others. Giuen by OUT hand in the meadoui that is called Runnymede beiueen. Windsor tuui Staines, June 15, in the seventeenth year of our reign.

(Source: Select Charters, ed. Stubbs, 296-306, translated in Adams, No 29.)

Soon JOHN defies U1C "barons, who driven to despair,

1216. invite Louis, Philip of Prance'sson.jo lake the Crown . .rO'i-IN prepares 10 fight U1C barons, but dies before thL· Jir.,t encounter and is succeeded by his child-son, HENRY Ill.

76

1216-1272, Reign of HENRY ill (56 years)

Title: SOil of JOAN 1

Succeededa! the age of 9 (b. 1201) Married: (1236) Eleanor otProvencc

Children: Edward (JutureEDWARD I) . ..

.. H III· . ally clean and religious and was a patron of an and literate reo He had hale

Charac(el·,st/Cs: enry was mar, . ., . .. d , .. W h r..

military ability, however, and was Unduly generous towards his Wife S French .relatives an rowan S is

f . [_I . lded readily to the POI)e ant! did no! always uphold national mterests. Despite hls

own avonntes, :1e Yle ." . . . ._

. l bility he was an extremely incompetent ruler, anti, indeed, little more than an msiguilicant

private respec a " .. .

figurehead in all the developments of Ills lime.

Majorfigllres of the reign:

Politics:

Simon de Montfort (d. 1265), leader of the nobility Peter des Roches (d. 123B), Bishop ofWinchester Scholarship:

Roger Bacon.Ica 1214-ca 1292), scientist am] philosopher

o JOHN·s death most "'barons desert Louis and rally around the young King who being .,1 millor,. Willi!~m Marshal, Earl of Pembroke, is appointed "Governor of the King and Kingdom". Louis gives up his claim

after, ,

1211, lWO baules: the Fair of Lincoln and the baule off the coast 01 Dover.

HENRY Ill's lcuer to the *itineranljllslices.

1219, marks [he extinction of "'ordeal (Doc. 33.) in England.

33. THE REGULATION OF ORDEALS

In judicial trials, the procedures most commonly employed were "compurgation; or wager of law or oath-helping {in which one of the parties, u.suaay the af':.fondant, produced men uho wot~lcZ support his charge or denial} and the ordeal. These were botlvforms o(ap~~al to God to slun« !~hwh part)' was telling the truth. Ordeal was a feature of the A.nglo-Saxon judicial =». but conttn_ued after the Conquest and was allowed to Englishmen when chall.mged. by Normans, £n ~l{tce oj the newly introduced "trial by battle. By the isu. c t~t~ ordealfel~ t_nt~ disrepute, was abolished z:

Church in 1215, arui a letter of Ffemy TTl to the *ttl.nemnt jUStLCes ts usually accepted as marking us .final extinction in EllglUlul.

Ordeal involved an appeal to the supernatural, and lVI1.~ closely supervised by (I, priest in an

aunospliere ofreligious ceremonial. .... ... .

The most common jOl1ll.~ of ordeal uiere the ordeal oj water and tlu: ordeal of :tron. ~,ess accredited. ordeals were the corsned; 01" eating of the consecrated morsel; cULc1 the casting oj the subjects, bound, uuo deep iooter [ie triol by usuet]. If the former did not choke, if the latter threatened

to drown, it was taken as a proof of innocence. ,

The following is a laso governing ordeals of (hot) uater and iron.

77

12711. with 'wriL~ 01" quo ",,,,.ramu [i, C., by whot 'IIII1'01";lyl authorizing inquiry into the lil.1cs of lands [0 define dearly the revenue due to the Crown.

To prevent men [rom giving their land 10 the Church, so as 10 avoid rendering *Ieudal service for them, 1:279. the *SI<llule of "Mortmain lie dead hand] is passed.

The *S(a(Ute of Winch ester,

1285, enacts that each class of persons should provide themselves with certain kinds of arms for U1E defence of the country and puts forward provisions for greater safety in the Kingdom at Large. 'The *Slaluic of Wesuninsteror Quia Emptores [ie purchasers] is passed,

1290. to prevent subinteudation (or subletting), and (he formation of new * manors.

Af1.er the expulsion of the Jews,

1290, their privileges ale grunted to foreign merchants (the Hanse).

Judicial cases tha: until now were processed orally are collected, from

1292. in the 'Yearbooks'; thus English.law ('common law) develops as customary law.

After Simon de Montfort expanded the Council of the =Barons and created the first Parliament (1265), the Model Parliament (Doc. 35.),

1295, makes the excepuon the rule under EDW ARD I, since the gentry and the cities levy the taxes and the King needs their approval.

35. THE MODEL PARlLIAMENT, 1295

The thirteenth century saw increasing 11.'ie made of the representative principle, Kings sought to discuss problems of government 1Wt only with the great * barons and ecclesiastical dignitaries 111M ioould, be found in the council but also with representatives of the lesser landed interest (*knighls of lite *shi;re) and of the towns (citizens and *burgesses). The election of such. rnen., in accordance 71)ilh (J, royal order as given below, became a recognized political activity. The representatives met in parliament,

The word parliament - which translates as colloquium, means a talking and came to England .limn fteLly ~ was used throughout uiestern: Europe in vano11.'i contexts. ln. England it was commonly applied to meetings of the king in his council, often in gatherintjs of a much wider scope. The history of the English Parliament is usually held to begin with November 27, 1295. On that day the first assembly whoseJua parliamentary characteris uncontroverted met at Westmin.ster.

ED WARD Irs extensive wars compelled him to raise supplies from all classes of his subjects. He said, "Tluu. it was right that what concerned all, should be approved by all;" ln. October 1295 he issued. *tlJlit~ for an assembly whic1~ should be a complete image of the nation. On November .2 7 the as.lem,bly, which came to be lmoum. as the Model Pruliameru, met. Historians have called it so, since ill many ways it most closely approximated the Parliaments of later periods. But Edward I does not seem. to have considered it a model, nor does he seem to have been concemed with maintaining doctrinaire uniformity.

The Model Parliament was composed 0]97 bishops, abbots, and priors, 65 *earls WId "barons, 39 judge,s and others, representatives of the lower clergy, summoned through their diocesans, and representatives of the counties, cities, and *boroughs summoned through the *sheriff. Every section of

the popukuioti that had political rights was in it, in person or by proxy. .

The King to the "Sheriff of Northampton, greeting. Whereas we wish to have a conference and discussion with the *earis, *barons, and other nobles of our realm concerning the provision of remedies fOT the dangers that in these days threaten the same Kingdom - 011 which account we have ordered them to come to us at Westminster on the Sunday next after the feast of St. Martin [ie November 11] in the coming winter, there to consider, ordain, and do whatever the avoidance of such dangers may demand - we command and firmly enjoy you that without delay you cause two "knights, of the more discreet and more

80

bl f I I to I, elected from the aforesaid county, and two citizens from each city 01"

capa e 0 a Jour, oe

I. afor id ty and two burgesses from each *bomugh, and that you have them come to

tue . orCsal coun ,~. .

I. d 1 t the place aforesaid' so that the said *knigllts shall then and there have

us 011 tile ay anr a ., , .

I uffici t th 'ty on behalf of themselves and the cnmmuruty or the counLy

fuU anr s Cle11 au on'. .

aforesaid, and the said citizens and *bnrgesse~ on behalf of lhcm6~lves and the .respccuvc

, . r 1 iti and '~boroughs aforesaid to do whatever in the aforesaid matters

cornmu mucs () L lC ci es a '. '

b dai d 1...,. mmon counsel. and sa that through default of Slid] authority, tilt,

may e or ame 0J1 corruu '-1. .' . . _

id busi 1 all b no means remain unfinished. And you arc them to have the names

afOH~SUl usmess SlY . . ,

of the *knighls, citizens, and *burgesses, together with this "writ. By witness 01 the King, at

CantcJ"l>Ur)I, October 3 .

(Source: F. Palgrave, cd., Parliamentary Writs (London:

Record Commission, 1827-34·), 1: 28-30).

EDW ARD I' s excessive and arbitrary laxation induces the "'barons 10 compel him to sign, 1297. the =statutc called De Tallagio NO/1 COllcerienrio (Doc. 36.).

36. THE CONFIRMATION OF THE CHARTERS, 1297

The document called Confirm.ation of the Charters is mere memorable than the name suggests.

Of cardinoi importance in. the growth of Parlj,ament as a representative ~ody. is the concept that consent to ext.rcwrdinaIJ' taxes (that is ta.:~es apart .from those recogmzed as nghifu.lly belongr,ng to the

J . I· *.. -101 aids) should. he obtained not only from the feudal and ecclesiosucal elements

ang, sue 1. (I.I Jeu<J. .'

i,/1.the royol. council, btl! also from representatives o/the nation, at large,

.. ' And for sci milch as divers people of our realm are in (ear, thal the *aids.and tasks which they have given to us bcf"oretime towards our wars ann other business, or their OWI1. gJ_'aJlt ~d IT ad will 'hnwsoever they were made, mi.ght turn to a bondage to them and their hen's, because ~ley might, be at another time found in the rolls, and so likewise the prises [ie royal tolls all merchandise] taken throughout the realm by our ministers in our l1a.me;. we have granted rOI" us and our heirs, thai we shall not draw such *aids, tasks, nor pnce.s mto a custom, for any thing that hath been done Lherelofme, or that may he fou.lld by 1'011 or. ill any

other manner.

Moreover we have granted for us and our heirs as well to archbishops, bishops, abbots"

priors and other folk ofHoly Church, as also to *Earls, *Barol1s, and to all the communalry of the land, that for no business &:0111 henceforth we shall take of 0111' realm such manner of '" aids, tasks, 110r prises, but by the common assent of the realm, and for the common profit thereof saving the ancient *aids and prises dlle and accustomed.

(18 Edwardi 1, Stalutes of the Realm, ] 1 vols. (London:

H. M.IS Stationery Office, 1810-28), I: 106),

The Law Courts, previously united under the * Justiciar, iU'e, . _

BOO, divided intu: the "King's Bench; the "Court of Common Pleas; and the Court ol the *Exchequer.

EDWARD I dies,

lJ07. while on the march to end the sixteen-year-long. 1291.1J07, struggle with Scotland.

81

1307-1327, Reign of EDWARD 11 (20 years)

Title: fourth - but only slirvivilig -son of EDWARD I Succeeded at the age of 23 (b. 121.!4)

Marrin/: (130lj) lsabella of Prance

Children: Etlwanl (future EDWARDJlI)

Characteristics: Although Edwanl bad received ... f' I trui , .

ability, had a weak will, Was inclined to ~~e.:.u 1 alJ~ln~ ~ IlUhltd<uY and political affairs, he lacked

,', . .. "IVO ous. aJlu wou .spenu most of his time with hi

"II/Ountes. HIS lelgu was miserable. He W'IS I'll' k· .j.' u 1'1. . . "

• .' • . .c . c wea e.~t 0, le analageoets. and showed non f th

. vlgm~r JlIlU capacity Iorgovernmem which distinguishetl hls lather, ell' e

Majorpolitical fist/res of/Ill! reign:

Roger Mortimer (d. 1330), inl1uen!ial nobleman Piers GavesLOn (d. 1312). favourite of tbe King

Hugh Ie Despenser, the elder (d. 1326). faVourite of the Killg

Despile hi~ .father's adrnoniuon [hal he should continue the war with S" II' .1

Scottish expedition. . < I oco anu, EDWARD 11 abandons the

A "baronial Puuiarnent meers under arms,

1310. and 1'0110wil1g (he "Provisions of Oxford forces upon til 1(' .

I " . e Ing a programme of reforms prac(icallY!luttiJ LI

rnya power Into commission of twenty-one Lords Ordaiuers h . d I b TI ,. E. . • . . . 19 lC I1lJc!< supreme until, .• ea ec y lomas, iarl oj Lancaster. Lancaster

1322. he is beheaded utter the defeat of (he b~mllial rebellioJl

agalnsl EDV\~ARD II's misrule. and his favourites (especially Piers Gaveston) The Que " I

In.n~enceoj ~DWARD II's ~avouritcs, intrigues with the new baronial leader, Rog~r Mortime~I~.n·~Cd ous lIr the

1.126, assu me, til" 10Y<ll power. EDWARD 11 is Iorccd to abel icale and '

September 1327. is secretly murdered in Berkeley Castle. .,

82

1327-77, Reign of EDWA J1D UI (50 years)

tut« eldest son of EDW ARD II Succeeded at th« age of 15 (b. 1312) Married: (13211) Philippa of Hatnault

Children: Edward, the Black Prince; Lionel, Duke of Clarence:

John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster; Edmund, Duke of York

Characteristics: EDWARD Ill was skilled in arms, and able, but. he was also wasteful and ambitious, and not much interested in the welfare of his subjects, Though anxious to shine as the ideal champion of chivalry, he was both cruel and treacherous. Military glory was the ambition of his life, but his conquests were transient and ill-conceived,

Majorjig"res of the reign:

William ofWykeham (d. 1404), Bishop of Winchester, *Chanuellor John Wycliffe (c. 1330-84), the "Morning Star of (he Reformation" Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1343-1400), the "Father of English poetry"

1327. *.Iustices or (he Peace, drawn from the gentry (lower nobility) with police and judicial authority (foundation of English local administration). are appointed to serve alongside *sheriITs.

Arter three years EDWARD 111 shakes himself free of the influence ofhis mother and Roger Mortimer anti, 1330. takes (he royal pOWCT, executing Mortimer and confining his mother for life at Castle Rising.

The dual ism between the French monarchy and its strongest * vassal. England, reaches a crisis when,

1328, the Capetian family becomes extinct with the death of Charles rv. According to the "Salic Law the House of Valois (1328-1498) succeeds. EDWARD III advances claims against Philip Vl (1328-1350) by right of his mother, daughter of Philip rv of France. which leads,

1337, to the Hundred Years' War,

1338-1453.

83

Philip III of France

I--------------~--------------~

Philip IV, the Fair

Charles of Valois

I

Philip VJ of France

I

101m

Charles IV the Fail'

Philip Y

Isabella In. EDWARD 11 of'Eugland

Louis X

I

Margare:

EDWA.RD m of England

Jane

Jane

37. EDWARD nrs CLAIM TO TIlE FRENCH CROWN

Although EDWARD 1Il pledges the oath of =fealty to the French King, he attempts to utilize all anti-French uprising in Flanders. After the unsuccessful invasion of France,

1339', the naval victory over the French,

1340. in the battle of Sluys, is followed by victories 1)( the

English people's army (archers and "bombards". ie early cannons) over the French levies of *knights. especially,

1346. at the baule ulCrccy (Doc. 38.).

38. THE BAITLE OF CRECY, 1346

'[he battle of Creey on August 26, 1346, was the first of a series of English land victories over th» French: in the Hundred Years' War (1338-1453).

A ceording to Jean Froissan (1337-14] O?), whose account - transloied. by the sixteenth century statesman, John Bourchier, Lord Bemers - the whole English army did not amount to more than 8,000 men {but this estimate is probably UJo low}; the Frenclvforces are computed at the (improbably) high total of 60,000 to 120,000. The French army was routed. with terrible slaughter, more than 30,000 being killed; the lEflglish losses were insigruficani. The English g(rined this vic/Oly ounng to the superior skill of their archers. During the battle cannons are said to halle been used for the first time, "r.ofiighten tlie Genoese ".

The prize (1 oictory' proved. to be Calais, the only area still held by the English in France (till 1558) at the end of the War despite victories at Poiiiers (1356) and Agincowt (14/5).

Froissart trooelled. much, questioned people 'who had been prominent in I.l:ffairs and consulted the chronicles of hi" predecessors. Despite these methods of collecting facts h.e is not always accurate. His strong point is "cluum. of manner II. He has entertained genemtions of refuters, urui jew have ('qu(Jiled him. in. 5 WTOILII ding the past with an atmosphere of reality.

The Englishmen. who were ill three battles lie divisions] lying on the ground to rest them, as soon as tbey saw [lIe Frenchmen approach, they rose upon their feel fair and easily without allY haste and arranged their battles. The first, which was. the Prince's lie the Black Prince IS]

84

battle, the archers there stood ill manner of a herse [harrow] and the men of arms in the bOllom of the battle.

The Earl of Northampton and the Earl of Arundel with the second battle WE-J'e on a wing in good

order. ready to comfort the Prince's battle, ir need were; [the third, under King Edward ru, was

held in reserve].

The lords and knights or France carne not to the assemhly together in good order, for some came

before and some came after iu such haste and evil order, that one of them did trouble another. When the French King [Philip vq saw the Englishmen, his blood changed, and said lO his marsbals: "Make the Get10cse go on before and begin the baule in the name of God and Saint Denis" There were or tile Ge110cse cross-bows ahnut a Iiiteen thousand, but they were so weary ~J going afoot Lhat day a six leagues armed with their cross-bows, that tbey said to their *collstables: "Wr. be not wcll ordered to ught this clay, lor we be not on the case La do any great deed of arms: we have more ncerl of rest." Thes(' words carne to the Em-I of Alencon, who said:

II A. man is well at ease [0 be charged witll l;1[e11 a sort of rascals. 10 be faint and fail now at mosl need" _ Also the same season there rell a great rain, .. with a terrible thunder, and before the rain there carne flying over both battles a 6'Tcat number lIf crows for fear of 1110 tempest corning, Then anon the ail' lil'gun to wax clear, and the sun to shine fair und brig11t, tbe which was right in the Frenchmen's eyes and on the Englishmen's backs. When the Genoese were assembled together and begun 10 approach, they made a great ... cry to ahash the Englishmen, but lltey stood still and stirl'l;cT noL [or all that: then the Cenocse again the second time made ... a fell cry, and Slept forward a little. and (he Englishmen removed riot one Ioot: thirdly, again they ... cried, and went [orth till Lhey came within shot; then Ihey shot fiercely with their Gross-haws. Then the English arcuers Slept forth one pace and lei Il.y their arrows so wholly rlogeLiH)[j and so thick, that iL seemed snow. When the Cenoese felt the arrows piercing through heads, arms and breasts, many of them cast down their cross-bows ami did cut their strings and returned discomfited. When the French K.iJI~ saw them ny away, he said: "Slay these rascals, 1'01" Lhey shall Il'"l and trouble us without reason". Tlu-n -ye should have seen the men of arms dash in l:UllOl1g them and killed <1 greal number of them: and even "Iill tile Englishmen shot whereas lhey saw thickest press; the sharp aJTOW~ ran into the men \,r arms and into their horses, and many Icll, horse and men, among Lite: Genoesc. and when they were down. they could uot relieve [rise] again, the press was so thick, thai one overthrew another. And also amoug the Englishmen there were certain rascals that went afoot with great knives, and they went in among the men of arms, and slew and murdered many as tbey lay on the grollnd, both *earls, *harons, *ktnghts and squires, whereof the Icing of England was aftel" displeased, Jor he had rather they bad been taken prisoners ....

- [Source: The Chron.icles ofFrois.Wl.rt, rransl. John Bourehier, cd, and reduced into

one volume by G. C. Macaulay (London, L899), Dook r, chap. 130. p. 104.).

Arter J heroic defence by its citizens,

1347. Calais t"aUs; iL bCC()fll~S Ihe baSIS nruperalions ror the English armies until 1559.

,f!" severe economic nisi, is brouuht about by the *Bla~k Death, an outbreak of bubonic plaque.

1349/50. which lavages England; carrying ufr lillie les~ than unc-hulf or the population. The Bla~k Death makes labour scarce. ami holds nut II prospect of better wages, but in the interest or the [undlurtls,

1351. the First "Statute of Labourers is passed, fixing the 111110Ul11 ul' \Vuges at pre-plague levels and I"orbidtling

the gj~ll1g ()rallll~ to 1/C·~g~H·~,

The First +Statutc 1l["·1 Prrwis(lrs.

13S1. checks p"pal inrlucncc ill Englund. enacting that all persons receiving papal provisions lie gran 15 of living] Sh'1Uld be liable III punishments. anti all preferrnents nominated by the Pope should be t\>rl"eiteu to the King

85

The First *Statu te of Treason,

1352, passed by the Blessed Parliament, defines it. to be high treason to compass (he death of the Kin h' ,

eldest son' La levy war ag3Jll~t the Kin' [ 'J tb Ki' '" gar ,IS

'.' . , g, 0 a). e ng s enemtes: LO mint counterfeit coif]' to kill [11

*chan~,ellor. treasurer, or any of the Judges while in the discharge of their duties. • e

Alter Edward, the Black Prince, has ravaged France north of.Bordeaux and

1356. at the battle of Poi tiers bas defeated and taken prisoner the French King, lhe Peace of Bretigny is signed 1360: by which EDWARD III abandons claim" to the French Crown in exchunge for sovereignty (]~er south-western France.

English is introduced,

1362, as [he of tidal language in courts of law.

Charles V of France, grandson of Philip VI, 1369, renews the war and. by

1374, the English lose all. their French dominions except Bordeaux, Bayonne', and Calais.

The Good Parliament,

1376. for l?e1irst time in lti~[Ol'Y *impeaches three of the KiIjg"s counsellors. EDWARD III dies 1377, and IS succeeded by his grandson, RrCHARD. '

86

1377-1399, Reign of RICHARD II (20 years)

Title: SOIl of Edward, the Black Prince, eldest son of EDW ARD III Succeeded <II rile age of: 10 (h. 1367)

Married: L (1382) Anne of Bohemia

2. (1396) Isabel of France Children: none

Chnracteristics: He was a lover ofboth HIt and literature, and his contemporaries accusedhim of lno great il love of pleasure. In politics, RICHARD attempted to do what HENRY Vll was able to effect later on: to crush the power of 111e nobles, rule by means of ministers, and keep the Church in submission. Like HENRY Vll, he worked by means ofparliament; bul at the end of the 141h c the "baronage had not yet been broken by the Wars of the Roses, and therefore RICHARD If failed,

Majorfigureof th« reign:

John of Gaunt, D. of Lancaster (1340- 1399)

A lax imposed upon persons in respect of the reputed value oftheir estates,

1379·80, and the imposition of a ~p()ll-tax on every person above the age of 15 prove to be the immediate causes for [he outbreak.

1381. of the Great Revolt o( the Peasants lead by Wat Tyler (Doc. 39,). Although hundred" of the rebels are executed and the concessions granted to them quickly revoked, from this time on *villein service is not su rigidly enforced, and it gradually dies out,

39. THE PEASANTS' REVOLT, 1381

There 'l.IIGS a considerable discotuen; anwng the peasants following the "Black Death: they resented. the *Statute of Labourers and. ather attempts to maintain the old system: of *seifdOln. The growing idem of liberty and equality, spread by the "Lollards, led, to the outljreak of the Great Revolt of the. Peasoras, uhose leaders were [ack Straw (Essex) (LfldWac Tyler (Kent) (Nota belle: in the text below the' author !hink~ them to be the s.ame person).

The demands of the peosanis were: aj aboluion. of *villeinage,

b) reduction of rent to fourpence an acre

c) free access to all fairs and markets d) a general pardon.

The rebels tunounting to 1 00, 000 men, marched upon London. They piUaged and destroyed. "manor-houses, burnt the court-rolls containing the *'villeins' names, so as. to destroy every record of their bondag«, and. put to death lauryers, *justice.s, and other officials.

Richard. met the rebels at. Snuthji,eld.. The description of the meeting I~~ by the contemporary chronicler, Henry [(nlghum (fl, 1363), the author qj'Compilatio de Eventibus AI/glial! (Compilation Of Englisl: Events).

On the Iollowing day, which was Saturday, they gathered in SrniLhfield, where !.here came to them ill the morning the King, who although only a youth in yeaTS yet Was in wisdum

87

already well versed, Their leader, whose real name- was Wat Tyler, appmached him; already they were calling him by the other name of lack Straw. He kept dose La the King, addressing him for the rest He carrreri in his hand an llllsheathed weapon which they call a dagger, and, as jf in ehildiah play, kept tossing .i[ [rom one hand La the other in order that he .mighL s.eize the opportlJnity, if the ICing should reflise his requests, to strike rhe King suddenly (as was cOlllmonly be1ielfed); and from this thing the greatest fear arose among those about the Klng as to what might be the cutcorna.

They begged from the TCing Lhat all the warrens [ie hunting preserves, for small game], and as well waters as park and wood, should be common (0 ail, so lha! a poor man as well as. H rich should be able freely 1.0 hunt animals everywhere in the Kingdom _ in [he streams, in the fish ponds, in the woods, and in the forests; and that he might be free to chase the hare in the fields, and that he might do these things and others like them without objection, Wilen the King hesiLateciabout granting this concession Jack Straw came nearer, and, speaking threatening words, seizeclwith his hand the bridle oJ the horse of the lGng very daringly. W1len John de Walworth, a citizen of London, saw this, thinking that death threatened the ICing, he seized a sword and pierced Jack Straw.in the neck, Seeing this, another s.oldier, ... pierced Iris side with another sword. He sank back, slowly letting go with his hands and feel, and then died. A great cry and much mourning arose: II OUT leader is slain, II Wben LItis dead mall had been dragged along by the hands and feJ~t into the church of St. Bartholomew, which was ncar by, many withdrew from the band, and, vanishing, betook lhemselves to lligbt, to the number itis believed of ten thousand ....

(Source: Chrol2icon HenriciKnighton, ed. Josepl; R. Lumby. Rolls Series, iJo 92 in 2 vols, (London: Eyre and SpottiswQode. 1889-95), 2: 1;37-8, translated in Cheyney, 292-3),

The Provinclal Council he.ld at Blackrriar~ in London comjeIljn~, 13112, John Wydiffe's doctrines (Doc, 4{).).

4,0. WYCLIFFErS DOCTRINES, 1382

john Wycli,ije (d, 1384), fourteenth cetuury pliest and scholar, ums at first essentially a refonner. Troubled by abuses growill{!; ow of the contemporary ecclesiastical system, he becam« in the C@rse 0/ time a heretic, denying established doctrines of the Clturch. The significance of the ,;horoughgoil1g ossaulr lrmnched at the medieval Church was partly due to his personal distinction, No obscure fanatic, Wycliffe was one of the joremost schoolmen q/ his age, described even by his enemies as "thefloue» o_fO,y(ord ,scholarship ",

Outside the Univel'Sity his anticierif:alism, uuni Wyclfffe the p01lJeifu,l patronage of John of Grn~.n1., Dn!ce ojLan.caster and uncle of Ridtard If

Wycliffe has been called "the prophet of the Rf!folTri.ntion 1/ because he anticipated so many of its leading idem; He urged it theory 'If civil dominion according to which the stale m.ight depril)e unworthy clergy 'If their property. Wycliff{: believed that the Scriptures were o;n. authority above the papacy and. Church CounciL~. To make the Bible accessible to more people, he tran.sla.ted it into English.

In May, 1382, it Church synod meetin.g in Bladifriars Hall, London; condemned twenty-jour rWctrines attributed to Wyclftte (/;S heretical and erroneous, altlwugh Wyclwe himsellWQs Immoles~ed.

The doctrines of Wycl0'e Continued through hisfo!Lol./;ers, ca.lled *LoltClrds, 88

, . [the Church: ,

. . ar to the determmatJOn 0 . .. . . f the altar after

H. etical conclusions contr y . cl in b th remain m tlrc sacrament 0 .

er [material bread an . wine 0

1. That the substance 0 rnatcn . .

-, . [. '1 tl I truly and really In

consecration .. , , . f the altar identically J.C in ieren Y,. ,

3. That Christ is not .in the sacrament 0 .

His proper corporeal person. . '1' b "nay neither mclain, consecrate, nOT baptize.

. be I moria 15m, e t . - 1 .

A That if a bishop or a pnest e In . -d Iession is sup-erfluous or useless to urn.

.... '. " . 11 OULWBI come . . . . Me

S. That if a men be duly pe~te.nt a. 'be Gos ela that Christ ordained tlie ~ss... .

6 T tenaciou~ly affi:n.n that It IS nO.t stated In t1· . p .. 0 r the faithful of Christ gwen to 111m

' 0 .. . ~ '1 he hat 1 no power ve .

8 That if the pope ... bean evr man ... , '. •

· . I eradventure , by the emperor.. .

by .any, un.ess, p ... ,I..' to be received for pope.",

f [P J Urban VI none oinei IS Iesl . al persons should have

9. That a tel' ope .. . Hal Scripture that eoclesiastrc

10, The assertion that It IS contrary to y

temporaL possessions.

. . .. . tr r to the determinatioti of the Church: b

Erroneolls conclusions con aT) .' t anT 'man except he firSl know him 10 e

11. That no prelate ought to *excOmmUI1Lca e. .

excom.m u.nicated.by G .. ad" .. , 1'. ho l th annealed to the Icing or." to the council of

- • tIO" a c eric \\I 0 aa ~~r

13 ThaL a bishop *excommumca n., ':h. lm

· . . r G d the king and I e lea .. ,. f C' d ',1 t

the realm". is a traitor 0: a ~. d ' . . r shyter to preach the word 0 . 0 ". wunout

. I .. I ful for any eacon or p e ized th .'h,

15 The assertion L rat It LS aw . . C tho lie hi lop or of other recogruze au onry.

· .. 'j' t; A t lie See or "Of a . a 0 c 181, . ,

the authority 0 tnc . pos o. 'b' I . . late while he is in mortal sm.

. . il Iord rs lOp, or pre. , '. 1 1 ituall

16. To assert that no one IS. a ClY ,", ~ " . al oods from ecclesiastics lB.J. Y

. . I 1 ·d may at will withdrnw their temper g

] 7, That tempera 01 S

sinful..., . h. ' l' , rs may on account of the sins of their curates,

..1 and t at pans none . ,

18 That "tithes are pure aims, .' .

· '. . b ·h . . n others at pleasure. . . '1 I.

detain them and . estow l . em 0 . . b .. ei . .religious do 110 more aval tue

1113't s ecial rayers restricted to one pErson y pr ales or

19. . .. p P'.., 1'. . ral than gene'ral prayers.. .. . . '

same. ~el'son, other things )eln~ ~~n 'b the .Iabour (.if their hands, and ~ot by heg,gmg.

23, That friars are bound to get their . ': g y , hi "--'. _ '5 *"excommul1lcate; as .IS the one

1: . al . on friars or preac ng U:HllS ~ .

24" That anyone CO.1Hemng . rns .

who receives. . ' 'I. '. w'"nl;fin Translasions and Reprints, transl,

. l' Z'·' M~outrf,Jo uuuus W' ~" . . ~ 9 11)

(Source: FasCfC!U . tzamorum: '., . delnhi U: ity Press 1897). Il, no a;- ...

E, P. Cheyney, 6 vols. (Phila e p ia nrvers ,

. ' .. ' '. zlish literature with the Canterbury Toles of Geoffrey Chaucer,

1387, The beginning 0'1 a thstmctl~eJy E~g - , e John of Gaunt is compelled,

R[CHARD II, being ruled by favourites and his unck , "1 I' cle Thomas, Duke of Gloucester, al its head.

. - ...• COUIl);I] of Eleven, witn tus un ., _ .

1386, 10 entrusllhe.Gove'llmel1~ [0 a . . < t (for its supporters) Parliament "irnpeachex,

The Merciless (fur its enemies) or Wonderfu ' ...

1388, the King's favourites (Michael.de la Pole, and others).

At the age of lwe~ty-.three, . , .. '. ,_ .urnes [he sole authority, by

1389 R!CHARD II thSITI1SSeS Ill, guardians. and ,dSS .. '.

.' < • '. , •• •• ch until he IS imprisoned, d

1397. making himself an "absolute rnonar ., , I'. C· wn (Doc 41.), Oil [he grountl of tyranny an

. ,. d' elled to reSign . us. ro . .

1399, by Parliament an ~omp . H' D k' if Lancaster is declared King,

misgovernment. RICHARD ll"s C(:lUSIn •. .enry, U co. ,

89

41. TIlE DEPOSITION OF RICHARD D, 1399

In 1399 Richard II was Overpowered by his cousin, Henry of Lancu,sler. Thrown into the Tower of London, he was forced to abdicose in the presence of Parliament. Belo1/} are the terms of Richard IS nbdicall:oll. l(Jitl! the complete renunciation of all royal power and the adm.ission that he has desen!ed hislale.

Ajier his abdication. Richanl disul)peared. A report IOQS spread that he toas dead, and his Corpse 111m exhibite.d ,:11, London.. He was probably murdered in Pontefraa Castle /Uhere he had been imprisoned.

In God's name. ihnen. 1, Iiicbard, by the grace of God, King of England and France, and Lord of Ireland, absolve all archhishops and bishops of the said kingdoms and lordships allel all other prelates whatsoever of secular or regular churches of whalsoever dignjty, rank, stnto, or condition they may be, and *dlrices, "marquises, "earls, "barons, "knights, "vassals and vavassors fie a class of .Ieudal lords] and all my liege men, clerical Or secular by whatsoever name they are known, from the oath of *(ealty and "homage and all others whatsoever made to me and from every bond of al1egiance, royalty and lordship with which they have been or are bound by oath to me ....

And all royal dignity and majesty- and royalty and also the lordship and pOWC}- of Lhe said realms and lordships; ... and all right and colour of right, and title , possessions, and lordships which 1 Ilave ever had, still have or shal] be able to have, in any way .... ; and also the command, government, and administration of such realms and lordships; and all .and every kind of absolute and mixed sovereignty and jurisdict.ion in these realms and lordsbips belonging to me or to belong to -rne; the name and honour and royal right and title of king, Freely, voluniariiy, wlcquivocal1y arid absolutely, and in the best fashion, wise, and Iorrn possible, in these writings 1 renounce, and resign as a whole, and .release in word and deed, and yield my place in them, and retire from them forever.

Saving to my sLlccessors, iCings of England, in .the realms and lordships and all other premises 'in perpetuity, the rights belonging or to belong to them, in them or in any of them. T confess, acknowledge, consider, and truly judge from sure know.lerIge that I in the rule anu government of the said realms a.nd lordships and all pertaining to them have been and am not unworthy to he deposed. And I swear on these holy Gospels touched bodily by DIe that 1 will never contravene these premises of renunciation, resig,natiou, demise and sULTender, nor will J illlpLlgn them in all)' way, in deed or in word by myself or by another or others, or as Jar as in me lies permit them to be contravened or impugned publicly or secretly, but I will hold this renunciation, resignation, demise, and sunender unalteI'abJe 'and acceptable and 1 will keep' it (irmly Hnd observe it ill whole and in" every part; so may God help me and these holy scriptures of God. I, Riehm'd, We aforesaid King, subscribe myself with Ill}' own hand,

(SoLlrce: Rotuli Parliamentorurn, ed. John Strachey et al., 6 vols, (London: H. NT'IS Stationery Office. 1776-77),3: 416-17, translated in Adams, No J 02.).

0/1. TJ{r£ :J{oVStE OP Ljl9VC)tS'TP/IZ _7l1{(j) T}FE WYl rJ?S OCE 7!J(Ps ~OSPS 1399-1485

A.njo\\-Plantagenet

YQrkist Line (White Rose)

I

Lancastrian Line (Red Rose)

I

EDWA.RD III 1327 -1) 77

J

Edward, the Black Prince

I

RICHA,RD II 1377-1399

Lionel, Duke of Clarence Duke or Lancaster

I ~"-

Edmund Mortimer HENRY IV John Beaufort

399" 1"4.'3 E. of Somerset

3rd E. of March 1" - .. I

I I John Beaufort

Roger Mortimer

M h HENRY V D. of Somerset

4 th E - if arc" 1_4-J11t-3_-_2_2 Ri.chard

Anne Mortimer

E. of Cia mbridge HENRY VI

1422-61

Richard, 1470-71

Duke of York

I

42. THE HOUSE OF LANCASTER AND THE HOUSE OF YORK

John of _Gaunt

Edmund Duke of York

Margaret Beaufort ~ Edmund Tudor, E. of Richmond

I EDWARD IV

1461-1470 147] -1483

I

RICHARD III 14B3-1.485

I

I

Elizabeth - HENRY VIr Tudor

EDWARD V 1483

R.ichard, Duke of York

91

1399-14 B, Reign of HENRY IV BOLINGBROKE (14 years]

Tille: snn Ill' John of Gaunt, Duke 01" Lan~astel", fourth son of EDWARD III Slirreeded atthe age of 32 (b. 1367 at Bolingbroke)

Married: I. (J 3llO) Mary de Bohull

2, (14()1 ) Joan of Navarre

Cliildri!il; (By Mal'Y de Bnhun) Henry (HENRY V): Thomas, Duke nf Clarence; John. Duke nLBedfoni; Humphrey, Duke of GloUl.:esle,

C/iClI'a(,,",.is/ics: HENRY pruved Lo be a good soldier. an able admlnistraror. anda Iirst-class stale,m.an. He managed Lo found the Hnuse (l[ Lancaster, His reign i~ (in)famous tor tile reslnra[jon of orthodoxy aguinst rhe * Lollards wilh De'l-Ierelico COII!DuI"lmdo being [he most imporran] enuc.lrill':nl of the reign. }l;fajor[igl<!'e of the reig»:

Hen'ry Percy, "HOL~pUT" (1364-1403), soldier

HENRY IV of the House of Lancasler asserts himself against the high nobility. but only after difficllilie.~. Hj~ positinn IS threatened by ~ series of rebellions: of Owen Gicrulower iJ1 Wales, 14011-09, whu is aided.

1403. by Henry Percy. Earl or Nortnllmberland,.aml his son Henry the I-lotspur, arul,

1405. by other nobles, TIle rebeIlions are sUppressed. but realj;-;ing the weakness of his claim to the crown, HENRY IV is forced 10 rely on the Parliument and the Chun:h fa!" support. This leads to hi, approval of the "Lollard persecution and,

1401. to the pas~illg of De Heretico COl/./bw:eiJdo A.c/. authl:JIizing the persecution of heretics Parliament dues not fuil to rr.ake useoj' its influence over the King, ami it esti!bJj~he~,

L407. the principle that a redress 01' grievances should precede the granting of money. The House of Commons gains the right to nrig.ili<1lc muney "bills, and HENRY IV is cnmpelled to name sixteen (;oun~elllHs. by whose atJvice be is III be guided,

1413. HENRY I V dies ,;JIlU issu~ceedi'ld by his SOn as HENRY V.

92

1413-1422, Reign of HENRY V (9 years)

7it/e: ,0110t" HENRY IV

Succeeded at the age of 26 (b. 131\7) Married: (1420) Catherine of Valois

Children: Henry (HENRYVl) l .. ki ho ever ruled in England. He began his reign amid

'.' . T . he was the mast popular mg IV '. .

CJwmr:tenstrcJ, 0 m,any . d '11 f Parliament by making several concessions to

,~. . d he gamed the aoo WJ. O. .' .

much popular cnrnusiasrn, an . d ~ H .. by nature and early traininz a good soldier and

• . . 1"' ncouraged dIS or el. e W,lS "" . "

il. His conCI.I;atOl? ~o ~;a:lbiliOUS to win alorv. He was famous for his military campaigns.

a vigorous ru,er, an, W "_' e _

M(Jjorji"gureso/rhe.l'eigJl: '.". . I

Edmund Mortimer (1391-1425), hell" presumpuve [0 Richard 1

The Reign of HENR Y V starts with the suppression,

1413. of a *Lol[ard uprising. and the ~IS(ill:e[i' f Ed lund Mortimer therightful heirto the throne.

1415 of the Cambridge Plot: a conspiracy III avnur 0 n.. . '

B revivin T the-claim made by EDWARD 1LI to the French Crown,

y g. .1.' " y .. , War The Battle of Agmcourt,

L415 HENRY V resumes.the Hu.nu.reu ears a . ". . y , W .. HENRY V's 6000 soldier army

-, - . h . t E allsh vietory of the Hundred ears ur.· .,

25 October 14b, is t e greates ngu . de " Ii . and organization, the 50,000 strong French army,

defeats, thanks to the archers and the supenGr IS~lP me _

killing 10,000 and taking 15,000 prisoners,

During the Second Campaign,

141.7 Normandy and Parisare occupied;

1419: Burgundy allies with Englandwhich lea~s. to, n Catherine daughter ofthe French King, Charles Vl,

1420. the Treaty of Troyes by .wl1lch HENRvY[. 1.[lS to ;a~~~g after his deal.h. Before the death of HENRY V,

and he is to he Regent during Charles s I':, an

1422, all France north of the Loire submits.

HENRY 'V dies of dysentery, . leaving his infant son HENRY VI, as heir La his claims in

1422, two rnon ths before the death Of Charles VI,

France.

93

94

95

1428. to Orleans, the key 10 ihe southern provinces of France. At this point the "Maid of Orleans" GOmes to the rescue (DOG. 44.). Joan or Arc, a peasant girl, follows divine inspiration, traverses France and, through her faith, stimulates a national spirli or resistance which forces the English,

1429. to raise the siege of Orleans. Captured ncar Cornpiegne by the Burgundians, Joan is surrended to the Engli~h. condemned as a heretic by the Inquisition lind un 30 May 1431, burned at the Slake in Rouen.

44. JOAN OF ARC'S LETTER TO THE ENGLISH COMMANDERS

1422-1461 and 1470-1471, Reign of HENRY VI (39 years) tu« son of HENRY V

Succeeded at lite age of; one (b. 1421) Ma,.ried: (1445) Margaret of Anjou Children: Prince Edward

Characteristics: HENRY VI, a man of gentle and pious disposition, was extremely weak willed and was subject to spells of insanity. For mostof'his reign he was the mere puppet in the hands ofhis wife and advisors.

Majorfigures of the reign:

John of Lancaster, Duke of Bedford (1389-1435), Regent William de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk (c. 1472- [513), chief' minister

Richard, Baron Mortimer and Duke of York (1511-60), Protec tor

joan 0/ A rc, a teenage peoscau. girl, is the most phenomen cd aiu! (rttmctive personage. of the flnn.dred Yrw,r;y' Wnr on either side. Those rohotn: she led 1,0 victory believed that she was in~piTed of God, awl the English belielJf'd tlro: she. W(!.I of the De IIi I. S7w herself mainLctined that she le(llhe French. troops to raise the siege of Orleuns ill. obedience to the divine call, an.d that all her important acts were prompie 1 by It uoice from heaven ..

AI. the time when Joan appeared be,fore Orleans she dictated - herself beillg illiterate - the [ollounng' leuer lind had il sent to the Enghsh conunurulers.

4,3. KING HENRY VI

(.)e~1I5, Mary) King of England, and you, Duke oJ Bedford, who call YUlIr"c:lf Regent or tho realm of France; you William de la Pole, Earl of SII [folk, John, Lord Talbot, and you Thomas T mel Scales, .who cull yourselves lieutenants of the said Duke of Bedford: Do Tight to the King of hooven; deliver to the Maid, who is sent here by God, the King oj heaven, the keys of all I he good lawns which you have taken and destroyed in France. She is come hither [Tom Cod to restore the royal blood. She is ready La make peace U' you are willing to do right to her, and on condition thut you will quit France and pay back that which you have taken there. And you, urchers, comrades of war, gentlemen and others who arc before the city of Orleans, go away to your own country. in God's name; and if YOIL do not thus, await tidings of the Maid, who will ere long, come to sec to your very great hurt.

King of England, if you do not thus, l. am the chief of the Will', and in whatever place 1 shall Ii,ul yOllr men in Fran e, I shall drive them out whether they will or no; and if they will. not obey, I will have them all slain.

1 am sent. here by God the King of heaven, botly for body, to drive you out of all France.

And all who are willing to go I will receive to mercy. And do not have confidence in Cod...; [or you shall nul have the realm of France; hut God, the King of heaven. wills ilia! King Charles, the true heir, shall have it, and the M.aid has revealed this to him. He shan enter Paris with a good company, n you will not believe the news that the Maid brings from God, in whatsoever place we lind you we will attack you, and will make a greater slaughter than there has b en in Francein a thousand yeRI'S, if yOLt will not do right. And believe that the King of heaven will send more strength [0 the Maid than you can bring in all your assaults against her and her good soldiers .... You, Duke of Bedford, the Maid begs and requires you that you will nnt let yourself be destroyed. [f you do righL to her, you will be able to come into her company, wherein the French will do the best deed that ever was done for Christianity. And make answer, if yOll are willing to make peace in the city of Orleans; and if ),011 do not do it, you will learn of it right soon to your very great loss.

Wrilten this Tuesday in Holy Week.

(Source: Jules QuichcTat, ed., Proces de Coiulanuunion. et de Rehabilitation. de [eanne d'Arc. 5 vols. (Paris: J. Rcnouard, 1841-9) 1: 240-41, translated in CheYlley, 292-3).

Thefollowing description. of Henry Vi was written by John Blaktruui, a monk, who assisted the King in his studies and pious works. His account is based on close personal obseruauon; but is

probably biased, being influenced by the writer's sympathies. .

The piety, simplicity, and kindliness of Hemy VI, as described by Blakman, would have been most estimable in a private man but were unsuitable to a king in the Engli;;h situation in. the fifteenth century.

He was like another Job - a simple, upright man, fearing the Lord God above all, and avoiding evil. He never used any one deceitfully, nor spoke falsely to any man. He would never wittingly do any man harm. In church 01' oratory he never indulged himself by sitLing on a seal. or by walking to and fro, as is the manner or worldly men during divine service, but always with Jus head bare, and his royal limbs seldom erect, but continually making genuflexion before the book, with eyes and hands raised be sought inwardly to repeat the prayers ....

Concerning his humility in his walk [and] in his clothes, ... from his youth up he bad been accustomed to wear broad-toed shoes and boots like a countryman. Also he had usually a long gown with a founded hood after the manner of a burgess, and a tunic falling below the knees, shoes, boots, bose, everything of a dark grey colour - for he would have nothing fanciful, Moreover, on the principal feasts of the year, hut chiefly when by custom he should wear his crown, he would put on next his skin a rough hair-shirt, ... in order to keep down all al'l'ogance or vain-glory, to which such occasions are likely to give rise.

(Source: John Blakman, De Virtutibus et Miraculi.s Hemici VI, ed. Hearne (Oxford, 1732); 294·302. Translated and printed in E. Thompson, The War.; of York and Lancaster (London, IBg2): 11-15,)

The Hundred Years' Wars continued under the Duke of Bedford, as Protector of England ami Regent of France. Trying to extend their conquests of France beyond the Loire. the Euglish lay siege,

During the last phase of the Hundred Years' War.

1435-1453. England gradually loses all her possessiuns in France. except Calais (which remains English till I 55H).

ThG war ends in failure. Stili. (he Hundred Years' War strengthens English national consciousness. English culture becomes distinctfrom the French.

On HENRY VI's becoming an imbecile, Robert. Duke of York, the heir presumptive to the throne, is made Protector, York, however, is displaced,

L454, by Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, a favourite of the Queen, and in consequence Lakes up arm: •. The rivalry between York and Somerset, and especially, the birth of HENRY VI's son, EdIVaI'd, Prince of Wales, which deprives York of all chances ofape~cefuLsuc;ces~iOll LO the throne.Iead,

1455-1485, LO the Wars of the Roses between the Houses of Lancaster and York (D()~. 42.). Public law and govemmcnt are completely disorganized. The "barons, enriched by the wool trade, purchase partisans in the conflicts over the throne; the people are hardly disturbed. The growth of commerce and the crafts eoutinucs; [he position or Parliament is weakened because of bribery.

TIle chief leader of the Yorkist party is Richard, Duke of York, who has undoubtedly more right to the throne than HENRY VI, being descended from Lionel, Duke of Clarence, third son of EDWARD Ill, while HENRY VI is descended [rom John of Gaunt, tlie fourth son. The badge of the Yorkists is a white rose.

The chief leader of the-Lancastrian party is Edmund Beaufort, Duke ol' Somerset. The badge of the Luncasl.rians J' u red rose;

Main events of the Wars of the Roses:

1455, Battle of St. Albans: Yorkists victorious; Somerset slain, and HENRY Vl taken prisoner;

1459, Bartle of Bloreheath: Yorkists victorious; Parliament passes (he Bllls of *AUainder agains] the Duke of York;

1460, Battle or Northampton: Yorkists, under the Ear! of Warwick "the King-maker", victorious; Richard, Duke

of York, publicly claims the throne;

1460, Hartle of Wakefield; Lancastrians victorious; Richard. Duke of York slain;

1461, Battle of Mortimer's Cross: Yorkists under Edward, Earl of March. son of Duke of York, victorious;

1461, Battle of SI ALbans: Lancastrians victorious; HENRY Vl liberated. Despite the defeat, Earl of March raking advantage of the ill-feeling of the people ofLondon caused by the cruelly of the Lancastrian troops, enters London and is proclaimed as HOWARD IV.

96

PLANT AGENET, LANCASTRIAN AND YORKIST ENGLAND

rr:? U.f

Blcre HC;llh l45iJX

. ~hn: ..... sbuq.

J.udlow.\

X l.udferd

Monim('r'i X ~~~d~1:

Cross 1-161

ll,mle.·(l{ rhe Wars of the Roses

Town

5;

I

MAP 6, IMPORTANTBATILES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES

97

1461-83, Reign of EDWARD IV (22 years)

1483-85, Reign of RICHARD m(2 years)

Tille: SOn of Richard, Duke of York, descended [rom Lionel, second son of EDWARD [[J Succeeded at the age oj 19 (b. 1442)

Married: (1464) Elizabeth Woodville

Children: Edward (EDWARD V); Richard, Duke of York; Elizabeth

Characteristics: EDWARD rv was a patron uf learned men. He was given to pleasure, and loved magnificence.

His personal qualities made him popular, but he was cruel and profligate. The wickedness of his private character is often compared to JOHN THE LACKLAND's.

Majol"jigllres of'tlie reign:

Richard Neville, Earl ofWarwick (1428-71), the "King- maker" William Caxton (c. 1422-91), printer and translator

Tille: son of Richard, Duke of York, and brother of EDWARD IV Succeeded 01 theage of 31 (b. f 452)

Married: (1461 J Anne Neville

Children: none

Characteristics: Although under the Tudors he was usually presented as a monster. he WQS no worse than other contemporary statesmen. Unscrupulous. violent and cruel he wax, but his capacity was undoubted, and, it was because ufhis lack nlshrewdness that he failed to accomplish all he had attempted.

Having been crowned, RICHARD UI goes on Royal progl'csS and is everywhere well received. Enraged by the apparent murder of the two Princes, Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond, descendant of the HOUse of Lancaster, 101ms a conspiracy against RICHARD IlL Supported by France, Henry Tudor lands in Wales, defeats RICHARD III.

August ~2, 1485. in the Battle or Bosworth and - having married Elizabeth of the House til' York - Iounds the strong monarchy of the House olTudor

Under EDWARD IV the Wars of the Roses continue:

1461. BaUle of Towton: Yorkists victorious; EDWARD IV crowned King. Richard Neville. Earl of Warwick "the King-maker", manages,

1470, to restore HENRY VI to the throne, but Warwick is slain,

1471, in (he Battle of Burnet. HENRY Vl and the adherents of the Bouse of Lancaster are murdered.

A fter [he death of EDW ARD [V,

1483, R1CHARD IIT usurps the throne by, it is said, having his nephews, l.2-year-old EDWARD V, whorules but two months, and Richard, Duke of. York, strangled in the Tower.

98

99

HENRY VII 1485-1509

VII. TJ{P, J{oVSP. OP'TV(])Oej{ 1485-1603

HENRY VIII 1509-1547

1/ Catherine of Aragon -"Bloody"MARY 1553-1558

~argaret

2/ Anne Boleyn ------

ELrZABETH 1558-1603

3/ Jane Seymour

EDWARD VI 1547-1553

JAMES IV --- JAMES V

of Scotland of Scotland

I

MARY STUART

I

I

JAMES VIII STUART

1603-1625

Archibald

Henry, Lord Darnley

Earl of Angus

Mary ---- Lady Frances Brandon -- Lady Jane Grey

45. GENEALOGICAL TABLE OF mE TIJDOR LINE

100

1485-1509, Reign ofllENRY VII TUDOR (24 years)

Tille: I. the right of conquest

2. the sanction of Parliamen t

3. his marriage with Elizabeth of York. daughter of EDWARD IV. thereby uniting the rival houses of

York anti Lancaster

4. his descent from John of Gaunt, fou.rth son ot EDWARD ill. although the Beaufort line had been

declared illegitimate, and consequently excluded [rom the succession Succeeded at the age of, 28 (b. J 457)

Married: (1486)ElizabeUl (Plantagenet) of York Children: Arthur, Henry (HENRY Vlll), Margaret, Mary

Characteristics: HENRY VIT established his own house on the English throne. Without lighting a single battle, he managed, by a system of alliances and intermarriages to secure his position abroad. He introduced few Innovations in government but his shrewdand resolute role restored order after the Wars of Ole Roses. His efficient, although sometimes unscrupulous.nranagcruent of finances lell the royal coffers filled. HENRY VII is sometimes called U1e "Solomon of England" for his pruden I use of the means at his disposal.

Majorfigures of/he reign.:

John Morton, Cardinal (1420-1500), Archbishop of Canterbury Edmund Dudley (c. 1462-1510). King's minister

Sir Richard Empson (c. 146"5-1510), King's minister Perkin Warbeck (c. 1474-99). impostor

46. ICING HENRY VII

His government is ... undisputed and his government is strong in all respects. He is disliked, but the Queen is beloved, because. slre is powerless -, They love the Prince Lie Arthur] as mu.ch as themselves, because he is the grandchild of his grandfather lie Edward [V]. Those who know him love him also for bis own virtues,

The King looks old for his ye3LS, but young .for the sorrowful life he has led, One of the reasons why he leads a gOGd life is that hehae been brought up abroad. He would like to govern England.in the French fashion. but be can nor. He is subject to his Council, but has already shaken off some, and got rid of some part of his 5ubjection"_ .. He likes to be much spoken of and to be highly appreciated by the whole world, He fails in this because be is 110t a great man. Although he professes many virtues. his love of money is too great. He spends all the time he is not in public 01' in his Council, in writing the accounts of his expenses with his own hand,

(Source: Ayala, the Spanish Ambass"<fdor, to the Spanish ICing and Queen, Ferdinand and isabella. 25 July 1498, in Calerular qfState Papers, Spanish; 1. 177).

·22 Al1gust 1485. Henry Tuum: is procl~imed King On Bosworth Field. HENRY VII's partiality for the Lancastriar», leads (0 a series of Yorkist rebellions,

1486, Lord Level's,

1481. Lambert Sinmel's, buttheyare suppressed. The most serious rebellion is started,

]01

1492, by Perkin Warbeck, who claims 10 be Richard. Duke olYork, SOli of EDWARD1V. Onl in

1499. rs he captured and executed, y

Free from pretenders LD his throne, HENRY VII devotes hirnsclf tn establish] I h

' ., Ilg roya power at orne.

By the Great Intercourse (Maglills Inrercursusy agreed 10 between HENRY VU d Phil' D k f B

1496 LOb ..'. D.. an ip, U eo urgundy •

• ! erty ot trading (export of wool to the Netherlands) is secured The *ba 0 d d b di .

h I l'th C . f . . . r ns are re uce to 0 e renee with the

e p c e ourt 0 * Star the Chamber,

1487., who . se main object is to bring to trial and punish all nobles who break '110 I' . ~ ,

. .' . ,~"', aws ag~rnsf . maintenance.

HENRY Vll issues a patent to John Cabot's syndicate, .

1497. giv.ing him permission Co annex. and trade with any lands hitherto unknown an his voyage of x I' . ti

To .,.. . th forei . . e p ora ion.

: .secu~e peace w! . o~-e!gn countnes and strengthen his position as King of Bngland, HENRY vrr arran es a

series 01 matrirnonial alliances: g

r. withSpain,

1501, by marriage Of Prince Arthur, HENRY VII's eldest SOli, to

CaLhcrlne.of Aragon. Arthur dies [he next year, and as neither HENRY VII not Ferdinand f S' 'II'

break ff . . • .... 0 pam are WI In or [0

rcax 0 the alliance, the necessary dispensation is secured, and Catherille marries"'

1509, Arthur's younger brother, Renry; ,

2, with Scotland, by marriage,

1502,?f JAMES LV of Scotland [0 HENRY V[T's eldest daughter, Margaret, who thus becomes the materr al ...

ot [he StU<Ul line. m ancestor

The Merchant Adventurers are granteda charter,

1505, which holds an export "monopoly in English cloth to Germany and the Low C' tries

With years HENRY Vll'sf . ", . oun es,

. ' .. s financial pO~I~Y bec~mes more and more rapaCIO\IS. With help 'of Richard Empson

and Edm~ud Dudley, and by means of "SubSidies. "benevolences, or*forced loans, by tines inflicted b the

Court of SCar Chamber, HENRY VII leaves at his death y

lS09,.royal coffers well filled. '

102

1509-1547, ReignnfHENRY VIII TUDOR (38 years)

Tille: Eldest surviving son Of HENRY Vll and Elizabeth (Plantagenet) of York

Succeeded 01 the age of 18 (b. 149.1) Married: six limes

1. ([509-1533) Catherine of Aragon, widow of his brother Arthur; marriage declared null anti void in

1533

2. (1533-15.36.) Anne Boleyn; executed

3. (1536-1537) Jane Seymour; died in childbirth

4. (1540) Anne of Cleves; marriage annulled

5. (1540-1542) Catherine Howard; executed

6. (1543-1547) Catherine Parr; outlivetll:IENRY Children: MARY (I), by Catherine of Aragon ELlZAHETH (I), by Anne Boleyn

EDWARD (VI), by Jane Seymour

Characteristics: HENRY was a man of great mental capacity. His statecraft was guided by his self-love, All the vices of his character, aU the faults of his rule - his cruelty, his violence, his obstinacy, his capriciousness - were made possible by the fact that when be came La the throne. the power of the Crown WH$ almostubsolute. and HENRY carried into his private life the same license that the Constitution allowed

him in matters of State, He uverawed and skilfully used Parliament to his Own e ntis, It was said of him that he never yielded in any controversy or forgave in any quarrel. At the same time he possessed the ability to attach LO himself those whom lie chose as his servants. Notwithstanding- his cruelly and his tyranny, his undoubted capacity as a governor won the respect of his subjects. Although he was grasping, shrewd, unscrupulous, and headstrong, be was an able executive and a capable politician.

Mailljiglll'es of th» reign:

Thomas Wolsey (c. 1472,]530). *Challcellor Thomas Cromwell (1485-1540). King's minister

Thomas More, St (1478-1535), "Chancellor, philosopher, writer.

William Tyndale (J 494-1536), translator of the New Testament into English

47. KING HENRY VIII

The following description ofHenry vm was written by Sebnstiano Giu.stinw.ni (1460-1543), the Venetian ambassador to the Sigiwry at Venice.

His Majesty is twenty-nine years old, and extremely handsome. Nature could not have done more for him, He is much handsomer than allY other sovereign in Christendom; a great deal handsomer than the King of France; very fair, and his whole frame admirably proportioned. On hearing that Francis I wore a beard, be allowed his own LO grow; and as it is reddish, he has now got a beard that looks like gold. He is very accomplished; a good musician; composes well; is a most capital horseman; a fine jouster; speaks good French, Latin, and Spanish; is very religious; hears three Masses daily when he hunts and sometimes live 01] other clays, '" He is very fond of hunting, and never takes his diversion without tiring

103

eight Dr len horses ..... He is extremely fond of teunis at w L~-ll' it i h .' hi ,

. " , " ' " , ., ,rue, game I IS t .e prettiest l rng In

the world to see bun play, Ins fair skin glowing through a shit t f tl f

. IT 0 ie mest texture.

(Source: Sebastiano Giustiniani Four y,e"r< at the COUlt [H. 'Vlli 1 d

'. -'.....0 Q emy . , trans. an

ed. Rawdon Brown, 2 vels, (London: Smith, Elder, and Co, 1854), 2: 312).,

HENRY VJU comes to the throne

1509. welcomed by the nation as the representative or the unit d H ., I.' La ' ,

. " ,', .' . ,.' , ,.' .- . ,e uuses 0 '. ncaster and York, One of the earliest

aus. or the. I eign lS.lhe trial and execution of Empson and Dudley, the haled ministers of l-IENRY V!! Thou;h

(he Idea 01 conquenng France is now abandnrred, the old rivalry becomes visible when HENRY VIll': . S . ~

and Germany in the Holy League, ' joins pam

isn, to protect the Pope's dominions against France. TIle first campaign of the Erurlish ' '., . ' ..

second campaign leads 10 the battle of Gujnegate, ' necngn: army I~ it disaster, but the

1513, called the ~'Balile of the Spurs". from the rapid flight of the French horses,

;:;e~:~~uo~~~~:~:'t~~~t~!rll!:;n~!:, ~~.~~:s~~~~ War, invade. England (The Firs! War with Scotland), but

9 September 1513, in the battJe.of, Flodden Field (or Bmnxton).By now HENRY \IIll',· "III'e'!' advi . " TI

Wol' ho ri b I'·. '.. . '. . - .• ~ Isor L>; lomas

sey, W .0 nses Y lIS abilities, and shows his capacity especially by managing the details of the cam aizn or

1513. On Jus return to England. WiJ.ls,ey's power and wealth rapidly increases He is made Bisho f LP, b I

and. . -'" p ° ,lnCDII.

1514. Archbishop of York; 11 cardinal.

1515, and,

1~17, 11 papal leg~te [0 England, [lJllsbecoming m~re irnportasr than the Archbishop of Canterbu .Jn

,!.:lIS, HENRY makes him Lord *CJlaru:ellor. anti from that time till _ ry

lS2~lhlewis HE], "NRI. bY'ssOle adakViSer,aDti minister fo~' home and. foreign, civil as well as fore<.;t;lesiastical affaus. Above

a ,0 sey a ours to m e England influential and f d i E '

fthb ! . .e or ' , ",- respec e In uropean affairs, putting into practice the idea

o e atance 0 power, Therefore he organizes,

J 520, lh, e Field of the Cloth Of Goltl- meeting between HENRY V!I1 .1 F r.. I f Fram ' .

. . I' -W I ,anu . -rancis O. r-runce but WIth no definite

~~l! Is. ., orsey upholds s:oully th~ authnriry of the Church. althuugh be wishes [0' ref 01111 S(;Ole of its abuses:

. ,N~Y VITI publIsh.[;s his Assertio Septem Sac/,(lJneIlIOlwll (a confutation of Luther)

1521. and IS granted the title 01 Fidei Defensor by Pope Leo X*Speaker fIt' H f C

demands free speech, - . . n je . ouse 0 ommons , Thomas More,

1523, Which is the first known request by a "'Speaker On this theme.

1524, Turkey brought from Sou tll America is' served.for the first lime at. COUlt.

Wolsey's Amicable Grant,

1525,. an attempt to exact a forced loan 10 fLll.ance a war azainsr France' provokes wid d " 1

of tl .. HENR Y b' d ,,- ,. '" . • , . esprea . tesrstance, n the face

, 11S. ~'.' a, an ons rne grant and UJe continenta] campaign.

HEN,R Y Vllf' s disijlusionment with his rnarriaee to Calheri ne of Ara 'on

legality, "" g and his sincere dQl\l)l~ about its

1527. lead [0 his attempt to divorce theQueen, Cardinal Wolsey is to secure Papal SUppOI1 (DoGAR).

48. WOLSEY ON THE DIVORCE, 1527

HE. NRY VIII's disilluSionment, .. with h. is marriage to Catherine o,I'Ara'''. on a d h'··, do b

" ,". " . ,.'. ' - ~"" n ts stncer!;! u ts

(l).out Its legahty (Cat. hen.. ne ': mg, the tl/ulow of his b",other Arthur) led' to hi. u t t, di , . h

Q ,_ ., " 'j "~ a emp 0 worce the

ueen; 01 more precisely, he sough,l' all. annulment 01.' the n"'....;n.oc'" h ,. at '. 'd .IT·

" ' ,~ . ~~ .• ...."e, on .ec nw gT'Oll,ns. ilLS real

mottues; lw.·wffller, cerared around his COncern fior the succession (ltl' ,. mamaee t C' tl . f .

, . ., ' " . . ,~." '_'" 0 a '~en.l!e !(l,VLng

produced. no male heir desptte the numerous pregnancies) and his desire to m ,A, B- 'l

C d' L W. Is '. .any nne Q eyn.

, ar. ma, 0 ey hoped to securePapnl support for an annll}ment bu: his hopes Were dashed in

june 1527 uJ!th the Sack of Rome. The Emperor Charles T~nephew to the Queen, now controlled Rome and Pope Clement VII's fieedom. of action tuas much curtailed.

104

In. 1529 the royal divorce case wru h~cJ,rcl in England by p([paJ, legates but no decision. was reached; Pope Clement sought to delay proceedings ,afLdfinal~y summoned the case to Rome. At ttus jlLnction, HENRY turned. to Parliament; before it was dissohsed; ouer six years later, it had e nne/I'd legislation ending the Papal jurisdiaioti in England,

Th~full()1/!illg comment by Cardin.al Wolsey dates from December 1527.

[ have told you already how the King, partly by his assiduous study and Learning and partly by conference with theologians, has found his conscience somewhat burdened with his present marriage; and out of regard to the quiet of his soul, and next LO the security of his succession and the great mischiefs likeJ)' to arise, be considers it would be offensive to Cod and man if hc were to persist -in it, and with great remorse of conscience 118s now for a 10llg time felt that he is living under the offense of the Almighty, whom in allhis efforts and his actions he always sets before him. He has made diligent inquiry whether the dispensation granted for himself and the Queen (as his brother's wife] is valid and sufficient, and he is told Lhal il is 110t. The bull of dispensation is founded on certain false suggestions, as that his Majesty desired the marriage for the good understanding between Hcl'ITJ' VII, Ferdinand and Isabella; whereas there was no suspicion of any misunderstanding between them. And secondly, he never assented or knew anything of this bull, nor wished [or the marriage. On these grounds it is judged inefficacious. N~xL, when the King reached the age of fourteen, the contract was revoked and Henry VII objected to the marriage. To this the King attributes the death of aU his male children. and dreads the heavy wrath of God if he persists. Notwithstanding Irisscruples of conscience, he is resolved to apply for Ius remedy to the Hoiy See, trusting that, out of hiscensideration for his services to the Church, the Pope will not refuse to Terriove this scruple out of the King's mind, and discover a method whereby he may take another wife, and, God willing, have male children ....

(SOlll'CP: Letters and. Papers Foreign and Domestic of the Reign of Henry VIIf" ed. J. S. Brewer (London:.l-I. M.'s Stationery Office, 1872), 4: pt. ii, No, .3641, pp. 1634·7).

Wolsey, unable to solve the King's marital problems, is forced,

September 1529, (0 surrender his office of Lord "Chancellor and dies in disgrace soon afterwards, his Ja~1. words being: "Had [ bUI served my God as diligently a, [ have servedmy King, he had not given me over in my gray hair,". 111

October 1529. Thomas More, theauthor or Utopia (Doc, 4.9.), is made Lord *CbanGCllof.

49. MORE'S UTOPIA, 1516

Pre-eminent among English renaissance scholars, canonizedui 1935, was Sir Thomas More (1478-1535), Lord *Chancellor oj England and author of Utopia. In Utopia MfJl'e told a/meeting in Flanders a philosophical and much-trouelled seaman 10lw discoursed. on the condition 0/ England and other sixteenth-century states while implicitly prOposing remedies jor their ills' by drl,;,cribing n well-ordered comnuuuty thaz he ha.d allegedly seen on. the island of Utopis lie Nowhere}. There people lived in fjeautiful, sanitary houses; almos: eueryone worked. tlWLigh only/or six hours of the day, the remaining hours b eing free jar reading and music; no prtvau: property existed to fosterpride throLigh class distinctions; ruulno value was attached to gold, silver, and precious stones.

The sixteenth century was marked by great and widespread slIjj"erillg among the people; Contemporary usiungs of evel)' sort bear strong testimony to this. Porliornenuuy "stcuutes, sermons,

105

and popular ballads all tell the same story. Tudor England 'Was still an agriculsural counnyand: the bulk of the papulation Will directly dependent upon the soil for support. But the maney-geuing spirit was strong, and landlords saw their profit in wool growing, and as a result common.s were enclosed, and land was turned from tillage to pasturage. Numerous *statutes testify to the interest of the government, but lous had apparently little ~ffect.

OTie of the best known passages of More's Utopia describes the evil tiffoCl'.$ of enclosures, or the agglomemlian of small Iwldings in larger estates, which More considered a fim.damental cause of thiwvery. The famous phrase of "sheep devouring men " comes from this passage. In. the excerpts below, the seaman is discussing the causes afthievery.

And it seems very unreasonable, that Ior the prospect of a war, which you need never have. but when you please, you should maintain so many idle men, as will always disturb ypu in time of peace, whioh is ever to be more considered than war. But [ do not think that this necessity of stealing arises only from hence; there is another cause of it more peculiar La England.

What is that?

The incruase of'pasture ... by which )lOlLr sheep, which are naturally mild, and easily kept III order, may be said now to devour men, and unpeople, not only villages, but towns; fOI' wherever it is found that the sheep of any soil yield a softer and richer wool than ordinary, there the nobility and gentry, and even those holy men, the abbots, not contented with the old rents which their farms yielded, nor thinking it enough that they, living at their ease, do ne gobd to the public, resolve to do it hurt instead of good. They 'stop the course of agricultW'c, destroying houses and towns, .reserving only the churches, and enclose grounds that they may lodge their sheep in them. As if forests and parkshad swallowed up too little of the land, those worthy country men turn the best inhabited places in solitudes; for when an im;atiable wretch, who is a plague to his country, resolves to enclose .many thousand acres of grOlmd, the owners, as well as tenants, are turned out of their possessions, by tricks, or by main force, or being wearied out with ill lIS age , they are forced to sell them. By which means those miserable people, both men and women, married and unmarried, old and YOlmg,. with their poor but numerous families ...• .are all forced to change their seats, not knowing whither togo; and they must sellulerost for nothing theirhouachcld stuff, which could not hring them much money, even tho' they might stay for a buyer. When that little money is at an end, for it will soon he spent; what is left for them to do, but either to steal and so to be banged (God knows how justly], or to go about and beg? And II they do this, they are put in prison as idle vagabonds; while they would willingly work, but Can find none that will hire them; forthere is no more occasion for country labour, to which they have been bred, when. there is no arable ground left. One shepherd can look after a flock, which will stock an extent of ground that would require many hands,ll il were to be ploughed and reaped.

This likewise in many places raises the price of corn. The price' of wool is also so risen, that the poor people who were wont to make cloth, are .110 more able to buy it; and this likewise makes many of them idle .... Luxury likewise breaks in apace upon you, to set forward your poverty and misery; there is an excessive vanity in apparel, and great cost in .diet; and that not only in noblemen's families, but even among tradesmen, among the farmers themselves, and among all ranks of persons .. You have alsn many infamous. houses, and ... the taverns and alehouses are no better; add to these, dice, cards, tables, {oat-ball, tennis, and quoits, in which money runs fast away; and those that are initiated into them, must in the

106'

conclusion betake ihernselves to robbing for a supply. Banish these plagues, and give orders that those who have dispeopled so much sail, may either Tebuild the villages they .have pulled down, or let out their grounds to such as will do it; restrain those engrossings of the rich, thal are as bad almost as *monopolies; leave fewer occasions to idleness; let agriculture be set up again, and the manufacture of the wool be regulated, that so there llIay be work found for those companies of idle people, whom want forces to be thieves, or who now being idle vagabonds, or useless servants, will certainly grow thieves at last. If you do Dot find a remedy to these evils, il is a vain thing to boast of your severity in punishing theft, which tho' i.t may have the appearance of justice, yet in itself is neither just nOT convenient. For .if you sufler your people to be ill edUCated, and their manners to be corrupted from their infancy, and then punish them for those crimes to which their first education disposed them, what else is La be concluded from this, but that you first make thieves and then punish them?

(Source: Thomas More, Utopia, translated by Gilbert.BlIrnet (Oxford, 1753): 17.21)

The Reformation, or SevenYears', Parliament, 1529'-1536, meets 1"01' the first lime,

November' 15Z9, and there are calls tor Church reform (Doc. 50.). These DOW command some support from

J1ENRYVUl and Acts are passed:

I. to regulate lees charged.for burial and the probate of wills:

2. 10 abolish rights ofimmurtity for clergy. charged with murder or robbery;

J. LO limit the holding of "'benefices in "'plurality by priests and their invelvement in cununerce.

50. TYND.ALEIS CRITICISM OF THE ENGLISH CHURCH, 1528

England was generally orth.odox on the eve of Hewy Ylll's break with Ro~e. But. some practices af the Church had been criticized since the time of WyclW"e and ~ven e(J.]'~ter, and L~ the 1520 's Lutheranism made inroads in. some parts of the country. Thefollowmg cntLCl,Sm tI.lUS usuten. by William. Tyndale, one of the earliest leaden> of the English reform.,ation mo:veml;;nt, best known for his translation oj the Bible into EngliSh.

Mark well how many parsonages or vicarages are there in Ole realm, which at the least have a plough land [ie the amount that Call be tilled with one plough] apiece. Then note the lands of bishops, abbots, priors, nuns, knights of St. John [ie the Knights Hospitallers, a military order], cathedral churches, colleges, "'chantries and free-chapels. For though the liousc fall in decay, and (he ordinance of the founder be lost, yet will not they lose the lands. What cometh once in may never move alit. They make a free-chapel jie a chapel not-subject to the usual ecclesiastical authorities], so that he which enjoyeth it shall do nought therefor. Besides all this, how many chaplains do gentlemen find at their own cost, ill their houses? How many sing for souls, by testaments? Then the proving of testaments lie probate of wills], the prizing tie appraising] of goods, the Bishop of Canterbury's prerogative; is that not much through the realm in a year? Four offering days, and privy "'tithes .. There is no servant, but that he shall pay somewhat of his wages. None sh.a:ll receive the body of Christ at Easler, be he never 50 poor a beggar, or never SQ young a lad or maid, but they must pay snrnewhat.for it.

Then mortuaries [ie CU51Oma.ry gifts due to the priest upon the death ofa parishioner] Jar forgotten *tithes, as they say. And yet what parson or vicar is there that will forget to have

h ..?

a rigeon-llouse, to peck up somewhat both at sowing time and harvest, . w en corn I~ ripe:

They will forgel nothing .. No man shall die in their debt: or if any man do, he shall pay It when

107

JOB

109

he is dead. Tiley will lose nothing. Why? It is God's; it is not.theirs. It is St. Hubert's Hints, St. AJbaJ1's lands, St. Edmond's right, St. Peter's patrimony, say they, and none of ours.Ttern, if a man die in another man's parish besides that he must pay at home a mortuary for forgotten *tiLhes, be must there pay also the best that he 'there hath, wilelher it be an horse of twenty pound, or now good soever he be ... , It is much, verily, for so little pains·laking ill confession and ill ministering the sacraments, Then bead rolls [ie a list of persons (or objects) [or whom prayers were said]. Item chrism [ie baptism], churching lie a ceremony marking the recovery of'a woman from childbi rth], harms, wedding, offering at wedding, offering at burying, offering [0 images, offering of wax and lights, which Come to their vantage .. ,

Then brotherhood and pardoners lie persons who sell papal pardons and indulgences] ....

Last of all, what swarms of begging friars are there! The parson sheareth, the vicarshaveth, the parish priest polleth lie cuts short], the friar scrapeth, and the pardoner parcth; we lack but a butcher to pull off the skin.

51. EXCOMMUNICATION

(Source: William Tyndale, The Obedience of a, Christian Man (Cambridge University Press, Parker SOCiety, 1848): 236-38).

"Excommunicauon, or cursing, and *interclict were tlie weapons of the Roman. Cat/wlit.:

ChU,rch used II€IY often.

TIle/allowing excommunicauon was all. attempt, through this kinlt of spuitual waifa,.e with its civil consequences, to subdue the border thieues and make them. give up their euil ways. It is certain tluu, as concerning this document, the usual cluuges against the Church of Rome regarding unknoum. tongues, and, obscure an.d ambiguous phraseology, do not apply ref Doc, 61,),

After a preamb le the cursing follou»:

T denounce, proclaim, and declare all and sundry the committers of the said sackless murders, slaughters, burnings, heirschippes, reiffes, thefts, and spulies, openly ltpOIl daylight. and under silence of the night. .. generally cursed, waried, aggregate, and reaggregatc, with The Great Cursing. I curse their .head and all the hairs of their head; T curse their race, lhe ir eyes, their mouth, their nose, their tongue, their teeth, their crag, their shoulders, their breast, their heart, '"., and every part of their body, from the top of their head to the sole of their Ieet, behind and before, within and without. r curse them going, I curse them riding; 1 curse them eating, I curse them drinking; I curse them waking, [ curse them sleeping .... I warie their corn, their cattle, their wool, I heir sheep, tlreir horse, their swine, their hens, and all their quick goods. J CUI:se their halls, their chambers, their kitchens. their stables, their barns, their byres, their barnyards, their kailyards, their ploughs, their barrows and the goods and houses that is necessary for their sustentation and welfare.

All the malisons and waresouns that ever gal worclly creature since the begi.nuing of the world to this hour, mot light upon them. The malediction of God that lighted upon Lucifer .and all his fellows, that struck them from the high heaven [0 the deep neil, mot light upou them, The fire and sword that stopped Adam from the yetts of paradise, mot stop them from the glory of heaven, till they forbear and make amends. The malison that lighted on cursed Cain, wherr he slew his brother just. Abel without cause, mot light upon them for the saildess slaughter that [hey commit daily .... [Most of 'the terrible events trorn the Bible are mentioned: the Flnod, Sodam and Cornorrah, the tower of Babel; the plagues that fell upon Pharaoh; Datham aud Abiram; Korah and his fellows; Absalom; Judas. Pilate, Herod, Nero ... I, And an the vengeance that ever was taken since the world began for opcn sins, and an the plagues and pestirences that ever fell on man or beast, mot fall on them Jar their open robbery, saiklnss slaughrer, and shedding of innocent blood.

1 dissever and part them from the Kirk. of God, and deliver them quick to the devil of hell .... I *interdict the places [hey come in from divine service, ministration of the sacraments of holy Kirk, except the sacrament of baptism only; and forbid all kirkmen to shrive or absolve them of their sins, till they be first absolved of this cursing, I forbid all Christian man or woman to have any compan), with them, eating, drinking, speaking, praying, lying, going, standing Or in any other deed doing, under the pain of deadly sin. J discharge all bands, acts contracts, oaths, and obligations made to them by any persons, either of lawte kindness or manreru, so long as they sustain this cursing.i.. I take from them, and cry down all the .good deeds l11aL ever they did or shall do, till they rise from this cursing. ... And, Iinallv, I condemn them perpetually to the deep pit of hell to remain with Lucife.r and all his fellows, and their bodies to the gaUows ... , first to be hanged, syne riven and rugged with dogs, swine, and other

Thomas Cranmer, a profe: SOl' of Cambridge University, and Thomas Cromwell, former Wolsey's right-hand man. are now HENRY VIII's cbief advisers, ami support him vigorously in his struggle with Rome. The first Mage of the Reforrnatiun in England is a political rather than u re-ligious movement, a change of doctrine being at, first scarcely thought of. After the IGog is alienated from the Pope by his refusal to grant him the divorce from Catherine, it is only natural that HENRY should begin to louk more favourably on the Reformers, who. since the .Diet of Speier,

(1529), assume the name of Protestant s,

1530. Royal agents lour European universities seeking scholarly SUppOl1 for the illegality of the King's marriage, Pressure on the Church involves *praemuni:re charges,

1531, agains: the clergy, as II body, in their acknowledgement of Wolsey's legatine authority, The penalties involved ureremiued by all Act for the Pardon of the Clergy on [he payment of fines by the clergy. The clergy are forced to admit a limited measure of Royal "Supremacy ("a~ far as the law ol'Christ will allow") ill their submission.

A new Poor ACl (the "old" being lhal or 1495),

1531, draws an important distinction between the 'idle', able bodied poor and the sick am] old: the lirst are 10 be upprelrended by the+justices and whipped, the latter are 10 be given licences ro beg,

The King's frustration over the divorce and the unyielding attitude of Rome lead,

1531., to the withholding of the "annates. The Act of Annates auUlOrising this action forbids the payment by any bishop of more that 5% of his income tu Rome. Papal refusal to supply Bulls of Consecration for bishops is to be ignored - consecration will be authorized. by the King. (Ibis AcL is intended to demonstrate the King's d~lemtillalion to obtain satisfaction in his suit - it is not to come into force for one year.) Wareham, Archbishop (:)1 Canterbury, and seven other bishops sign.

May 1532, the Submission of the Clergy, acknowledging HENRY VIII as Supreme Head 01' the Church in spiritual mailers and superior [0 [he Pope.

Sir Thomas More, while II zealous Reformer, is also a faithful churchman, and disapproves thoroughly of the Ki-ng's pretensions to the "supremacy, therefore.

May 1532. he resigns the "Chanccllorxhip.

HENRY V[U is married to Anne Boleyn (who is already pregnant),

January 1533. and Thomas Cranmer, the King's choice for the see of Canterbury, declares tile King's marriage with Catherine null and void. 011 hearing that, thePope threatens HENRY with an "excornmunicatiou and "interdict unless Catherine is restored; but HENRY only fortifies his position by obtaining from Parliament, • February 1533, the Act in Restraint of * Appeals Iorbidding aU appeals from the courts of England to any authority beyond the realm. 1L is declared Ural "the realm of England is an empire", subject to the Kmg.alone, and in future all appeals in ecclesiastical cases are to go to the King and not to Rome. Cranmer is consecrated,

March J533, Archbishop of Canterbury by Papal Bull.

HENRY VIII activates the Act ol'~A[Jl1ales of 1531,

.Iulv 1533, and is.aguin Ihrealened with "excommunication by the Pope.

wild beasts, abominable to all the world. And as their candles go from your sight, so may their souls go. from the visage of God, and their good fame [rom the world, till they forbear their open sin aforesaid, and rise Ii'oID this terrible cursing, and make satisfaction and penance.

(Source: Leiters a.nd Papers Foreign and. Domestic of the Reign a/Henry Vl/I, ed. J. S. Brewer (London: H. M.'sStationery Office, 1872), 4.; 418-19).

The Al:ls passed by Parliament.

January-May 1534, complete the breach with Rome by abolishing the authority of the Pope in England, and making the Church of England an independent national establishment.

The following measures are passed:

1 Act in Restraint of '" Annates (more comprehensive than that of the year 1531) authorizes the King tll appoint bishops and abbots.

2. Dispensation Act. AU requests for a waiving of the Canon Law are to proceed to the Archbishop of Canterbury and not U1C Pope. A fixed scale of fees is established. '*"Peter's Pence" and allier Papal taxes arc abolished.

J. Act for the Submission of the Clergy gives statutory form to the document of 1532. All measures (If Convocation are l<'l be submitted to the Crowl] [or approval and ultimate *appeal in ecclesiastical disputes is to lie with the Crown.

4. First Att of Succession. The succession to the throne is to lie with the heirs of HENRY and Queen Anne. It is declared treason to dispute that succession.arul subjects are [0 swear an.oath admitting its validity.

fn continuation of these measures, Parliament during the November-December 1534 session, pa.o;ses the following:

I .. Act qf *S'npremacy, by which the King, already head of the Church in practice, is declared Supreme Head 011 Earth 0'1' the Church or England and is authorized to conduct visitations of the clergy, supervise preachers, try heretics and pronounce on doctrine.

2. The Treason Act makes it high treason "to imagine or practice lilly harm to the king, Ill' deprive hill) of uuy of his dignities and titles."

3. Act concerning First Fruits and Tenths. These taxes, formerly paid La Rome. are to pass to the Crown. In subsequent years, the Church will pay far more to the King than ever it had paid to the Pope.

Under the Treason Act, Sir Thomas More, July 1535, and Fisher, Bishop of Rochester,

June 1535, suffer death for denying the King's ~supremacy.

Thomas Cromwell, since

1533 chief minister or the CrOWD, is appointed,

1535. viccregent and vicar-general in.spiritual matters to the Supreme Head. He immediately begins to put. into effect his strategy lor the seizure of Church wealth. Work is begun an the compilation nf Valor Ecclesiasticus (a survey of uie possessions of the clergy). and a number of leading Reformers are promoted to bishoprics (e.g. Hugh latimer becomes Bishop of Worcester).

1536. The Ac! lor the Dissolution ofthe Lesser Monasteries is passed (Doc. 52.).

52. THE SUPPRESSION OF MONASTERIES, 1535

The suppression: of monasteries was the quickest way of making HENRY vm "the.richest. king that el)(Jr was in Cluistendoni". The T,oealth of the monasteries :was deliuered. to HENRY by his leiuling minister, Thomas Cromwell, Cromwell arranged a; visitation of the monasteries for the fJwpose of inquiring into the morals and habit» of theirinnuues. The rep om of the lay uisiton, alleging much wickedness and imm.orality, paved the way for the dissoluuon. of the monasteries: the lesser ones (with income WIder 200 pounds a year) in 1536; the greater ones in 1539, The total number a/religious houses thus c!estroyc1l·is estimated at 3,000.

lID

The letter given below was written on November 5, 1535, to Cromwell by one of the lay visitors, John Ap Rice, an historian and scholar, wlw seems to haue been. nwre moderate than some 0/ the other visitors, altliougj: it is clear that oll the agents were expected to find fault.

John Ap Rice was describing the condition ofBury St. Edmunds, one of the larges: abbeys.

Please .it your mastership, [or as much as J suppose you 611:.111 have suit made unto YOLI touching Bury ere we return, I thought convenient to advertise you 01' our proceedings there. and also of the comports Lie behaviour} of the same. As Ior the abbot, we founel nothing suspect as touching his Iiving, but it was detected that he lay muoh forth in his granges lie outlying farm properties attached to monasteries], that he delighted much in playing at dice and cards, and therein spent much money, and in building for his pleasure. He did not pn ach openly. Also that he converted diverse farms lie rents in goods] into copyholds [ie rents in money], whereof poor men db complain. Also he seems to be addict to the maintaining of such superstitious ceremonies as have been used 'heretofore.

As touching the convent, we could get .liule er no reports among them, although we did use much diligence in our examination, and thereby, with 'some other arguments gathered of their examinations, I firmly believe and suppose that they had ... compacted before our coming that they should disclose nothing. And yet it is confessed and proved, thaL there was here such Irequence or women coming and reasserting to this monastery as La no place more, Among the relics we formd much vanity and superstition. as the coals that St Lawrence was toasted withal, the paring of St. Edmund'a nails, St. Thomas of Canterbury's penknife and his boots, and divers skulls for the headache; pieces of the holy cross able to make a whole cross of; other relics for rain and certain other superstitious usages, for avoiding of weeds growing in corn, with such other ....

Of Ely I have written to yOUI mastership by my fellow, Richard a Lee. And thus Almighty God have you in lris tuition. From Bury, 5 November,

Your servant most bounden,

John Ap Hice

(Modernized from; Letters Relating to the Suppression a/th.e Monasteries, ed, Thomas Wright [London: Royal Historical Society, 1843): 85-86),

'[be suppression of the smaller monasteries is foi lowed by several insurrections in (he North and West. The most important of these,

1536. is called by the rebels the Pilgrimage of Grace, The rebels demand the restoration of the Roman Catholic religion and the removal of Cromwell from office. The rebellion is led by Robert Aske, executed after the rebellion disperses €In receiving the promise of general pardon. HENRY profits both directly and indirectly by Ihe failure of the Pilgrimage of Grace. Those who took any part in i! are punished with death and. with confiscation of goods; the heads of many of thegreater monasteries, against whom.n u charge cou Id be proved, are frightened into SUbmission and surrender all their properly to the King.

The King's marriage to Anne 'Boleyn is dissol ved by Cranmer,

May 1536, the Queen is executed for treason, and eleven days later HENRY marries Jane Seymour

1536, Tile Ten Articles appear - a doctrinal formulary showing: ameasure of compromise with Lutheran theology.

The principal points dealt with include:

- Penance..it is asserted that auricular confession is necessary,

- The Eucharist: (he Real Presence is stressed but the definition given is vague and near to lhat of Luther.

- [mages: these are 10 remain in churches but are not to be worshipped,

- TIle Sacraments: there are to be only three - penance, baptism and the Mass.

-. The Saints: praying to the saints is to be permitted, but their supposed role in salvation is firmly denied.

III

-CcremllnLe~: these are to continue as before,

- Purgatory: its existence is denied as a Roman abuse, but prayers for the dead may continue.

Cromwell issues the first set of Royal "Injunctions,

t.53(" which is In be the practical evidence of [he King's new role us ecclesiastical head. The clergy lire ordered ttl preach in an approvedmal~ne~' at. least once a quarter, to discourage superstitious devotion to shrines lind images. to teach the young their faith In English, ami to sustain the poor,

1534-36. Cromwell'sreforms produce the true Privy Council.

1536, Wales is legally incorporated in England,

The. Beggars Acr establishes,

1536, the principle that the parishes, supervised by the *juslkcs of the peace, are to find work and alms for the poor.

Contributions for this purpose are voluntary.

A cummiuee or bishops, ordered by the King to consider doctrinal issues. reports.

1537. and their report appears in July as The institution of 11 Christian Mall or Bishops' Book. Although the document does nOI receive the King's approval it contains some imponant statements: the novelIdea that national Churches are equal marks the beginnings of the concept of an "Anglican" Church; U1e Church of Rome is declared equal to hut nOI superior to [he Church of Bngland, The Bishops' Book asserts that there are three major. sacraments (that i~: penance, baptism and the Mass}. Matrimony, confirmation, holy orders and unction are rmnor sacraments. Popular devolion to images (''error and rudeness") is condemned but the existence of images is defended.

The second set ofRoyal *Injullctions appears (Doc. 53.),

1538, a radical document with strong Erasrnian influences, Cromwell now encourages the initiation of a campaign against shrines and images. TIle shrine of St Thomas at Canterbury is broken up and its ornaments seized by the Crown.

53. THE ROYAL INJUNCTIONS OF 1538

With the papal aut/writ)' removed, it was necessary for the stale to issue regulations regarding religious baIiiff and practice. The idea that l:l'l.dividunls might work out their own salvation. was acceptoble to very few: most men believed that religious *unifomtity uuis not only desirable but essemial.

Wefind both new and old currerus of thought influencing these arrangements: theformer in the royalinjunciions of 1538, the latter in the Six A/tides ofthejollowingyear.

In the name of God, amen. By the authority and commission of the most excellent Prince Henry, by the grace of God King of England and of France, Defender of the Faith Lord of Ireland, and in earth Supreme Head under Christ of the Churoh of England, I, Thomas, Lord Cromwell, Lord Privy Seal, viceregent to the King's said Highness for all his jurisdictions ecclesiastical within this realm do ... give and exhibit unto you ... these injunctions Iol1owil1g, to be kept, observed and fulfilled llpon the pains hereafter declared.

First, that you shall truly observe and keep all and singular the King's Highness's injunctions given unto you heretofore in my name by his Grace's authority ....

Item, that you shall provide ... one book of the whole Bible of the largest volume. in English, and the same set up in some convenient place within the .. , church that you have cure of, whereas your parishioners may most commodiously resort to the same and read ii.. ..

Item, that you discourage no mall privily or apertly (ic openly) [rom the reading or hearing of the said Bible, but shall expressly provoke, stir and exhort every person to read the same. as that which is the very lively word of God that every Christian man is bound to embrace, believe and follow, if he look to be saved; admonishing them, nevertheless, to avoid "II contention and altercation therein. and to use an hunest sobriety in the inquisition of tho

112

true sense of the same, and refer the explication of obscure places to men of higher judgement in Scripture.

hem. that you shall every Sunday and holy day through the year openly and plainly recite to your parishioners twice or thrice together, or oftener if need require, one partirle or sentence of the Parernoster OJ" Creed, in English, to the intent they may learn the same by heart, and so from day [0 day to give them one likc lesson or sentence of the same, till th(·y have learned the whole Paternoster and Creed in English, by rate; and as they be taught every sentence of the same ... you shall expound and declare the understanding of the same unto them, exhorting an parents and householders La teach their children and servants the same ... and that done, you shall declare unto them the ten Commandments, one by one, every Sunday

and holy day, till they be likewise perfect in the same ,

Item, that you shall make, or cause to be made one sermon every quarter of the yeal' at

the least, 'wherein you shall purely and sincerely declare the very Gospel of Christ, and in the same ex hort your hearers to the works of charity, mercy and faith specially prescribed and commanded in Scripture, and not to repose their trust or affiance lie faith] in any other works devised hy men's phantasies beside Scripture; as in wandering to pilgrimages, offering of money, candles or tapers to .irnages, or relics, or kissing or licking the same, saying over a nnm bel' of beads, not understood or minded on, Or in such-like superstition, for the doing thereof you not only have no promise of reward in Scripture, but contrariwise great ducats and maledictions or God, as things tending to idolatry and superstition. which 0(" all other offences Cod ALmighty does most detest and abhor. for that the same diminishes most his honour and glory.

Item, thut such feigned images as you know in any of your cures to be so abused with pilgrimages or offerings of anything made thereunto. you shall for avoiding that most detestable offence of idolatry forwith take down ....

Item, if you do 01' shall know any man within your parish or elsewhere tbat is a letter lie hinderer] of the word of God to be read in English, or sincerely preached, or of the execution or these Injunctions, 01" a fautor lie Iavourcr] of the Bishop of Rome's pretensed power, now by rh . law of this .realrn justly rejected and extirpated, you shall detect and present the same to the King's Highness, or his honourable Council, or to his vicegerent aforesaid, or the "justice of peace next. adjoining ...

[A register of all births, marriages and deaths was to be kept by the parson of every parish].

[Source: David Wilkins (1685-174.5), ed., Concilia M%ona,e Bruanniae et Ilibemiae, 4· vols, (London: R. Gosling, 1737).,3: 815-16).

In an auernpt to xtem the growing influence of English Protestants,

1539. Act imposing nco-Cuthulic Six Articles of Religion is passed (Doc. 54.).

54. AN ACT ABOLISHING DIVERSITY IN OPINIONS, 1539.

THE SIX ARTICLES

Conservauoe pressure from the Convocation met with a favourable response from the King and in May J 539 Parliameni approved the Act ofSi.x Anicles, often called the "Bloody *Stcttute" or the "Whip with. Six Strings". fL reactionary measure reimposing strict Caihoiic (but anti-papal) orthodoxy (tnd sti;pulating severe penalties for heretics.

113

Bishop Gardiner was prominent in securing the passage oj these Act with its v£cwus punishmetus for offender.;; per.;on.s denying the Eucharistic presence were to die as heretics (that is, oy burning at the stake) and were not £0 be allowed to recant. Denial oj the other jit,e articles was to carry the penalty o] death by hanging, drawing and quartering if the denial was public. If it were in priucae, loss of all possessions was substituted (death was the penalty Jar a second offence). Any person r('fusing to receive Holy Communion. was to suffer death, Priests who kept concubines were to die, as were their concubines.

The practical effecu a/the Act of Six Articles were limited. Some Protestant clergy were ha17ied, Latimer and other reformers resigned their sees, while Cranmer sent his wife to Germany.

Ihuier the Six Articles no less than. 500 persons were thrown into prison in a.fortnight, but ortly /,ruenty-eight actually suffered death. HENRY vm put to death Roman Caihoiics for denying the Act 0/ * Supremacy, and Protesuuus for refwing to believe in the Roman. Catholic doctrine of *transubstant.iation.

An A~L is passed. . , Ki HENRY VIII .

1539. tl' dissolve the '!Tealer monasteries and transferring tile whole 01 their 1)l'Ope~y 1.0 tile ng. U~"S

the spoils to endow the new aristocracy which he has formed from his couruers and dependents, thuj, making

them staunch supp0l1ers of his policy. . . .' . , ' ,

. r. S' Articl . (Doc 54) Cromwell still hopes 1'0. a Protestant alliance lor Englantl and secures

Despite lllC IX rcies .' • . , .

a Protestant wile 1'01' HENRY in the person of Anne of Cleves. but HENRY quickly comes to detest her, The

King's anger over (he match leads LO the.execution or Crorllwc:1.

July 1540, and increases the influence of conservuuves, especially Bishop Gardiner, He brings to HENRY',

. attention Catherine Howard who becomes.

.lulv 1540, HENRY's fifth wife after his marriage with Anne of Cleves is annulled. . ."- Royal proclamation abolishes.

Ju.I)' 1541. various ancient customs associated with. holy-days. In October 1541. all shrines are ordered ln be

destroyed.

The assumption by HENRY vm, . .' '.. ' ,

1.541. or the title of King or Ireland marks the beginning of a new epoch In Irish history: the lrisb are In ennfonu III

speech. dress and customs to English models.

The position of Bishop Gardiner is seriously damaged.

1542. by the discovery (If' Catherine Howard's adultery. who, Ja:nuarv 1542, is executed, HENRY V111's sixth and IHSI wife is.

Jut" 1542, Catherine Parr, a pious widow with moderate Protestant views,

. The Acl for the Advancement of True Religion, •

l542. seeks La curtail massive popular interest in the Bible. The labouring classes arc not to re~d the Scriptures,

which is also denied to all women below the rank of gentlewomen. . . . ' . TILe Necessary Doctrine and Erudition of a Christian MOll or King'S Book, being a revision ()'I the Bishops

Book.

1543. contains inlp0l1alll statements on LW() issues: . , .'

I The Eucharist: "trallsubstantiation is defended and lay commniuon 111 bread alone IS to conunue. , .

2: Justification: the role of works.in salvation is reasserted and Lutheran doctrine denied, J-lowever, u is stressed

that "spiritual" works are more pleasing to God than "carnal" worb: .., ' . '.' .. ' . ."

J 543 Act 135 Hen vm c. 3) declares it to be High Treason to deprive the King ol hIS formal title, "'~llich .IS as foll!)\~'.

Henricus ocfavus Dei Gratia An.giiae. Francine; et Hiberniae Rex. Fidei Defensor ', et UI terra Ecclesiae Allgiicanae ei Ilibemicae suprenvun caput lie Henry the Eighth, by the grace of God King ot England, France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith. and of the Church of England am] of Ireland Oil E1U1h Supreme Head].

Frequent border raids lead,

1542. to the Second War with Scotland, The Rout of Solway Muss. . ,.

.1542. results in death of James V of Scotland and succession of six-day-old Mary, tn the thron:. [n the mla~t ~ueen HENRY Vlll sees a chance of annexing her Kingdom to England, or at least breaking Scotland s Auld Alliance" with France, but manages only to deepen the enmity of the Scots towards the English.

Thousands of the 4 million population of England are close to starvation,

1546 due, to a succession of poor harvests. ,

~ENR Y VIII falls dangerously iii. with syphilis anti cinhosis, and, fearing his imminent death, norrunates,

1546. a Council of Regency fur his heir. EDWARD. and (he majority of its sixteen members are Protestants,

Wllel'CaS the King's most excellent Majesty is by God's law supreme head immediately under Him of this whole Church and congregation 0[" England, intending tbe conservation of lire same ... in a Lrue, sincere and uniform doctrine ... , and ... hath therefore caused and commanded that his .most high Court of Parliament. .. to be at this time summoned, and also a synod and convocation of all We archbishops, bishops, and other learned men of the clergy of this his realm to he in like manner assembled; and forasmuch as in the said Parliament, synod unci convocation there were certain articles, matters ana questions proponed [je proposed] and set forth touching Christian. religion ... :

Whereupon, after a great and Long deliberate and advised disputation and consultation had and made concerning the said articles, ... it was and is finally resolved, accorded arid agreed in manner and [OHU following, that is.to say:

First, that in the most blessed sacrament of the altar, by the strength and efficacy of Christ's mighty word, it being spoken by the priest. is present really, under the form of bread and wine, the natural body and blood of our Saviour Jesus Christ, conceived of the Virgin Mary. and that after the consecration there rernaineth DO substance of bread and wine, nor any other .substance bur the substance of Christ, God and man;

Secondly, that communion in both kinds is not necessary ad salutem lie for salvation] by the law of God to all persons. and that it is to be believed and not doubted of but that in the ilcsh under form of bread is the very blood, and with the blood under form of wine is the very llesh, as well apart as though they were both together;

Thirdly. that priests. after the order of priesthood received as. afore, may not marry by the law of God;

Fourthly, that vows of chastity or widowhood by man or woman made to God advisedly ought to be observed by the law of God, and that it exernpteth them from other liberties of Christian people which without that they might enjoy;

Fifthly, that it. is meet and necessary that private Masses be continued and admitted ill this lite ICing's English Church and congregation, as whereby good Christian people ordering themselves accordingly do receive both godly and goodly consolation and benefits, and it is agreeable abo 10 God's law;

Sixthly. that auricular lie privately heard] confession is ex] cdient and necessary to be retained and continued, used and frequenled in the Church of God, ..

(Source: Stalutes of the.Realm, 3: 739-4,0).

115

114

The following character of Erlward VI was written by Girolamo Cllrciano, a uiell-knou»i Milane.le physician, who visited him in September or Ocusber, 1552. He cast his horoscope and foretold ,that

the King ioould reach middle uge. '

All the graces were in him, He had maoy tongues when yet but.a child; together with the t:ngJjsh, his natural tongue, he l,ad both Latin and French; nor was he ignorant, as I heal" of the Greek, Italian and Spanish and perhaps some more. But (or the English, Frcnr-h and Latin, he was great in them and apt to learn everything. Nor was he ignorant 01 logic, or the principles of natural philosophy, nor of music, The sweetness of his temper was such as became a mortal, his gravity becoming the majesty of a King, and his disposition suitable to his high degree. In sum, that child was so bred, 'liad such parts, was of such expectation, that he looked like a miracle of a man. These things are not spoken rhetorically and beyond the truth, hut are indeed short of it. He was a marvellous boy" ..

And indeed the ingenuity and sweetness of his disposition lied raised in all good and learned men the greatest cxpectaLion of him possible. He began to Jove the liberal arts before he knew them and to know them before he could use them: and in him there was such an auernpt of nature, that not only England, bu.t the world has reason to lament his being so early snatched away, Howtruly was it said of such ex:traordinary persons, that their Lives are short and seldom do they come to be old.v..

\\lhel1 the gravity of the King was needful, he carried himself like an old man; and yet he was always afTublc and gentle, as became his age. He played on the lute. he meddled in allairs of state, and [or bounty he did in that emulate his father; though he lie Henry VIII], even when he endeavoured to be too good might appeal" to have been bad: but there was no suspecting any such thing in the son, whose mind was cultivated by the study of j1h:ilosophy.

(Modernized from Gilbert Burnet (164,3-] 71.5), History of the Reformatioii (Oxford University Press 1823),2: 3).

U6

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55. KING EDWARD VI

After HENRY VUl dies.

January 1547, and Edward Seymour, Earl of Hertford (later, Duke of Somerset, brother of Jane Seymour, and therefore EDWARD's uncle) is chosen as Protector of England. He is an ldealistic Protestant. Protestant feelings now erupt in England and there is widespread iconoclasm, especially in London.

Parliament approves,

October-December 1547, a radical programme of religious legislation which abolishes the Catholicism of HENRY VIII by:

1. Repealing or the "'Slatures of HENRY [V (De Herettco Comburendo. [401) against the heretics;

2. Repealing the Six Articles [Doc, 54,1;

3. Act against Revilers and for Receiving in Boln Kinds: mild penalties are imposed On persons mocking the Mass; more significant is the extension of communion in both kinds to the laity;

4, Act Dissolving the Chantries: aU "chantries, collegiate churches, hospitals, guilds, fraternities, and other endowments (over 2, 500) lmploying prayers for the dead are forfeited to the Crown,

The Council orders,

1548, the abolition of many ceremonies (including those of holy water and holy bread) and encourages the destruction of the remaining images. AlirSl Acr of*Uoiformily,

1549, enforces the English Liturgy. usually called the First Book of COmmon Prayer of EDWARD VI, which becomes the only legal service book. All Latin services are to be abolished, but the "Book is conservative in tone, providing for un English Mass, vestments, prayers for the dead, private confession, extreme unction and commemorations of the saints,

Discontent following the snppression of the monasteries, is aggravated by the Vagrant ACl,

L547, which is obviously intended to be applied to the expelled monks and which enacts "that any determinately idle and abtebodied vagrant might be adjudged by lWO rnugisuafes to anyone wanting him as a slave, branded wi.tb a letter y, ami kepi in slavery for lWO yell's."

The suppression of the monasteries, the Vugrant Act, together with Jow wages paid in debased coin and the ever growing "'enclosures or the common land, lead to a social rebellion,

1549. under Kell, a tanner, in Norfolk, who would sit.under the "Oak of Reformatlon" administering justice, Keu's rebellion is suppressed by John Dudley, Earl of Warwick (created Duke of Northumberland in 155 I). [he leader of U,e anti-Protector's party supporting the extreme Protestants, Protector Somerset, becoming very unpopular because or his unsuccessful war with Scotland, his overbearing conduct and the changes he has made in religion, is forced. to resign his Protectorship, and is succeeded by the Duke of Northumberland, who sees thai Somerse be. L:XCCU (ell,

1552, for treason.

A second Act of "Uniformity passes through Parliament,

April 1.552. This measure repeats the terms of the 1549 Act and orders the lise of the Revised (or Second) "Book (]1 Common Prayer. The new Prayer Book reflects the influence 01' English radicals and provides for a more Protestant liturgy: the Mass is totally abolished, plain bread, surplices, communion tables replacing hosts, chasubles and altars, Prayers for the dead and private confession are abolished, TI,e "Real Presence" is denied.

Januarv 1553, The government begins the seizure of all Church goods.

June L553, the Forty-Two Articles are issued, Many or these are directed against the Anabaptists but the two principal issues relate to:

I, The Eucharist: the definition of the Eucharistic presence is Zwinglian in tone: only true believers truly communicate and then by faith alone,

2. Justification this can be achieved by faith alone. Purgatory is denied. King EDWARD VI dies of tuberculosis in

Julv .l553, Under the prelexl of upholding the Protesrant.religion, Ncrthurnberland attempts to install Jane Grey. wife or his son Guildfort, as Queen, but fails ..

1547·1553, Reign of EDWARD VITUDon (6 years)

Title: Son of HENR Y VI[! am] his third wife, Jane Seymour Succeeded at the age of: I () (b. 1537)

Monied: never married

Children: nIJ issue

Chnracteristics: EDWARD was carefully educated under the attention of reforming divines, and became a zealous adherent to Protestant ideas, Towards the end of his reign, he took a lively interest in public affairs, bur England was ruled by the Protectors. He was an accomplished. scholar for his age, and his writings show a sagacity altogether beyond his years.

Majorfiguresofthe reign:

John DutlIey. Duke of Northumberland (7 1502-J553), Privy Counsellor Edward Seymour, Duke or Somerset (c. 1506-1552), Lord Protector

1553-1558, Reign of MARY I TUDOR (5 years)

Tille: Daughter of HENRY VIII and his firxt wile, Catherine or Aragon Succeeded at tile age of 37 (b. (516)

Married: (1554) Philip 0 of Spain

Children: 110 issue

Chanieteristlcs: MARY was brought up as a Catholic, arul persecution had added to her religious zeal. Her religious experience convinced bel' that her supreme mission was to Testore the Catholic faith to England. This consideration dominated both her foreign and her domestic. policies. MARY's character has been stained in popular opinion by the persecution of her reign and the epithet "Bloody" is often added to her name. Yet i I is probable that the fu II extent of the martyrdom was hardly known to her. She seems to have been by nu means harsh or cruel in her disposition, and was anxious for the welfare of her country. The Spanish match might ha ve been responsible for the worst evils of her reign,

Majorfigure of the reign:

Regi nald Pole, Cardinal (1500-58), Archbishop ofCanterbury

56. QUEEN MARY TUDOR

The following character oj the Queen was written by Giacorrw Soranzo, Ambassador from Venice to Edward VT and Queen Mary in 1554.

She is of low stature, witli a red and white complexion, and veI'Y thin; her eyes are white and large, and her hair reddish; her face is round, with a nose rather low and wide; and were not her age on the decline [Mary being almost 39], she might be called handsome rather than the contrary. She is not of a strong constitution, and of late she suffers from headache and serious affection of the heart, so that she is often obliged to take medicine, and also to be blooded. She is of very spare diet, and never eats until I 01' 2 p.m .• although she rises at daybreak, when, after saying her prayers and hearing Mass in private, she transacts business incessantly, until after midnight, when she retires to rest ....

ReI' Majesty's countenance indicates great benignity and clemency, which are not belied by her conduct, for although she has had many enemies, and though so many of them were by law condemned to death, yet had the executions depended solely on her Majesty's will, not one ofthem perhaps would have been enforced ....

She is endowed with excellent ability, arid more than moderately read in Latin literature, especially witlr regard to Holy Writ; and besides her native tongue she speaks Latin, French and Spanish, arid understands Italian perfectly, but does not speak it. She is also very generous, but not to the extent of letting it appear that she rests her chief claim, to commendation on this quality,

She is so confirmed in the Catholic religion that although the King her brother [ie Edward VI] and his Council prohibited her from having Mass celebrated according to the Roman Catholic ritual, she nevertheless had it performed in secret, nor 'did she ever choose by anv act to assent to any other form ofreligion ....

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Her Majesty takes great pleasure in playing on the lute and spinel, and is a very good performer on both instruments .... But she seems to delight above all in arraying herself elegantly an r magnificently .... She also makes great use of jewels ... in which she delights

greatly.

(Source: Giacomo Soranzo to the Senate in Venice, 18 A.ugust 1554, in Calendar o/State Papers, Venetiall (London, 1873),4: 532).

011

July 19, 1553, MARY is proclaimed in London. Next she issues a proclamation stating her uuacnment to the

Catholic Ja.iih.

During the . .

Autumn 1553. Parliament meets and refusing to repeal the Royal *Suprema~y, it apprn"c.~ an Act of Repeal UIlUOIl1i;

the Edwanlian Reformation. Following the Act. the Queen issues,

March 1554, oj< lnju notions to the bishops. ordering them to:

I. suppress heresy and remove heretical priests and schoulrnasters;

2. remove married clerics and put them to penance;

3. divorce ex-religious persons who had married;

4. re-ordain any priests ordained under Edward Vl's Ordinal;

5. restore .11 ceremonies, processions and nuly-days.

As a result of these Injunctions, between 10 and 25% of the parish clergy are deprived of theirlivings because 01

marriage.

Arter the Queen has announced her plans to many her cousin, Philip 11, since .

January 1556. the King of Spain. several rebellions are prompted by anti-Spanish reeling: people think thai the Spall ish King will claim too much puwer in England. or even conquer the realm, and introduce the cruel

lnquisitiun. Notable among the rebellions is that led by Sir Thomas Wyatt in Ken~. . _

January 1554_ Wyatt's rebellion does not receive wide support Irum Protestants and is suppressed by the authorities, As a result of the rebellion Lady Jane Grey is executed,

Fcbruarv 1554, and Princess Elizabeth is imprisoned. Marriage or the Queen with Philip lJ or Spain takes place,

Jltly ]554. but Purliarnentdoes not allow Philip to be crowned King.

The Parliament of

April-May 1554. rejects calls for reintroduction of the heresy laws of HENRY IV. (or 14(1) and HENRY V (~f 1414). but later approves Uris measure in return for assurances that 110 attempt will be made to restore monastic

lands [I) the Church.

-CardinuiReginald Pole, Papal Legate and Mary's choice as Archbishop 01" Canterbury, absolves,

November 1554, the realm of England from +excomrrnnlcetlon.

Nov~mber 1554, Parliament passes a second Act or Repeal removing all anti-papal measures passed since 1529 and undoing the religious revolution coacted under HENRY V]]].

The newly-revived, .

1555. heresy laws are used to condemn 'Ridley, Latimer and Cranmer (Docs. 57., 58_). Many ordinary men and

women suffer death for their opposition to the revived Catholic faith: by the end of

1558. dose 10 three hundred are executed.

57. PROTESTANT MARTYRS, 1558

AI least in one respect Queen Mmy l.tift, an indelible impression on Engl~lh hislOlY· Her reigll. ~I (duny. remembered for the persecution and burning 0/ heretics on a scale Ltrwrececien.l.ed in. England: in less than four ),ears some three hun.dred men and wom.en., dreum. primarily from the power classes a/people, [el! victim to faggot caul: fire.

The record of their suffering was contained in the Book of Martyrs, as it 1(1([$ popularly called, of the zealous Protestant John Foxe (1515-1581). Few books outside the Bible have so influenced the religious feeling of the English people. Altlwugh ,:£ must be mid, that because Foxe uias an ardent

119

Protesuuu: his accounts are not (Llways accurale, arulfor this reason his book is sometimes called the "Book of Errors II.

Am.ong its famous passages was the account of the decahs of Nicholas Ridley; Bishop of London, and Hugh Latimer, Bishop of Worcester, who, chained back to back to the same stake at O~lord, were burnt together.

Incontinently they were commanded to make them ready, which they with all meekness obeyed ...

Then the smith took a chain of iron, and brought the same about both Dr. Ridley's and Master Latimer's middle: and , as he was knockingin a staple, Dr. Ridley took the chain in his hand, and shaked the same, for it did gird in his belly, and looking aside to the smith, said, "Good fellow, knock it in hard, for the flesh will have his course". Then his [Ridley's] brother did bring him gWlpowdel' in a bag, and would have' tied the same about his neck. Master Ridley asked, what it. was. His brother said, "Gunpowder". "Then II, said he, "I will take it to be sent of Cod; therefore I will receive it as sent of him . .And have you any", said be, "for my brother"; meaning Master Latimer. "Yea sir, that I have", quoth his brother. "Then give it unto him", said he, "betime leest ye come too late". So his brother went, and carried of the same gunpowder unto Master Latimer ....

Then they brought a faggpt, kindled with lITe, and laid the same down lit Dr, Ridley's feet, To whom Master Latimer spake in this manner: "Be of good comfort, Master .Ridley, and play the man. We shall this day light such a candle, by God's Crace, in England, as T trust shall never be put out" .

And so the fire being given unto them, when Dr. Ridley saw the fire flaming up towards him, he cried with a wonderful loud voice, "In manus tuas, Domine, commerulo spiruum. meum:

Domine recipe spirituni meum". And after, repeated this latter part often in English, "Lord, Lord, receive my spirit"; Master Latimer crying as vehemently on the other side, "0 Father or heaven, receive my soul!" who received the flame as it were embracing of it. After that he had stroked his face with his hands, and as it were bathed them a little in the Iirevhe soon died (as it appeareth) with very little pain or none. And thus much concerning the end of this old and ble-ssed servant of God, MasterLatimer, for whose laborious travails, fmittullife, and constant death, the w.hole realm hath cause to give great 'thanks to Almighty God.

But Master Ridley, by reason of the evil making of the fire unto him, because the wooden faggots were laid about tho gorse, and over high built, the fire burned Erst beneath, being kept down by the wood; which when he felt, he desired them for Christ's sake to let the fire come unto him. WhiGll when his brother-in-law heard, but not well understood, intending to rid him out of his pain ... , as cine in such son-ow not well advised what he did, heaped faggots LIpan him, so that he clean covered him, which made the fire more vehement beneath, that it burned clean all his nether parts, before it once touched the upper; and that .made him leap up and down under the faggots., and often desire them to let the fire come unto him, saying, "1 cannot burn" .... Yet in all this torment hc forgot not to call unto God still, having in his mouth, "Lord nave mercy upon me, II intermingling his cry, "Let the fire come unto me I cannot burn". In which pangs he laboured till one or the standers by with his bill [a hook-shaped blade at the end of a long staff] pulled off the faggots above, and where he saw the fire flame up, he wrested himself unto that side. And when the flame touched the

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gunpowder, he was seen to stir no more, but burned on the other side, railing down at Master Latimer's feel. ...

(Source: TIle Acts and MonlLfitents of fohn Foxe, ed. Stephen Ree j Caule-y. 8 vols. (London: R. B. Seeley and W. Burnside, 1838-41), 7: 549-551).

1556. Archbishop Cranmer is burn! at Oxford (Doc. 5R 1.

58. THE BURNING OF ARCHBISHOP CRANMER, 1556

Thomas Cranmer II/as appoinsed: Archbishop of Ca;nl:erbury by Hem)' VllI. Under Eclumrrl Vi (lranmer carried: OLLt a .fi11I Ptotestan t: Refonnalion. ,in Englrmd. After the. accession of Mmy, Cranmer mas in a dilemma. He signed (L recanuuiori under n. promise that his life should be spared, but his death had been determined. It was thought that he would speak CIt the very end in defense of the old Catholic faith and would condemn his oUin errors. ~Vhen hefound he WCLS to die in (my case, he spoke out at the end i.n rU;/ence of Protesuuuisni and withdrew his recantation. While at the stoke, he held lithe unr.uorl.hy hand", which had. signed the recantation, in th.eflames so that it should be firs: burnt.

1Z1e /ollollling letter was written b)' a bystander at his lnuning. The author was a Ranuui Gathorie, I,Oh.O ci(~iesl,ed everything to do with Cranmer, but he.fo und it dlfficl.!lt to withh.olll ad.mi:ration./or CrOJI.mer',1 erul.

The letter was written. Oil. 23 March 1555 (ie 1556), two days a}l.er the burning.

... Coming to the Slake with a cheerful countenance and willing mind, he lie Cranmer] put off his garments with haste, and stood upright in his shirt . And a Bachelor 01' Divinity, named Elye, ... , laboured to convert him La his former recantation, with the two Spanish friars . But when the friars saw his constancy, they said in Latin one LO another, "Let us go [rom him, we ought not to be nigh him, for the devil is with hint." But the Bachelor in Divinity was more earnest. with him, Unto whom he lie Cranmer] answered, that as concerning his recantation he repented it right sore, because he knew it to be against the truth, ... Ami yet again he [ic the Bachelor] required him to agree to 'his former recantation. And the bishop answered (shewing his hand], "This is the hand that wrote it, and therefore shall it sufler first punishment."

Fire being now put to him, he stretched outhis right hand and thrust it into tile flame. and held it there a good space. before the fire came to any other part or his body, where his hand was seen of every man sensibly hurning, crying with a loud voice, "This hand bath oifende I." As soon as the Iire was got up, he was very soon dead, never stirring or crying all the while.

nis patience in the torment, his courage in dying, if it had been taken either for the glory of Cod .... , or the tcsti rnony of truth as it was for a pernicious error and subversion of true religion, I could worthily have commended the example' and matched it with the [a me of any father 01' ancient time: but seeing ihar not the death, but the cause and quarrel thereof, cOI11ITIe;;l1deth the sufferer, 1 cannot but much dispraise his obstinate stu hhornness and sturdiness in dying, and specially in so evil a cause. Surely his death much grieved every mall, btl t not afler one sort, Some pitied to sec his body so tormented with the lire mgin~ lipan the silly carcass, that counted not of the folly. Other that passed not much of the body, lamented to see him spill his soul wretchedly, without redemption, to be plagued for ever. His friends

]21

sorrowed for Jove, his enemies for' pity, strangers for a common kind fl' 1 )

, 0 iumarnty wnere )y we

are boundone to another ....

(Modernized from John Strype, Memorials of the most reuereru] Father in God Thomas Cranmer, sometime Lord tirchbi.slwp afCanterbury (London, ] 694): 384.-90):

III the mids: olthc gloom and distress caused by the perseculions MARY'· ' . d db h .

war, ." IS persua e Y er husband to declare

1557, against the, F,renciJ. The English and the Spaniards win a brilliant victory' I St Q . t'

A 1557 a, . ucn In,

.ugus~ •• but ,the ~~101~campaign is ~isasl~ous LO England, since it results in the capture.

January 1558. 01 Calms. the brightest Jewel In the English Crown" and after ill; I .. U • E I' I I

a fnOl oJ land Oil [he Continent. • oss 1<: ng 1:,1 Ill) onger hold

MARY. suftcring from mental depression and ill-bealth dies

1558 November, and is succeeded by her half-Sister, ELIZABETH.

1558-1603, Reign o[ELIZABETIH THE GREAT (45 years)

Title: Daughter of HENRY Vfll and his second wile, Anne Boleyn Succeeded of the age of. 2S (b. [533)

Mnrried: never married

Children: no issue

Characteristics: A~ a child ELiZAB ETH learned to trust no one, to act circumspectly .. to assume an ambiguous attitude which did not commit her [Q anything definite (lhe best example being her answer 011 the doctrine of transubstarttiatiou:

Chrisl ww the word lIJ(1~ spoke u, He taok the bread. and brake u, And ioiuu. his wtll'd did mczr.;eir, Thtu 1 belie))", 0."8. take it}.

TIle "Virgin Queen" used marriage projects as means of political temporizing, to a degree which was of tell ridiculous, encouraging in her court a fantastic devotion to her person. She did not merely reign. !ihe governed England. She was well aware of her position and her duties, She possessed that most important quality in a monarch - discrimination in selecting her advisors. Her greatest, praise was that she sincerely «Jesired lt1 act solely for the good of her people, thus creating the bond with her subject, securing their devotion and never losing their affection. She found England discouraged, disunited and pl)()r: she left England with a strong- national spirit and prosperous.

MajorjigJ.lres of the reign;

Politics:

William Cecil, Lord Burleigh ([520-98), statesman Francis Walsingham(l532-9), statesman Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester 0 1533-1588). favourite of the Queen and statesman

Robert Devereux. 2nd Earl of Essex (1567-160 I), soldier and courtier

Sir Francis Drake (c, 1540,1596). admiral Hod explorer

Literature:

William Shakespeare (l564-161.6), playwright and poet ChristopherMarlowe (1564-93), dramatist

Edmund Spenser (c. 1552-1599). poet and courtier

Sir Philip Sidney (I 554-86}, poet and courtier

59. QUEEN EUZABETII

Thefollowing description of Elizabeth is gioen: by Paul Hentzner, a ucueller, uho ,mw si,,,,tyfwe year old Elliuuel;h al: Greenwich as she passed in procession.

First wern .gentlemen, "barons, *earls, knights of the *Garter, all richly dressed and bareheaded; next Came the Lord High "Chuncellor of England, bearing the seals in a fed silk purse, between two, one of wiiom carried the royal sceptre, the other the sword of state, ill a red scabbard, studded with goldenjle[Lr-de-lis, the POi11t upwards; next came the Queen, in the 65th year of bel' age (as we were told), very majestic; her face oblong, fair hut wrinkled; her eyes small, yet black and pleasant; .her nose a little hooked, her lips narrow, and her teeth black (a defect the Englisb seem subject to, from their too great use of sugar); she had in her ears two pearls with very rich drops; l1et' hair was of an auburn colour, but false; upon her

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head she had a SOlan crown ... ; her bosom was uncovered, as all the English ladies have till they marry; and she had on a necklace of exceeding fine jewels; her hands were slender, her fingers rather lung, and her stature neither tal] !lOT low; her air was stately, her manner of speaking mild and obliging .. ,.

As she went along in all this state and magnificence, she spoke very graciously, first to one, then La another (whether foreign ministers or those who attend lor different reasons). in English, French and Italian; for besides being well skilled in Greek, Latin and the languages 1 have rncntioued, she is mistress of Spanish, Scotch and DLltch. Whocvel speaks to hervi; is kneeling; now find then she raises some with her hand ....

1'n the ante-chapel, .. , petitions were presented, and she received them 010sL graciously, which occasioned the acclamation or God save the Queen Elizabetil, She answered it with I thancke you. myn good peupel ...

(Source: Paul HenlZner, Trauels in England. 1598 in W: B. Rye, Ellglan.d as _Icen b)' Foreigners in the Days of Elizabeth and [antes I (London, 1865).

ELIZABETH orders the subjugation of Shane O'Neill, 1560. the most powerful man in Ireland

John Hawkins begins.

1562, British participation in the African slave trade (rom Sierra Leone to Hispaniola.

1563, John Foxe's Ac!.!' and Monuments appears - a vastly influential and much-read account of' the triumph of the true (ic Protestant) Church over persecution (Doc. 57.).

The Thirty-Nine Articles of Anglican belie!' (based on the Forty-Two Articles of 1553), 1563, define the Elizabethan Church Seulement and are still valid today.

A new Beggars Act introduces,

1563, an element of compulsion into the poor rate - weekly contributions are to be paid by those able to do so, ami those refusing to pay are to be called before the "justices anti ordered 10 pay, Gaol sentences cap be imposed on those who stili refuse to pay.

Many Puritan clergy are deprived,

1564. for refusal to wear the surplice, which becomes a major cause 'of contention. TIle Puritans, or "Advanced Protestants' hold that the Retormatiun has not gone far enough from the Church 01' Rome, and Irorn a desire to establish "a purer form of worship" they gain the name 01' "Puritans.' They object to the government of the Church by bishops, SCl fOlTIlS of prayer and many observances. Puritan discontent grows more vociferous,

1565, and the detcrminatirm of the Queen and Arcnuishop Parker 10 defend lhesICJtus ql.W all the more unyielding,

ELIZABETH ascend, 10 the throne,

November 1558, welcomed by all parties. She immediately selects Sir William Cecil (afterwards Lord Burghley) as her chief advisor never bad a.suverclgn a wiser, a more disinterested, or a more devoted counsellor. ELiZABETHl's firsl parliament establishes,

April 1551), a new religious settlement rCjeding the extreme Protestantism or Ihe reign of' EDWARD Vl and the Roman Caiholicisrn or Queen ~ARY. In a spirit of cornpnnnise ELIZABETH combines Protestant belief with Catholic cerernouy 10 produce a church acceptable to the rnajority of her subjects, ELIZABETH desires "that there should be outward "cnnlorrnlty 10 the EstablisheLi religion, but that opinion should be left free."

The essence of the Elizabetl.un Settlement is in IWO "statutes:

I. The Act of "Supremacy declares that the Queen is "Supreme Governor" of the Church of England and empowered [0 visit the Church with Royal commissions. Thus the Caesaro-papal powers of HENRY Vlll are revived in a modified form. An Acts repealed by the Marian government are revived and the Acts of Repeal repealed. The Heres), Acts are revoked and Papal "supremacy abolished. The Oath 01' "Supremacy i[0 be taken by all <.:iel'gy, justices, officers and Royal servants, and university graduates, Any 'person refusing [0 subscribe is lO suffer loss of office and muintainers of foreign authority are 10 suffer loss Of all possession; and life imprisonment. For a second offence uf this nature, the penalties of "praemunire can be invoked and a lhird offence involves charges of high [reason.

2. The Act of *Unifonnily enacts that the "Book of Common Prayer (or ]552) is to be used by all clergy on pain ofprosecuuon.Ir is ordered that all persons should attend church regularly or pay a tine. All parishes arc to buy the *Book of Common Prayer. The ornaments or the churches iU'C tn continue as in "the second year of the reign 01' King EDWARD V]".

These measures IU'!! followed by the issue of the Royal *Lnjunclions: - The clergy are 10 preach lbe Royal '·Supremacy;

- 1 mages are not to be extolled:

- Frequent sermons are lO be preached;

- The English Bible is La be freely available to all;

- Recusants are to be reported to the authorities;

'- "All shrines, coverings of shrine" all tables, candlesticks, trindals, and rolls of Wax, pictures, pain lings, and all

other rnunurnents of reigned miracles, pilgrimages, idolatry, and superstition" are to be desunyed. - Priests are free tl) many;

- No image., are [0 be kept by private persons;

- Kneeling at the Communion i·s lO continue.

Only tll'(1 bishups lake the Oath or "Supremacy, the rest are deprived of their sees. Matthew Parker is made, December 1559. Archbishop of Canterbury.

The Geneva Bible in all English translation by William Whittingham is published, 1560. anil becomes the most popular Biblical version in Elizahethan England.

60. sm HENRY SIDNEY TO IDS SON PHILIP, 1566

The sixteenth cen.tury in England was a difjic[ti! time to live in: it was the' age of the strife of the old ioorui with the new, The. new learning fought with the. old superstiiions; the rrifined taste in music, poetry and drama fought ·with the old cruel delights of l.1:1itnessing executions or bear bailing; the new love of beautiful things fou.ght with the squalor (mel laclt of hygiene of the old.

The '/ol101IJJ:ng letter is given m an. example n.ot only of the literary style of the Elizabethan times but of the highest personal ideals qf the time, It was written in 1566 by Sir Henry Sidney, an offl.Cl:al in the service of Elizabeth, to his son, then ci boy at college, the future celebrated Sir Philip Sidney, poet, soldier arui "ideal courtier".

Son Philip:

1 have received two leiters from you, the one written in Latin, the other in. French, which r take in good part, and will you to exercise thatpractice of learning often, for it will stand you in stead in that profession or life which you are boru to live in, And now. since that this is my first letter that. did ever I write to you, 1 will not that it will be aU empty of some advices. which my natural care of you provoketh me LO with you, t.o follow as documents to you in this tender age. Let your Iirst action be the lilting np of your hands and mind to Almighty God, by hearty prayers and feelingly digest the words you speak in prayer, with continual meditations and thinking of him to whom you pray; and use this at an ordinary hour, whereby the time itself will put you in remembrance to do that thing which you are accustomed in .that time.

Apply to your study such hours as yOLU' discreet master doth assign you earnestly. and the time, 1 know, he will .50 limit, as shall he both sufficient [01' your learning, and safe for vour health; and mark the sense and matter of that you read, as well as the words; So shall you Lolli enrich your tongue with words, and YOIl[ wit with matter; and judgement will grow as tears grow on you.

Be humble and obedient to your master; [or, unless you frame yourself to obey, yea, and to reel in yourself what obedience is, you shall never be able to teach others how to obey YUlI horea ['LeI'.

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125

Be courteous of gesture, and affable to all men with universality of reverence, according to the dignity of the person: there is nothing that winneth so much with so little cost.

Use moderate diet, so as after yOill' meat you may find your wit fresher and 110t duller; and your body more lively -and not more heavy.

Seldom drink wines, and yet sometimes do; lest, being forced tb drink upon the sudden, you should find yourself inflamed. Use exercise of body, but such ns is without peril of your bones or joints; it will much increase your farce and enlaJ;ge your breath.

Delight to be cleanly, as well in aU parts of your body, as in your garments; it shall make you gmteful in each company and otherwise loathsome ..

Give yourself to be merry; for you. degenerate from your father, if you finrl not yourself most able ill wit and body to do anything, when you be most merry. Rut let your mirth be ever void of scurrility and biting words to any man; for a wound given by a word is harder La hecured than that which is given by a sword ..

Be you rather a hearer and a bearer away of other roen1s talk, than a beginner, or procurer of speech, otherwise you will be accounted Iu delight to hear yourself speak_

Be modest in each assembly, 'and rather be rebuffed of light Ienows for a maiden shamefacedness, than by your sober friends for pert boldness.

Think upon every word you will speak before you utter it, and remember how nature hath, as it were, rampired up the tongue with recth, lips, yea, and hair without the Ups, and all betoken reins and bridles to the restraining use ofthat member.

Above all things, tell rio untruth, no not in trifles. The custom of it is naught. And let it not satisfy you, that the hearers, for a time, take it for a truth; for afterwards it will be known as it is to your shame; and there cannot be a greater reproach to a gentleman than to be accorrnted a liar.

Study and endeavour yourself to be virtuously occupied; so shall you make such a habit of well doings as YOlf shall not knowhow to do evil, though you would.

Remember, my son, the n-oble blood you are descended of by yom- mother's side, and think, that only by a virtuous life and good actions, you may hI:! an ornament to your illustrious family; and otherwise, through vice and sloth, you may be esteemed labes /£eneris, one of tile greatest curses that can happen to a man. Wen. my little Philip, this is enough fOT me, and I fear too much [OJ' you at this time; hut yet, if 1 find that this light meat of digestion do nourish anything the weak stomach of your young capacity. I will, as I find the same grow stronger, feed it with tougher food. Farewell; your mother and 1 send you Dill blessing, and Almighty God grant you his; nourish you with his fear, guide you with his .grace, and make you a good servant La your prince and country.

Your loving Father, Henry Sidney.

(Modernized from The Harleian Miscellany, 20 vols, (London, 1810),1: 41-3.)

Mary Queen 0[" Scots, ELIZABETH's rival to the throne of England, is forced to abdicate in favour of her Son JAMES VI of Scots, and taking refuge in England, . - ,

1568, isdetained a prisonerby EUZABETFI. 111e presence of Mary Stuart in England is one 01" the causes of the Rornun Catholic plot against ELIZABETH, the-Northern Rising of

1569. organized in favour of the Old Religion and aiming at the release of Mary, The Risingis suppressed with cruelty and its leaders are executed, Pope Pills V. retaliates by issuing,

I.S70,a Bull, R~8IiGli~' if! Excelsis, "excommunicating EUZAB"ETH and calling on all Catholics to assist in her deposition (Doc. 61.).

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61. EXCOMMUNICATION OF ELIZABETH, 1570

17w crisis of 1568-71 - caused by Mary Queen of Scots' arrival in England and the Northern RilJillg - revealed tluvpossible danger.; to Elizabeth, Into all this was added the papal bull of 1570, (~n unmistakable declaration of war. The bull Regnans ill Excelsis posed the fata.L dilemma from Illhich neither the Catholic.; nor the g_ol!em.rnmt could escape.. Obedience to Rome nOLll mea!!t ucceptance of the "excommunuxuion and deposition of Elizabeth, and therefore treason.

The national loyolties of English Catholics were not affected by the bull - except the few wlw got involved in plots - and alter the outbreak of war with. Spain the majority demonstrated that they had chosen. England before religi,on,

The central section of the' bull, here omitted, recites various actions o/Elizabeth agains; "the exercise of tkeuue religion. II

PLUS, Bishop, servant of the servants of God, in lasting memory of the matter.

He that reigneth on high, to whom is given all power in heaven and earth, has committed one holy Catholic and apostolic Church, outside of which there is no salvation, to one alone upon earth namely to Peter, the first of Lhe apostles, and to Peter's successor, the Pope- of Rome, to be by him governed in fullness of power. 'Him alone He has made 'ruler over all peoples and kingdoms, to pull up, destroy, scatter, disperse, plant and build, so that he. may preserve His faithful people (knit together with the girdle of charity) in the unity of the Spirit and present them safe and spotless to their, Savieur,

In obedience to which duty, we (who by God's goodness are called to the- aforesaid govermnent of the Church) spare no pains and labour. ... Bllt the number of the ungodly has so much grown in power that there is rio place left in the worW which they have not tried to corrupt with their .most wicked doctrines; and among others, Elizabeth, t.he pretended qU,een of England and the servant of crime,has assisted in this, with w110m as in a "sanctuary the most pernicious of an have found refuge, This very woman, having seized the crown and morrstrously usurped the place of supreme head of the Church in all England together with the chief authority andjurisdiction belonging to. it, has once again reduced this same Kingdom - which had already been restored to 111e Catholiri faith and to gaod fruits - to a miserableruin,

( ... )

We, seeing impieties and crimes multiplied one upon another - the persecution of the faithful and afflictions ef religion daily growing more severe under the ~pidance and by the .activity of the said Elizabeth - and recognizing that her mind is so fixed and set tharsho has not only despised the pious prayers and admonitions with which Catholic princes have tried to cure and convert her but has not even permitted the nuncios sent to her ill this matter by this See to cross into England., are compelled by necessity to take up against her the weapons of justice, though we canno:t forbear to regret that we should be forced to turn upon one whose ancestors have sowell deserved of tl;e Christian community. Therefore, resting upon the authority of Him whose pleasure it was to. place us (though unequal to such a burden) UPOIl this supreme justice-seat, we do out of the fullness of out apostolic power declare the aforesaid Elizabeth to be a heretic and favourer of heretics, and her adherents in the matters aforesaid to liave incurred the sentence of "excommunication and to be cut olT from the unity of the body of Christ,

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And moreover [we declare] her to be deprived of her pretended title to the aforesaid crown and of all lordship, dignity and privilege whatsoever.

A nd also [declare] the nobles, subjects and people of the said realm, and all others who have i.n any way sworn oaths to her, to be forever absolved [rOm such an oath and from any duty arising Ircm lordship, *fealty and obedience .... Wc. charge and command all and singular the nobles, subjects, peoples and others aforesaid that they do not dare obey her orders, mandates and laws. Those who shall act to the contrary we include in the like sentence of anathema.

Because in truth it may prove too difficult to take these presents wheresoever it shall be necessary, we will that copies made under thehand of a notarypublic and sealed with the seal of a prelate of the Church or of his court shallhave such force and .trust in and out of judicial proc(:edings,in all places among the nations, as these presents would themselves have if tliey were exhibited or shown,

G-iven at St Peter's at.Rome, on 27 April 1570 of the Incarnation; in the fifth year of our pontificate,

(Modernized from William Camden, History of the Most Renowned and Yicionou« Princess Elizabeth, Late Queen of England (London: M. Flesher rOT R. 13l;niley \ 1688): 14,61.

Bull Regnans in Excelsis provokes Parliament,

1571, in which the Puritans have a majority, to pass severe laws against Roman Catholics:

I Treasons Act: it is declared high treason L() deny the Queen's. ~5upremacy or accuse her of heresy;

2. Ac[ prohibiting the bringing in. and execution or Papal Bulls and other instruments from the see of Rome: those publicising the Bull of .1570 or defending It are to be deemed guilty ofhigb treason .. Persons Importing crosses, images.rosaries, or other "vain and superstitious things" from Rome are to be subject to the penalties of =praemunire,

3. Act against Fugitives Over the Sea: this i~ designed to deal with the menace of Catholic seminaries. Any persons who have left the country without licence are to lose all their possessions unless Uley return within six months.

Alarm at the Catholic uueat is increased by the discovery,

1572, uf Ridolfi's Plot. Roberto Ridolfi, all Balian banker, has acted us .intermediary between the Pope and the Spanish King and the Duke of Norfolk, the head or the Roman Catholic party in England, and Mary Queen of Scots. The conspirators an'ange that Norfolk will marry Mary, and ELIZABETH will De dethroned with the aid or a Spanish army.

A new Ac1 for Poor Rehef,

1572, gives *juslices of the peace the duty to assess the fair poor rate contributions of all, to ensure payment, and 10 appoint overseers of the poor in each parish. They are again ordered \0 deal severely with vagrants, who could fate death i r arrested a third ti me.

Alarmat the prospect of aJesuit "invasion" of England gi yes rise,

15111. tofiercely anti-Catholic ·bills. Despite the Queen's modifications two severe Act, are passed:

I. The Act to Retain the Queen's Majesty'sSubjects in Their True Obedience, provides inter alia that: - persons teaching the Roman Supremacy are to {lie as traitors

- persons Iound guilty of. heating Mass face fines of 100 *mariu; and a year's imprisonment

- triose refusing to attend church .are to pay a fine of 20 pounds per man th,

2. The Act against Seditious Words and Rumours Uttered against the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty: a second offence against this measure carries a death penalty.

A French plot 10 invade England is uncovered,

1583, its chief English agent being Francis Throckmorton, u Catholic squire, and ale Jesuits are deeply implicated.

John Whitgift, a known anti-Puritan, becomes Archbishop of Canterbury, Angus! 1583, and within a year makes "Puritan opposition collapse.

1583, The "High Commission Court is established. It conststsof forty-four members, twelve or wham are bishops, and is invested with almost unlimited authority on questions relating to Church govemment and discipline,

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Parliament passes,

15115, un Act ugalnst thc Jesuits. seminary priests and other such-like disobedient persons, providing that:

I. all ordained Catholic priests are [0 leave England within forty days;

2. any priest arrested after this period is 10 suffer death as a traitor;

3. any persons assisting priests are to die as felons.

After Sir Humph rey Gilbert. "Ole pioneer of Engl ish Colonization," auernp ts withou l success,

1583, to establish a colony on the shores of Newfoundland, his half-brother, Sir Waller Raleigh, establishes. 15&5, a colony in North America and calls it Virginia, but it fails as well.

J5R6,11le rust potatoes are brought into Britain from Colombia

62. DISCOVERY OF TOBACCO

Elizabeth 'J reign !Ow the qge of mariume adventure. The Spanish treasure-ships despatchell to Europ« from. the Souu» American colonies were prizes too rich. to be allowed to escape attention. Several men. auoined. great distinction in this kind of eruerprise, chief of l.ulwm, 'were Sir Francis Drake, Sir Mmtin Frobisher, Si:r Walter Raleigh,. Sir John Norris, and Sir Joh.n Hawkins,

On. April 9, 1585, Sir Richard Grenville 1ed all. expeduiot: to establish a ploruation. in North Aril.elica. The co{.ony was established in what ~s now North Carolina, and 'wa:; then. named Virginia, Bu.1 in the eruithe colony uosa failure and Francis Drake brought the suruiuors home in. ] 586. Among tliemernbers of the expedition: was Thomas Heriot, "seruant. to Sir Walter Raleigh, a member of the colony and there employed iii discovering afidl ~we.lvempn.th. "

It is from. Thomas Heriot's "A Bri~fe and true report ofthp- newjoundland of Vilgil1.iu/' that WB_ learn obosa to 0 acco; first introduced into Britain in 1 $65.

There is a herb which is sowed apart by itself, and is called by lheinnabitants UPPOWOCj in the. West Indies it 1111.th divers names, according to the several places and countries where it growths and is used; the Spaniards generally call it Tabacco. The leaves thereof being dried and brought into powder, they use to take the fume or smoke thereof, by sucking it through pipes made of' clay, into their stomachs and head; from whence it purges superfluous phlegm and other gross humotrrs, and opens all the pores and passages of the body: by which means the use thereof not only preserves the body from. obstructions, but also (if any be, so that (hey have not been of too long continuance) in shalt time breaks them; whereby their bodies are notably preserved 'in health, and know not m.any grievons diseases, wherewithal we in England are often afflicted.

This Uppowoc is of so precious estimation amongst them, that they think their gods are

marvellously rlelighted therewitn; whercllponl;ometime they make hallowed fires, and east some of the powder therein foJ' a sacrifice ; being in a storm upon the waters, 1.0 pacify their

gods, they cast some up into the air and 'into the water.v., .

(Modernized from Hakluyt. Principal Voyages. 2nd edn (1600): 254).

The authorities discover,

1586, the involvement of Anthony Babington, pa!,'C to Mary, QueM of Scots, and several prie_~ls in a plot to murder Elizabeth, Mary, tried. for her complicity in the Babington's Plat, is found guilty and,

1587, executed (Doc. 63.).

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63. EXECUTION OF MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS, 1587

Ever since Moq Queen of Scots arrived in England in 1568, she had been the symbol of the persecuted Catholic Church and the centre of Catholic discontent. Over the eighteen years of her imprisonment, (t number of plots were organized to put her - with Spanish help - on the English throne and bring back Catholicism to the lsland; Finarly, her implication in the Babington Plot of 1586 led to her uiol and execution.

MUIr was kept in England because her own ,mbject5 (or her own SO/'l" James) did not want her in Scotland. Also her devotion to Catholicism seems to IU1:r)e been qf a purely pragmatic character, e:;;pedrdly during her reign. in Scotland. Nevertheless, all her misfonunes and the tragic death made her one q/the most romanticfigures in British. history. With over jive thousand books written on Mary Queen of Scots, it is clear that her motto "En lila fin est mon commencement II [In My End ls My Begl:lI.ningl was prophetic; she is more loved and admired lWW than. she euer was while living.

UpOJl the seventh day of February, 1587, the Commissioners for .her execution carne to Fotheringay ..... By tlrese the Queen of Scots understanding that the lease of her life was not Icing to last, only one day longer, she secmeclnoL dismayed with the message, but told the Commissioners, she did not think that Queen Elizabeth would have consented to .her death; but, since it was 60, she would most gladly embrace it, and in order thereunto desire of the Commissioners the benefit of her Clergy, that her Confessor might come to her; which. the Commissioners denying, propounded the Bishop, or Dean of Pcterburgh, which the Queen of Scots refused. The Commissioners being departed, she gave order f01' her supper, at the Lime whereof she drank 10 lie!' servants, and comforted them, because she saw them much Lroubled for her. After supper she perused. her will, and inventory: at her usual hour she went to bed, slept some part of the night, and spent the rest in prayer. Hel' fatal day being come, she arose to prepare herself for her last lying down .... Then did she apparel herself after tins manner, in borrowed hair, auburn, having on her bead a dressing of lawn edged with bone-lace. ana above that, a veil of the same, bowed out with wire, and her cuffs suitable: about her neck a pcmander chain, and an Agnus Deihangil1g at a black ribband, a crucifix in her haad, a pair of beads at her girdle with a golden cross at the end, Her uppermost gown was of black satin, printed, training upon the ground, with long hanging sleeves, trimmed with acorn buttons of .iel and pearl, the sleeves over bel' arms being cut, to give sight to a pair or purple" lvm

underneath; her kirtle, as her gown, was of black printed satin: bel' bodies of crimson satin unlaced in the back, the skin being of crimson velvet: her stockings of worsted, watcher, docked, and edged at the top with silver, and unde-r them a pair of white: her shoes of Spanish leather, with the .rough side outward. Thus attired, she came forth of her chamber .. , [and] proceeded towards the great Hall in the castle ....

The scaffold at the upper end of the Hall was two foot high and twelve fool broad, hanged with black; and she seemed to mount it with as much willingness as ease, and took her seat, ... Then was the Commission read.", which she seemed as lillie to regard, as if it had not concerned her aL all. After the reading of the Commission, Dean of Peterborough addressed a1.1 exhortation to the Queen of Scots, thai she 'Would consider her present condition, and withal the vanity of her religion, which he besought her to renounce; but she refused, professing her r -adiuess to die therein, The Lords desiring bel' to join with them in prayers, she also refused,

130

alledging the difference in their religions, and saying she would pray by herself but the Dean was by the Commission desired to pray .. "

The Queen's assent and attention to this pl'ayer were withdrawn to her own private devotions, which she performed after the custom of her Religion out of her own portuary, with her beads and crucifix, sometimes ill Latin, and sometimes in the English tongue; which being ended, the two executioners with her women bcgan to disrobe her; whereat she said with a smiling countenance, that she was never served by such grooms before, .nor was she wont to put off her cloths before 'Such a company. Her women, with a Corpus Christi cloth wrapped up threecomerwise, covered her head and face; which done, they departed; and the Queen was left alone to close up the tragedy of her life by her own self which she did with her wonted courage and devotion, kneeling down upon the cushion, and saying in Latin In te, Domine, speraui, ne confuiulor in CLetemum, Then she groaped for the block, whereon she laid down her head. crying out, In manus tuas Domine, etc, and then tlH: executioner. at two strokes. separated her head from her Lady, saving a sinew, which a third stroke parter] also, The executioner look up the head and shewed it to the assembly: and Dean Fletcher cried, "50 perish all the Queen's enemies!" which was seconded by the Earl of Kent. Her. head coming clear out of her dressing, appeared very gray, as if she- had been much older than she was; it was polled very short, which made her to wear borrowed hair. The executioner that went about to pluck off her stockings, found her little dog crept under her coat, which being. put from, thence, went and laid himself down betwixt her head and body, and being besmeared with her blood, was caused to be washed, as were other things whereon any blood was. The executioners were dismissed with fees, not having any thing that was hers. Her body, with the head, was conveyed into the great chamber by the *Sheriff, where it was by the chirurmous embalmed until its interment .. "

(Source: Gauntonls History ofPetethorough. printed in Nichols, The Progresses and Pub lie Processions afQueen Elizabeth, 2 vols. (New York: Bun Franklin. n.d.), 2: 502-507),

64,. QUEEN ELIZABETH TO .TAMES VI OF SCOTLAND, 1587

Some of the baser qualities of Elizabeth were duplicity, or, to speak frankly, habuual. lying. If an immediate purpose could be attained by false/wad, she said what would sel'Ve her tum. This side of her nature is illustriued by a letter to James VI of Scotland, son of Mary Queen of Scots, a/ter his mother's execution. Elizabeth, fearing a possible attempt at revenge, pretends that the tragedy at FQthelingay Castle was all a mistake: that her secretary. Davison, forwarded the death uxirrant uuhou: her direct order, and altlwugh the Queen did sign it, she never mean.t to have it carried otu,

.Although some historians have accepted her statement, it seems highly improbable tluu any minister or council (in this case a, mere secretary) would have dared take the decision in such a mouer out of her hands,

james, never really wishing his mother to I'e,;}Ol,n him in Scotland, accepted Elizabeth1s explanations and hoped. this incident would only ease his way towards the inheritance of the English Crown.

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Your most assured loving sister and cousin,

Elizab. R. {Source: H. ELlis. ed. Historicol leiters, First series (London, 1824). 3: 22.)

My laving People.-

We have been persuaded by some that are careful of our safety, La take heed how we commit ourselves to armed multitudes. for (ear of treachery; but I assure you, I do not desire to live La distrust my faithful and lnving people.

Let tyrants fear; 1 have always so behaved myself, that, under God. I have placed my chielest strength and safeguard in the Loyal hearts and good will of my su.bjects, and therefore 1 am come amongst you, as you see, at this time, not for my recreation and disport, but lJeing resolved in the midst and heat of the battle, to live or die amongst you all, to lay down for my God, and ror my Kingdom, and for my people, my honour and my blood, even in the dust,

1 know 1 have the hody but of a weak and feeble woman; but I have the heart and stomach of a king, and of a king of England too; and think foul scorn that Parma [the viceroy of Philip Il in the Low Countries] or Spain, or any prince oS Europe should dare to invade the borden of my realm; to which rather than any dishonour shall grow by me, I myself will take up arms 1 myself will be your general, judge, and rewarder of everyone of YOllr virtues in the .field.

I know already for your forwardness you have deserved rewards and crowns; and we do assure you in the word of a prince, they shall be duly paid you. In the meantime my 'lieutenant-general [the Ear! of Leicester] shall be in my stead, than whom never prince commanded a more noble or worthy subject; not doubling but by yOl11' obedience to my general, by YOUT concord in the camp, and your valour in (be field, we shall shortly have a famous victory over those enemies of my God, of my Kingdom, and of my people.

(SaUTee: Somers Tracts, 2nd cdn, ed, Waller Scott, 13 vols, (London: T. CadelJ, 1809-15), 1: 4.29.)

My dear Brother,-

I would YOll knew (though not felt) the extreme dolor that overwhelms my mind. Ior that miserable accident which (hu' contrary to my meaning) hath befallen. L have now sent this kinsman uf mine [Sir Robert Carey] whom ere now it hath pleased you to favour, to instruct you truly of that which is too irksome for my pen to tell you. I beseech you that as God and many more know, how innocent T am in this case: so you. will believe me that if 1 had bid [directed] ought I would have bid [abided] by it. 1 am not so base minded that fear of any Jiving creature or prince should rnake [.)10 afraid to do that were just. or don [make me] to deny the same. 1 am not of so base a lineage. nor carry so vile a mind. But.. as not to disguise. Iits not a King, so will I never dissemble my actions. but cause them show even as I meant them. Thus assuring yourself of me, that as, Lknow this was deserved. yet if r had meant it I would never lay it on others' shoulders; no more willl Dol damnify myself. that thought ir noL

The circumstance .it may please yon to have of this bearer. A nd for YOUT pan, think you have not in the world a more loving kinswoman, nor more dear friend than myself; nor any that will watch more carefully to preserve you and YOLlr estate. And who shall otherwise persuade you, judge them more partial to others. than you. And thus In haste I leave to trouble [cease troubling] you: beseeching God to send you a long reign. The 1Mh of Feh., 1586. [ie 1587 New Style].

132

133

The execution or Mary Queen of Scots is popular with Parliament and the great bulk of the nation, but it does not remove the velY real menace of' Catholic invasion of England, Some time before her death Mary transfers her in teres I in the English succession from her son, James VIol' Scots, who is a Protestant, to Philip [] or Spain, who has made himself the champion or Roman Catholicism. Philip's great object is the destruction of Protestantism, and revenging the death of Mary. but other causes for his invasion are:

I. the ussislauce ELIZABETH has sent to the Protestants in the Netherlands who revolted against the Spanish

domination:

2. .. the devastation done [0 Spanish ships by the English privateers called " Sea Dogs";

3. the plundering' of the guld ships of Spain by Francis Drake:

4. the devastation of forty Spanish ships by Drake in the harbour of Cadiz, which postpones the expedition against England I'oJ at least a year.

The defeat ufthe Invincible Armada (Doc. 66.).

July 158'8. shows England's superionry as a naval power and enables England [0 become a great trading anti colonizing power.

66. TIlE INVINCmLEARMADA, 1588

65. THE ARMADA SPEECH AT TILBURY, 1588

Spain's attempt in the sam.mer of 1588 to gain control of the EngLish Cliannel; so that. Spanish troops in the Netherlands, as well as others brought in her jleet, migh! invade England, posed (/, mighl)' tlueas.

The Alm.ada. consisted of a fleet of about 130 large ships manned by over 8,000 seamen and galley slaves, and Iw.ving aboard a;pprox. 20,000 soldiers. Ii was commanded by Medinia Sidonia .

The English fleet consisted of eighty comparatively small ships, manned by 9, 000 seamen, under the command afLord Howard, assisted. by Drake, Frobisher, and Hawkins.

The Almada was to sail to Dunkirk, and protect the Dulce of Parma 's army of 30,000 in. us /)(lssoge. across the English Channel into England.

The Armada, wiled .Invincible to strike terror in the English, set sail for the invasion of En.glnnd 011 Saturday, 18 May 1588,frorn Lisbon. A mnnin.g.fr.glu took place up the Channel from. ju.ly 21 to 27. On. 28 julJr was begun the buUle of Gravelinej, wit.h the sending offire.ships among the r.:;paniards. TheArmada. W(M driven ot!! a/the Channel into the North Sea, bu: the English had to a.bandon the pursuit an 1 August because ofa shortage of powder.

171e rout q/ the Armada is described for us by Robert Carey, (~young cOUltier iniolued. in the ruual. action, who notes the part played in the final outcome by the lack of munition and of the storm.

In. studying theAge ofEl.izabeth one is arrested by a contrast between the SO'I!ereibYfL IS public and prluare trails. A friendly historian: can make her ous the noblest of rulers; a hostile lustoiian can make her out the meanest of 'women. Her personal character was soiled. by much. that was pettyr, sordid and dishonouroble (ef Doc. 64.); yet she sMw.ed genuine devotion to England's national interests. As proofthai she possessed the qualities whichfit a person. to govern, {L speech at Tilbury is gillen (See also Doc. 69.).

Elizabeth's insi: to the Earl of Leicester's camp at Tilbury before the attack of tlie Spanish:

Arnuula is among the [amous episodes of British history. She there addressed the troops in the following uords, disclosing a sense 0/ unity with her subjects:

134

135

The next year lie 15881Lhe King of Spain's great Armada came upon OUI" coast, thinking to devour us all. Upon the news sent to court from Plyrnouth oI their certain arrival, my Lord Cumberland lie George Clifford who commanded one of the Queen's ships against the Armada] and myself look post horse and rode straight Lo Portsmouth, where We fOlllld a frigate that carried us to sea; and having sought fa]' the fleets a whole clay, the night after we fell amongst them. where it was our fortune to light first on the Spanish Ileet; and finding all rselves in the wrong, we lacked about and in some short rime got to au r own fleet, which was not far from the other ...

lt was on Thursday that we came to the lIeet. All that day we followed close the Spanish Armada, and nothing was attempted on either side; the same course we held all Friday and Saturday, by which time the Spanish lleet cast anchor just before Calais. We likewise did the same, a very small distance behind them, and so continued till Monday morning about two of the clock; in which time our council of war had provided six old hulks, and stuffed them. full of all combustible matter fit Ior burning and on Monday at two in the morning they were let loose, with eacb of them a man in her to direct them, The tide serving, they broughtthern very near the Spanish fleet, so that they could not LI1iss to CODle amongst the midst of them; then they set fire on them and came off themselves, having each of them a little boat to bring him off, The ships set on fire came so directly to the Spanish fleet as they had no way to avoid them hut to cut ali their hawsers and so escape; and their baste was such that they .lcf one of their four great gnlleasscs on ground before Calais which our meri took. and had the spoil of, where many of the Spaniards were slain with the GovemouT thereof, but most of them were saved with wading ashore to Calais. They being in this disorder, we made .rcady to follow them, where began a cruel fight, and we Iiad such advantage I oth of wind and tide as we had a glorious day of them, continuing fight from four o'clock.in the morning till almosL uve or six at night, where they lost a dozen or fourteen of their best ships, some sunk, and the rest ran ashore in divers parts to. keep themselves from sinking.

After God had given us this great victory they m~de all the haste they could away and we followed them Tuesday and Wednesday, by which time they were gotten as far as .Flamborough Head. It was resolved on Wednesday at night thal by {am' u'clock on Thursday we should have a new fight with them for a farewell; but by two in the morning there was a tIa~ of council hung out in our Vice-Admiral when it was found that in the whole fleet there was not munition sufficient to make half a fight; and therefore it was there conclud d lhal we should let them pass, and our fleet to return to the Downs. That night we parted with them we had a mighty storm, Our fleet cast anchor and endured it but the Spanish fleet, wanting their anchors, were many of them cast ashore on the west of Ireland, where they had all their throats cut.i. and some of them ali Scotland, where they Were no better used; and the rest (with much ado) got into Spain again, Thus did God bless us and gave victory over this invincible navy; the sea calmed and all our snips came to the Downs on Friday in safety" ..

(Source: Memoirs of Robert Cary, Earl ofMonmouiii, Written by HI:mself(Edinburgh: Archibald Constable, 1808): 15-19).

67. DZIALYNSKI'S AUDIENCE WITH ELIZABETH, 1597

II. was during the audience Elizabeth gave to Paulus [alene (Peuoe! Dzia,IYllski), arnbussador of Sigismund Vas(.l, the newl" elected: King of Poland, thea the Queen gave her most [amous sample of her high spirits - at the age of64 - ond fluera powers of scot cling extemporaneously in Latin.

Eiizabeth: prepared herse!! to receive DzialJllski with great solemnity, ill the presence of her cour/. arul council, otu. of respect _for the Polish King's father, the late king of Sweeten, who ha,a been. (L suuorfor her hand.

What EliZ(~beth though: would be (J. ·very complimen.tary message, turned (HGt to be neither more or less than. a bold remonstrance against Elizabeth's assumption. of maruime superiority ouer other nations. Dzin:tYllski made threats that his muster uiould. punish her ifshe di(l not comply with his demands. At such (m affront, Elizabeth, leaping from. her throne, and thrusting aside her Lord *Chanceilor, uihose place it was to respond, broke out in Latin, in thefolloluing extempore rejoiruler, exclaiming afienuards w her lords: "God's deaih; my lords! I liaue been ell/arced this cluy to scow up Itty old Latin, that hath lain long in rusting. "

llookcd for an embassy; hut.you have brought a complaint to me. 1 understand by your letters that you were a legate, hutI find you a hera1d. Never in :11l:y life have 1 heard such all oration. I marvel at so greaLand such unaccustomed boldness in a public assembly,

Neither do I think, if your King were present, that be would say so much. lIut if hy chance he did commit any SUCll tlling La your charge (which I surely milch douht) this is the reason: that where the King is young, and not by blood, but by election, and newly elected, he does not so perfectly understand the course of dealing in such businesses will'] other princes, whicn either llis ancestors have observed with us, OI" perhaps others will observe that afterward shall succeed in his place. For your part you seem to me La have read many books, bUI not to hav come to the books of princes. but altogether to be ignorant what is to be observed between kings . .But were it not for the place you hold, to have so public an imputation Ull"OWl1 upon OIl!' justice, which as yet never failed, we would answer this audacity of you.!"::; in another style ...

(Modornised from Agnes Strickland, Memoirs of Elizabeth, Second Queen Regnant of England and Ireland [Philadelphia: Blanchard and Lea, 1853): 508-9),

Due to five consecutive.bad harvests leading 10'W economic recession,

1598, the POOl' Law Act (Doc. 68.) is passed io deal with problems created by poverty and social distress.

68. POOR LAW ACT, 1598

Tomatoes, initially grown as ornamental plants, arc introduced, 1596, into Britain.

July 1597, Pawel Dzialyriski's infamous audience with I~LlZABETH (Doc .. 67.).

In medieval England the care oj the helpless poor was undertaken: by the lords of the *manors, the parociual clergy,. the monasteries, ruui in the case of poor craftsmen I)y th.e trade guilds. After the "Bleck. Death in 134.9 the stu1Ji7ling labourers refused to work except at higher 'Wages. By the "Suuiue a/Labourers of the year /351 ari attempt WQS made to [orce all able-bodied men to work, (Ul.d almsgiving 1.0 "sturdy" or "valiant" beggars was jbrbidden. By the nc: of 1388 the labourer iuas [orbiddet: to leave his place of service; impotent begga.r; were to seek a rnmn.lenan.ce with.in their '*hul1<ireds, or in the places where they were bom. In the acts of 1495 suid. 1504 it was further proouied that begg(U~ shouid. be "sent to the place where they were born, or hnue eLwelt, or art': bes: known, to support themselves by be&,oing wi1.hin the *hundredll.

In the sixteenth centwy with the destruction qf the monasteries and confiscation of other Church propelty the slate was forced to assume some responsibility. An act of J 536 provided relief for the "impotent poor" but compelled "sturdy beggars" to work. Relief was funded fry voLuntccry subscription and administered by the parish.

In 1552 parish registers of the poor 'Were introduced. The sixteenth centwy poor legislatioti may be said to be summed lip ;,n the Poor Lasu of 1598, a measure reenacted in 1601 and not formally repealed until the nineteenth century (1834). The principal objeciioes of the aci. are [ound. ill the folio wing introductory section.

One interesting by-product of the Tudor poor law was the adaptation of the ecclesiastical pari.sh to secular uses; it replaced the old *hundreds, *tithfTlg and townships as the smallest unit of local government.

Be it enacted by tile authority of this Present Parliament that the churchwardens of every parish and (our substantial Jiouseholden, there ... , who shall be nominated yearly in Easter IV .ek under the hand and seal of two or more "justices of the peace in the same county ... dwelling In or near the same parish, shall be called overseers of the poor of the same parish; and they, or the greateJ: part of them, shall take order from time to time, by and with the consent of two or more such "justices of the peace, for setting to work of the children of all such whose parents shall not by the said persons be thought able to keep and maintain their children; and also all such persons married and unmarried as, having no means to maintain them, use no ordinary and daily trade of life to get their living by; and also to raise weekly or otherwise, by taxation of every inhabitant and every occupier of lands in the said parish in such competent sum and sums of money as they shall think fit, a convenient stock of Ilax, 'hemp, wool, thread. and other necessary ware and stuff to set the poor O[] work, and also competent sums of money for and towards the necessary relief of the lame, impotent, old, blind and such other among them being poor and not able to work, and also for the pntting out of such children lo be apprentices, to be gathered out of the same parish according to the ability of the said parish; and to do and execute all other things, as well for disposing of the said stock as otherwise concerning the premises, as to them shall seem convenient. ...

(Source: Statutes of the Realm, 4: 896.)

In Ireland the Earl of Tyrone leads a rebellion against English rule,

]599, and Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex is sent there as Lord Lieutenant. Essex signs <Ill unauthorized truce with the rebels and returns 10 England without leave, tor which he is deprived (If his offices and banished. Disappointed, he leads an abortive revolt against EUZABETH's advisers, and,

l601, be is executed for treason,

The Parliament demands the abolition or "monopolies, 1601, to which the QUeen consents (Doc. 69,).

69. ELIZABETH'S IIGOLDEN SPEECH" TO THE COMMONS, 1601

111. the Lauer part of Elizabeth's reign sharp protests were voiced against the royn! practice of wanting "monopolies of the sale of established products to certain individuals, either as rewards or for a consideration. This tended to raise the price paid by the consumer. The nuuter was debated in Pnrliament of 1601, and the Queen, sensing popular resentment, was prevailed upon to discontinue some of the existing patents.

136

The following speech, the last speech Elizabeth was to deliver to the House of Comnwns, symbolizes the essential unity of Croum: and Commons, a/queen and people. Few could have doubted Elizabeth's dedication to the welfare of Englishmen, so apparent in this "Golden. Speech. "

In the afternoon, about three of the clock, Borne seven score of the House [of Commons] met al the great chamber before the Council Chamber in Whitehall. At length the Queen came into tbe Council Chamber, where, sitting under the cloth or slate at the upper end, the *Speaker with all the company came in, and after three low reverences made [he delivered his speech] .... And. after three low reverences made, he with the res! kneeled down. and her Majesty began thus to answer herself, viz ....

... Mr "Speaker. we have heard your declaration and perceive your carp of our state, by falling into the consideration or a grateful acknowledgement or such benefits as YOll have' received: and that you r coming is to present thanks unto us, which r accept with no less JOY than your loves can have desire to offer such a present.

I do assure you that there is no prince that loveth his subjects better, or whose love can countervail our love; there is no jewel, be it of never 50 rich a price, which 1 prefer before this jewel, T mean your love, for I do more esteem it than any treasure or riches; for that we know how to prize, but IGVE) and thanks L count inestimable. And though God hath raised me high, yet this I count the glory of my crown, that r have reigned with your loves. This makes me that J do not so much rejoice that God hath made me to be a queen, as to be a queen over so thankful a people. Therefore I have cause to wish nothing more than to content the subject, and thal is a duty which [ owe. Neither do I desire to live looger days, than [hal I may see YOUI prosperity, and that is my only desire. And as I am that person that· still, yet under God, hath delivered you, so I trust by the almighty [loweL of God that I still shall be his instrument to preserve you from e[]V)', peril, dishonour, shame, tyranny and oppression, partly by means of your intended helps, which we take very acceptably, because it manifesteth the largeness of your loves and loyalties unto your sovereign.

or myself I must say this: I never was any greedy, scraping gra~peT, nor a strait fie strict] [ast- holding prince, nor Yl1t a waster; my heart was never set on worldly goods, but only for my subjects! good. W11at you do bestow on me, I will not hoard it IlP but receive it to bestow on yon again. Yea, mine own properties T count yours, to be expended for your good ....

r know the title of a Icing is a glorious title; but assure yourself that the shining glary of princely authority hath not 50 dazzled the eyes of our understanding but that we well know and remember that we. also are to yield an account of our actions before the great judge, To be a king and wear a crown is more glorious to them that see it t11Bn it is pleasure to them that bear it. For myself, I was never so much enticed with the glorious name of a king, or royal authority of a queen, as delighted that God hath made me. His instrument to maintain His truth and glory, and to defend this Kingdom (as I said) from peril, dishonour, tyranny and oppression, There will never queeIL sit in my seat with. more zeal to my country, or care [0 my subjects, and that will sooner, with willingness, yield and venture herIife for your good and. safety than myself. And though you have had, and may have, many princes more mighty and wise, sitting in this. seat, yet Y0ll_ never had or shall have, any that will be more careful and loving ....

137

And so I commit you to your best fortunes and further counsels, And I pray you, Mr. Comptroller, Mr. Secretary and you of my Cowlcil, that before these g~ntlemen depart into their countries yOLl bring tbem all to kiss my band.

(Source: Sir Simonds D'Ewes,. The Journals a/all the Parliamerus dUling the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, bothojthe House of Lords and House ojComnwns (London, 1682); 658-60.)

QueenELlZAI3ETH dies on

March 24,1603. and is succeeded by JAMES VI of Scotland as JAMES J of England.

VIII. TJI!E J{oVSP. OP ScrVjIJ1{'T 1603-1714

,JAMES I, rn , Anne of Denmark 1603-1625

I

CHARLES I, rn. Henrietta Mari",

1625-1649 of France

Elizabeth, m .. Frederick V, Elector Palatine

CHARL.ES II Mary, m. Will i am

JAMES II 1695-168a

I

1660-1685 1660-1·685

Prince of Orange

I

I (1)

I (2)

(Roman Catholic Line) rn , Mary of Modena

I

(Prote~tant Line) m. Anne Hyde

I

I

m. MARY II

1689-1694

James Edward Stuart The Old Pre.tender

I

Charles Edward The YO\..l.ng Pretender

WILLIAM III, 1689-1702

ANNE: 1702-1714

70. GENEALOGICAL TABLE OF THE STUART LINE

139

Title Great-grandson ul.Margaret, daughter of Henry VlI Tudor; SOil of Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots ami Henry Smart, Lord DamJey

Succeeded Q/ (he age of 37 (b. 1566) Married: (15BY) Anne of Denmark

Children: Prince Henry, Charles (future CHARLES !), Elizabeth

Characteristics: JAMES I was a strange combination uf shrewdness and folly, learning <.IlIU ignorance. He was called both the "British Solomon" and "the wisest Iool ill Christendom", Strong believer in "Divine 'Right" of kings (Doc. 6LJ). His policy wax LO govern without Parliament. His personal extravagance - and debts len by ELIZABETH TUDOR - forced him to have recourse to Parliament lor supplies. Bul as the Ct. rnmons, by means of their right to withhold supplies, began to act Oil the principle: "No supplies until grievances are redressed". JAMES raised [fl(HlCY by "impositions. +moncpolies. "benevolences, "purveyance, sal.e of honours ant! titles, and the heavy tines inflicted by the *Star Chamber. The chief causes 01 lAMES l's unpopulari.y were:

1. lacked digni ty ami force of Tudors;

2. opposed the royal "prerogative (or rights) to the rights of Parliament by levying illegal taxes, arnl violently forbidding discussion Dr "remonstrance;

3. apparent leanings to Spain and Catholicism;

4. arrogance or his favourite, Buckingham.

Some JI1cljorjigLlreo' of the reign:

PO/ilics:

George \I ill icrs, lst Duke of Buckingham (IS92-1628), James l's favourite

Lltnratur«:

Francis Bacon (1.561·1626), philosopher and stalesman SiJ' Walter Raleigh (? 1552-1(18), writer, sailor

Ben JOIlSOJ] (1572- I 637). dramatist and poet

ln his diet and apparel and journeys he was very constant; in his apparel so constant as by his good will he would never change his clothes until WOrn out to very rags: his fashion, never ....

He was very witty and had as many ready witty jests as any man living, at which he would not smile himself, but deliver them in a grave and a serious manner. He was very Liberal of what he had not in his own gripe, and would rather part with 100 pounds he never had in his keeping than one twenty "shillings piece within his own custody ....

(Source: Anthony Weldon, The Court and Character of King james in George Smeeton, ed., Historical and Biographical Tracts, vol, 1., no 5. (London, 1817): 164-75.)

1603-1625, Reign onAMES I (22 years)

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141

ELlZABETH TUDOR leaves no heir, so JAMES 1- already JAlvrES VI of SCOIS since 1568 - is accepted by English Parliament as King of England, t1lUS.

1603. peacefully uniting Englund and Scotland under OITe Crown.

Parliaments continue separate till 1707.

There are three strongly marked religious parties in England at this. time: the *Epis~upali.ans, who wish matters in the Church to remain M ELIZABETH TUDOR left them; the "Puritans; the Roman Catholics, who wished to restore the Mass and the Pope's power in England.

The *M.illenary Petition (Doc. 72.) was presented.

1603, [0 the King by the "Puritans, demanding the abolition of certain ceremonies in the Church and objecting 10 "pluralities, '"nOIl·resideJlce, and unpreaching ministers,

72. THE MILLENARY PETITION, 1603

Wh.en james J ascended the English tluon« the "Puruans had. hopes that certain reforms in. religion, not attained under Elizabeth, might be effected. With this in mind, they presented to hint a petition euen whUe he WrJ.5 on. his way to London from Scotland. The petition is called the Millenary Petition because it· 'was believed. to cuny at least a thousand signatures.

The document is essentially moderate in tone, and refers to conditions Long regarded as offensive in PU111an eyes. The "Puritans asked for the reform of certain ceremonies and abuses in the Church, 'usul. wanted a simpler raual than Elizabeth had required, and requested a new translasion. of the Bib leo

71. KING JAMES VI OF SC01LAND AND I OF ENGLAND

Most gracious and dread Sovereign, seeing it hath pleased the Divine Majesty. to the great comfort of all good Christians, to advance yOUT Highness, uccording to your just title, to the peaceable government of this church and commorrwealth of England, we, the ministers of the Gospel in this land ... as (he faithful servants of Christ and loyal subjects Of-YOUT Majesty, desiring and longing for the redress of divers abuses o:f the Church, could do no less in our obedience to God, service to your Majesty. love to his Church, than acquaint Y0nT princely Majesty with, our particular griefs .... Our humble suit then unto your Maje.·ty is that, loll these offecces following, some may be removed, some amended, some qualified:

1. III the Church service: that the C1-05S in baptism, interrogatories ministered to Infants, cunflrrnatirm, as superlluous may be taken away. Baptism not to be adnrinistered hy women, and so explained. The cap and surplice 110t urged. That examination may go before the communion. That it be ministered with a sermon. That divers terms of priests anel absolution and some other used, with the ring in marriage, and other such like in the book lie the *Book of Common Prayer] may be corrected. The Iongsomeness of service abridged. Church songs and music moderated La better edification. That the Lord's day lie Sundaj] be not profaned. 11Jf' rest upon holy days not so strictly urgod. That there be an *unilOIh1ity of doctrine

The .following description of King James was "usiuen. and taken by Sir Anthony WI!ldon (d. 1649 ?), being an. eye and eare witnesse ".

He was. of a middle stature, more corpulent through his clothes than in his body, yet fat enough, his clothes ever being made large ana easy.... He was naturally of a timorous disposition, which was the reason for his quilted doublets; his eyes large, ever [Oiling after any stranger came in his presence, insomuch as many for shame have !eft the room, as' being OUL of countenance. His heard was very thin, Ius tongue loa large for his mouth, which ever made him speak full in the mouth, and made him drink very uncomely, as if eating his drink, which came. out into the cup of each side of his mouth. His skin was as soft as taffeta sarsnet, which felt so because he never washed llis hands. only rubbed lis _finger ends sJjghtly with rhr- wet end of a napkin. His legs were very weak ... ; that weakness made him ever leaning on other men's shouiders ....

prescribed. No popish opinion Lo be any more taught or defended, no ministers charged to teach their people to bow at the name of Jesus. That the canonical Scriptures only be read in the church.

IT. Concerning Church rmmsters: that none hereafter be ad-mitted into the rmrustry but able and sufficient men, and those to preach diligently, and especially UpOD the Lord's day. That such as be already entered and cannot preach may either be removed and some charitable course taken with them for their relief, DI' else to be forced, according 10 the value of their livings, to maintain preachers. That "non-residency be not permitted. That King Edward's "statute [or the lawfulness of ministers' marriage be revived ....

These, with such other abuses yet remaining and practised in the Church of EngJand, we are able to show not to be agreeable. to the Scriptures. if it shall please your Highness further to hear us, or more at Large by writing to be informed, OJ' by conference among the learned to be resolved. And yet we doubt not but that without any further process your Majesty (of whose Christian judgement we have received so good a taste already) is able of yourself to judge of lite equity of this caus . God, we trust, hath. appointed Y0ul' Highness our physician to heal these diseases ....

(Abridged from: Thomas Fuller, Church History of Britain (London: Jolm Williams, 1655), Book X: 22-23).

The Hampton Court Conference (Doc. 73.).

16M, is the outcome of [he Millenary Petition, and its object is !O "seule the disputes between the +Eplscopsjlans and the *PuLilans." but very liule is done to satisfy their objections, JAMES I declaring thut he would "make them [ie the *Puritans] conform ... or harry them out of the land".

73. THE HAMPTON COURT CONFERENCE, 1604

In answer to the *Millenary Petitwn, James 1 called a conference at the royal palace of Hampton Court, at which representatives (four in number) of the *Puritans were given. an opportunity to debate with the * Episcopalians.

Though the Petition aim.ed at no significant changes in Church gouemmeru: James - who was very vain of his theological learning and joined in the discussions - got the impression from. the debate that a changeover 1,0 "Presbyterianism. 'was being sought; as a result he denied virtually the whole petition, except jar the request for a new version of the Scriptures in Engli:;h.

Like Elizabeth Tudor, James looked: upon the tenets of the "Puritans as dangerous to the monarchical auth01ity. Denouncing sternly the *Presbyterian system as incompatible with monarchy, James virtually declared war on his Ptuuan. subjects by insisting that they would either conform. to the Church as €Stab lished or be driven.iivm the land. Since man:)! members of the House of Commons sympathized: with the *Run:utns, the religious factor entered the struggle now beginning between King and Parliament.

Beloio are printed excerpts from. the proceedings of the Hampton Court Conference usiuen. by William Barlow (d. 1613). Barlow, Bishop of Rochester, an.d later of Lincoln; was one of the representatives Qf the, High Church party in the Cor~ference. Dr. Reynolds, a * Puritan; was one of the most learned dioines of the time:

Then he [Dr. Reynolds] desireth, that according 1.0 certain provincial constitutions, they of the clergy might have meetings once every three weeks; first in rural deaneries, and therein to

142

have prophesying lie discussion of religious subjects] ... ; 2. that such things as could not be resolved upon there might be referred to tho archdeacon's visitation; and so 3. from thence to the episcopal synod, where the bishop with his presbyters lie priests; ministers below bishops and above deacons] should determine all such points as before could not be decided.

At which speech, his Majesty ric James 1] was somewhat stirred, yet, which is admirable in him, without passion or show thereof; thinking that they aimed at a Scottish presbytery, "which," saith he, "as well agree til with a monarchy as God and the Devil. Then lack and Tom and Will and Diek shall meet, and at their pleasure censure me and my Council and all our proceedings, Then Will shall stand up and say il must be thus; then Dick shall reply and say nay many, but we will have it thus. And therefore, here I must once reiterate my former speech, La Roy s'tunsera. lie the King will consider: it - a polite negative used in refusing assent to parliamentary legislation] ....

"No bishop, no king, as before 1 said. Neither do I thus speak at random without growld, [or Thave ehservcd since my coming into England that some preachers before me can be content to pray for James, King of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, but as' for Supreme Covernor in all causes and over all persons (as well ecclesiastical as civil) they pass that over with silence; and what cut. they have been of, I after learned". After this, asking them if they bad any more to object, and Dr. Reynolds answering, No, his Majesty appointed the next Wednesday for both parties to .meet before him, and rising from his chair, as he was going to his inner chamber, II If this be all", quoth he, "that they have- to say, r shall make tbem'conform themselves or I will harry them out of the land, or else do worse." ....

(Abridged and modernized from: William Barlow, The Summe and Substance of the Conference. ... at Hampton Court (London: J. Windet [or M. Law, 1604): 78-83.)

Religious differences lieat the foundations of the conspiracies against JAMES 1. The Main or Cnbharn's Plot, 1603, is to dethrone JAMES land place Arabella Stuart on the throne, The Surprise or Bye Plot,

l603, aims at seizing the King and obtaining from him toleration for Roman Catholics.

The Roman Catholics, failing to obtain religious toleration from .r ames, form a plot,

1605. called the Gunpowder Pial, lead by Robert Catesby, Fawkes, and others, to destroy the King and Parliament M d re-establish the Roman Catholic Religion. The plot is discovered by means of a mysterious letter, sen t tu a Catholic M.P. warning him not to attend Parliament. JAMES I, on seeing the.letter, orders a search to be made and Guy Fawkes is.discovered in a vault under the Houses of Parliament with thirty-six. barrels of gun-powder stacked "cady ro be fired.

RESUL 'rs. Some of the conspirators. including Catcsby, are killed al Holbeach House, whither they lledafter the discovery of the plot; others, including Fawkes, ate seized and perish all the scaffold. Very severe laws are passed against the Roman Catholics: in one year, as rnany as 6,000 Roman Catholic *recusants are punished.

]604-1611 JAMESl's First Parliament meets and asserts: 1604, its right to control its own elections (the Goodwin Case);

1604, the-right of its members La freedomfrom arrest (the Shirley Case);

1604, that its privileges are "of right and not grace" (The Apology of the Commons, (604).

Being refused any money by Parliament JAMES raises money by * impositi ons, This is challenged,

1606. by "Bate's Case, but leads only LO the issue, 1608 .. ofa revised Book of Rates. The Commons

1610, refuse to give JAMES I money Li.1I he has given up

"'imposillQns. The Great Contract between the King and Commons is drawn, but never concluded.

143

74,. DIVINE RIGHT OF KINGS, 1610

James I and his son, ChaTles 1, are nwre closely identified with the theory' of divine right of killgs than any other English monarchs. 1J1£ doctrine Iuul existed long before their day, but James I in pcuticular defined and expounded it as u. practical basis of government.

Five year.; bifole his accession. to the throne of England, james had expounded his theory of government in. his "True Law of Free Monarchies '', meaning by a "free /I monarchy one in which the monarch was free from any lega! restraint. f n this treatise he claimed tho: the Icing 'was abov« the law since he was its author. A Icing observed the law only because of his goodwill and desire to set his subjects a good example, In this theory there was no place for either the law of the land or the autlu;uity of parliament if either conflicted with the royal will.

The theory of the divine right of kings as set forth by [ames I and apparentl)' accepted by Charles / helped to open a gulf between them and their parliaments tha: led to the outbreak of civil ioarin. 7642.

17w following excerpts are from: a speech of March 2, 1610, in which James I explained his theory of government to Parliament.

... The state of monarchy is the supremest thing upon earth, for kings are not only God IS lieutenants upon earth, and sit upon God's throne, but even by God himself they are called gods. There be three principal similitudes that illustrate the state of monarchy: one taken OILt of the word of God, and the two other out of the grounds of policy and philosophy, 111 the Scriptures kings are called gods, and so their power after a certain relation compared to the divine power. Kiugs are alsocompared to fathers of families, for 11- Icing is truly parens patriae ric father of Iris country], the politie father of his people. And lastly, kings are compared to the head ... of the body ofman ...

Kings are justly called Gods, for thai they exercise a manner or resemblance of divine power upon earth: for if you will consider the attributes to God, you shall see how they agree in the person of a king .. God hath power to create, or destroy, make or unmake at his pleasure, to give life, or send death, to judge all, and to be judged nor accornptable to none: to raise low things, and to make high things low at his. pleasure, and to God are both soul and body due. And the Like power have lungs .... I conclude then this point touching the power of kings with this axiom of divinity: that as to dispute what God may do is blasphemy, ... 50 it is sedition in subjects to dispute what a king may do in the height of his power .... I will not be content that my power he disputed upon, but I shall ever be willing to make the reason appear of all my doings, and rule my actions according to my laws ....

Now the second general gruund whereof I am Lo speak concerns the matter of grievances .... First, then, I am not to find fault that you inform yourselves of the particular just grievances of the people; nay I must tell YOll, ye can neither be just 110I" faithful to .me or to your countries that trust and empl.oy you, if you do it nOI. •.. BUll wouLd wish you to be careful to avoid three things in the matter of grievances.

First, that you do not meddle with the main points of government: that is my craft. .. : to meddle with that were to lesson me. 1 am 11.0W an old king ... 1 must not be taught my office.

Secondly, r would not have you meddle with such ancient rights of mine as I have received from my predecessors ... : such things I would be sorry should be accounted for grievances. All novelties are dangerous, as well in a politic as in a natural body; and therefore

144

1 would be loath to be quarrelled in my ancient rights and possessions, em' thai were to judge me unworthy of that which my predecessors had and left me.

And lastly, I pray you beware to exhibit for grievance anything that is established by a settled Iaw, and whereunto (as you have already had a proof) you know l will never give a plausible [ie approving] answer; for it is an undutiful part in subjects to pTess their king, wherein they know beforehand he will refuse them. Now, if any law or "'statute be nut convenient, let it be amended hy Parliament. but in the meantime term it not a f7iev ancc ; for to be grieved with the laws is to be grieved with the Icing, who is sworn to be the patron and maintainer thereof. ...

(Abridged and modernized from 17w Work~ o/the Mos; High and Mightie Prince, James.

Ed. by James BisllOp of Winton (London: R. Barker and J. Bill, 16] 6): 529-537}.

Aller forty-seven ministers are engaged ill (he work of for three years,

1611. the new, "Authorized", version of the English Bible is published. It is virtually the only outcome ot' (he =Millenary Petition and the =Hampton Court Cnnfereuce.

The Order of * Baronets is: instituted,

1611. and the title is sold to the higher bidder, supplementing JAMES I's income.

JAMES l'.~ Second Parliament, or the "Addled. Parliament. meets

161.4. I L is peopled by the "undertakers" lie those who "undertake" to manage the Commons for the Ki ng], but it refuses to grant a supply till the *imposilionsa.re discontinued.

The Rule of Favourites begins

1612. On the death of Robert Cecil, Earl of Salisbury, Robert Call', Viscount Rochester (afterwards Earl of Somerset), becomes [be King's chief adviser, Somerset subsequently is convicted for murder and disgraced at Court (1616).

1616, George Villiers, afterwards Duke of Buckingham. becomes the Kin g's chid favourite.

The: Pilgrim Fathers, a group of t20 =Purnans,

1620. leave England and sail in the "Mayflower" for America to round it colony at.New Plymouth. .

1621. January- 1622, January 6, JAMES I's Thud Parliament meets. The Commons attack the +monopclics and the corruption or justice, selecting Lord Francis Bacon as their victim (Doc. 75.).

75. BACON1S "IDOLS", 1620

Fnuicis flacon (1561-1 626} was lL true "man of the Renaissance II. He was a man ofaffairs as well (IS a man of leuers and n philosopll£r. He attained the high office of Lord *Chan.cellor under james 1, but was *impeadwd and found guilty oftaki.ng bribes, and died in disgrace.

His reputation rests hugely all. his works as a philosopher of scientific method. Bacon attaclc~d the deductive nuuhods 0/ scholasticism and formulated /1.C'W principles of aequuiug true tuul. usefu.l knowledge of the world through empiricism. He insisted on the necessity of direct observation of nature as the only way to know tnt/A Below are gi,ven parts of Bacon's Novum Organtcm uihsr« Bacon. desclibed "ulols" (from a Greek word signifying pluuuom}; by w.hich he meani erroneous opinions and conceptions which obstrttcted the advancement of knowledge.

The idols and false notions which have already preoccupied the human understanding, and are deeply rooted ill it, not only so besotmeu's mindsthat they become dillicult.or au~ess, but even when access is obtained will again meet and trouble us in the instnurutinn 01 the sciences. unless mankind when Iorewarned !!;uaId themselves with ali possible care against

them.

145

December Hi21, the Cum mons voice a "protest" concerning the freedom of speech (Dot. 76).

JAM'ES 1'$ Fourth Parliament meets,

1624. War is declared with Spain, and "'subsidies voted to carry it on. *Mol1opolies are declared illegal.

1625, Death oJ .lAMES).

(Source: Francis Bacon, Advancement of Learning and Nouuni Organum in The World's Great Classics (New York, 1899), 319-320).

On the *dissolution of the Parliament, several of the leading members of the House ql Commons inciudin <Y Pym and Coke were imprisoned.

The' Commo~s now assembled in Parliament, being justly occasioned thereunto

concerning sundry liberties, *franchises and privileges of Parliament, amongst others here mentioned, do make this pl'olestation following:

That U1C liberties, *franchises, privileges and jurisdictions o£ Parliament are the ancient

and undoubted birthright and inheri tan ce of the subjects of England; .,

and that the arduous and urgent affairs concerning the King, state, and defence of the l'ealm and of (he Church of England, and the maintenance and making of laws. and redress of mischiefs and grievances which daily happen within this realm, are. proper subjects and matter of" counsel and debate in Parliament;

and that in t11(0: handling and proceeding of these businesses every Member of the Rouse of Parliament hath and of light oughr to 11ave, freedom of speech to propound, treat, reason, and bring to conclusion the same;

and that the Commons in Parliament have like liberty and freedom to treat of these

matters in such order as in their judgements shall seem fittest;

and that every Member of the said House hath like freedom from a~ *impeachme.nt, imprisonment, and molestation (other than by censure of the .House itself) lor or concerrnng any speaking, reasoning, or declaring of any matter or matters touching the Pa.rliament or Parliarnent-business;

and that if any of the said Members be complained of and questioned for anything done or said in Parliament, tllc same is to be showed to the King by the advice and assent of all the Commons assembled in Parliament, before the King give credence to any private in Iorrnati on . (Printed in John Hnslrworth, ed., Historicai Collections ofPrioote Passages of Suue, Weighty Matter.; in Lou), Remarkable Proceedings in Five Parliaments, 6 vols, (London: 1. A.for R. Boutler, 1680-1701), 1: 53).

Four species if idols beset the human mind, to which (for distinction's sake) we have assigned names, calling the first Idols of the Tribe, the second Idols of the Den, the third Idols of the Market, the fourth Idols of the Theatre ....

The Idols of the Tribe are inherent in human nature and the very tribe or race of man; for man's sense is falsely asserted to be the standard of things; on the contrary, all the perceptions both of the senses and the mind bear reference to man and not to the universe, and the human' mind resembles those uneven mirrors which impart their own properties to different objects, (rom which .rays are emitted and distort and disfigure them.

The Idols of the Den are those of each individual; for everybody (in addition to the errors com man to the race of man) has his Own individual den or cavern, which intercepts and corrupts the light of nature, either lrorn his own peculiar and singular disposition, OT from his education and intercourse with others, or Erom his reading, and the authority acquired by those whom he reverences and admires...,

There arc also idols formed by the reciprocal intercourse and society of man with man, whi ·h we call Idols of the Market, [rom the commerce and association of men witb each other; [or men converse by means of Ianguage, but words are formed at the will of the generality, and there arises from a bad and unapt formation of words a wonderful obstruction tn the mind, .. , words ... force the understanding, throw everything into confusion, and lead mankind into vain and innumerable controversies and fallacies.

Lastly, there are idols which have crept inlo men's minds from the various dogmas of peculiar systems of philosophy, and .also from the perverted rules of demonstration, and these we denominate Idols of the Theatre: for we regard all the systems of philosophy hitherto received or imagined, as 15.0 many plays brought our and performed, creating fictitious and theatrical worlds ... ,

76. THE PROTESTATION OF TIlE COMMONS, 1621

In November 1621, the contest between James J and (lommons reached us crisis. The negotiati.om, then pending .for a marriage between james's son, Prince Charles, and the Spanish Infanta, excited strong fears in the House that the whole work of the Protestant Reformauati might be' undone if Caiholic Spain and England were thus united, A petition against the match was proposed, The King 'Wrote an uritaung letter to the * Speaker, commanding the House not to meddle with offair.; of state, nor ·to speak of the Spanish match. 17w House remonstrated; [ames replied, and threaiened the leaders of the opposition with the Touier. At this the spirit of the Commons rose, and lhey recorded in the [oumals of the. House of Commons (December 18, 1621) a protest, claiming:

a) thai theirpriuileges were not the gift of the Crown, but the natant! birthright of English

subjecl£;

b) that matters of public interest 'were 'proper subjects for them. to discuss;

c) that they fwd a righ.t to libelty of speech.

The following day, James with his own hand tore this resolution out of the journals, and (L(ljoumed the Parliament, which he dissolved on January 6.

147

146

162S.1649,Reign ofCHARLltSl (24 years)

Title: son of JAMES 1 Smart Succeeded at tile age of: 25 (b. 1600)

Married: (1624) Henrietta Maria, sister of Louis Xlll off/ranee Children: CHARLES II, JAMES II, Mary

Characteristics: Personally ~l great improvement over his father, but unreliable and unwise, He held his father's exalted notions of "divine right theory of kingship, and he showed JAMES's weakness for .selecting unworthy favourites. Although he was religious by nature and was a kind husband and devoted father, nevenheless he failed as. a king cine to his systematic duplicity and insincerity. He WHS a. "political Jesuit": thoroughly convinced. that his end was good, he believed himself warranted in Il~ing any.means to attain it Unpopular from (he beginning because of:

1. marriage with aFrench Catholic Princess;

2. retention of Buckingham, hated favourite of JAMES I.

Majorjigu/"es of the reign:

Politics:

Thomas Wentworth 0593-1641), minister of Charles [ William Laud ("1573.-1645), Archbishop Of Canterbury John Pym (?1584-164.3), parliamentary statesman

Literature:

Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), political theorist

77. KING CHARLES I

The following descriptian. of Charles I was given by Sir Philip Warwick (1609-1683), from 1647 one ,«Charles I's secretaries.

His deportment was very majestic, for he would not let fa] his dignity, no, not to the greatest foreigners that came to visit him. at his court; for though he was far from pride, yet he was careful of majesty and would be approached with respect and reverence. His conversation was free, and the subject matter of it. .. was most commonly rational, Of iffacetious, not light. With any artist or good mechanic, traveller or scholar he would discourse freely, and as he was commonly improved by them, so he often gave light to them in their own art Of k.nowledge, For there were few gentlemen in the world that knew more of useful or necessary learning than this prince did; and yet his proportion of books was but small. having like Francis the first ofFrauoe learnt more by the ear than by study. His way of arguing was very civil and patient, for he seldom contradicted another by his authority, but by his reason; nor did he by any petulant dislike qrrash another's arguments, and he offered his exception by this civil introduction, By your Iavour, Sir, I think otherwise on this or that ground: yet he would discountenance any bol.d or forward address unto him .. ,.,

.148

His exercises of religion were most exemplary, [or every morning early, and evening not very late, single and alone, in 11i6 own bed-chamber or closet .he spent some "lime in private prayer ....

(Source: Sir Philip Warwick, Memoirs of the Reigne oj King Charles I (London: Hi C.hisweli, l70I); 64-66.}

CHARLES I's First Parliament,

1625. grants two "subsidies li~ en 140,000 pounds] to carry On the war with Spain declared in

1624 because of: a. the l~fusal of Spain [0 help Frederick, husband of JAMES Is d,iughte:r. Elizabeth. to win back the Palatinate he had lost upnn theoutbreak of the Thirty Years' War;

b. the. failure of the negoriations for the marriage between CHARLES and [he Infanta.

Parliament refuses to graJIt further supplies without a redress of religions grievances and a strict account of the lasr "subsidies (gnmted in 1(24), and is dissolved,

1626. CHARLES I's Second Parliament. BUCKingham, the former favourite of .fAI\1ES I, is atracked and L~ to be dismissed by "impeachrnent, but lhe King dissolves the Parliament on

June 15, 1626, before it passes a sillgle act or voles a single =subsidy. To carryon the war with Spain, CHARLES raises money by levying Iorced louns, "benevolences, and customs without the authority of Parliament.

The difficulties of Cl-lARL~S are increased by a war with rl1lDCe,

1627·8, arising out of a personal pique between Cardinal Richelieu, the great French minister, and BUCkingham. Hi28, CHARLES l's Third Parliament. The. +Petltion of Right (Doc. 78.) stales the grievances under which the country was then suffering. The King, being inb'TCHt !inandailliffimlty, accepts the Petition (Doc. 79.).

78. THE PETITION OF RIGHT, 1628

The Peutio« (d'Right, which Charles I very reluctan#y accepted from Parliament on June 7, 1628, is one of thelamotls documents in the hi!itol'Y of the long .¥truggle in England to limit royal pouier. Along with the *Magll(l Carta (Doc. 32.) and the later ""Bill a/Rights (1689; Doc, 103.), it is sometimes sa.id to [orm. the; tri.nity of basic constitutional documents that William Piu, Lord Chatham; called the "Bible cfthe English constitution II.

Like the *Magflct Carta and the *Bill of l?i.ghts, the P-etition. is severely practical in. n.o,ture: it listed and condemned spe.c~fic actions of i.h.e King without. enunciating general principles of government.

The Petition of Right requested that:

J. no man be compelled: to pay loan, "beneoalence, or ta." leoied without consent of Parliament, 2 . no subject beimprisoneti ioithou; cause shown,

3, soldiers and sailor: be not *billeted in. priua;« houses, 4. n.o person be tried by nuutiol laso.

in general, it contended that the King should gcuertiaccording to law, and not. according to his own arbitrary whims.

By accepting the Petition, Charles Lsuued, he had only confirmed. the ancient liberties. of his subjects without granting any new ones; and dwing the eleven years of his personai rule (1629-1MO), the Petition seen~s to have had liule effect on reyal power in so vital an area as taxation. Yet by osserting formaliy the ,wpremar.y of the lmv in important fields ojgollemmen.t, the Peuuoii of Right circumscribed to some degree the ve!'), strong manal'Chy that had descendedfrom. the Tudors to the Suuuts.

The Commons rejoicing in. this second great charter of EngLish liberty, gave Charles five *subsidies (ca 350,OOOpowuis).

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The.Peution: was drawn by the leaders o/the Constiuuionalpany, Sir Edward Colee, fohn Pym. and Sir Thomas Wentwmth.

To the King's most excellent Majesty:

l:l umbly show unto our Sovereign Lord the King, the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons in Parliament assembled, that whereas it is declared and enacted by a "statute made in the time of the reign of King Edward the First [see Doc. 36.] ... that [JO "tallage or * aid should be laid or levied by the King or his heirs in this realm, without the good win and assent of the Archbishops, Bishops, *Ea:rls, "Barons, *Knights, "Burgesses, and other the freemen of the commonalty of this realm ... yet nevertheless ... your people have been ... required to lend certain sums of money unto your Majesty, and many of them upon their refusal so to do, have had au oath administered unto them, ... and have been constrained to become bound to make appearance and give attendance before your Privy Council ... and others of them have been therefore imprisoned, confined and sundry other ways molested and disquieted; ....

And where also, by the *statute called .the Great Charter of the Liberties of England [Cf Doc . .34., article 391 it is declared and enacted that no freeman may be taken or imprisoned, or be disseised af his "freehold or liberties or his free customs, or be *outlawed or exiled or in any manner destroyed, but by the lawful judgement of his *peers 01' by the law of the land ... : nevertheless ... divers of your subjects have of late been imprisoned without any cause sh.owed;and when for their deliverance they were brought before your *justices by your Majesty's *writs on *habeas corpus, there to undergo and receive as the court should order, and their keepers commanded to cer.tify the causes of their detainer, no cause was certified but that they were detained by your Majesty's special command, signified by the lords of your Privy Council; and yet were returned back to several prisons without being .: charged with anything to which they might make answer according to the law.

And whereas of late great companies of soldiers and mariners have been dispersed into divers counties of the realm, and the inhabitants against their will have been compelled to receive them into their houses ... against the laws and customs of this realm, and, to the great grievances and vexation of the people.

And whereas also by authority of Parliament, in the five and twentieth year of the reign of ICing Edward the Third, it is declared and enacted that no man should be forejudged of life cr limb against the form of the Great Charter, and the law of the land: and by the said Great

Charter , no man ought to be adjudged to death but by the laws established in this your

realm ; nevertheless ... certain persons have been assigned and appointed Commissioners

with power and authority to proceed within the land, according to the justice of martial law against such soldiers or mariners, or other dissolute persons joining with them, as should commit any murder, robbery, felony, mutiny, or other outrage or misdemeanour whatsoever, and by such summary course and order, as is agreeable to martial law, and as is used in armies in time of war, to proceed to the trial and. condemnation of such offenders, and them to cuuse to be executed and put to death, according to the law martial., .; which commissions and all other of like nature are wholly and directly contrary to the said laws and *statutes of this your realm.

They do therefore humbly pray your Most Excellent Majest)', that no man hereafter be cnmpolled to make or yield any gift. loan, "benevolenoe , tax, or such like charge, without

150

common consent by Act of Parliament. And that none be called to make answer, or take such oath or to give attendance, or be confined, or otherwise molested or disquieted concerning the same, or for refusal thereof, And that no freeman, in any such manner as is before mentioned, be imprisoned or detained. And that your MajeslY would be pleased to remove the said soldiers and mariners ....

And that the aforesaid commissions for proceeding by martial Iaw, may be revoked and annulled. And that hereafter no commissions of like nature may issue forth to any person or persons whatsoever, to be executed as aforesaid, lest by colour of them any of your Majesty's subjects be destroyed 01' put 10 death, contrary to the laws and *franchise of the land.

An which they most humbly pray of your Most Excellent Majesty, as their rights and liberties according to the laws and *statutes of this rerum; and that your Majesty would also vouchsafe to declare that the awards, doings and proceedings to the prejudice of your people in an)' of the premises shall not be drawn hereafter into consequence OJ example; and that your Majesty would be also graciously pleased, for the further comfort and safety of your people, to declare your royal will and pleasure that in the things aforesaid all your officers and ministers shall serve you according to the laws and "statutes ill this realm, as they tender the honour of your Majesty and the prosperity of this Kingdom.

(3 Car. I, cap. 1.; abridged from Statutes oJthe Realm, 5: 23-24).

79. CHARLES ION THE PETITION OF lfUGHT, 1628

The acceptance a/the "Petaion. a/Right uas folloued. immediately by wrangling between King and Commons regarding the extens to which that document limited the royal taxing pouers, specifically in connection with the import duties knoum: CIS *tunnage a.nd *pounclage, which Jar two hundred years had been regarded as part 0/ the royal revenue.

In. "proroguing Parliament in. 1628, Charles I e.xplicitly 'pointed D1Lt that the Petition did not exietid to these duties. He a7.so made clear that he had not abandoned the "divine right theolY 0/ kingship.

My Lords and Gentlemen:

It may seem strange that 1 come so suddenly to end this session. Wherefore, before 1 gi.ve my assent to the * bills, I win tell you the cause; though I must avow that lowe an account of my actions to none but God alone. It is known to everyone that a while ago the House of Commons gave me a remonstrance [ie The Petition of Right; see Doc. 78.1, bow acceptahle every man may judge, and for the merit of it, I will not Gall that in question; for I am sure no wise man can justify it.

Now, since ram certainly informed that a second remonstrance is preparing lor me, to take away my profit of "tunnage and *poundage (one of the chief maintenance of the Crown) by alleging that I have given away my right thereof by my answer to your petition, this is so prejudicial unto me {hat 1 am forced to end this session some few hours before I meant it, being ... ruling not to receive any more rernonstranoes to which I must give an harsh answer. And since I see that even the House or Commons begins already to make false constructions of what 1 granted in your petition; lest. it mi.ght be worse interpreted in the country, r will now make a declaration concerning the true meaning thereo(

[51

The profession .in both Houses, in lime of bammeri-ng this petition, was by no ways to entrench LLpOTI my * prerogative, saying they had neither intention nor power to hun it. Therefore it must needs be conceived that I have granted no new, but only confirmed the ancient, liberties of my subjects. Yet, to show the clearness of my intentions, that 1 neither repent 1101: mean to recede from anything [ have promised you, r do here declare tbat those things which have been done - whereby men had some cause to suspect the libetty of the subjects L be trenched upon, which indeed was the first and true ground of the petition _ shall not hereafter be drawn into example [or your prejudice; and in time to come - in the word of a king - you shall not have the like cause to complain.

But -as for *tuonage and "poundage, it is a thing 1 cannot want fie be without] and was never intended by you to ask, never meant, I am Btl re by me to grant. To conclude, I command you all that are here to take notice of what I have spoken at. this time, to be true intent and meaning of what I granted YOLI in yow' petition ....

{Abridged from [oumals of the House of Lords, 155 vols. (London: H. M. is Stationery Ofrice)' 3: 879).

Buckingham is assassinated,

August 1628, by an officer who had been refused promotion in the army. The act causes rejoicing in the country, but it embitters the King, who,

September J 628, sends to France a lleet that his murdered friend was [0 comrnand. The expedition is a miserable failure.

1629. CHARLE.'3 l's Third Parliament, while in it, Second Session, defies the King's authority passing *Elio['s Resolntinns (Doc. SO.)

80. THE RESOLUTION OF THE COMMONS, 1629.

"ELIOT'S RESOLUTIONS II

When Ch.arles l's Third Parliament reassembled. for its second session, the CommoTlS immediately began to debate the conuouersial subject of "turuuig» an.d "poundage, as well as the even more corurouersia]. issue of religion.

By that time a biuer controversy had: arisen among churchmen. over the *Thilty-Nine Articles of Faith, and. many of the members were concerned over the innovations of the arui-Caluinistic wing of the Church, led by William Loud, ArchbiSlwp of Canterbury, which the King stroTigly supported.

As the King had expressly forbidden that the Parliament should discuss these matters, a scene of tumult occurred in the HO!lse,jor the *Speaker had to beforcibly held in the chair while resolutions - prepared by Sir John Eliot - against illegal taxations and innovations in religion were read and passed.

Parliameni 'Was dissolved by force and its leaders imprisoned. Eliot - one of the ablest and the most estimable of the popular leaders of Charles 1'5 reign. - died in the Toioer in. 1632.

Whosoevcr shall bring in innovation of religion, or by faVOUT or countenance seek re extend or introduce popery or Arm.inianism [which opposed .some Calvinistic doctrines and supported the righl of the stale to control the Church], or other opinion disagreeing from [he l1;IIE and orthodox Cburch, shall be reputed a capital enemy to this l(ingdom and COITl1110nweahh.

152

Whosoever shall counselor advise the taking and levying of the "subsidles of *tunnage and "poundage, not being granted by Parliament, or shall be an actor or instrument therein, shall be likewise reputed an innovator in the government, and a capital enemy to the Kingdom and Commonwealth.

In any merchant or person whatsoever shall voluntarily yicld or pay the said *subsiclies of *tunnage and "poundage, not being granted by Parliament, he shall likewise be- reputed a betrayer or the liberties of England, and an. enemy to the same.

(Printed in 10hn Rusb.worth, Historical Collections, 1.: 660).

1629-1640, The period or personal 11l1e, when CHARLES I rules withoutParliament, During this lime, the King is relying much. upon the advice of two rnen: Thomas Wentworth, who, on Buckingham's death, deserts the popular party, becomingthe King's chief adviser, and,

1633, Lord-Depuey of Ireland, and William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, who strives for *oniformity and opposes *Puritanism_ The combined policies of these two men were called thorough and much of the blame for royal policies is imposed on them. They rule with the help ofthe three tribunals:

- the * Star Chamber, where men resisting the arbitrary policy of the King are.punished;

-1.he *Rigl1Cormnission COUl1, where those who differ in religious opinionsfrom Laud ure tried, and

- the Council of the "Nodb with absolute control over the northern counties.

CHARLES [ continues La collect * tunnage and *poul1dage, but as this tax alone is lnsufficient, he:

-revives an old law that requires every person whose income [rom land is 40 pounds or more 10 be knighted or

to pay a fine;

~£xacLs fines from Roman Catholics;

- invents and sells new "monopolies of trading rights;

- reclaims the ancient forestland.

The levy which arises UH': greates L resentment was a lax, 1634, called *ship money. The legality of the tax is questioned.

1637, by John Hampden, but judgement is given against him (Doc. 81.).

81. SHIP MONEY, 1637.

THE JUDGES' OPINION REGARDING THE LEGALITY OF SHIP MONEY, 1637

Of all the taxes levied by Charles J, ship lnoney was the most notorious. Before a permanent jleet existed, it uas in the power of the King to require. seaports to furnish him with ships in time of war, and maritime counties to supply nwney for their maintenance. The tax dated as far back as the Danish invasions [Cf *Danegeldj. Arguing that there 'was danger.from the Turks, in 1634, Chal-le.s I revived the ship-money, and next year (August 4, 1635) extended it to all inland towns and counties.

It was a small thing; but the spirit of the English nation revolted against, the injustice: it was a war tax levied in time of peace; it ww; laid on inland counties for the ,first time, lastly, it was collected by authority of the King alone.

As there was considerable opposition, Charles obtained from ten of thejudges a general opinion that the levy of ship money from all was ta11!fu.l (in 1635, and another one - given below - in February I637). The opinion was published.

Despite the opinion of the judges, the legality of the tax lOW; questioned, in 1637, by John Hampden, a Buckinghamshire gentlemen; who rrifl.lsed to pay the tax of twenty *shillings imposed on his estate. The King won the case: of the twelve judges seven decided for the Crown, two for Hampden on technical grounds, and three for him. on all counts. But this trial made Hampden "the

153

argr.. unent of all tongues, evelY man enquiring who and what he was that he d t if I . ha

. ~o~~c~

support the Merty and property of the Kingdom and rescue his cOUTU fo b' d

the court ", ".' ry om euzg ma e a prey to

[Charles I's instructions to the judges.]

, ,V:e lie Cbarles 1J .. desirou.s to avoid ... inconveniences, and out of our princely Jove and

affection to all Our' subjects, bemg willing 10 prevent such rrrror t' J' ,

• , . '. . errOIS as any a our .ovrng subjects

may happen to run into, have thought fit III a case of this nature [I'e . ' I' U 1 I'

'. . ,", " . a case LnVO vmg Ie e.ga Ity

~f ship ~noneyJ to advise ~I{lth DlIT judges, who, we doubt not, are all wen studied and informed

ID the nght or OlU' sovereignty. And because lhe trial in our several COUTts by l"l_ r ali' ,

I . eli ']'1" ." ' " fie iorm ty ILl

pea ng, 1'.'1 .require a long protraction we have thought it . I' b thi

'.. '. ' I expedient, y s our letters

du ected t~ you.all, to require your Judgements in the case, as it is SCI down in the enclosed

paper, which will not only gain time but I b I n thnri

. '. . . . . a so e 0 more au ionty to overrule any prejudicate

[ie prematurely conceived] opiruons of others in the point.",

!The Judges' opinion.]

May it p](73Se you]' most excellent Majesty:

We have, according to your Majesty's command - eve b I' II' d all

. ' '. ,ry man Y urnso an of us

together - taken into consideration the case and question signed by M . '1 1 d

" . ' .. ' . ~. your ajesty am enc ose

In YOUI ~oyallette;r, And we are of opmion that, when the good and safety of the IGngdom in

general IS concern,ed. and the whole Kingdom in danger yOUl' Ma" t . b *. de: th. ' jes y may, y writ UIIJ er

e great seal of Enghll1d, command all tile subjects of this your Kin cl t hei h

. '. . g am a ! ell' c arge to

P10Vlcie,_ and fur. I11sh s.uch numh, er of 6h. ips with men munitio d vi ~I.. d 1" I"

.' . •. ~, n an victuats, an. or sue 1 ume

as your Majesty. :>halJ linnk, fit, fOJ' the defence and safeguard of the Kingdom from such

~a~ger and peril; ,and that by law your Majesty may compel the doing thereof in case of

refusal or .. .re Iractori ness. And we are also of opinion that in such case M' . I 1

iud b f .' your ajcsty rs t ie so. e

JU g.e eth a the danger and when and how the same 1'5' to be, "e tId 'd d

pI ven ec all avorde ""

(Abr~dged from: Thomas B. Howell, ed. Complete Collection of State Trials, 2nd edn, 19 vols, (London: R. Bagshaw, 1816-26), 3: 834;.44).

Laud's attempt to force the "Book of Common Prayer On • Presbyterian Sco!laIlu

1637. leads to the First Bishops' War. . ,

1639, which ends with the Pacification of Berwick.

As the Seals continue resolute and defiant, CHARLE.<s determines to send' ,. ,.'. th

funds, the King summons, . . , a new army ag.uust ern. To gel

APl'i,1 1640, his Fourth, or,"Shorl Parliament. but it is dissolved .. • .. ter only three we ks ( M 5) . ,

. '. ' <U . e S on ay a_~ II refuses to

. giant "subsidy WIOlOUl a redress of grievances. " .

M .. e.anwhile, I.lle Scots invade England starling the Second Bishops W, , .J

'. _' ~ s ar, ana,

August 1640, defeat the royal forces ut Newburn. Aware of his critical position 'C'I-lAR' LES I' I d .

I S ' " R' ..'.. ,. cone u es a treaty WIth

ure cots at ipon. l11 despair the King summons,

.November 3, 16.40, his Fifth or "Lon" Parliament not legally dissolve, • . The mai .

. ,. * . .' . _ ." , . ,'0, . -,. ~ .0' twenty yeaTS. ,e maJonty of the

Commons ale Puritans In religion, John Pyrn being their leader. Parliament'< first \"0 k . - t _

CI-IARLES I' - b " 'c .. , • ., r IS 0 remove

.' . S 0 noxrocs rrumsters, Wentworth (now Lord Slturtord) and Archbishop L' u" 'W t '" '.

'Impe ·1 d b til *. Iu . a u. en wortn IS

acneu, U ie <nnpeac 11enL falls throuuh and "Bill of "Auainder is .. d " hi

, " , , . , '.' b' . '. IS passe against 1m, and,

May 12, _1.~4I, he rs ,cx~.GULed. Laud IS "impeached and imprisoned (and executed in 1645).

The I ueruu al BIll JS passed, [ 6.41. e nacti Ilg:

- that every Parliament should be dissolved at the end of three years;

- thut a Parliament should be summoned within three years from the "dissr I ti f' U I P .

, . ISS 1 U Ion 0 l.e ust arliarnent,

154

I

II

!

A Bill is passed,

1641, enacting thatthe Parliament should not be dissolved without its own consent, The Root and Branch Bill is brought forward,

1641, demanding the complete abolition of ""Episcopacy. Although never accepted it has the effect of ~plitling up the Parliament into two parlies:lhe 'Episcopali,lns and the *Purilllns.

1641, The arbitrary tribunals, including "SIt([ Chamber, "High Commission Court, and. Council of the "North, arc abolished,

Parliament adjourns,

September 1641, having appointed a committee to watch the course of events during the recess.

A rising in Ulster,

October 1641, starts a twe-year-Iong Irish Rebellion . Parliament reassembles, October 1641. and on

November 22, 1641, the "'Grand Remonstrance is passed (Doc. 82.).

82. TIlE GRAND REMONSTRANCE, 164.1

When Parliament reassembled in October 1641, there Were two distinct parties in the House of Commons: a court party and a country party, which later came to be known as Cavaliers and Raurulheads.

The names took their rise in the tumults which occurred in December of 1641, The name of Cavaliers was given to the King's party from their gay manners and dress and their gallant bearing; the name of Roundheads was given in derision to the members of the Opposition, because "they had the hair of their heads very few ~f them longer than their ears"; they "were modest in their apparel, but not in their language II. Baxter (Life), Iw wever, claim.ed thaz the name Roundheads uas given to the follouer: of John Pym; after the Queen at Wentworth!s trial asked "who that round-headed man was, meaning Pym, because he spoke so strongly",

Already in the first week. qf the session, it was mooed. lito draw up such a remonstrance to the King ns sMuld be afaithful and hvely representation of the state of the Kingdom". The motion was accepted, and on November 8, 1641, the I'enwnstran.ce was brought fonuard; finally discussed on the 22nd, and passed by 159 votes to 148. 1711', vote revealed an almost even (a majority of eleven only) balance between royalist and riforming interests.

The Remonstronce summarized with the utmost plainness every harsh actio» and every illegal measure of misgovernment during the previous sixteen years, commented on what Parliament had done to redress them, and pushed for further reforms,

The preamble explained the causes which made a remonstrance necessary, Clauses 1-104 traced the history of the King's misgovemment from his accession to the meeting of the *Lang Parliameru: Clauses 105-142 described the abU.'i€S abolished and the reforms ~ffected and prepared by the Parliament. Clauses 143-180 enumerated the obstructions to the work of refotmaiion; evil counsellors and slanderers, the anny plots, and the Irish. rebellion. Clauses 18] -191 explained and &ifended the scheme of the parliameruory leaders for the reform of the Church. The last fourteen clauses (192-206) pointed out the remedial measures the Commons demanded: the esteblishmeni of certain safeguards against the Roman Catholic religion; securities to be gi11en .for the better administration of justice; the King to choose for ministers and agents such persons as Parliament "rn.ight hane cau.se to confide in ".

The principal objectives of the Grand Remonstrance- are to fie found in this petition accompanying the main document,

155

We, your most humble and obedient subjects, do with all faithfulness and humility beseech your Majesty:

1. That you will be graciously pleased to concur with the. humble desires of your people in a parliamentary way, for the preserving the peace and safety of the Kingdom from the malicious designs of the popish party;

For depriving the bishops of their vote in Parliament, and abridging their immoderate power usurped over the clergy and other your good subjects, which they have perniciously abused 10 the hazard of religion and great prejudice and oppression of the laws of the Kingdom and juslliberty of your people;

For the laking away such oppressions in religion, Church government and discipline as have. been brought in and fomented by them;

For uniting all such YOlIT loyal subjects together as join in the same fundamental truths against the papists, by removing some oppressions and unnecessary ceremonies by -which divers weak consciences have been scrupled, and seem to be divided from the rest, and Ior the due execution of those good Jaws which have been made for securing the liberty of yOW" subjects.

2. That your Majesty W111 likewise be pleased to .rernove from your COlJJ1cil all such as persist La favour and promote any of those pressures and corruptions wherewith your people bave been grieved, and that for the future your Majesty will vouchsafe to employ euch persons in your great and public affairs, and to take such to be near you in places of trust, as yow' Parliament may have cause to confide in; that in YOUl' princely go(:)dness to your people you. will reject and refuse all mediation and solicitation to the contrary, Iiow powerful and near soeV€J· ..

3. That you will be pleased to forbear to alienate any of the "forfeited and *escheated lands in Ireland which shall accrue to YOUT Crown by reason of this rebelJion[ie the Irish rebellion of 16411, that out of them the CTOWIT may be the better supported, and some satisfaction made to your subjects of this Kingdom for the great expenses they are like to undergo [in] this war.

Which humble desires of ours being graciously fulfilled by your Majesty, we will, by the blessing and faVOUT of God, most cheerfully undergo the hazard and expenses of this war, and apply ourselves to such other courses and counsels as may support your royal estate with honour and plenty at home, with power and reputation abroad, and by our loyal affections, obedience and service lay a sure and lasting foundarion of t:he greatness and prosperity of your Majesty, find yOU1" royal prosperity in future times.

(Source: Rl1s1n .... orth, Historical Collections, 4.; 4,38).

83. CIIARLESI'S ANSWER

TO mE NINETEEN PROPOSITIONS, 164,2

CHARLES r fails in his attempt,

January 4, 1642, lo*impeach and arrest the Five Members of the Commons: Denzil Holles, Sir Arthur Haselrig, John Hampden, John Pyrn, and William Strode =Ieuders of the party opposed (0 the King, and on

January 10, 1642, flees from London to Hampton Court,

The Ordinance of Militia =under which the Parliament assumes control ofthe standing army _ is passed, March 1642, and declared La be the law of rue land despite the lack of royal sanction.

The "'Nil1cleen Propositions presented by the Parliament on June 1642, are, .

JUlie 21,1641, rejected by CHARLES 1 (Doc. 83.). Conciliation is now hopeless, and both sides prepare for war,

Alter Charles 1 left London, he refused. 10 communiccie 'With Parliament, which exercised executive pOWErS and issued. ordinances as the law of the land. Late in the spring of [642 Parliament auempted. to regularize and exterui its new position in the Nineteen Propositions, the total effect of which, had Charles I accepted them, would have been to make the King u,figure.heoo.

The "Nineteen. Propositions included the demands that parliamentary approval should be required.for theappoirumens and dismissal. of all ~ffice:rs ofsUr;le, anti-Cal,holic legisiarion. should be strictly enforced, the Church should be refonned on lines directed by Parliament, Parliament should control the militia, and the King should luuul. delinquents lie the jOllOWfll"S of the King; Royalists] over to Parliament.

The King's rejection of the propositions led d,:rectly to the outbreak of the Civil War.

In rrqecting the "'Nineteen Propositions, Charles I issues]: a stcuemenl which contained. one of the most irl;_tluential pronouncemerus ever made on the nature of English government. To Justify his rejection Charles I made tellillg use oj the theory of mixed government when he declared that the EnglGh. govertvnen: was a mixture of monarchy, ari5tocmc)" and democracy, represented by king, lords, and commons, which gave England all the advantages ~f the simple [orms of government icithou: their disadvantages as long as the balance was maintained among the three. In an wwlysis of the existing form of govemmen.t, later called the "King's Consuuuion, II he declared that political P(}WfJl" was already so divided among king, lords, and commons that tyranny WILl impossible. Bui if the Nineteen Propositions went into effect, he warned, the.df!l1wcratic and aristocratic elements in the constitution wo,~ld be so much stronger tluui. the monarchical element that the balance would be destroyed and chaos uould ensue,

Thus, by implication, Charles I publicly repudiated the theory of the *divine right of Icings as fannulated by hisfath_er James L

The theory afmixed monarchy, as contemporaries often called it, later Came to be regarde.d as basic to the eonstiuuion, and its supremacy lasted until well after the passing of the * Reform Bill of L832/se.e Doc. 135.j.

Excerpts from Charles I's Answer to the Nineteen Propositions are given below.

There being three kinds of government among men, '" absolute monarclry, aristocracy and demecracy, and all these having their particular conveniences and inconveniences. The experience and wisdom of YOILT ancestors hath so moulded this lie present government] out of a mixture of these, as to give to this Kingdom (as. far as human prudence can provide) the conveniences of all three, without the inconveniences of anyone, as long as the balance hangs even between the three estates, and they run jointly on in their propel' channel.i. and the overflowing of either on either side raise no deluge or inundation .. The ill of '"absolute monarchy is tyranny; the ill of aristocracy is faction and division; the ills of democracy are tumults, violence and Iiccruiousncss. The £ood of monarchy is the uniting a nation under one head, Lo resist invasion from abroad and insurrection at home; the good or aristocracy is the conjunction of counsel in the ablest persons of a slate for the public benefit; the good of democracy is liberty, and the courage and industry which Hherty begets:.

In this Kingdom the laws are jointly made by a king, by a house of*peers, and by a house of commons chosen by the people, all having free votes and particular privileges. The

156

157

governmenl according to these laws is entrusted to the king: power of treaties or war and peace, of making *peers, of choosing officers and counsellors for state, judges for law, commanders for forts and castles; giving commissions for raising men; to make war abroad, or to prevent or provide against invasions or insurrections at home; benefit or confiscations, power of pardoning, and some more of the like kind are placed in the king. And this kind of regulated monarchy, having this power to preserve that authority, without which it would be disabled to preserve the laws in their forceand the subjects in their liberties and properties, is intended to draw to him such a respect and relation from tbe great ones as may hinder the ills of division and faction; and such a fear and .revcrence from the people as may hinder tumults, violence and licentiousness.

Again, that the prince may not make use of this high and perpetual power to the hurl of those for whose good he hath it, and make use of the name of public necessity for the gain of his private fortunes and followers, to the detriment of his people, the BOUM of Commons (an excellent conserver of liberty, but never intended for any share in government or the choosing of them that shollfd govern) is solely intrusted with the first propositions concerning the levies of moneys ... and the *impeaching of those, who for their own ends, though countenanced by any surreptiriously gotten command of' the king, have violated that law, which he is bound (when he knows it) to protect; and to the prosecution of which they were bound to advise him, at least not to serve him in the contrary. And the Lords being trusted with a judicatory power are all excellent screen and blank between the prince and people, to assist each against any encroachments of the other, and by just judgements to preserve that law which ought to be file rule of everyone ofthe three" ,.

Since, therefore, the power legaUy placed in both houses is more than sufficient to prevent and restrain the power of tyranny, and [since] without the power which is now asked hum us we shall not be able to discharge that trust which is the end of monarchy; since this would be a total subversion of the fundamental laws and that excellent constitution of this Kingdorn.v.; since to the power of punishing {which is already (11 your hands according to law) if the power of preferring be added, we shall have nothing left to us but to look on; since the encroaching of one of these estates upon the power of the other is unhappy in the effects, both to themand all the. rest.. .; for all these reasons to all these demands our answer is nomulus leges, Angliae mutari fie we do not wish the laws of England to be changed], but this we promise, that we will be as, careful of preserving the laws in what is supposed to concern Wholly OUT subjects as in what most concerns ourself....

(Source: Rushworth, Historical Collections, 4.: 731· 7&2),

158

The period ,

1642.1649 is called the Civil War or tile Puritan Revolution or Revolution of t642,

Causes of the Civil War:, ~ ,

tl d ined "I' oft'e~dt(lCHARLBSI'sarbilTlif)'govemmenlbythe,'LongPa)'lialnenl;

- te etermme opposi lun • ~ I r '

-!he supposed encouragement given by CHARLES_( and his Queen to Roman Catho icism;

- illegal taxation;

_ the unpopularity of the King's advisers, The imrnediate causes:

-lbe auempt to arrest the *Five Members;

-the rejection of the Ordinance or Militia;

_ the rejection ofthe *Nineteen Ptopositicns Division into Parties:

The PARLIAMENTARY PARTY: Landon, the commerclul lo\' I1S, rnirJdle-class townspeople, merchants,

artisans, yeoman farmers; the * Presbyteriallli, .

The l<lNG's PARTY: the North and West, and the counues near Wales; nobility and gentry with their dependents: the universities of Oxford and 'Cambridge, [he Church party, Leaders:

ROYALISTS: the: King. Prince Rupert (the King's nephew), Newcastle, Hopton;

PARLIAMENTARIANS: (Raber! Devereux, Earl of) Essex, comrnander-in-~hief. (Edward Manlab'll, 'Earl un Manchester, (Sir William) Waller. (Lord Ferdinandn) Fairfax, Oliver Cromwell.

For the King

The nobles

COUnLry squires ChUtct;of England

o Areas for 1he King !fZfAreas lor'ParliamBnt

Mglo·lrish

Montra~e in Sconand Oxford and Cambridge

159

MAP 7. THE CIVIL WAR: ENGLAND IN 1642 AND.IN 16405

o Areas (or the King ~ Areas for Parliament

1642-1646, First Period uftheCivil War.

The First Campaign:

CHARLES 1 unfurls the WYlI.I standard on the Castle Hill. of Nottingham, A'llgust 22, 1642, and W,OOO men gather around it

October, 1642, Edgehill: between the King and Essex; both parties claim the victory, 1643-44,1118 Second Campaign.

June, 1M3, Chalgrovc Field; Prince Rupert (R) defeats Hampden (P), who is mortally wounded; June 1643, Atherton Moor: Newcastle (R)defeats Fairfalx (P);

Julyl643, Roundway Down: Hopton (R) defeats Waner (Pl. Bristol is stormed by Prince Rupert (R) Gainsbo ) '11'

Cromwell (P) defeats Newcastle (R) . , . rr fig .

Septem ber 20, 1643, First Newbury: the KIng is defeated by E~sex. (P); October 10, 1643, Winceby Figllt:CmIDwell.(p) defeats Neweastle (R).

As the events of tile Second Campaign prove that both parties

are fairly matched. both the King and the Parliamenrariaru; bezi k

egm [0 see aid outside England. The .I71•11g

concludes, -,

September 15,. 1643, a .treaty With. the Roman Catholic Irish called [he .*"cessatio1 " b 11'1" . d

10 ('00 I·' ~ hould ., .•. I, .y W..1C 1 11 IS arrange that

." .. m'L-S au u cross over IIT[O England and assist him against tile Parliament

The Parliament, at Pyrn's suggestion. makes an alliance with the SCOLs and signs

SePt:mb~" 25, 1643., ~e Solemn League and, Covenant (Doc. B4.) binding the English Parliament [0 adopt the.

Presbyterian Religion, and the Scotsto assist the Partiament in thewar against CHARLES T.

l60

84., THE SOLEMN LEAGUE AND COVENANT, 1643

The Solemn League and Couenans was a document which both the English and the ScollLSh considered imporuuu for their sunnval against Charles I. To the English the Covenant uias the price to be paid jor Scottish military aid against Charles I, and by a separate treaty the co uenflnt(~r.; undertook to send an. nnn:y 0121,000 men into England, in returnfor a, monthly payment of 30,000 pounds.

To the Scots Cf)uenantets the agreement weu; an attempt to impose *Presbyterianism in England and ireland, to maintain the constuuiional liberties won by the Scottish ami Engli.shparlia.men.ts, and to prouid« permanetu. links between the tuio.

It LI noteworthy that the allies included a pledge to preservg the King's "jnst power and greaincss .. " Almost no one in Englandjavoured the overthrow of the monarchiy at this time; the Scots were always olJerwhelmingly against it.

Th~ C(1)en.ant was drawn, adopted by the Westmiruter Assembly - ft body representing theologians fiom. England and Scotland, passed by the Parliament, and ordered to be subserihed b)' and sworn to by the nation.

But the Assembly of Divines at Westm,:n.ster; altlwugh they approved the Covenant, disappointed the Scots, wlw hoped. to see it imposed on the w/wle English nation. The. failure of the English,folly to implement the Covenant caused. increasing tension between. the allies. The English regarded. the Errgager.J' lnuasion of England in 1648, which wm; to restore Charles f, m; freein.g them. from alloy obligation to adhere to the Covenant, and contirt).Ling Scotusii demands that it be implemented helped. to provok» the Cromwellian oonquesi of Scotland, 1650-1651.

We, noblemen, "barons, * knights , gentlemen, citizens, "bnrgesses, ministers of the Gospel, and commons of all sorts in the IGngdorus of England, Scotland and Ireland., _. have now .at last... for the preservation of ourselves and our religion from utter ruin and destruction. according to the cornmcndable practice of these Kingdoms in former times, and the example of God's people in other nations, after mature delibcrution resolved and determined to enter into a mutual and solemn league and covenant, wherein we all subscribe; and .... 90 swear:

That we shan sincerely, really and constantly, through the grace of God, endeavour in our several places and callings the preservation of the reformed religion in the Church of Scotland ... ; the reformation of religion in the Kingdoms of England and Iroland .... ; and we shall endeavour to bring the Churches of God in the three Kingdoms to the nearest conjunction and *uniforroity in religion, confession of faith. form of Church government. directory for worship and catechizing ....

That we shall ... endeavour the extirpation of popery, prelacy ... superstition, heresy, schism, profaneness and whatsoever shall be found Lo be· contrary to sound doctrine and power of godliness ....

We shall ... endeavour with our estates and lives mutually to preserve the .righis and privileges of the parliaments, and the liberties of tile Kingdoms, and to preserve and defend the IGn.g's Majestyl~ person and authority, in the preservation and defence of the true reUgiori and liberties of the Kingdoms, that the world may hear witness with mil" cousciences of Our loyalty, and that we have no thoughts or intentions to diminish liis Majesty's just power and greatness ....

161

85. PURITAN DEMOCRACY. 164,9

And whereas the happiness of a blessed "eace hetwee th Ki· d . h

. . r 11 ese ng oms ... JS y the good

providence of God granted to us, and hath been lately concluded and settled by both

parliaments, we shall ... endeavour that they may remain " d i fir

11 .' , . 'con]Olne rn a m peace and union

LO a posterity, and that justice may be done upon the ",.:11:.'1 .1 f

• ,;WlI oppOSel"5 tnereo ....

(Abridged from: Rushworth, Hist.on:cal Collections, V:4,78.79).

Th.e Third Campaign:

1644. Naruwich: Fairfax (P) defeats the fish Contingellt; June 29, 1644, Cropredy Badge: the King defeats Waller;

.July 2, 1644, Marston Moor: Manchester and Cromwell (P) defeat Newcasrle ' . . .

Crnrnwell'x sp.leouid troops, the "Ironsides, III uris ball! tl S., r y~). The _Vlclory IS Dwmg to forces. e ie COt5 or the first urne assist the Parliamentary

September 2,1644, At Loslwithiel: Es~e,,'s armysunen<lers 10 CHARLES I'

October 27, 1644, Second Newbury: CHARLES I engages Munchester P' .... . ,

inertness of Manchester CHARLES 1 0 . . (P); the battle IS indecisive owing [0

, ,. , escapes LO xtonl.

Cromwell- by now the leader of'the *[Ildependents Who besides . ."'. . .

hem - accuses Manchester (rnember nf the *Pr~""" .,' '. es being separatisrs 10 religion, are republicans at

~lJy.eniUl seeuon who long for peace an" . 'Iii

wmprornise with the King) of "havi '11' 11 " u arc WI ng to make a.

avrng WI. U Y neglected to render the battle d .. "T

half-hearted generals from their POSts in the army the 41 .I~ d e CCISlve. 0 remove the

.A 'j 1645 h us Ij'.I·· ,Dw;pen ems pass,

pn , I ~ e -uenying Ordinance" bv which all Membe . Of b !h H

.. . - IS 0 0 ouse~ are compelled 10 rcsiun their

t:n~~lssIUlt~ In the army within forty days. It is Cron w J!" d . " . . , e

Fairfax, as CommandeI-in-chief and CromwelJ a' his ~ ~e s evice tUI gC[[JrI,ll" rid 01 Manchester. Sir Thomas

AGt ofParliament, The *New M~ide[ Army is O!:ga~~~d ~eu~nant-Gl~neral, retain lh~j~ commissions by a special

1645. The Fourth Campaign and End of the War. . ... y rornwe .on the plan of his "Ironsides.

June 14, l~S" Naseby: .Fairfax and Cromwell utterly defeat CHARLES and th Pi C" il W' "

MarqUIS 01 Montrose, rising in favour of CHARLES I in Scotland is' e irst IV ar JS ended at a blow.

September 13, 1645, del~atcd by Leslie (P) at Philiphaugh.CHARLES b~lakes himself

May 5, 1646. LO the Scottish army at Newark and after six months f '"

J. < ". 0 negntiaLtons

anuary 30, 1647, IS surreuded by the Scats to the P' r' . , ....'

~lndepelldenL, quarrels, ar IamelllillY COmml$SmOeni at Newcastle, The army, strongly

March 1646, with the predomjnant!y *Presbyterian Parliament refuses 10 disband '

J - 1647 . ~.. '. <J, seizes

une :'I, , ~n Cromwell's orders, CHARLES I, lakes possession of London a ' ... . . '.

who try their hand at negoliating with the King. CHARLES 1 escapes, ' nd cxpe.ls Presby ten an leaders

November 1647. to Carisbrooke Castle and starts his intrigues wjth UlC Scots.

1647, The Second c.-u War.

Inrluced by CHARLES I, 111C.SC0!5, having,

_,December! 64:, ~igned the Engagement with the King, in

JuI) 1648, rise in hls favour under the Duke of Hamill on and invade En ,I, db'

August 17 1648. at Preston and Warri C' g an , ut ate. rleleated by Cromwell,

, . . - arrmgton, rornwell then marches (0 Ed' bur I . d . . .

government hostile to CHARLES L Th '. . III urgn an establishes there a

. . . . e aany reiurns to London and despite the p. r "

negctiatc with CHARLES 1, demands the death of the King. ' .ar rarnent starung again to

By Colomi'! "Pride's Purae

Decc.mbcT 6, 1MB, above lOa :'Presbyterian members who prefer ti

. ~ , ~ nego iauons and ref! ' I ,,' . . d

Killg. are prevented the entrance to the House The ' -, . • use 0 W 111 JU gemelli on the

"Rump, resolve, . rem91nmg members- (lifty-three "Independents), called the

January 4, 1649, that it is the supreme power in the state (Doc. 85

I "h( ol d d .), declare the recent treaty with the 1(·lIll'.

(I~ moura e an angerou5, and vote for the trial of the King. ~

162

The high tide of democratic theory during the Puritan Revolution tuas reached when the House of Commons on. [aruuuy 4,1649, resolved that it was the mpreme power in. the sl.cLle .

Acting on these resolutions, the "Rump - as the House of Commons was called after Colonel "Ptide's Purge in December, 1648 - passed an act establishing a tribun.al to t:ry Charles I arui , after his execution; transformed the monarchy iruo a republic.

1. That the People are under God, the original of all just power .

2. That t.he Commons of England, in Parliament assembled, being chosen by and representing the People, have the supreme power in this nation.

3. That whatsoever is enacted, or declared for law by the Commons in Parliament assembled, hath the force of law; and all the people 01' this nation are concluded thereby, although the consent and concurrence of King, or House of "'PeeTS fie of Lords), be noL had thereunto.

(Source: [oumals of the House ojComrTwn;;, 6: 111.)

CHARLES 1 is tried,

January 2(}·27, 1649, by a High Court of Justice, found guilty of having levied war against his Kingdom and. the Parliament, ami condemned to death (Doc, 86.).

86. CHARLES lIS DEATH SENTENCE, 1649

Having voted that Clw:rles I, in. rnakingwar Ol~ his subjects, had. been guilty of treason, the Commons - jor the Lords refused to take part in the proceedings - appointed a, High Court of justice £0 tly him on that c.harge. That. Court consisuai oj one hundred and fifty persons, chosen. chit;fly from the mmr and the *lndependent Commoners; but more than half of those appoin.ted never sat.

Neuer did Charles' a.ppear to greater advantage than on. this occasion. With kin.gly dign.it,y he refused. to be tried by a. tribunal created in defLance of the laws. Where, he asked; 'were the "peers, who alone, by an .ancient maxim oj the COTLStitution, could: sit. in judgement on a "peer? Since he refused to r-er.ogn.ize the Court's authority, he was not permuted to plead. his co,>;e. But all defence was useless fLnY1l!ay, for the judges had alrp.acly decided the matter among themselves. He was accused of hewing auleauoured: to ouertum: the liberties of the people, and of being a tyrant, traitor, arui murderer. Evidence of his having appeared in arms against the Parliament UJ(l,'j adduced, and on [anuary 27 sentence of death was pronounced upon him.

Cromwell professed disapproval. of this course, bia he aaed. as one of the judges, and his name is among the fifty-eight members of the Court wlw Signed, the death-warrant.

Whereas the Commons of England assembled in Parliament have by their late Ac\." authorized and constituted us an high court of justice for the trying and judging of ... Charles Stuart for the crimes and treasons in the said Act mentioned; by virtue whereof the said Charles Stuart hath been several timesconvented before this high court, where the Iirst day ... a charge of high treason and 'other crimes was on the behalf of the people of England, exhibited against him and read openly unto nim, wherein be was charged that he ... , being admitted King of England and therein trusted with a limited power to gOI'e.m hy aud according to the law of the land and not otherwise; ... nevertheless, out of a wicked design to erect and

163

uphold in himself an unlimited and tyrannical power to rule according to his win and to overthrow the rights and liberties of the people ... , he ... hath traitorously and maliciously levied war against the present Parliament and people therein represented ... ; and that, by the said cruel and unnatural, war so Levied, continued and renewed, ~uch innocent blood of [he free people of this nation hath been Spill, many families undone, the public treasure wasted, trade obstructed and miserably decayed, vast expense and damage to the nation incurred, and many parts of the land spoiled, some of them even. to desclailon..., Whereupon the proceedings and jl~dgement8 of this COUl1. were prayed against 'him as a tyrant, traitor and murderer and public enemy to the commonwealth, as by the said charge more fully appeareth. To which charge he ... was required to give his answer, but be refused to do so; ... upon which his several defaults this court might justly have proceeded to judgement against him, both for his contumacy and the matters of the charge ....

Yet nevertheless this court, for its own clearer information aud further satisfaction, have thought fit to examine witnesses upon oath mill take notice of other evidences touching the matters contained in the said charge, which accordingly they have done.

Now, therefore., ... this court is in judgement and conscience satisfied that he, the said Charles Stuart, is guilty of levying war against the said Parliament and people, and maintaining and continuing the same, for which in the said charge he stands accused; and, by the general course of his government, counsels and practices.i.. this court is. fully satisfied in their judgements and consciences that he has been and is guilty of the wicked design and endeavours in the said charge set forth .... For all which treasons and crimes this court doth adjudge that he, the said Charles Stuart, as a tyrant, traitor, murderer and public enemy to the good people of this nation, shall be put to death by severing of his head from his body.

(Abridged from Rushworth, Historical Collections, 7: 1418·19).

On

January 30,1649, CHARLES I is beheaded.

164

1649.1653, The COMMONWEALTH (4 years).

SOllie lI)lvorjisures uftl!e period:

Politics:

Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658). soldier; Lord Protector Sir Thomas Fairfax (1612-71), paruameruariun general Literoture:

John Milton (1608-1674). (epic) poe I

'Mav 1649, the =Rump takes the government in 10 its own hands and t1eciLies,. .

Febrllllry 1649, that the office of King and the House of Lords should be abolished as being "useless, burdensome.

.and dangerous" (Doc. 87).

87. ABOLITION OF THE MONARCHY, 164,9

f mmediately after the execution of Charle~ I, the Commons passed the following. Cl.ct ~boliYhing the kingship. The House of Lords, which had refused. to sanction the High Court oj justice for the trial of the King, was also abolished, the Commons claim.ing tluu. the)' "being chosen. by and representl:ng the People, h(we the supreme power in. this nation" (See Doc. 85.).

Whereas it is and hath been [ound by expelience that the office of a Icing in this nation and Ireland ... is unoeceasary. burdensome, and dangerous to the liberty, safety and public interest of the people; and thal forthe most PUTt use hath been made of the regal power and *prerogative to oppress and impoverish and enslave the subjects; and that .usua~ly and naturally anyone person in such power makes .it his interest to encroac~luPOn the just freedom and liberty of the people and to promote the setting up of their own ~ and power above the laws, that so they might enslave these Kingdoms to their own Just: be .It tbc.refore enacted and ordained by this present Parliarneru ... that the office of a king 10 this nation shall not henceforth reside in or be exercised by anyone single person ....

And whereas, by the abolition of the kingly office pTO\D.dcd for in this act, a. most lla~py way is made for this nation, if God see it good, to return to its jus: and ancient rIg.llt of bemg governed by its own representatives or national meetings in council, from ume to ume chosen and entrusted for that pu rpose by the people: it is therefore .resolved and declared by the Commons assembled in Parliament that they will. put a period to the sitting of this present Parliament and dissolve the same so soon as may possibly stand with the safelY of Ute people that hath belTllsted them, and with what is absolutely necessary for the prEsCl'ving an.d upholding the government now settled in the way of a com~onwea~th; and that the)' -w~ carefully provide for the certain choosing, meeting, and Sll~g 0:1 ~he next and ~u'llle representatives, with such other circumstances of freedom III choice and .equality III distribution of memhers to be elected I hereunto as shall most conduce to the lasting freedom

and good of this commonwealth.

765

And it is hereby [luther enacted and declared, hetwithstanding anything contained in this aCI·llhall no person or persons of what condition and quality soever within the Co,nmonwe'alth or England and Ireland, Dominion of Wales, the Islands of Guernsey and Jersey, the town of' Bcrwick-upon-Twead, shall be discharged horn the obedience and subjection which he and lhey owe. to lhe government of this nation, as it is now declared; but all and every of them shall .m all things render and peclorm the same, as of right 11, due unto the supreme authority bereby- declared 10 reside in this and the successive reprcsentativas of the people of this nation, and in them only.

(Source: Acts and Ordinr:uu:es of the Interregnum, ed. C. H. Firth and R. S. Hair. 3 vols, (London; H. M.'.s Stationery Office, 1911), 2: 19.20).

Another act,

May 1649', funnally designates that England should be a Cnmmonwealth and a Free State; that a Council of Slate 91 41 mer~ben; shnuid be appointed, with Cromwell and Fairfax directing the army, ami John Milmn. the poet, as Latin Secretary. In reality Cromwell (Dot, SB.).und his soldiers rule the nation. .

88. OUVER CROMWELL

The following acr;oUnl oj Cromwell was [rfi by Sir Philip Warwick, one of Clwrles [Is secretane..s.

, The first tim.e that ever I took notice of him [ie Cromwell] was in. the very beginning of the Parhamem held lIl. November 164-0 .... I came' one morning into the House .... and perceived a gentleman speaking ... very ordinarily apparelled, for ir was a plain-doth suit, which seemed

to have been made by an ill. country tailor: his linen was plain and not yer.·y 1 '. H' I

c ean.... .1.5 rat

was without a hat-band. His stature was of good size, his sword stuck close to his side, hip

countenance "swQllen and reddish, his voice sharp andLIntllnable, and his eloquence tull of fervow:, for the subject matter would not bear much of reason, it being in behalf of a servant of Mr. Prynne'a, who had dispersed libels against the Queen for her d.ancing and such like mnoce.~t and courtly SPOI:ts; and he aggravated 111e imprisonment of tliis man by the CO'ln:,I.Taolcunto that height that one would have beJioved the ver)' government itself had beel1~n great danger by it. I sincerely profess it lessencd rnunh my reverence unto that great cmm.G~ for he was VCTY much hearkeneCi unto. And yet r lived to see this very gentleman ... by mlllhplied good successes and by real (but usurped) power (having had a better tailor aud more converse among good company) in my own eyes ... appear of a great and majestic. deportment and comely presence ....

(Source: W arwick, Memoll~ of the Reigne (lIKing Charles l, .247).

The "Levellers, as extreme Republicans in the anny .are called. rise'.

May 1649, in rebellion against the Commonwealth. calling it all illiberul regime (DOG. 89.), but are crushed 1l)1

Cromwell at Burford, -

166

89. A LEVELLER A'ITACK ON TIlE COMMONWEALTH, 164·9

Tlie Commonuealdv and, later Protectoraie, were opposed not only by royalists, but also by others who found that the 'work oj Cromweli and his aides fell short of what they desired in the wa:l' of political and social reconstruction.

Cromwell's first diffi.rnlty arose with the Levellers, It was the nam.e giuen. to a considerable uluo-Republiau: sects which appeared in the. "Neu: Model Army early in 1647 and was strongly supported in the lower tanks 0/ the amcy. They cnmprugtved. against social distinctions {hence their name) and uuuued. to replace the monarchy and the nobility with a sovereign. parlioment elected v'y nuuihaod. s(~ffrf1ge.. They rJi50 pressed jor religious toleration and the dismantling of church. establishmerus. Theirprogramme was embodied in the "Agreement a/the People" (1647).

A lready in 1649, John Lilbume, leader of the Levetlers,and mal1iy others, considered the e .... i~1:ing republic too aristocratic, and little better than the rrwnarchy to which it had succeeded. In two pamphlets, England;s Nell' Chains Discovered and The Hunting of the Foxes fie the anny magnates] from Newmarket arid Triplae Heath to Whitehall by Five Small Beagles, Lilbume attacked the Commonwealth ali an illiberal regime. He wru committed to the Tower, tnedfor high treason, but the. jury acquitted him and he was released.

The following passages are/rom his ElIgi.aTld's New Chaills Discovered.

Where is that good, or where is that liberty So much pretended, so dearly purchased? [[ we look npon whattliis House [of Commons] hath done since it both voted itself the supreme authority, and dishurthened themselves of the power of the Lords.

First, we find a high court of justice erected [set up in February 164,9, for trying five notorious royalists], or trial of criminal causes, whereby that great and strong hold of our preservation, Ute way of trial by twelve sworn men of [he neighbourhood ref Doc. 30.1, is infringed. all liberty of exception against the triers is overruled by a court cansisting of persons picked and chosen in an unusual way; the practice whereof we cannot allow of, though against open ana notorious enemies, as well because we know it to be an unusual policy to introduce by such means all. usurpations, first against adversaries in hope of easier admission, as also for that the same. being so admitted :may at pleasure be exercised against any person or penmns whatsoever. This is the first. part of our new liberty.

The next is the censuring of a Member of this House for declaring Iris judgement in 11 point of mugioll ....

Besides there is the act for pressing of seamen, directly contrary to the agreement of the officers.

Then the stopping of our mouths from .printing is carefully provided fOL ...

Then, whereas it was expected that the Chancery and courts of justice in Westnllnstel' and the judges audolflccrs thereof 'should have been surveyed and fer the present regulated ..... instead thereof the old and advanced fees ani continued and new thousand pounds annual stipends allotted; when in the corruptest times the ordinary fees were thought a great and a sore burden •. ".

What now is become of that liberty that no man's person shall be attackedor imprisoned, or otherwise disseised ofhis * Ireeheld or free customs, but by lawful judgement of his equals? [C[Doc. 78.]

(Abridged from: John Lilburne, England's New Chnins Discovered (London, 1649).}

167

After the death of CHARLES I Ireland proclaims CHARLES Il and refuses to acknowledge the Commonwealth, but Cromwell suppresses the rebels within six months, The chief operations of the war being, September ~649, Drogheda, where the enure garrison (over 3,OOO) is put to tile sword, and many unarmed citizens are slaw, and,

October 1649, Wexford. with some 1,000 or 4,000 men massacred, Scotland also condemns the execution of CHARLES [and proclaims his SOil King, Montrose rises in his favour, but is captured and executed by Covenanters. The SCOL~ are totally routed,

September 1650, by Cromwell during Du nbar Drove: Prince Charles is crowned,

January 1, 1651, at Scone. Eluding Cromwell he marches into England, but Cromwell pursues and defeat; him September1651, at Worcester, forcing CHARLES to flee to France. The Dutch having shown an inclination to

syrnpathizo With the House of Stuart, the English Parliament,

1651, passes the *NavigatiOI1 Act, forbidding the importation of any good into England except by English vessels, or by \I~ssels beionglllg to the country which produce the goods. The Act, being a heavy blow to the Dutch shipping trade, leads,

1652, [0 the First Dutch War. After several deleats, the Dutch,

1(;54, sign the Treaty of Westminster, promising to give no countenance to English Royalists and to make compensutlou for damage done toEnglish merchants.

Cromwell, wishing [0 bring about certain reforms in the goveillment, desires a new Parliament. The *Rump however. tries, '

1653, 10 pass the Perpetuation Bill, by which all present member> should retain their seats and have a veto on those elected by the constituents, This leads 10,

April. 1653, forceful expulsion OfU1C ~Rump from the House by Cromwell.

July 1:53, The Little ~r.*Ba~ebolJes ~aTliamcnt is su~unonet! from a list of the names of' men sent in by the various Independent muusters, TIley diSCUSS reforms In all branches ofadminisrrauon, but being unable to carry out these measures, [hey pass a resolution resigning their power into the hands ofCromweU.

In

December 1653, [he Instrument of Government i, issued, by which Oliver Cromwell is made Lord Protector of the

Commonwealth or England. .

1653-1660, The PROTECTOl~ TE (6 years),

The First 'Parliament summoned,

ScptemlJerJ654, under the authority of the Instrument or Government, opposes Cromwell by calling iII question the legaltty of the instrument and [he advantage 01' a government by Parliament and a single ""J'SQn th tore it i . dissolved Oil .1"- ., ere Ole I IS

January 3~, l6~5: the very earli~sl day aUoweuby the Instrument. TIle dismissal of the Parliament is followed by plots ~~d ~s.mgs. Cromwell s. way of meeung these d1slurbances is 10 divide the country into twelve military UISIn~Is, .each ruled by a ,maJoJ:-general WIth almost *absolute rower. The expenses lead Cromwell to levy contributions on all Royalists to the extent of one tenth of their property, known as the decimation.

In hiS general foreign. policy Cromwell reverts to theprinciple of' ELIZABETH's government, of setting England ~l (he head of the Pmtesta~ll cause in Europe. This principle means treating Spain as the chief enemy,

_ To uppose Spain, Cromwell enters Into alliance WIth Louis XIV of France. Spain, 16!-i6, declares war. Capturing the Spanish Plate Fleet off Cadiz and the victory,

1657, in tbe.Bay ot: Santa CI1lZ, make possible- together with the French _ capturing,

1658, Dunkirk, which IS made over 10 the English as compensation for the loss of Calais (1558). All Europe regards Cromwell with "terror and admiration",

Fearing <III invasion in favour of CHARLES If, Cromwell~ummons,

September 1656, his Second Parliament, from which Republicans and "Presbyterians to the number of ninety are excluded by order of Cromwell, on the ground that they are not God-fearing men.

In

March 1657, the Parliament offers Cromwell the title of ICing, lind along with it the Humble Petition and Ad '.

being lin "improved constitution" which stales: - an Vice,

- that the Executive Govemmenl should he vested in Ole Protector and a Coun~ij nf Slate;

~ Ihal the Protector should take the name of King;

168

- that he shou ld have the power of nominating his successor;

- that there should be a "Second House of Parliament",

Accepting the Petition and Advice, Cromwell rejects the Litle of King by the request of the army, the title or "Lord Protecror'' is substituted for it.

Cromwell's Third Parliament assembles,

JanlJary 1658, in its reconstructed form lie with its "Second House", The Commons, now again full of Republicans and *Presbyterian;" refuse [0 acknowledge the "other House" and Parliament,

February 1.658, after sitting only sixteen days, is dissolved by Cromwell. The failure of parliamentary government and the constant danger from numerous plots weaken Cromwell's health and he dies,

Septemher 3, 1658. of ague.

Oliver Cromwell is succeeded by his son, Richard, who being unpopular WiOI the army for he is not a soldier, resigns the Protec torship,

Mav 13,1659, only after eight months, The resignation of Protector Richard is followed by a year of anarchy. The • <Rump is recalled by the army, but on trying [0 bring the army under its power is,

October 1659. dismissed. On

March 16,166{] the 'Long Parliament is recalled by General Monck, and, alter twenty years. dissolves itself During the meeting,

April 1660, of thc'*ConveDtion, after receiving,

May 1, 1660, Charles's Declaration of Breda (Doc. 90.), a resolution is passed 10 restore (he old lorm of government and to invite CHARLES IT to return. With the Restoration of the Monarchy and return of CHARLES n,

Jl,llay 1660, the Puritan Revolu lion is at an end.

90. DECLARATION OF BREDA, 1660

The *Convention which met on April 25, 1660, was composed chitifly of *Cavaliers and * Presbyterians. It waS clear that the hearts of both Parliomeni and people were leaning towards the exiled.souacign, so when General Monck anna anced, on May 1, that a messengerfront Charles W(lS waiting for admission, the news tuas received 1,oith joyful shouts, The King IS mes'senger bra light with him letters .from Charle.s to both Houses of Piuiiameru, accompanied by the Declaration from Breda, a forufied. town in Holland, where Charles UiQ:'i residing at the time of his recall. In. the lauer document Charles offered, in the euent of his being recalled, a general amnesty, with no exceptions but those which Parliament might make; liberty of conscience to all; settlement by Parliament of questions affect.illg grants and purchases of land; paymen.t of arrears to General MoncR: 's army, and it,>; retention in the King's seroice.

Charles, by the grace of God, King of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, &c" to all our loving subjects, of what degree or quality sovever, greeting,

If 'the general distraction and confusion which is spread over Ihe. whole Kingdom doth not awaken all men to a desire and longing that those wounds 'which have so many years together been kept bleeding may be bound up,' all we can say will be to no purpose, Howevervafter this long silence we have thought it our duty' to declare how much we desire to contribute thereunto, and that as we c.an never give over the hope in good time to obtain the possession of that right which God and nature hath made our due, so we do make it our daily Slut t.o the Divine Providence that He will, in compassion to us and OUl' subjects after so long misery and sufferings, remit and put us' unto a quiet and peaceable possession of that OUT right, with as little blood and damage to our people as is possible. Nor do we desire more to enjoy what is ours than that all OUI subjects may enjoy what by law is theirs, by a full and entire administration of justice throughout the land, and by extending our mercy where it is wanted and deserved.

169

And to the end that the fear of punishment may not engage any, conscious to themselves of what is past, to a perseverance in guilt for the future, by o[lposing the quiet and happiness of their country in the restoration both of Icing, *peers and people to their just, ancient and fundamental rights, we do by these presents declare that we do grant a free and general pardon, which we are ready upon demand to pass under ,out great seal of England, to all our subjects, of what degree or quality soever, who within forty days after the publishing hereof shall lay hold upon tills OUI grace and favour, and shall by any public act declare their doing so, and that they return LO the Loyalty and obedience of good subjects (excepling only such perSOT1S as shaD nereaf'ter be excepted by Parliament), Those only excepted, lel all 0111' loving subjects, how faulty soever, rely upon the word of a king, solemnly given by this present declaration, that 00 crime whatsoever committed against us or ow' royal rather before Lil(! publication of this shall ever rise in judgement or be brought in question against any of them, to tlic least endamagement oJ them, either in their lives, liberties or estates, OJ' (as hlr forth as lies ln OUI power) so much as to the prejudice of their reputations by any reproach or term of distinction Irnrn the rest of our best subjects; we desiring and ordaining that heuceforward alT notes of discord, separation and difference of parties be utterly abolished among all om' subjects, whom we invite and conjure to a perfect union among themselves, under our protection [OT the re-settlement of OIIT just rights and theirs in a free Parliament, by which, upon the word of a Icing, we will be advised,

And because the passion and uncharitableness of the times have produced several opinions in religion, by which men are engaged in parties and animosities against each other, which, when Lhey shall hereafter unite in a freedom of conversation, well be composed 01' better understood, we do declare a liberty to tender consciences, and that no man shall be disquieted OJ' called in question for differences of opinion in matter of :religion which do not disturb tbe peace or the IGn,gdom; and that we shall be ready LO consent to such an Act of Parliament as upon mature deliberation shall be offered to us for the full granting that "indulgence.

And because, in the continued distractions of So many years and so many arrd great revolutions many grants and purchases of estates have been made to and by many officers, soldiers and others. who are now possessed of the same and who may be liable to actions of law upon several titles, we are Iikewise willing that a.ll such differences, and all things relating to such grnnts, sales and purchases, shall be determined in Parliament, which can best provide for th(~ just satisfaction of all men who are concerned,

A nd we do further declarc Llrat wc will be ready- to consent to any Act or Acts of Parliament to the purposes aforesaid, and far the full satisfaction of all arrears due to the officers and soldiers of the army under the command of General Monck, and that they shan be received into our service upon as good pay and conditions as the)' now enjoy.

Given under our sign manual and privy signet, at om court at Breda,

this 4/i4. day of April 1660,

in the twelftli year of our reign,

(Source: Journals qltfte House of Lards 155 vols, (London: H.lVL's Stationery OlJice, n.s.}, 11: 7-8},

170

1660-1685, Reign of CHARLES u STUART (25 years)

Tille: xon of C:HARLES 1 Stuart Succeeded at Ihe age of 30

Married: (1662) Catheritlc Bragan'l,a of Purtugal.

Children: He had nu children, b ,',1 I'll character or Charles 11, His morality was of the

, ' ' I' !, '- f' ' " ble can e sa.tu 0 le ¥ , ~ V , ' ~ ,

C!iaJ'ilC'lens/l(;s: Very lilt e 11alls avoura 'I" d that of his country to the 'King 01 France for

lowest typE, Again and ~g_ail1 he sold his lonoUl an: ' n olkl rs"

aold He was "one of the worst of men, as well as one of the worst 01 mg, '

to '

SOllie I/Iojorfiglll'~s of tile reign:

Politics: , ,

Etlward '!-Iytie, I st Em1 of C1a.t'cnuon (160'1-74), statesman

Sir Thomas Osborne, Lord "Danby (! 631-17 I 2), statesman

Uteraillre:

John Dryden (16JI-1700). poet

91. KING CHARLESU

, 'Cft l Il i . uniuen. by Gilbelt Barnet (1643-1715), Bishop of

The following de.scnplWn. oj ,ares was, "l't' as well (1.5 in ecclesiastical matters,

"'WI' d *l atitudu1.unan. pron1tlumt tn. po I ICS, '

SalUibwy, a' 1.Lg, an a ." , , / f' h' -anscri tions of OIiginal documents, some of them

M.l~ch of his oolununous Hl~tOry conststec q 1$ tra p ,

lost since,

, " . h' .. 'f a' and as might have been supposed,

'f1 King was then [ie lU 1660] t Illy years 0 ge, h f ('1" ,

ie I' 1 " He knew wellt e state 0 a all'S

, ' f vouth and (l extravagance 0 P easurc ... ,

past t11E .lev1ues 0 yout 1 an re f _ f , , that charmed all who came near him,

'\ d b d He had a so tnoss 0 ' tempet, .

both at iome an a roan. ' , ' d n ood looks, kind words and fair promIses,

till L11ey found out how lrttle they could depenl 0, g d d athing by them but to get rid of

, [ib 'al I xcess because ie Intene no

in winch 1Ho was I, er 0 e ,> • 1 ' I'T Ie' seemed to have no sense of

, . I '1 - n { rther pressing upon l1J11l. ~ - , ,

,impoIlllmt.Les anr to 51 erice a. a 1 ' t 1 care LO satisf), 'people that be was

, d ,c .arnent ie as tt were 00 (

J' ' "I oth at prayers an sacra ,> ' , , 1[ h

re LglOI!, ) ,," hi .h n was employed .... He said once to mysee was

in 110 sort concerned ill that ab~ul w ic .uld k mall miserable only for taking a little

110 atheisL, but he could not think God wo rna e a

'1 ' R d' ised his popery to the last ....

pleasill'e out of t ie way.e IsgU,S, .,. _ d. h was uits with all the world and

He thought nobody did serve him ~l1t _o~ ~~ve, ;;: h:~ede busin;ss and could not be easily loved others as little as JIe thought th~~ OV,~{, 1l~. of all his affairs was occasioned chiefly by

hrouzht to mind any .... The rum of llS reign an ',{ I "

b, ' ' ' • ,I' fir ming over to a mad range 0, p easure.

his debvermg bimself up alus ust co , 'A' H' 't ' .tHis Own Time ed. M, J. Routh,

(Source: Gilbert Burnet, 1.S OIy OJ '

6 vols. (Oxford Ulliversity Press, 1833), 1: 158-160),

j 71

On

May 25,1660, CHARLES IT lands at Dover, bringing with him Edward Hyde. later Earl of Cia d . h '

made Lord *Ch~ncellor. ren on. W 0 IS

Meanwhile thet Convenrion Parliament is at work. It. grants,

1660, the Kin,g I .2?O.OOO pounds a year for life, [0 be raised from "tunnage and "poundage but it ab li h . th I~st remains of the ,*feud:J system: military tenures, feudal dues, "purveyance, and "W~dship, TI~e I:r: i: disbanded, except for 5,000 men, ~I !alll:l~ are restored to theCrown, the Church, ami the "Cavaiiers. Jtl~SO

passes an Act ollmlemnny and Oblivion tor ill offences comrniued durinu [he ", t bl '

regicide» (Due, 92,), " rccen trou es, excepting L1.1C

92. ORDER FOR TIlE EXHUMATION OF OLIVER CROMWELL, 1660

, A, ~enera.l pardon was granted t,o those wfw had supported the late government; but from tlus

the regicides were excepted. 'Fwenty-nme men who had been cone d i tl '"r £T'h l

' . . erne m I.e execuuon OJ v, ar. es I

were tried, and ten of these suffered death.

, In the jotlowi~' year bodies of Oliver Cromuiell; Henry Ireton; his son-in-law John Bradshaw president oj the *'Htgh Co~ of JUJitice, instituted to try Charle.s I, and Tlunnos Pride (of *Pride';

Purge) were taken from thei« graves and hanged in chaines at Tyburn, hili 'fi bei I

' , ", , ' , a L notorious or e~ng t le

maUl. sue ofpublic executwTlS (till 1783), '

Ordered by the Lords and Commons assembled in Parliament that the f

OJ' . . , r carcasses a

rver Cromwell, Henry Ireton, John. Bradshaw Thomas Pride wI ·t"· J ied '

W ' " 113 fief June U1

est minster Abbey or elsewhere, be with all expedition taken lll) and d I ell

T b ' , ' rawn upon a iur e to

y urn, and there hanged up In their coffins for some time and after that b '. d . d .1

id . , .. . une un .er tie

sai gallows; and that James Norfolk, csquire, sergeanL-at-arms attending the House of

Commons, do lake care that this order bc pUL in effect al • b I .

, . u execution y t te common

execuuonar for the cou.nty of Middlesex and all such others to whom it sh II ' J

.' h . '.., . . 1.a respective y

appei Lam, w 0 are required In their several places to conform and to obs thi d ith

fC " d 1 *' .' , "., _ . . serve IS or er WIt

e e.ct, an t te sbenff of Middlesex ]S to mve JIlS assistance 'herein as th ,I all b '

_ '" ' , ,0- .' ,_ 0 ere S.1 e nccasron.

And the dean, 01 Westmrnster IS desired [0 give directions to his officers of. the Ahb t b

assistant in the execution of this order, ey 0 e

(Source: Journals of the House of lords, 11: 205).

First regulur Padiamenr of CHARLES II,

1661-1. 679, called the PensiOIHLlY Parliament (from [be extent La which its members ac .eut " " " h ib

r' " , . cep pensll)ns, or n es

'om LOUIS XIV of France) 01' Cavalier Parliament (as it cons ists for U1C most part or old "Cavaliers 0;

supporters of the Crown and [he Church), It annuls all the acts of Cromwell' P' I', i and '

.. . , , ' ' . s ar Lamenls an pa~ses lour acts

called. the Clarendon COde: 1, The Corporauon Act,

1661, requires all magistrates and officers of corporations to lake communion in the *E t.. I Ch ch

the *S lernn League and Covenant (s D' plscopa urcn, 10 renounce

..' , . see oc. 84,), and to take the oath of "non-resistance, 2 The *A' "

"Uniformity, . ,e ct 0

1662, requires that all.ministers should be ordained by bishops and should use (he *B k if' C

" , '00 () omman Prayer about

()1~e-lLnh of the English clergy I'efu,ses to comply wiih these previsions, and .hencc they are ejected fro:n their

IL' Il1g~ 01 even Ihrowrr In 10 prisons: they become known as "Noncouforrnists or D'" ,,'

Conventicle Ad, ' . rssenters, 3, The

1664, is to prevent "Nonconformist clergy from forming congregations of their own, 4, The Five Mil A'

1665, enacts that "Nonconformisr clergymen should not Come wnh!u five mil 'f' ue (;1,

, " .,' ., . uu es () any corporate lawn where they

eve] preached, except when travelhng, and that they should not act as school ' t .

. mas ers,

172

Out of commercial jealousy and Dutch interference with the trade ofthe African Company,

February 1665, the Second Dutch War starts, The English capture New Amsterdam (and, in honour of the Duke of York, the King's brother, change iUi name to New York), Amidst the rejoicings over the English victory off Lowestoft,

June 3, 1665, the Great Plague (Doc, 93,) breaks out in London.

93. THE GREAT PLAGUE, 1665

The Great Plague was the most severe of a series of bubonic epidemics which had begun with the *Black Dead: of 1347, and recurred at intervals throughout the XVth and XVlth cellturi,es. The Great Plague began in April 1665 and lasted until the velY end of the year, reaching its height (with over a thousand deaths daily) in the middle of September, Over 100,000 people perished, The symptoms varied, but all betra:yed the sinister plague-spots, Med.ical science was completely at a loss to cope with the outbreak, and could rise no higher than bleeding, hot blankets, and ineffectual drugs,

The most valuable contemporary account of the plague is Nathaniel Hodges's (1629-1688) Loimologia, the work of a, phy.si,cian who continued practising in London riglu through the course of the pestilence,

In the months of August and September the contagion changed its former slow and languid pace, and having as it were got master of all made a most terrible slaughter, so that three, four or five thousand died in a week, and once eight thousand.v.. In some houses cnrcasses lay wailing for burial, and in others persons in their last agonies, In one room might be beard dying groan!;, in another the ravings of a delirium, and not far off relations and friends bewailing both their loss and the dismal prospect of their own sudden departure, Death was the sure midwife to all children, and .infants passed immediately from the womb to the grave, Who would not burst with grief to see the stock.Ior a future generation hang upon the breasts of a dead mother, or the marriage bed changed the first night into a sepulchre, and t11C unhappy pair meet with death in their first embraces, Some of the infected run about stagge'ling like drunken men, and fall and expire in the streets; while others lie balf- dead and comatose, but never to be waked but by the last trumpet. Some lie vomiting as if they had drunk poison, and others fall dead in the market while they are buying necessaries for the support of life .... Of the female sex most died, and hardly any children escaped; and it was not uncommon to see an inheritance pass successively to three or four heirs in as many days, The number or sextons were not sufficient to bury the dead; the bells seemed hoarse with continual lolling, until at last they quite ceased, T1H~ burying places would not hold the dead, but they were thrown into large pits dug in waste grounds, in heaps, thirty or forty together; and it often happened that those who attended the funerals of their friends one evening were carried the next to their own long home ....

.. , what greatly contributed to the loss of people, .. was the wicked practices of nurses, for they are not to be mentioned but in the most bitter terms. These wretches, out of greediIle.ss La plunder the dead, would strangle their patients and charge it to the distemper in their throats, Others would secretly convey the pestilential.taint from sores of the infected to these who were well, And nothing indeed deterred these abandoned miscreants from prosecuting their avaricious purposes by all the methods their wickedness could invent, who, although they were without witnesses to accuse them, yet it is not doubted but divine vengeance will overtake such

173

wicked harharitisawith due punishment. Nay, some were.remarkahly struck from heaven in tile perpetration of their crimes, and one particularly amongst many, as she was leavinz the house of a f-amily,.ail dead, loaded with her robberies, fell down dead under her burden .in. tlie streets ....

(Selected from: Nathaniel Hodges, Loimologia, or an Hiseorica.l Account of the Plague in London in 1665 (London, 1720): 1-28).

Next year,

September: 2, 1666, the Great Fire of Londun destroys twn-thirds.of the city (DCI~. 94.).

94. TIlE FIRE OF LONDON, 1666

Thefire that broke ou: in. eh: ear?' hours ofSeptember 2 in a baker's shop in Pudding Lane and. d~~tlDyed fO[trjijtiJ.s oj the C~ty oj London: lasted till September 7. It destroyed 89 chuTches, Lnclw:[uzg. St Paul's,. a:nd 13200 'u:uses, but claimed [eioer than 20 lioes. Th.o1/gh destroying so m.r.~ch: lhefire 'Was most beneficml m tlwrou.ghly eradicating the plague. It also made possible the. butldmg of new houses on wider, healthier streets.

Most probably, thefire uas acci~nta{; but 'was auributed to the hated: Roman Cathdics, anel on the .Monument. - a tall pillar m the. Cit)' of London - erected to commemorate it the. "Roma~ists .. were directly charged with beingthe tuuhors of this great conflagration; ,.

Tins Pillar ~as set up in Perpetuall Remembrance of that most dreadful burning of this PrQtest~l1t Cl~, begun and ~arryed on by ye treachery and malice of ye Popish factiori, in ye be~mtng of Septel'n.[berl: 111 ye year of our Lord 1666,in order to ye carrying on their ~lomd ~lott for extrrpatmg the Protestant Religion and old English Liberty, and the IlltroducrngPopery and Slavery.

_ . The inscription was obliterated under JamBS II, recut deeper than. before. under William J/J. and

. finally erased in 1831. .,

J~hn Evelyn (1620-1706), wlwse description. qf the Fire is given below, was a diulist; and his mel1lOu~ tue of great ualue far their sketches of persons and society ciUliiig the latter half of the seventeen.th. ceruury.

31'd (September)

. The (ire having continued all this night. .. conspiring with a fierce eastern wind in a very d~ season, 1... saw the whole south part of the city burning .... The conflagration was so LLI1lVCrsru, and tl.18 people so. astonished, that from the beginning, I lmownot by 'what dQspon~ency or fate, thE!Y hardly stirred tn.quenci, .it, so that there was nothing heard or seen but crymg an~ lamentation, running about like distracted creatures without at allatlempting to save even therr-goods,such a strange consternation there was upon them ....

A1.1 the sky was of a fiery aspect, like the top of a burning oven, and the lIg1H seen above forty miles .roundabout for many nights, God grant mine eyes may never behold the Iikewhri ~lbW saw above 10:000. houses all in onefla:me. The noise and cracking and thunder ~f the rrnpetuous flames, the Shrieking of women and children, the hurry of people, the fall of towers houses and churches, was like a hideous storm, and the air all about so hoI and inflamed thatat the last one was not able to approach it. so that they were; forced to stand still and let the Jlamcs burn on, which. they did for near two miles in length and one in breadth. The douds also of smoke were dismal, and reached upon computation near fifty miles in length.

174

Thus I left it this afternoon burning, a resemblance of Sodam or the Last Day .... London was, but is DO more.

(Source.: John Evelyn, Diruy and Corresporulenae, cd. William Bray, 4, vols. (London: G. Bell and Sons, 1879), 2: 200-207).

Meanwhile, the Second DUI~b War brings no better DeWS. in

May 1667, "the roar of foreign guns was heard for the 1iISl and the last time by the ciuzens of London", ami, July 1667, the Treaty of Breda, fa vourablc to the Dutch, i~ signed.

LOrd +Chanccllor Clarendon, h~vil1g lostthe King's frierulship, is,

August 1667. dismissed and "'impeached by the House of CommOJ1." but manages to escape to France, I-Ie is succeeded in [he "Chancellorship by the CABAL, a group of four ministers. whose inuials spell the word (Clifford, Arlington, Buckingham, Ashley, Lauderdale). IL best characterizes tile Iour, that ever since [hen [he word has been used to signify a band of evil counsellors and politica! schemers.

CHARLES LL pleases his subjects greatly by signing,

166ft the Triple Allianceagainst Louis XIV, which is formed between England, Sweden ant! Holland to preserve the balance of power in Europe. ShUI'lIy afterwards, however,

May 1670, CHARLES II ~ib'TIS with Louis XIV the Secret Treaty of Dover, hy which it is agreed that CHARLES II should declare himself a Roman Catholic and that LOllis should give him 300,000 pounds a year and send troops to. England to crush any opposition La his plans. As the first step in his attempt to restore Catholicism, CHARLES 11 issues,

March J672, the Firs! Declaration of '~lndulgence, which repeals all '~Penal Laws against *Nom;l1nfoIInisL~aml Roman Catholics .. The Parliament not only forces the King t~) recall,

March 1673, the Declaration, but it passes Ihe Test Act, by which all persons who held public appointments are required to receivecorumunion according to the usage of tbe Church of Eugland, and to Lake an oath against *lransubst:mliation. Due 10 the Test Act, Clifford and Arlington retire from office thus breaking the CABAL. Sir Thomas Osborne (Iuture EartolDanby) becomes LOTd Treasurer, One of his first acts is 10 conclude,

U;74. the Third Dutch War, which started in 1672, Cl-lARLES 11 having joined Louis XIV in his war against the DULdT.

1.675. Closing of all the coffee-houses (Doc. 95.) is ordered .

95. THE COFFEE~HOUSES

Dne of the results of the common use of coffee 1.00:; the opening of rooms knoum. as coffee" house» where it Will pro·l)ided and soid, The fir:;t 0/ these was opened by .a Greek in Lotulon. in. 1652. Between. 1670 ana 1685 coffee-houses multiplied in London, and attained same degree. qfpolitical importance from the uolume of talk which they caused. Each sect, party, or shade of foshion, had its meeting place of this sort, and London life grew more animated from the presence in iu midst a/public centres where (vitty conuauuio« could. Iie heard. Danby, minister of Charles 11, Rari,ng that ([ COll,spirr:wy might flouxil>h Wider the cloak ofsocial rendezvous at coffee-houses, endeauoured to suppress tliern. His attempt was an excellent advertisement, and nothing mol'i~.

Belou: an. example qf a pamphlet in praise of coffee and its pairoris,

Though the happy Arabia, nature's spicery, prodigally furnishes the voluptuous world with all kinds of aromatics, and divers other rarities; yet I scarce know whether mankind be DoL still as much obliged to it for the excellent fruit of the humble coffee-shrub, as fOT any other of its more specious productions: for, since there is nothing we here enjoy, next to life:, valuable beyond healthveertainly those Ehings that contribute La preserve us in good plight ... , and fortify our weak bodies against the continual assaults and batteries or disease, cl(:sen't~ OUl" rc~aras much more than those which only gratify a liquorish palate, or otherwise prove

175

subservient La our delights, As for this salutilerous berry, of so general a use through all the regions of the East, it is sufficiently known, when prepared, to be moderately hot, and of .1 very drying attenuating and cleansing quality; whence reason infers, that its decoction must contain many good physical properties, and cannot but be an incomparable remedy to dissolve crudities fie undigested matter in the stomach], comfort the brain. and dry up ill humours in the stomach. In brief. to prevent or redress, in those that lreqnently drink it, all cold drowsy rheumatic distempers whatsoever, that proceed [rom excess of moisture, which are so numerous, that but LO name them would tire the tongue of a mountebank, ...

Lastly, for diversion. It is older than Aristotle, and will be true, when [Thomas] Hobbes is Iorgot, that man is a sociable creature, and delights in company. Now, whither shall a person, wearied with hard study, or the laborious turmoils of a tedious day, repair to refresh himself? Or where can young gen-tlemen, or shop-keepers. more innocently and advantageously spend an hour or two in the evening, than at iii coffee-house? Where they shall be sure to meet company, and, by the custom of the house, not such as at other places, stingy and reserved to themselves, but free and communicative; where every man may modestly begin his story, and .propose to, or answer another, as he thinks fit .... To read men is acknowledged more useful than books' but where is there a better library Cor that study, generally, than here, amongst such a variety of humours, all expressing themselves on divers subjects, according to their respective abilities, ...

So that, upon the whole matter, spite of the idle sarcasms and paltry reproaches thrown upon it, we may, with no less truth than plainness, give this brief character of a well-regulated coffee-house (for our pen disdains to be an. advocate for any 'sordid holes, that assume that name to. cloak the practice of debauchery), that it is the sanctuary of health, the nUTSelY of temperance, the delight oLfrugality, an academy of civility, and free-school of ingenuity.

(Source: Coffee-Houses Vindicated, 1075. In The Htuleuui Miscella.ny, 12 vols, (London: R. Dutton, 1808-11), 8: 75-6.)

In

November 1677, Danby arranges a marriage between Prince William of Orange and Mary, eldest.daughter or James.

Duke of York.

1678. Titus Oates, a clergyman, comes forward with the story of a Popish Plot to assassinate the King, to put hi, brother J ames Oil the throne, and to suppress Pro tes tan tism (Doc. 96.).

96. THE POPISH PLOT, 1678

In 1678 Titus Oates, (L clergyman, came fonoani with the story of a Popish Plot to assassinate the King, to pu: his brother, James, Duke of York, on the throne, and to suppress Protesuuuisrn. The story was mast probably false, though .m,any Roman Catholics desirel. the ends which it uias said it aimed at.

Papers foun.d in the rooms of Edward Coleman, secretary to the Duchess of York, seemed to afford tangible evidence oj the existence of the plot, Sir Edmund Godfrey, the magistrase before whom Oates had sworn to the conspiracy, was .found dead soon afterwards in a field near London, pierced with his own suord. 111e suggestion was that the "papists II had murdered him for gilJing Oates a hearing.

London: was in a state oj panic, which spread lihe fire to the provinces: London itself was pu: inio o: state of siege, the streets guartletl, and all "papists" ordered to leave the city, Coleman toas put

176

to death. Upwards of2,000 innocent. Romosi Catlwlic.s were imprisoned on in/ormation. sr~ppliecl by

Oates now called the "saviour of the na,tion ", and other informer» .

, , .... Jr.! e plo; are gilJen below: olle by the Duke of Yorir hunsel], the

7 'Wo con trcrst~ng unpt ess LOll!! oJ . t ."

other by James Wellwood, (L coraemporary (W'higJ memoir-writer,

A J. -, t11·IS r)H~tencled plot is still under examination, and the judg(~s arc to give

S 01 1l(,IVS, .' d ., 1

1. .. whether one witness in point of treason be sufficienL to procee CUmlllOUS Y

t ieir Opllll.On .. '. .' . . . eri i ill 1

. l d. d T do verily believe thal when this affair IS th.oroughly examlnt. It IV )e

agamst onY,JO y, an '. If' . ul

Iound notlling but malice against the pOaT Catholics in g:n(!~'al, and myse In .~aJ:llC ar. .

Thereis another thing happened, which is that a *Jusllce of the peace, StrEdmuml Berry Godfrey, was missing some days, suspected of several GircuI1lstan~es (v~ry pIoba,hle ones) to

. _I at . hims If Y sterday his body was found In a bIg place 111 the fields

design LIe rn: ong mse away. e .' d .

. . . tl miles off with his own sword thJ"ough him. This makes a great noise an IS

some two oruiree 0 , '. f f

1 id . th Catholics also but withour arrv reason for it, [or he was known to be ar rom

at II pan e " . '. . . at' ... d .

being an enemy to them .... All these things happening together ~ cause, 1 am raio, a gI eat

flame in this Parliament when they meet on Monday, Ior those disaffected to the Governmenl

will inflame things -as much as lher call ...

* * *

Tbal there was at that time a popish plot, and that there always has been one since t~e

. . 1 R . 1 . Ii .. . E ·1 d scarce anybody calls In

Refol'1l1ation to support, lf not restore, tne Dims 1 re glon In ng an ., . .

question. How far the near prospect of a popish successor, rie James, D~e of York, .who became James 11 in 1685] ripened the hopes and gave nm~ VIgour to the des~g~s of tb~t party and what methods they were then upon to bring Chose deSIgns about, Coleman s .letrers alone, without any other COIlCUJTing evidence, are more than sufficient La put the mutter out 01. doubt. Blit what superSlfuctlu'es might have been afterwards buill upon an unquesuonable foundation, and 110w far some of the witnesses o~ that p.lot mig~l come to dark~l] truth by

b dditions 0[· theu own must he deferred till the Great Account lie th Lasr

sn sequent a ) am; ,- .

] dg<rnent] to be made bdore a higher tribunal... , However, this IS certain, the discovery 01

~l~e ;op;sh Plot had great and various effects .upon the n.atitm; and it's from this remarkable

period of time we may justly .reckcn a new era ill the E~lgllsh account. . .'

In the first place, it awalmned the nation out of a deep lethargy they bad been In (or

. too-etbe).. and alarmed them with fears and jealousies that have been found. to

nineteen years b· .," .

O\Lf sad experience but too well grounded. In the next it gave rise. to, ai Ieast settled .lllat

I listi ti of' *Wlli" and *TQfV among the people of Engla.nd, that bas since

un iappy (IS nc on 'b· J , .. . . '. _., . _

occasioned so many mischiefs. And lastly, the discovery of the PopIsh Plot began .thal ope~

st:ru Ie between King C~arles [II] and his people, that occasioned him not only to dissolve his

gg .. . C ali P .. l! t 1661 1679] and the three others that

first [avourite Parliament [ie aver arnameru, -, .

eeded but likewise to call no more during the rest of his reign. All winch made way for succ , . 1 di 1 btinging in question the charters of London and other corporations, witn a greaL many isma

effects that followed....

(Source: James WeUwood, Memoirs of the Most Ma;terial Transactions in England (London: T. Goodwin, 1700): 123-25).

177

The Popish Plot leads to the passing, November 1678 of h D'. . r ,

from sluing iu either House of Parliament for 15U yea s: t e ,Isabhng Bill, which stops RO,man Catholics r , cxcepnon IS made for the D k f'Y II<

May 1670, an attempt is made to exclude him from the throne." , U eo 0, although.

The "Cavalier Parliamenr is dissolved,

January )679, after seventeen years, Cf'lARLES [[" s>' .1 p. 'I'

, , . , • cconu ar mmenL meets,

Api'll 1679, only lor four months, but manages to pass,

May 26, J 679. the Habeas COIPII5 Act (Doc. en.), which is to prevent illegal and indefinite imprisonment.

97. THE HABEAS CORPUS ACT, 1679

~e s: CCorpus Act wru called "one of the great bulwarks of English freedom takine rank

as suc: Wit t ie reas Charter and the Petition of Right " It est bli I d' .', b '

restored and secured an ancient right _ the right if freemc a, is ze no new principle, but it

h' . 0 every reeman accused of crime to' have hi' 'It

OT ,IS tnnoc~lJce decla:ed witho_ut delay ICf Magna Carta, section 39;' .I gUL

Bab, em Corpus is a *wnt addressei to the custodian of a pn. " " 1 '

I' fi 'cd pnsoner, legulnng !Lm. to proda '

l,'Ln~, or Ina at a certairi time; the name comes from the onening La(L if' *' C,I!

, d t: . . r In. IliOI'IL.) 0 t ie umt - Habeas

co/pus, a "acle~ldllm, subjiciendum, et recipiendum ... lie Thou. art to reduce the bo

submit, and receuie what the court shall order, .. .J. p dy, to do,

" " .A.lt.'Wllgh. th~ *1,l!Iit cf ha~eas corpus had a long history ill England before Charles It's tl:me, the

ool,('m.melll ha.~,ljou.lI,d WClJ's oj clrc[(,nwrmting it ~)articularly in pott't;c,!,l DIJ" 1"7 n. b c

,f 11179 ' " ", " • ""'. en.ce, ze ,a ell.I" DipUS

0,/ 0 conuihuied, significasuly' to the libe/ties of tI .ub 'ect L I' '

effectiveness. ., . ie su. 'Jeet y strengt terung the *wrii IS

The Habeas Corpus Act enacted:

1, that un)' unconvicted prisoner (except those chawecl with hieh. ere J ld d 'dft

ift!: ',Tn' 0 ' ...," OS(1I1 coa "eman om

one 0 ie .fLLu.ge.s a ~wnt of Habeas Corpus, by which the gaoler '/vas directed to produce tl.

bod)' of the pnsoner LIt COUlt and celtifY the cause of his impri,$onment' ie

2. that every person. should be indicted the first term. after his com~itment d '

subseouent term; an, tried. the

3. thai no person should be recommittedfior the .a:

same 0JJen.ce'

4. tluu. no person. should be imprisoned out of Englan.d. '

Whereas great delays have been used by *sh riff 'ail' d

' . e s, J ers an other officers t :h

custody a f tl 1'1', I lib' ,_ ',ow ose

" ny 0 ie Lung S s jects nave, been committed for cri . al d '.

. , imm or suppose CAmmal

matters, In making returns of "writs of habeas CD/pUS t th n dir d ,...

b dieno h wri 0 em ecte ... to avoid their yielding

Of ch leF~~e ~o slile ,1 writs, contrary to their duty and the known laws of the land' wnereby rnarrv o t e ung s su JJects have been ... long detained in" 'J. " "'J I ailal I I' ,I _ . prison III sue 1 cases where by law they are ) a J e, to their great C Ja,lge awl vexatron:

1. For the prevention whereof and the more speedy relief f tll "

a t ' cl ,.' . al . . ' 0 a persons Impruoned for

n) su l cnmm or supposed criminal matters be it enacted tl· t 1. '

, ,. h 11 b ' , .' '.... rat, W ierisoever any person,

QI. p{~lSOnS s a r:mg any habeas corpus directed unto any "sheriff 01' sheriffs iailer rni ,

o~ oll~er person wh~tsoever for any person ill his or their custody, and the sai~/ *wri; sh~;s~r serve apon the said officer or left at the jail or prison with any of th de (Ii e

:; id ill, , . f·e:· I' .,' , ' e un er-o leers." the

at 0 eel 01 o uicers , llS or their under-officers I 1J ithi h '

['J . r af id , ... , 5 ia WI 1111 I rce days after the service

iei eo as' oresai nl th .

:, - u ess e cornrmtmant aforesaid were for treason or felon Iai I " ci

specially expressed in the warrant of comrrritment _ make rtf L * "Y P In.Y an

, ,L I.. .., , e urn 0 .sucn wnt OJ' bnng Or

cause 10 ue )] ought the body of the party so com mill d ,,' - . ined " "

- e. 01 I estrame unto or before the Lord

178

"Chancellor or Lord Keeper of the great seal of England for the time being, or the judges or barons lie judges of the Court of *ExchequerJ of the said court from whence the said *writ shall issue, or unto or before such other person .. , before whom the said *wri1 is made returnable according La the command thereof; and shall likewise then certify tbe true causes of his detainer or imprisonment ....

V. And for the prevention of unjust vexation by reiterated commitments for the same offense, be it enacted ... that no person or persons, which shall be delivered or set at large upon any habeas corpllS, shall at any time hereafter be again imprisoned or commlned for tlie same offense by any person or persons whatsoever other than by the legal order and process of such court wherein he or they shall be bound by recognizance '10 appear, or other court

having jurisdiction of the cause; and if any other person or persons shall knowingly contrary

to litis act recommit or imprison for the same offense or pretended offense any person OJ'

persons delivered or set at large as aforesaid ... then he or they shall forfeit to the prisoner or party grieved the sum of five hundred pounds .. "

VI. Provided always ... that, if any person or persons shall be committed for high treason or felon)" ... [and] shall not be' indicted sometime in the next term sessions of *oyer and *terminer or generaljail-delivery after such commitment, it shall..; be lawful. .. for the judges of the Court of *Kiugls Bench and justices of "oyer and "terminer or general jail-delivery ... to set at Iiherty the prisoner upon bail" unless it appears, to the judges and justices upon oath made that the witnesses for the King could not be produced the same term sessions or geneTal jail-delivery. And if ally person or persons, committed as aforesaid, ... shall not be indicled and tried the second term sessions ... after his commitment, or upon his trial shall be acquitted, he shall be discharged from his imprisonment ....

(31 Car. U, cap, 2, ill: Statutes afthe Realm,S: 935-38),

The immediate reason for dissolving the Parliament is bringing into the Commons,

May 1679, the Exclusion Bill, which is to exclude James, Duke of York, from the succession In the throne, because he is 3 Roman Catholic. The struggle for the Bill lasts till

1681, and iL eventually falls through, The snuggle results in a(lpearallce of two groups in Parliament: the *PeliLioners and the+Abhorrers. Afterwards the two names are changed into "Whigs and *Tories (Doc, 98.),

98. JOHNSON'S DEFINITION OF "WHIGS II

The struggle for the Exclusion. Bill resulted in appearance of two groups in Parliament. Wh.en Charles If "prorogued his foulth Pariiamen: seven times (1679), he received numerous petition.s wging hint to assemble Parliament and pa.s~ the Bill. Counter petitions were also sent in, expressing "abhorrence" of this interference with the royal *preroga:tive, Hence the two parties were called Petitioners and Abhorrers. Afierwa,rds the names were changed into * Whigs and * Tories.

The Earl of Danby, Charles's chief ministerfrom. 1674 to [679, had. in putting together u block of political support for the King, created the beginnings of the * Tor), party. Upholding the old Cavalier idea of royol. *pre.rogatil1e and supporting the established. Church, il. espoused the principles of "non-resistance and *divine-right succession to the throne, In opposition was the equally embryonic * Whig ptuoy, whose principles were parliamentary supremacy and a loud "no popery". The two-year struggle for the "Exclusion. Bill turned these political interests into actual political parties and galle thesn. their names. The Tories, resisting the anti-Cath.oLic enthusiasm of 1I~ Whigs, 'luere given the Jlame of Irish Catholic *()utlaw5 (According to johrt.'Jol1,1s Di.ctiorzary: IIA cant term,

l79

deril.leclfrom. an Irish word sionifyinO' a savG(Tell) D' WI'. '

1:>. ' '<:> ' b /. ~e 'u.gJ tit turn were na . d aft hl

equivalent Scottish * Presb yterians, ' " me, er roug. ~ y

'inmael [ohnsori in his Dictionary Of the E li h T_

l ' . ., 'J 'flg {S Language (1775) quotes E'! B I

(I.%P aruuuni of the ongl,n; ofthe name Whig, '/' ~ 1.0]1 urnet s

The southwest counties of Scotland have s ld "

d Ie, am ecru enough to serve II c. d h

year; an tne northern parts producing mo th. h. ", rem .roun I. I'

re ,L11 L ey need those in the '

summer to.bUy at Leilh the stores that r:: " f . I .' .. '. - west COJ11e 111 the

,', some TOm! ie north: and Ii, .' d L'

i.J1 driving their horses, all that drove were called the wbi .. '" OIl1 a w~· , w l1gg~lIl, used

In that year before the news carne d If D I LJ. ~gamOll), ,Lnd shorter the liJhlggs, Now

, olin a Ute r; amilionls defeat 11 -" .

their people 10 rise and march to Edinb h: d ;I.. <, ie Inlnlslcrs anrm<lled

, .. urg, an U1ey came up marc] . tl h d .

parishes with an unheard.of fury , d ' llng all lC na of their

1 praying an . preachmg aU the h

Mal'quis of Argyle and I' way as t e)' came. Tile

as party came and headed them the bei I .

was called the whiggamor's inroad' 1 J . ft that. -y eIng a JOlIt SIX thousan l. This

, ar CI evei a cr at aU th t cl h '

contempt to be called whior and fro S tl J I ' a Oppose l e court Game 111

, b • rn co anc the word was brouaht il t E ] d I "

now one 01 our unhappy terms of disunion. b long au , W rere 11 1S

(~olU'ce; Samuel Johnson, A Dictionary of the

f£f!fth~h Language (London 1775)' "I' ")

, . . '}' 1 S. Y. "IIug .

The ex trcme *Whig~, certain there is II eonspirucy to bri 11 r bac .,' . ., .

assassinate CHARLES 11 while he is returni .' Jrom rl g k the Ruman Catholic re1l1,'101l. forru apjo: to House, The Rye House Plot, 109 rom tne Newmarket races at a lonely farmhouse called the Rye

1683, is discuvered and [he prominent Whi I, u "

19 ea ers are exec t d (AI '

Monmouth). cu e gernon Sidney) or banished (Duke of

CHARLES [I declares himself' a Roman CaliJojjc, bUL soon after Februa 6

by his brother, Jarnex. Duke of York, ' ry , 1685. dies. and is succeeded

180

1685-1(;89, Reign of JAMES II Stuart (4. years)

nile: Sun of CHA RLcS I (anti Henrieuu Malia) Succeeded (II the ag~ of 52 (b. 16~3)

Married: I. (1660) Anne Hytle, daughter 01' Ihe EW'I ofClarendon 2. (l673) Mary dEste of Modena

Chilelmll: By Anne Hyde: Mary (MARY 11). Anne (QUEEN ANNE)

By Mary ulModena: James Edward, called the Okl Prctendcr

Cnamcteristics: The chief faults of JAMES Il were obstinacy and the love of power. At his accession he declared thai he would "maintain the Govemment both in Church ,UlJ Stale as established by law", but the events of his reign are curiously at variance with this declaration. He is sometimes said to have been sincerely religious, and that he became it Roman Catholic from conviction, but these suppositions arc scarcely consistent with the lire he led, lt is more probable that he changed his creed '1'01' political motives,

Some majorjlglll'l!S ojtt.« reign:

Politics:

James Scali, Duke ofMonmouth (1649-85), military commander

/11'/.:

Sir ChristopherWren (1632-1723), architect

99. JAMES n

The following character qlJames 17 lOas given by the Duke of Buckingham nnd WUoI quoted by Gilbert Burnet.

The Duke or Buckingham once gave me a short but severe character of the brothers fie King Charles 11 and the Duke of York, future James II], It was the more severe because it was true: T11e King (he said) Gould see things if he would, and the Duke would see things if he could,

He bad no vivacity of thought, invention or expression; but he had a good judgement where his religion or his education gave him nol a bias, which it did very often .... He was bred with high notions of Kingly authority, and laid it down for a maxim that all who opposed rue King were rebels .in their hearts .... He was naturally a mati of tnrth,lidelity and justice; but his religion was so infused in him, and he was so managed in it by his priests, that the principles which nature had laid in him had little power over him when the concerns of his Churnh stood in the way,

He was perpetually in one amour or other, without being very nice i:n his choice; upon which the King lie Charles ill said once, he believed his brother had his mistresses given him by his Priests for penance, .. ,

Ln a WDTd, il' it had not be in for his popery he would have been, if no; a great. yel a good prince, He was undone by [the popish clergy], and was their martyr, so that they ought to bear the chief load of all the errors of his inglorious reign and of its Iara] catastrophe.

(Source: Burnet. History of His Own Time, 4: 5.19-40).

181

The rebellions of the *Whigs (led by the Duke of Monmouth and the Earl of ArgyU) planned,

L685. 11'1 reguin their power, dethrone .JAMES. and place the Duke of Monmouth Oil the throne, end in disaster,

July 1685, after the baule of Sedgcrnoor. Monmouth and Argyle are executed, and, as the result of the "Bloody * Assize, more Ulan 1200 persons suffer either death, mutilation, imprisonment, or slavery. The Monmouth Rebellion strengthens JAMES II's position and he sets about 10 restore the Roman Carbolic religion, He tries 10 gel the "Test Act and the " Habeas COI1)US Act repealed, but when this proves impossible he decides,

1686, tn claim and use the "dispensing power, thus in effect destroying the power of [he Parliament. He also Forms a large standing army, officercd chiefly by Roman Catholics, In order to stop the Protestant clergy from attacking Roman Catholics, JAMES Jl erects,

1686. a ~CnUII or En:lesiaslkal Commission, which,

1~87. auacks the ughtx of the Universities ulOxlord ant! Cambridge. In

April 1687, JAMES U issues on his own authority a "Declaratinn of "Indulgence (DDc. IO(!.), ant! a year later,

April 1688, the "'Second Declaratiorr of *Tndulgence, suspending all *penal laws against "Nonconfcrmixts and Roman Catholics. ThE! King's orderto publicize the Declaration leads to one ofthe most important state trials, June 1688, the "Trial of [he Sellen Bishops, the Primate and six other bishops, who refuse In obey, They are acquitted.

100. THE DECLARATION OF INDULGENCE, 1687

The accession. oj the Roman Catholic j(UTU!S 11 was greeted enthusiastically by a people 'who hoped that the n,ew monarch. U)()uld keep his religion a private affair. Their devotion was heightened when he success folly repressed the Monrrwuth Reb ellio n, There M little doubt that James Il could luue lived out hi .s reign peacejUUy, had he not undertaken a policy of religious toleration that his, subjects interpreted, probably correctly, as an attack upon the privileged position of the Church: of England and a prelude to the CG.i:hcliciza;tion of England byforce. The religious policy oflamas Il that led straight to the Revolution of 1689, can be clearly seen in his Decla.ration. of *Indulgence of April 1687 (repeated an.d enlarged in April 1688), which, resting on *prerogative power (*suspendillg pouier) and not orr. parliametuary sanction; set aside penal laws in ecclesiastical matters and with them the Test Acts [of 1673 and 1678].

We cannot but heartily wish, as it will easily be believed, that all the people of our dominions were members of the Catholic Church. Yet it is, and bath of long time been, our constant sense and opinion ... that conscience ought not to be constrained UOJ' people forced in matters of mere religion ....

We therefore, out of our princely care and affection unto all our loving subjects, that they may live at ease arid quiet, ..... have thought fit by virtue of our royal *pml'ogative to issue forth this our declaration of *indulgence, making no doubt of the concurrence of our two Houses of Parliament when 'we shall think it convenient for them to meet.

In the first place we do declare that we will protect and maintain our archbishops, bishops and clergy, and all other OUT subjects of the CI1UIch of England in the free exercise of their religion as by law established, and in the quiet and fun enjoyment of all their possessions, without any molestation or disturbance whatsoever.

We do likewise declare that it is au]" royal will and pleasure that from henceforth the execution of all and all manner of penal laws in matters ecclesiastical, for not coming to Clull'ch, or not receiving the sacrament, Or [or any other *nonconformity to the religion established, or fur or by reason of the exercise of religion in any manner whatsoever, be

182

r

. di t 1 spended' and the further elwclltion of the said penal laws lind every of thorn is

unme ra e y BU" ,

hereby suspended, lih hereby- granled the peace and security of our

And to, tlie end, that by the f ertynot h~ (~lldangen:d, we have thought 111, and do

govcrnment In the practice iherco may ,1' hi ts lhat as we do freely give them

'u h d command all eu I ovmg su Jce 5,

thereby strai )' C arge an , I r be it in IJ, rivate houses or places

] '" I G rl after their own way anr marine ,

leave to meet ant sen eo, I " I e that nothing be preacbed

"d 'buil (or that use so that they til (C espccia car .

purposely hire OJ t, ~ , . t nrl to alienate the hearts of ow' people from liS

or taughl amongst them which I~ay any WaJ'E ~ assemblies be peaceably, openly and plllJlirly

or our government; and that their meebllgs an . ,

l~ I d II ,- - freely admitted It) them .. " I

1)(' c. ant a pcn,olU; , Ll ", 1 will and pleasure mat the oatns

And,,, we do hert'!by further declare, lal HlS our. Io~a . d also ll:~ se~eral tests am]

11 d r I f *snprell13cy and allegIance, an ~ .

cOl11,monly ca e uie oatns a , .1 . tl 25lh and 30th Y{!aIS of the reign

. ~. I 1 of parliament 11l3Ue 10 ie

Jeclarau,'ons,menbonec m L11:1 acts < S' d '[' .1 Test Acts] shall not at an)' time

1 hr 1 K' Charles the econ joe uie e ~"

of OIU late roya router lllg , d ibsc ,t ad by any person or persons

, ,', d to be taken declare, or su sscnne '" . ,

her ,artel be lequlle , 1 ' d i office or place of trust either civil 01' military,

I lois 01' shall be ernp oye 1I1 any '. ' d i "

w iatsoever, WI, , cl Iurth d lare 10 be our pleasure an iruenuon

, enl And we 0 II er ec <L'

under us or 1Il our govcrnm " .' dcr l al to all our

, ' " Iter 'ant o ill' royal dispensanon un cr our grea se

from Lime, to UlTI' her I ea tel Lto ~ who shill not lake tllE said oaths, or subscribe or declare

l{iving 511 bjects so La JC ernp aye .,' f' h

, 'b b -mentioned Acts and every a 1 ern" '"

the said tests or dcclaranonS, in 1 e a(Soverr " His Ma.iesties Gmciou:; Decla1lltion to (tl[ his Loving

, DUree. ~ , 1 3)

Subjects for Liberty afConscience (London, 1687): -, .

" JAMES U which means tne continuan~e elf a dYIla.~ty

In June 1G8f1. ibe news spIeads that a snn IS bnru lOB' h "acq'uillal a letter si'med by seven ofthe leading

ki 0 the very day uf the Seven kS ops '" . '" h

01" arbitrary .. mgs. n W'II' U P 'otc.,tant Prince of Orange-Nassau, the nep ew

d 1 f E glantl is sern to I lam, ie I ~ ~ , ""

nobles an c ergy o n " , .', ,~ 'I, 'Y and aid them in tiefelllJinll their freedom

and son-in-law or JAMES, entreaung him to Lome Will ,10 aim

and their faith.

William lanus, ". d 11 ~IO Prance On

, . hil IAMES.I! deserted by all hiS men s, ees , .

NlH'cJIlber S, 16811, ~I Torbay, W I e . ~ , . .

, ' ~ L tl . tl summons a ;I'COIwentlon to meel In ,

December 19. Wlll!~UJ] enters on on an, ~,' ~'" ,I th throne on William and Mary, daughter 01

I disc '~'i both houses alllee to seu e e , '

January 1689, After U ong ISCUSS on, , ',' sd i W'II'. '1 Tile Declaration of Right havlng-be,en

.IAMES II, conjointly, ~lllhc,execull\'e power being veste In I iarn.

accepted by William ami Mary,

13 February l689, they are declared King and Queen,

101. POPULATION AND WEALTH, 1633

., , E I 1'/1801 CLnd statisticstoiJh reg(~rd to the

AlthoLlo'h there WILl rw rwtional. census In I ng ,(tn( rmtt, " ' . G ~ K' I

b" b I . d . me impressions may be gained through regory tn.g s

nntianal wc(dth leave nuu: I to e (e,Slr~ ',~O. , l I '. ' 1688 h 'el' toas J~ubli.shed a jew

, l ' if dif} 'enlsoLl,n. c asses In , W .L" ... .

(!s(I:m,nLe oj lhe numbers ane l·ncome.s 0 ". er '. I 55 million (J.na the annual nasiona!

\'~ars later. King sets the EnglLsh popuZa(,wn at more t ~an .

i.11.('(une tu. ouer 43.5 million pounds.

J83

A SGIEME OF TI-m INCOME OF THE SEVERAL FAM- TLIE

,_ . S IN ENGLAND, I688

:'-lumber or Ran k, degree titles and qualifications Heads per
families Yearly income
J60 Temporal.lords family per ramily- per head
26 Spiritu allords 4·0 2,800 70
800 *Baronets 20 1,300 65
600 * Knights 16 880 55
3,000 Esquires 1.3 650 50
12,000 Gentlemen 10 450 4·5
S,OOO Persons ill greater offices 8 280 35
5.000 Persons in lesser offices 8 240 30
2,000 Merchants and traders by sea 6 120 20
8,000 Merchants and traders by land 8 400 SO
10,000 Persons in the law 6 200 33
2.000 Eminent clergymen 7 140 20
8,000 Lesser clergymen 6 60 ]0
16 000 Persons in sciences and liberal arts 5 45 9
40,000 Shopkeepers and tradesmen 5 60 12
60,000 Artisans and handicrafts 4lJ2 45 10
40,000 Freeholders of the bettersort 4 4·0 10
140,000 Freeholders of the lesser sort 7 84 12
150,000 Fanners 5 50 10
5,000 Naval officers 5 44- 8%
4,000 Military officers 4 80 20
50,000 ComlIion seamen 4· 60 15
35,000 Common soldiers :3 20 7
364.000 Labouring people 2 14· 7
·~Oo,OOO *COllagers and paupers 3Lf2 15 4.1/2
Vagrants 314 6lj~ 2
2 (Source: Gregory King "Natural and P litic L'Ob· .

.. . " ' , 0 ca servaunns and Conclusions h - S

and Condirion of England 16961 H ., G Ch 1. _ c 011S upon t e tate

, 111 eorge auners, ,An Estimate a/the Comparative

Strength' of Great Britain (London: J. Stockdale, 1802): 424.·25).

184

1689-1702, Reign of WILLIAM ill AND MARY (l3years)

Tille ofWilli{/lI!: Son or Mary. Uaughter otChaues I Tif/f. of Mar_\,: Daughter of .lames II

Mar.-ied: 1677

C:lli/(il-ell: 11\1 cl1ild:ren

(lwl"acferislic.l: He W<lS valued lind respected. btl, never lovetlorreceivetl with enthusiasm by his subjects. He

was a cultl, silent, almost gloomy man, without any humour which would help him (0 gain popularity He was hartl-working, true to his word, patriotic, and wise. But thinking only about his suucsmanlike projects. he had no Lime to make his court attractive or pleasing. So of len were his plans attackeu or rejected by Parliament that he sertously planned to abdicate and return LO Holland: He was a good and loving husband and mourned Mary sincerely when she wed in 1694_

Some Ifwjorjiglfres ofrlIe reign:

LileroltJre:

John t.ocke (1632-1704), philosopher

Daniel Deroe: (166()-17J 1), writer

Science:

Sir Isaac Newtun (1642- 1727). mathemalician and physicis!

102. WILLIAM III

Bishop Burnei, wlw knew William personally. asses.~e.~ his pers()na.lity. TIle description was written in j 687 IlIhen Wi.llia.m. was stadt7wl.der (ie elfiel.ed chi~f prince) of the. Drttch Republic bt).t not

yel king of Engl(tfl(1.

[William] has showed by his conducl. and action that llOtwithsLanding all the defects of his edueaLion, and his total want. of litel·arure, nature is capable of producing great ll1all(~rs, when she is not ill all assisLed by art. He has a greal application to alJairs, ani turns them much in his thuughts ... But if hc is slow in taking up 3 resolution he is as firm i.n atnl(~ring La it. He has a vast memory, and a Lrue judgement. for he sees presently the critical point of any matter that is proposed La him. He is the closest man in the world, so that it is not possible 5.0 much as to gtleS!; at his intentions till he declares them. He is extremely calm both in OOlmcil and actions. and hears very genily things that are said to him, even when he is not pleased with them . .But he has the haughtiness of a greaL mind not La forget too soon injuries done him; bill he has never been observed to affect revenges, only he does not easily return io confidences wilh

those that have offended him.

His courage is indeed grealeT than it ought to be .... His great carelessness of all personal

danger both in till1(~ or peace and war 11a5 been censured as excessive .... This some have ascribed 10 his belief of predestinalion, as if that pushed him on headlong In [his confidence

that all things will be as God will nave them.

1fe seems to have a real sense of religion, and looks Wee a man thal is in earnest when he

is wor~hipping God. He is a hearty enemy to popery, and in pilrtlCuJar to the cruelty of it. lor

185

he is a great enemy to persecution on the account o:f religion. He thinks the Church of England ought to be maintained, but softened a little hath with relation to the *non- conformists al home and to the foreign clUIJ·C]J.e5 beyond sea.

He has a true notion or government and liberty, and does not think that subjects were made to be slaves; but after the laws and foundations of government are overturned by those who ought Lo maintain them he thinks the people may assert their freedom.

.. , if the prince does not in many things change his way he will hardly gain the hearts of the nation, His coldness wiJllook like contempt, and that tne English cannot bear; and thev are too impatient to digest that slowness that is almost become natural to him in the most inconsiderable things, and his silent way will pass [or superciliousness ....

(Source: Bninct, Supplement to History of My Own Time, ed. H. C. Foxcroft (Oxford, 1902): 190-3.)

As result 0[' the earlier struggles between the Stuarts and Parliaments, Parliament now becomes the chief power in the government

The first parliament of WlLLlAM and MAR Y,

1689, passes a number of Acts further strengthening its position. The foremost among them was, December 1(189, the Bill of Rights (Doc. 103.)

103. THE BILL OF RIGHTS, 1689

The Clorious Revolution of 1688 to 1689 was both the culmination of a century-long constitutional struggle between Crown and Parliament and the consequence of specific actions of JAMES Ii: seldom has any king so quickly and so lIwrougMy alienated his subjects.

The results of the Renoluuo« of 1689 were embodied in the series of "statutes that fotni the Revolution Seulemem: Preeminent among these "'statutes was the Ria qj'Rights, which ranks with the *MagfUl Carta (Doc. 32.) and the * Petition of Right (Doc. 79.) as one ofthe basic determinants of English constitutional growth.

After james I(fled to France, William of Orange summoned. the "Conueruion Parliament, and this uregulor body prepared a. Declaration of Right tluu. William and. Mary acceptedformall:y be/ore t.hey were proclaimed King and Queen. This Declaration Will included in the more comprehensive Bill of Rights, which contained some additional, and very important, provisions, including the exclusion. from the throne ofa Roman Cath.olic or anyone manied to a Roman Catholic. The expanded document was passed as a "stauue by the *Convention Parliament in its second session. LiJ.e the *MagnG Carta and the * Petition of Right, the Bill of Rights declared limitations on royal (l.l!tirOlity by the enumenuiori ana condemnation of ab uses by the king without any explicit statement of the constiuuional theory ulldedyi:ng its provisions. These were fully consisten.t, however, with the l/u;!ory of mixed government, which by this time was widespread.

In one respect the Bill of Rights 'was unique. It combined. limitations all, the royal power with a: change of dyn.asty. By declaring the throne vacant and bypassing the claims of the son of james 11 (the Old Pretender), the *Convention Parliament destroyed the last uestiee 01' *dii!ine-rilfht

t» 'J e

mouardiy. William and Mar)" their title pu.rely parliamentary, uiere to be jolni rulers, though e"erf:is~

ofth» roya/power 'PClS plcLCed in. William alone,

The em of *Avsolule Monarchy came to an end, and. the era of Limited or Constitutional Monarchy - ojmOlmrc.li.y effecuialiy' limited and cltecked by Ptuliomens - began.

186

Moderate and practical in tone, the Bill of Rights reflects the point of vie~ of men wit() were essentially concerned 'with safeguarding Parliament, property, and Protestantl.Sm. bu.t were. not

disposed to democratize the constitution. . . . . .

To" R l . J J;ng of * Wh;,y principles tU!th *T ory pragmatIsm, more a practical

ne euo u.twn was a ltJe{u~. ..,

than a logical triumph-

... Whereas the ... late ICing James the Second having abdicated the government a.nd the throne thereby vacant, his Highness the Prince of Orange ... did ... cause lelLers to be wntte~ to the Lords Spiritual and Temporal being Protestants, and other [etters to the several counues,

.. '. 'lie' s *bo·~·oughs for the chousing of such persons to represent them as were of

crOes, unJverSI , ., ... , ' .

right to be sent to Parliament, LO meet and sit at Westminster upon the ~o and.twenl:leth day

of January in this year, in order to such an establishment as that their religion, laws a.nd liberties might not again be in danger of being subverted, upon which letters elections having

been accordingly made.

And thereupon the said Lords Spiritual and, Temporal and Common~ ... declare:

That the pretended power of "'suspending of laws or the eXeWllon of laws by regal

auihcriry without consent of Parliament is illegaL .

That the pretended power of +dispensing with laws or the eXGCUllOn of laws by regal

authority as it hath been assumed and exercised of late, is illegal ....

That levying money for or to the use of the crown by pretense of *prerogative witho~t

grant of Parliament, for longer time or in other manner than the same is or shall begranted, IS

illegal. . . d That it is thecight or the subjects to petition the King, and all commltments an

prosecutions for such pelitioning are illegal ..... .

That the raising or keeping a standing army within the Kingdom In tune of peace, unless

it be with consent of Parliament, is against law.

That the subjects which are Protestants may have arms for their defence, suitable to their

conditions and as allowed by law.

That election of members or parliament ought to be free. .

That the .freedom of speech and debates or proceedings in Parliament ought not LO be

*impeached or questioned in any court or place out of *parliament. .

That excessive bail ought not to be required, nor excessive fines imposed, 00.1' crneland

unusual punishments inflicted ...

That .all grants and promises of fines and *foneitures of particular persons before

conviction are illegal and void. .

And that for redress of all grievances, and for theaDlending, strengthenmg and

preservingof the laws, Parliament ought to be held frequently. . '. .'.

Ana· they- do claim, demand and insist upon all and srngulru' t~le premises a~ theii

undoubted rights and liberties, and thar no decla:rations, judgements, doings or proceedings to tile prejudice of the people in any of said premises ought in any wise to be drawn hereafter

into consequence O£ example ....

And whereas it has been found by cxperiem~e that it is inco11sistcntwith the safety and

welfareof this Prolest~l Kingdom to be governed by II popish prince, or by an.~ King or 'Queen marrying a papist, the said Lords ... and Commons ... do further pray .t.b.a:t II may be enacted that all and every person and persons that is, are or shall be l'econciled to or shall

187

bold cornnurnion with the See or Church of Home, OJ' shall profess the popish religion, Of shal] marry it papist, shall be excluded and be fore·\IBr incapable to inherit, possess or enjoy the crown and government of this realm ... at" to have, use or exercise any regal power, authority or jurisdictiun within the same; and in ali and every such case or cases tile people of these realms shill] be and are hereby absolved of their allegiance ....

(Modernized from (he text of 1 GlU. & Mar. sess, 2, cap. 2, in Statutes of'th« Realm, 6: 142-14,5).

The Fir.IL Mutiny.Act,

1689.give.~ the Crown the dg!ll to "COUrl martial" Ior mutiny or desertion, bur proviues that the act must be renewed annually and enacts the maintenance of a sLaml.ing anny without COnsent of Parllarnent illegal. thus giving:

Parliament control over the nrrny, By the Act of "Supremacy,

J689. !III officers of state and clergy arc required 10 lake an oath ulallegiance to WlLCIAM and MARY. Those who refuse to obey (Archbishop Sanerofi ami abnul3[J eleq,'Y) - called Nnnjuwl'S _ are deprived uf their uffices. The Tnlcc]';uillnAcL,

16B9, gnmLs lrcedorn of' worship 1(1 all Pi·(1Le~l.ant "Dissenters. but not 10 Roman Catholic, arul Unitarians (Doc. 1114.)

104,. JOHN LOCKEtS IDEA OF TOLERATION

John Locke IS .A Lefler Concerning Toleration, which was originally written in Latin, appeared in 1689, the year in. 'Which Parliament enacted the Toleration Act, long consuiena], in. M("cau1a:y~s words, as "the Grea:t C/uLlter of religions liberty II.

Locke's Letter contained. a plea jo/' n broad: religiou.1 fieedoin; even though, for poliucal lemons, he e~duded Cmholics and athei-sts front its benWt3.

The fits: selecuon. printed. beloio states Loeke's principal argument for illsisting that the. g01iel'llment confine itse.llto matters ofcioil concern and, since it "h.ath nothing to do wilh the. world co come, '.' [rw.ve the choice q/ reli.gi.on to illdimdurd:;. The second selection. explains the reasons for excluding Raman. C(Ltholics and atheists from. religiousfreedom:

The tex: is taken jiomthe 1689 edition, with the typically seuerueeruliceruury pnnctuaiion, capitalization arul. spelling retained.

... Bu L after all, the principal Consideranon, and whicIl absolutely determines this Cot1n'ovcrsie, is this. Allhongh the Magistratcs Opinicn in Religion be sound, and the way that he appoints be truly Evangglical, yet i{ I be not thoroughly pcrswadcd thereof in my own mind, there will. bc no safely for me in foi1owing it. No way wllatsoeVGr that I shall walk in, against the Dictates ot my Conscience, will ever bring me to the Mansions of the Blessed. J may grow rich by on Art thot I take not delight in; J may be cured 01' some Disease by H('medies that T have not Faith in; hl).l :r cannot be saved by ·a Religion tlntl I distrust, and by II Worship that I abhor. It is in Vain for an Unbeliever [0 take up fhe outward shew of another 111Hl1S Profession. Faith only, and "inward Sincerity, are the things thar pl'ocure acceptance with God. The most likeiy aud rnost approved Remedy can have 110 effect UpOIl the Patient. if his Sloll1adl reject it as ~OOI1 l.a,5] taken. And you will in vain cram H Medicine down a sick mans Throut. whic)l his particular Constitution will be sure to tum into Poison. In a word. Wllatooel'cr may be doubtful in Religion, yet this at least is certain, that no Religion., whirb 1 br-licvo not La be true, can bs either true, or profitable unto me. In vain therefore do Pl'illCI~S l'OIlIJH'1 thr ir Subjects to CO me into their Churchcommumon, under prelence 01' saving lhr_il'

188

Souls. If they believe, they will come of their own accord; if they believe not, their coming will nothing avail them.

How great soever, in fmc, may be the pretence of Good-I.vill, and Chanty, and concern [or tile Salvation of mens Souls, men cannot be forced to be saved whether they will or no. And therefore. when all is done, they must be left to their own Consciences ....

>I< * *

Thal Church can have no right to be tolerated by the Magistrate, which is constituted upon such a bottom, that all those who enter into it, do thereby, ipso facto lie in fact], deliver themselves up to the Protection and Service or another Prince. For by this means the Magistrajc would give way to the settling of a foreign Jurisdiction in his own Country, and suffer his own People to be listed, as it were, kIT Souldiers agatnslhis own GOVl,rnrnent.

Nor does the frivolous and fallacious distinction between the Court and the Church afford any rurncdy La this Inconvenience; especially when both the one and the other arc equally subject to the absolute Authority of the same person; who has not only power to perswade the members (If .his Church La whalSOeV(orhe Iist», either as purely Heligiolls, or in order thereunto, but can also enjoyn it them on pain of Eternal Fire. It is ridiculous Ior anyone to proless himself to be a Mahumetan only in his Religion, but in every (hing else a faithful Subject to a Clu:istian Magistrate, whilst at the same tome lie acknowledges himself bound to vield blind obedience to the Mufti of Constantinople; who himself is entirely obedient to the Ottoman Emperor, and frames the feigned Oracles of thilt Religion according to his pleasure. ....

Those arc not at all to be tolerated who deny the Being of a God. Promises, Covenants, and Oaths, which are the Bonds of Humane Society, can have no hold upon all Atheist. The laking away of God, tho but even in thought, dissolves all. Besides also, those thai by their Atheism undermine and destroy all Religion, can nave no pretence of ReIigion whereupon to challenge the Privilege of a Toleration. As for other Practical Opinions, tho not absolutely free from all Error, if they do not tend to establish Ihnniuaticn over others, or Civil Impunity to the Church ill which they are taught, there can be 110 Reason why they should not he tolerated .....

(Source: John Locke, A. Letter Concerning Toleration, transl. William Popple (London:

Printed for Awnsham Churchill, at the Black Swan at Amen-Cornet, 1689).

Although WILLlAM is declared by the English Parliumenr 10 be King ot Scutlund and Ireland u, well H; uf E!lgl':IILi. be meets witb oPllosition in the termer countries lrish Catholics me In !avuur ,)1 the exiled JAMESn.

March 1689, bur the Protestants support WIlllAM and take refuge in Londonderry, where they are be~ieged 1'01' 105 days. The bailie ofBoyne,

july 1.690, decides WI.I..LlAM·s final victory, sealed by the Treaty of Limerick. Ociober 1691. by which the Irish Catholics are allowed to exercise their religion.

WILLIAM accepts the Scorch Declaration of Rights.

1·6K9. and establishes v'Presbyterianisrn \1$ the Established Church in Scotland, hut some Highlanders - called .lucobitcs (from the Latin form of the name James, Jacobus) - support JAMES II. WILLIAM summon, all the Highland.Chiefs to lake the oath of allegiance before

Jauuarv l , 1692, butIan Macdonald of Glencoe neg-leers LO do so on lime, which results, FCbn,la~'y 1.3.1692. in the infamous Glencoe Massacre, aimed at the extermination ofthe elm).

Parliament sanctions lor British merchants,

189

1689. the slave trade across the Atlantic from Africa.

The Bank of England is founded,

1694, to carry out all the monetary business of the government and to obtain interest on the government's money, Tbe Triennial B ill is passed,

J694, requiring new elections for Parliament at least once every three years. 1694, Queen MARY dies. of smallpox; WlLLIAM reigns alone.

The Window Tax is introduced,

1696, which influences domestic architecture for at least 50 years.

The support given by Louis XIV to the exiled JAMES [J leads, 1689,10 War with France, which ends with the Peace of Ryswick,

September 1697, by which Wll.lJAM is internationally acknowledged the rightfulKing of England and ANNE - the Pro testant daughter of JAMES Il - his successor.

Angered by Louis XIV's declaration made on the death ofJAMESn,

1701, that his son, James Edward, the "Old Pretender", is rightful heir [0 the throne of England, and trying to stop France from destroying the balance of-power in Europe by gelling control over Spain, England joins the Grand Alliance,

1701, and declares war against France (the "War of the Spanish Succession"). 1700, John Dryden, Poet Laureate, dies.

William, the-only surviving child of (Queen) ANNE dies, 1700, aged II (Duc. 105.), and,

1701, the Ad of Senlemeru enacts that Crown should. pass after ArUJ3 to Sophia, grand-daughter of JAMES I, and her heirs being Protestants, thus excluding the Old Pretender from the succession on the ground. that he was a Roman Catholic.

105. AN ACCOUNT OF TIlE mmn OF .MY CHILDREN, 1709-20

Anne, .fUture Qu.e.en, was pregnant 18 times betueen: 1683-1700, but only jive children were born alive, and of these, only one, William, survived infancy. H~~ death in 1700 ended Anne's hopes for providing herself with a successor, Hence, she acquiesced to the A.ct of Settlement of 170 1, which desi.:,onaI,ecl as her successors the Hanoverian descendants of [ames I.

The following extracts are taken .from diary entries by an obscure Bedfordshue couple, Ednwnd Williamson (1702-1720), and remind us houi precarious eighteenth-cermtry li;/,e could be.

1709 March 29. My wife fell into labour and a little after 9 in the morning was delivered of a son....

April d. He was baptised by Doctor Dattle by the name ofJohn .. " IApl·iII16. The child died about 1 o'clock in the rnorning.

17] 1 Sept J 7. My said wife was delivered of a san just before 4 in the morning .. "

Ocl 4. He was baptised by Mr. Trabeck by the name of Talbot after my grandmother's name...,

1713 June Y. About 8 at night my said wife began her labour.

June 10. Half an hall rafter 1 in the morning was brought to bed of a 50n,_ .. June 30. Baptised by Mr Mompesson of'Mansfield by the name of Ed rnond....

1715 Mardi 7, My said wife was brought to bed of a daughter 10 minutes before 6 in the morning.

March 29, Was baptised by Dr. Mandivel, Chancellor of Lincoln, by the name of Christian, 1716 March 9. My wife was delivered of a daughter at 7 at night.

March 31. Was baptised by Mr Widmor, the Reader of St Margaret's, by the name of Elih~lI1 n a, .. ,

190

April 27. Died, was buried in the new chapel yard in the Eroadw~y. .. . .

1718 Jan 21. [By Wife,jl was brought to bed of a son about 2 in th~ mommg..., He was baptised by Mr. Widmore Reader of St. Margaret's, Weslmll1ster, by the name of

Francis .. " .

] 719 Feb 21. [By Wife.) I was brought to bed of a son between 6 and 7 in the evening.

March 7. He was baptised .. , by the name of William" ..

[N.d,l Died and buried at Radley, . " . .

1720 June [E.W.1 My wife was brought to bed of a daughter. hul the child did not live a nnnute.

July 21. My wife died and was buried at Isleworth. . . .

Sept 9. [Francis] died of the smallpox at Nurse Ward's in Hampstead, and was buried at

Hadley. df d hi;

(S . F J M ning ed Some Bed+ordshire Diaries (Bedford, England: Be or 8 'e ource: " . an , ',. .'j' )

Historical Record Society, County Record Office, 1960), 40: 35-37.

In the midst of the jJreparalion for war with France,

March 1702. WILLIAM III Liles after falling from his horse al Hampton Court. ANNE. his sister-in-law.

~ucceeds.

191

1702.1714, ReJgn of Queen ANNE (12 years)

Tille: Daughter-of James IT Stuart Succeededat ttie age of 37 (b. 16(;i5) Married: (1683) Prince George of Denmark Children: all died yuung-

Clznmclerislics: Good natured, but not very capabje or bright A~ Anne wasnot very strong-willed, she was entirely under [be influence of the Duchess of Marlborough (till 1710), who is said to have criricised the Queen 5U harshly as LO reduce her to tears; after 1710 Anne was h'1Jiued by Lady M asham.

Majorfigures of the reign:

John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough (1650-1722), general and Statesman

The Government is taken by a combined ministry of 'Whigs and "Tories, under John Churchi II , (later) Duke 01 Mal'lbOl1mgh, and Lord Godolphin.

106. WHIGS AND TORIES

Qup-en Annis reign was remarkable fi» the fierce contests which look place between the Whljg's and the Tories,

Paul de Rapin.-T/wyras, a French HUguerwl expatriate, author of the standard- histo,)' of England bifore Daoid Hume's, gives (IS these impressions a/the two parties.

The Political or Stale Tories are divided ... into two branches, whereof the one we may call the Arbitrary Tories, They are commonly called in England by the name of High-FLyers .... These are for making the king * absolute in EngIand as he is III France arid some other countries, and his will they think ought to pass for a law. ... We may easily judge that in such a country as England this party cannot be very numerous; and yet it is by no means despicable, for three reasons. First, because the heads of this party are men of higb quality, and generally favourites, or ministers of state, or others that possess the greatest posts at court aJ~d the most eminent dignities ill the Church, AI. these are not Iikely La submit to the leading ol any bUL themselves, they generally by 'means of their high stations make Lbemselves the chiefs and masters of all the Tory party ....

In the second place this particular branch of the Tories is considerable upon !his account, that when they are in the ministry they get the Tory clergy to make the pulpits ring with the doctrine of passive obedience, which is of no small use to them in bringing the people to their side. They persuade the parsons that all they intend is to ruin the "'Presbyterians, and with this, jll~j~1uatioli draw tlJ~m in to preach up a dogma which in its consequences is equally prejudicial to all the subjects. Instances of this were seen in the reigns of Charles II, James II and lhe latter end of Queen Anne,

Lastly, the Arbitrary Tories become very powerful when they have a king OIl their side, as they have often llad;and then it is that the liberty of the nation is in danger. .. ,

192

The second branch of the Political or SLate Tories consists of those T have before called Moderate. These arc Ior l1D1 depriving the lOng of any of his "prerogatives, bur they would by no means sacrifice to him the privileges of the subject. These are true Englishmen; they I,lavp the real good of their country at heart, and are resolved to maintain the ~onstitutioll oj, U1C' government in the same condition it was transmitted down to them £r~m. then' a[Jceg~or8 .. 1hey have often saved the slate, and will save it again, whenever they see II In danger, either from the Arbitrary Torres or the Republican Whigs, by making a noble stand. against all s~ch as would break. in upon the constitution, Ir would be injustice to these 1.0 confound them with the

former under the same name of Tories. . .

As there are two branches of the Stale Tories, so there are also two of Stale Wlngs,

namely the Repu blican and the Moderate Whigs. . . * . .'

The Hepublicau Whigs arc a remnant of the party 01 the Long Par~t~ent. which undertook 10 change the government into a repuhlic. These do now make so pitiful a. fig ure that they only serve to fortify the party of the other Wh.igs, with whom they co~monly J01l1 ....

The second branch of the State Whigs is made lip of the Moderate Whigs. who are very ncar of the same pJ'iJ1 iiples with the Moderate Tories. and who ougbt to !)e .IOD~ed upon. ~s true Englishmen that are for preserving thegoverumon! upon its ancient f.~~datlOns, In this they would be entirely like the Moderate TOTies if there were not this d~erence: th~t the Moderate Tories incline more to the side of the king, and the Moderate WIngs to the SIde of the parliament. ... These' latter make a jest of the doctrine of ,passive o:be~e.ncc when. ll~e consequences of it are pushed too far. They aver that the lang s 'power LS limited to certain *prerogaLives, which he cannot without injustice exceed; and therefore they al:e persuaded thal whenever he is guilty of any usu rpauon on that side the. people have a I:lgbt to re~Ist his enterprises. It is an easy inference from hence that they do not believe the lang may dispense with the laws ....

(Extracted £rom: Paul de Rapin-Tho)'l'aS, Dissertation sur les Whigs et les Torys, trans!' Jolm Ozell (London: K Curll, 1717), 4.6-S1}.

WILLIAM III dies When the War or the Spanish Succession barely begins. Mmt or Eur~pe is .involved. Marlborough being appointed commander-in-chief of the allied fortes, wins a series 01" glorious vrctones .at Blenheim,

1704. (Doc. 107.), Rumillies, L706. Oudenarde,

1708. Malplaquet, . .

1709_ and becomes if national hero, rewarded with the estate and pulace 01 B lenheirn.

107. TIlE BA1TLE OF BLENHEIM, 1704

fohn Charchil~ Earl (and Duke) of Marlborough (1650-1722) 'was one of the gred.t.esl, of

English generals, b at he seemed incapab le of loyalty. >... .

Blenheim was one of the greaJ; baules of English histury, arul. gained for the uictor the utle of duke and splendid reuxutls in honours (mel money. The accompanying letters 'were written by Churchill to his 'wife. His devotion to heruias one of his most attractive traits.

Of the two pieces brought together here, the first is a hast)' line scribbled in_ the field. Coxe, Marlborough's biographer, writes about it: "This note is preserved in the family archives at Blenhe',m, as one of the most CWi011S memorials which perhaps exists. It 'was umuen. on a slip of paper, uhich.

193

was evicLently tom from .. a merr.".orandum book and contain ~ OIl tit b k b ·tl ,I'

I , . e ac a L OJ tauerr: expenses.

VIe .book nUt)' probably have belonged. to some commissary, as there is an entry relative to bread jumished. to the troops".

Augu.st 13, 1704 - 1 have no time to say more, bUL to beg you will give my duty to the queen, and let her know her army has had a glorious victory.. ..

AUgWit 14 - BefoI"e the battle was guile done yesterday, I w:rit to my dearest soul to let

her know that r was well, and that God had blessed her Majc ty" . 1 . .

. . . . . . s s arms WlL 1 as great a victory

as has ever been known; for pnsoners I have the Marshal de Talla ·d d I· f

. . .... 1, an the greatest part a

~lS general. officers, above. 8000 men, and neur 1500 officers. Tn short, the army of M .. de ] allarrl, which was that which 110ught wilh, is quite mined.".

As all. these prisoners are taken by the troops 1 command it i - d

. . . , I IS In my power to sen as

many of lhcrn to England as her Majesty shaTI think for her h . d .' M

.. :' _ . onour an SCI vtce , yawn

opinion. 111 this 11lSUer IS, that the Matshal de Tallard and tbe gener I ffi h ld b

. '. a a cerav snou e sent

or broug. ht to her MaJDSLy when I come to England' but should lltl Ifice b b. ] .

. ..'. a ie 0 cers e TOUg it, II

would be. a very gl.·eat expense, ... I am so verv much alit of order WI't}1 ,,,,., b

jJ . . . .lwV1Jlg een seventeen

iours On horseback yesterday, and not having been able to sleep above three hours last night,

that I ca.11 write to .none of my friends. However I am so pleased itl thi , th I I

• . . . c WI 1 us acuoc, at CHn t

end my letter without being so vain as to teil my dearest sou] that' ithi II [

I h .' . , wi III ie memory a man

t Jere as been 110 viclnry so great as this; and as 1 ani Sure you love me enti Iv well ill

b 'fi' 1 . 1. J . ' . re y we ,you WI

e In nute Y _p eased with what has been done, upon my account as well as the reat bel1efit

Lhc public will hav(~.... g

(Source: W. Coxe, ed., Memoirs ofthe Dulce o/Tti/urlborough, 3 vols. (London: I .. L C. Bolin, 1847 .. 8), 1: 206,213.)

Influenced by he!' new t.llvotlLite (Marlbon ugh's wife being superseded by Lady Masharn), 1710. QUEEN ANNE dismisse« the ~Whig-'"Tn)y Ministry and removes Marlborouuh who

dixhonesty, " " is charged willi

171 L from his cOmman.d. Despite the English' victories in Spain (Gibraltar taken) the T G

... I . "lb .. ., ,_.. . . .. . ., new ory ,overllment.

,~a ISIn" . e wai ~a., becoming unpopular, reduces British involvement in the War and finally,

1713, ,"gus the Treaty 01 Utrecht, which stated, inter alia,

- that Gibraltar. Minorca, Nova Scoria and Newfoundland are to be ceded to En"lanu'

- that England should be given (lSsienlo lie the sole right of impol~ng Black ~~Iavc's into Arne' .. tortl .

years 1; nca I trurty

- that France should cease 10 aid the Pretender,

Under the A,l fOT the Onion of Ellghtnd and Scotland,

1707, the English and ~COllish Patl.iam~J1l~ are ,unileu, bUI independelH legal systems and Churches are retained

(Doc. 164.). Occasiona] "Conformity act is passed, .

1711, to ,Lnr the practice by which many ~ui,sell[ers (Doc lOR) by LHk·· . th A' I'· C . . . .

I· Iii' ,. fI- . . . mg e ug rcan ommunron hom umero

irne, qua I yor Slate Dice.

194

108. rrrs DISSENTERS

Edward Chamberlayne describes the religious dioisions in the English society at the beginnin.g of the eighteenth century,

If we divide the people of England into sixty parts, perhaps five or them are such *dissenters of all SOlis who never come to the public service of the national Church.

Two parts ... hold communion with the national Church and with their own particular sect at tbe same time, as occasion or opportunity offers. These are a foolish. and inconsiderate people, who are little valued by 'either side, by reason of their inconstancy,

Three parts are these who, being in constant communion with the Church of England, seldom or never joining openly with any other, seem nevertheless somewhat disple-ased with the Church; and the only reason they continue in it is because they are more displeased with every sect of the *dissenters' (rom it. For they acknowledge this to be the best form of religion in the country; but this they, having new schemes in their heads, would reform or refine,

The most understanding of this sort of men have a politic thirst after such a reformation, in hope by that means to comprehend many of the more moderate *dissenters, and to bTing them into communion with the national Church; and such a design was set on foot .in the beginning of this Government in Convocation, where all things of that nature are first to be debated. But few of the *cIissenters at that time showing any willingness to be so comprehended, and some of the heads of them confessing ingeniously that alL SUCll attempts would prove successless, without quite dissolving our frame of Church government, the whole business fell.

And instead thereof all Protestant *dissenters from the Church (except Antitrinitarians} are tolerated, so long as they live peaceably and conformably in the state, and every man in England doth now enjoy a free liberty of conscience, and use of what religion best pleases him.

The "dissenters from the Church of England are of these live sorts; Libertines, Papists.

Anabaptists, *Il1dependents and *Presbyterians.

First, by Libertines we mean those that live ad libitum liE: at one's pleasure] whether thev be atheists, sceptics. deists and the like. Of these there are not In<)I1Y among us', at lea-stwise professedly so, and those that be are a vain, fantastic, unthinking people, some or whom, having a little smattering oflearning, are troublesome with it to themselves and the rest of mankind ....

The number of Jews and Socinians fie Unitarians] amongst us is still more in consider able.

Secondly, Papists we have many, yet not so many that in <the late Government, when they all appeared publicly, it was and is a wonder how the designs of that handful of men could put the whole nation into6uch' co nvulsicns ....

3. A.nabapists are of two sorts: first. those who go vulgarly by that name, and. secondly, those who are distinguished by the name of Quakers.

The Anabaptists which go by that name are a more reasonable sort here in England than those of Flanders or Germany; very few of ours are so wild, extravagant and enthusiastical lie fanatical) as those abroad, These submit themselves to civil government; and the chief article of their dissent in religion is concerning pedobaptism lie baptism of infants], which they hold

195

unrea50na~Je. Yet there is in many other things some of the Flemish leaven still among them, as accountmg themselves the only pure Church; [they I are envious of the Established ChUTCh abhor paying of *tiLhcs, and affect parity. BUl thai which is WOTsl of all, some of them have strange notions concerning our blessed Saviour and His incarnation, the Holy Trinity, the soul of man. etc ....

!b(' other sort of Anabaptists are caIled Qu.akel's or Skakers, Irorn the trembling .and quaking caused .111 them by vapoUJ·.s tie hysteria] ill their ecstatic fits, especially after long Iusting, an exercise very much practised by the 1Irsl disciples of this s ct here in England, bUI of late almost whoUy disused ....

They reject ministerial ordinances, and place religion wholly in the inward light of every manls private sp.iri.l;. and how different soever th impulses of one man's spirit axe fro~l another, an~ h~w drfierent. n~LJons soever they create, they UCCOlUl! it all the same light infused by :hc ~p~t 01 G~d, 111 different measures and degrees. They agree with other Anabaptists agamst infant baptism, and go far b 'yond them, even 10 the neglecting or all baptism and the other .sacraments of th: Ell~'ha~st, aJl human learning, appropriate places and times 01'

worship, and abhor paYlTlg· of "tithes. They have generally denied tl e ttl' it i' .

... .' • . ' . 1 ' 111 Y 0 persons 111

the one Godhead, the resurrection of the bod)' the incarnation of C"11 ~st .1. 1 Iitv f'

, n ,... Ute ocau yo.

heav~~ and hell, and many other Catholic tenets fie tenets generally held among Christians].

Independents are a sect lately spnU1g up from the' Brownists lie followers of Robert Browne (1550?-1633?), who held that each congregation should determine its own eoclesiastical ~rganizHtion anc.:~ re~gi()us practices], These have no general Church government, but each particular congregaUon ts ruled by their own Jaws and methods without dependence on one another; look upon *tithes as superstitious and Judaical; arc against all set Iorrn of prayer, even the Lord's Prayer. They give power to private men La erect, .. churches elect ordain: depose. *excollllTlunicalC, and determine finally in all church-causes. Laity sometim~

administer the sacraments, and magistrates administer the office of m trin Th

. . . ~ . " . a.. lOlly. ey- are most

01 diem millenaries, and commence the last thousand years of Christ's kinzdor» Irorn thl" beginning of Independency. All those or the laity they account gifted men a;(' permitted to preach and pray, and to catechize the preacher concerning the doctrine lIe hath preac'u ·1 'r'l . ee.

lf~y ccmmunicate frequently, sitting at a table or without a table.

*Presbyterians maintain that there is only a nominal difference between bishop, p,resbyt~r and pastor, and that "priest" is not a Gospel word, but belongs only to sacrifices. 1 hey will no! allo:" deacons to preach, but only collect and administer to the poor. In every cuurch they appomt lily elders and rulers, who are to inspect men's mariners and to bear a .part in Ute government of the church. The acknowledge a priority of order ought l.0 be among.sl t:.hurch govoruors, but not a priority of jurisdiction. They deny the civil magistrate any authority in [;hU1·ch. govorrnnont. making the king mere loicus lie layman]. and subject to the e~ns~u'es ofpuruchial c111Hch government. They have two church judicatories, the classical [ie district] assembly and the general assembly, to whicb there lies an appeal from the classical ....

(Extracted from: Edward Chambcrlayne, Angliae Notitia; or the Present Strite of England (London: T. Hodgkin for R. Chiswell, l700): 249-54).

J 712. The IH.'1 witrh trial UI1U execution rill" witchcrult lake place iii England (Doc. I [)9.).

196

109. WITCH TRIAL

The witchcraft delusion is a, sad lhough not a lier)' strange chapter in European hi;story. lts essence waS the belief I,hat certain persons could. by suuuuc assistance exercise a malign influence over others, even to the poinl of callsing death. This idea 'was of uni'versal prevalence arul: of long lltrratioll.. Olle [~nderstn.rl(ls its existence in the Middle Ages casi.ly, bill the extl"(wrriin.or)' thing is that it .~hO(J(ll1{!.ve suruilJecllhe (~evival 0/ Learning. Prejudices, hoioecer, dit, lutrd; (LIla mo.ny innOt;enl, nictiuis «ere sacr~fi.cerl to this fJCut.iwlar one (IS late cr~ the eighteenth centurt. Ou.r~ng I.h~ =: of the Stuarts accu.satiofl..5 were ji'eell' brought, and ofiea resulted in a. rleath. sentence. One stn.kl.ngjllct about the trials is tha: the prisoners cord"eslied their gtl,i[t with alacrity, in the hope tha: they ioould.

receive It milder ,senl.ence tlian. if they proved uubborr: How trumpery was the euulence adduced nwy

be gll.there(ijimn thejollowing citation.

The examinuLion of Ellen Green of Stathern in the County of Leicester

She saith, that one Joan Willimol or Goadby came ahout six. years since to her in the Wolds, and persuadecl this examinate 10 forsake God ,U1d betakE her to the Devil, and she would give her. ~(l spiritl;, to which she gave her consent; and thereupon the said Joan Willimot called two spmts, one in the likeness of II kitten and the other of a mole ... and Ih,~y presently came to her. .. and they leaped Oil her shoulder, and the kitten sucked under her right ear on her neck and the mole

on the lert side in the like place.

ALLIe:!" thev had sucked her, she sent the kiuon to a baker of that town whose name she remembers

1101. who 'had called her "Witch II and stricken .her, and bade her said spirit go and bewilch him to c1e~th. The mole she then bade go to .Annc Daws of the same town and bewitch her to death, because she had called this examiu<\te "witch, whore". etc.; and within one fortnight after they

both died ....

About three years since, this examinate removed thence to Stathern, where she now dwelt. Upon

a difference' between the SOlid Willimol and the w-ife of John Patchett of the said Stathern, *yeomarl, she the said WillimOl called her (this exarninate] to go and touch the said John Patchen's wife und her child, which she did ... And then [she] sent her said spirits to bewitch thnrn to death, which they did, and so the woman lay languishing by the space of a month and more, Ior then she died; the child died the next day alter she touched it ....

And fOJ" hersell' this exam.inate further said, that she gave her soul to the Devil to have these spirits at her command. [or a con1i.nnation whereof slie euflcred them to Bilek her always as

aforesaid about the change and fun .of the moon.

(Source: The. Wondelfol Discoverie oftheWitchcrafts ofl'tlln,rgaret cmllPhillip FWwer ...

Together with the Seseroll. Exwninations and ConfessiQns of AllIie Baker, Joan Willinwt and Ellen Greene, Witches in Leicestershire (London, 1619).)

Qu~en ANNE, the last ()f the Protestant Stuarts, dies,

I\ugust 1714, ami, under the 170 I Act of Settlement, the Gelman Prince George Louis IlI'l-!al1()ver succeeus

as GEORGE I.

IX THCEJ{OVSP. GP J{}l:J{Oo/E/l{ }1!N(j) S}1Xp.-qOTJ(}l

1714-1917

JAMES I

Anne of Denma.rk

Elizabeth

Frederick, Elector Palatine

I -Sophia

1

Prince Rupert

Elector of Hanover

GEORGE I i. 7lLl-27

Sophia of Brunswick

GEORGE II 1727-1760

Caroline of Anspach

Augusta of Saxe-Gotha

Frederick, Prince of Wales

Charlotte-Sophia

of Mecklenburg-Strelitz

GEORGE III 1760-1820

l

Edward, Duke of Kent

: Victoria Of

s=e-crb=g

VICTORIA 183.7-1901

= Albert of Saxe-Coburg

GEORGE'IV 1820-30

= Caroline 0f Brunswick

r WILLIAM IV

= Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen

Charlotte (d.18I7) =Leopold of Belg.ium

110. THE HOUSE OF HANOVER

198

1714-1727, Reign 0(' GEORGE I (13 years)

Title: son of Sophia, grand-Ilaughler of JamesI Stuart Succeeded 1.11 the age of 54 (b. 1660)

Married; (J682-94) Sophia Dorothea of Celle of Brunswick Children: George (GEORGE ll)

Clwratteri5lits: Unuttractlve but not unintelligent, he was a shrewd diplomat and a brave soldier, He never learned 10 speak English. He failed 10 win the hearts of his English subjects; he clearly preferred Hanover

tu England.

SOllie maiorfigures oIl/I·e reign:

Politics:

Sir Robert Walpole (i 676-1745), first Prime Minister

Litera/LIre:

Alexander Pope (1688-1744), poet Jonathan Swift (1667-1745), writer

Music:

Georg Friedrich Handel {I 68S-17 59}, composer

Ill. KING GEORGE I

Lady Mary Wintle), Montagu (1689-1762) on: the character of George I. Lady Mary was the daughter (~f the.first Duke of Kingston. Her husband; Edward Wortley Montagu, was a Commissioner of the Treasury in the first months of George lis reign, and was said to be the only member of the board who could talk !O t.he king in French, uluch. he understood .

... The King's character may be comprised in very few words. In private life he would have .been called an honest blockhead; and Fortune, that made him a king, added nothing to 11\5 happiness, only prejudiced his honesty, and shortened his days. No man was ever more free from ambition; he loved money, but loved to keep his own, without being rapacious of other men IS. He would have grown rich by saving, but was incapable of laying schemes Ior gettiHg; be was more properly dull than lazy, and would have been so well COlltenteQ to have remained in his little town of Hanover, that if the ambition of those about him had not been greater than his own, we should never have seen bim in England; and the natural honesty of his temper, joined with the narrow notions of a low education, made him look upon his acceptance of the crown as an act of usurpation, which was always uneasy to him. But he was carried by the stream of the people about him, in that, as in every act ofhis life. He could speak no Englisb, and was past the age oflearning it. Our customs and laws were all mysteries 10 him, which he neither tried to understand, 1101' was capable of understanding if he had endeavoured it. He was passively good-natured, and wished all mankind enjoyed quiet, if they

would let him do so ....

(Somce: Lady Mary Wortley Montagu "Account of the Court of George I" in her Letters arid

W01;;:S, ed. Lord Wharncliffe, 2nd edn, 3 vols. (London: R. Bentley, 1837),1: 1.07-108.)

199

GEORGE I. believing that all ~Tories were * Jacobites gives his confidence [0 th "Wh'·! ..

power . " e. 19£. wnn remam In

1715·1760, and form a ministry from among them, under the leadership of Townshend, Stanhope and Walpole,

I

t,

112. A BURLESQUE BILL FOR COSTS FORA TORY ELECTION, 1715

On =r: of George I, there ha~ »: mucli popular dread lest the *Tory leaders during Qneen A nne s last days would bnng Ut the Pretender ill a Roman Catholic king. The next parliament therefore pro ued. to have a * Whig majority.

. The following illustrates some of the methods one uould employ to become a Member of Pariiamera.

It will be observed in this "bill" that briberv is not put doum as one oifl~~ . t fi' {

• , •. . • ~ . • , It,<; promtnen. eat·ares 0

an election. at this period; violence was, as ye~,fou.nd to be more effective than corruption. .

L

BURLESQUE BILL FOR COSTS FOR A TORY ELECTION (1715)

Imprimis, for bespeaking and collecting a mob ..

Item, for many suits of knots for their heads

FOI scores of huzza-men , ·.·.~·.·.·.·.·.~·.·.~·.·.~ .. ': ~ : ':

For roarers of the word II Church" .

For a set of "No "Rounduead" roarers, ' ·

For several gallons of Tory punch on c1;~~i~'~~:b~~~~~~~.·.·.·.·.·.·.·.·:

For a majority of clubs and brandy-bottles ..

For hell-ringers, fiddlers, and porters ..

For a set of coffee-house praters .

FOl' extraordinary expense for cloths and lac'd hats on

show days, to dazzle the mob................................. 50

1"01' * Dissenters' damners 40

For demolishing LwO hous~~.·.·.·.·.·.·.·.·.·.·.·.·~.·::.·.·.·.·.·.·.·.·.· • ~ ..'. , : .. :.. 200

FOI committing two riots.... 200

For secret encouragement to the rioters.; 40

For a dozen of perjury men ......... ,......................................... 100

For breaking windo\Ns,........................................................... 20

For a gang of alderman- abusers. 40

For a set of notorious lyars...... 50

For pot-rue :........ 100

For law, and charges ill the "King's Bench................. 300

--~1~41~0~--~--~~

S. D.
0 0
a 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
a 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0 20 30 40 40 40 30 20 10 40

[Source: The Flying Post, January 27, 1715, cited by Thomas Wright, Caricature History of the. Georges (London: Chano and Windus, 1867): 17.)

200

An elfort to dLive out the new King of the House of Hanover and to restore. the old Stuartline leads.

November 1715. to the Jacobite Rebellion of Fifteen. Scottish rebels, under the Earl of Mar. urc defeated ut Sheriffmuir, and the English =Jacobnes surrender at Preston, James Edward. the Old Pretender. lands In

Scotland.

Dccemher 1715. but ~howing himself l.nt·otnpetelll and spiLi.tless is lorced to reurrn to France. III consequence ()r the

Jac(lbile Rebellion the Riot Ad is passed,

1715. forbidding any twelve or more persons to assemble to disturb the peace,

Becau~e of the unsettled pnlitical situation.

1716. the Septennial Act i.~ passed. exteniling the duration or Partiament to SeVeJ1 years.

In order to uphold the Treaty of Utrecht, lirst a Triple Alliance (England. France. Holland),

1717. and later the QllutllllJlle Alliance (England, France,Hoiluml. Austria) are formed.

The Snuth Sell Scheme. by which the Directory of the South Sea Company offers to payoff part of tne National Debt, lr in return they shoultl have the exclusive light or trading in the South Sea, lead: .. [0 speculating in the ~LQCK fif the South Sea Company, the shares rising trorn J:IOO tn £1.nO[).

Suddenly,

January 1720. th "Snlllh Sea Bubble" bursts, ruining thousands Irom all classes of the society (Due. 113.).

113. ENGLISH SOCIETY, 1724.

Herman Moll (d. 7732), a Dutchman, settled in London. about 1698, and became well known for the excellence qj'hf..; maps and his m.any geo{3raphical compilations.

As LO the commons of England, none are called Noble under a *Daron; even the Sons of *Pef:rs are by our Conslitution reckoned among the Commons, the main Body of which consists 01 *B'al'onets, *Knights or several Sorts, Esquires, Gentlemen, Merchants, *Yeomen, and Tradesmen- The Title of "'BaroneL, first instituted by ICing James 1. in 1611, is an hcredital')' Honour by Patent, descending Lo the Hell'S 11ale lawfully begotten ....

*Knights anctently signified a lusty Servito.r 01' Horseman, because uley, were wont to he ServanLS, and in our *COl11mOIl Law miliies, because they commonly held Lands by *l\nigbt-Serviee, to serve the King in his Wars as Soldiers. We have sevp,ral Sorts of them; the olriefest arc those of the Order of t11e *Garter ... [and]. .. the Knights of we *Bath ... The next are those commonly called Knights-Bachelors, Iormerly rewarded with that Honour for their military Achievements, and sparingly bestowed ,ill after tbe Reign or Queen Eli:l;ubcLb; but OUl' Princes have been since 50 profuse in conferring it, that it. has lost much of

its ancient Repute.

The next in Degree are Esquires. or Lhis Title are £:1'5l +Viscoums and *Barons

eldest Sons, and all their younger Sons; and by the *Common law ali the Sons of *Earls, *Mal'quises aile! *Dukes are Esqui)'(:'I-;. anti 110 more .... There may be also Esquires created by the King by putting about their Necks a Collar of 55, and bestowing a Pair of Silver Spurs

upon them.... '

A Gc.nLlcman is properly one whose Ancestors have been repltLed Free Men, and have

owned no Ohedieuee to any Man besides their naturalPlince; so that no Man, properly speaking, is a Gentleman, but one that was born so: However the King, who is lhe Fall ntain of Ho-iour. can make a Gentleman by Charter, or conferring some honourable Tmployment upon hun: and tho' all Noblemen are Gentlemen, yet all Gentlemen are nor Noblemen.

'Next to the Lower Nobility, as some reckon all those to be under the Degree of *Peers or the Realm, are placed the *Yeumanlry or *Fcceholclers of England, or whom in some Cases the Law has conceived a better Opinion than of Tradesmen, Artificers, or Labourers: They are

201

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