81 views

Uploaded by grkgupta

M.Tech Thesis, NIT Warangal, Thermal Engineering

- CFD
- Cfd Simulation ppt
- CFD
- Cfd Manual Fluent
- CFD Applications PPT
- CFD-Intro
- Computational Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer
- Steam Power Plants English
- Heat Transfer
- CFD NOTES
- CFD Project Titles
- Finite Volume Methods
- Methane Combustion Modelling Using ANSYS-CFX - (Www.cfdiran.ir)
- Using ANSYS BladeGen
- Cfd Methods
- Cfd for Offshore Applications
- CFD Application in Fixed Bed Reactor Internals
- AdvancesModelingFluidDynamicsITO12 Softarchive.net
- CFD Analysis of Electronics Chip Cooling
- CFD

You are on page 1of 11

Applications

COMSOL Multiphysics offers several different formulations for solving

turbulent flow problems: the L-VEL, yPlus, Spalart-Allmaras, k-epsilon, komega, Low Reynolds number k-epsilon, and SST models. All of these

formulations are available in the CFD Module, and the L-VEL, yPlus, kepsilon, and Low Reynolds number k-epsilon are available in the Heat

Transfer Module. This posting outlines the reasons why we want to use

these various turbulence models, how to choose between them, and how to

use them effectively. Throughout the post, youll find links to relevant

models that highlight the features discussed.

Lets start by considering the flow of a fluid over a flat plate, as shown in

the figure below. The uniform velocity fluid hits the leading edge of the flat

plate, and a laminar boundary layer begins to develop. The flow in this

region is very predictable. After some distance, small chaotic oscillations

begin to develop in the fluid field, and the flow begins to transition to

turbulence, eventually becoming fully turbulent.

the Reynolds number,

, where

is the fluid density,

is the

velocity,

is the characteristic length (in this case, the distance from the

leading edge), and

is the fluid dynamic viscosity. We will assume that

the fluid is Newtonian, meaning that the viscosity is constant with respect

to shear rate. This is true, or very nearly so, for a wide range of fluids of

engineering importance, such as air or water. Density can vary with respect

to pressure, although it is assumed that the fluid is only weakly

compressible, meaning that the Mach number is less than about 0.3.

In the laminar regime, the flow of the fluid can be completely predicted by

solving the steady-stateNavier-Stokes equations , which predict the velocity

and the pressure fields. We can assume that the velocity field does not vary

with time, and get an accurate prediction of the flow behavior. An example

of this is outlined in the model The Blasius Boundary Layer . As the flow

begins to transition to turbulence, chaotic oscillations appear in the flow,

and it is no longer possible to assume that the flow is invariant with time.

In this case, it is necessary to solve the problem in the time domain, and

the mesh used must be fine enough to resolve the size of the smallest

eddies in the flow. Such a situation is demonstrated in the example

model Flow Past a Cylinder. Steady-state and transient laminar problems

can be solved both with COMSOL Multiphysics alone, as well as along with

the Microfluidics Module , which has additional boundary conditions

applicable for flow in very small channels.

As the Reynolds number increases, the flow field exhibits small eddies, and

the timescales of the oscillations become so short that it is computationally

unfeasible to solve the Navier-Stokes equations. In this flow regime, we

can use a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) formulation, which is

based on the observation that the flow field (u) over time contains small,

local oscillations (u) that can be treated in a time-averaged sense (U). As a

consequence, we add additional unknowns to the system of equations and

introduce approximations for the flow field at the walls.

Wall Functions

The turbulent flow near a flat wall can be divided up into four regimes. At

the wall, the fluid velocity is zero, and for a thin layer above this, the flow

velocity is linear with distance from the wall. This region is called

the viscous sublayer, or laminar sublayer. Further away from the wall is a

region called the buffer layer. In the buffer region, the flow begins to

transition to turbulent, and it eventually transitions to a region where the

flow is fully turbulent and the average flow velocity is related to the log of

the distance to the wall. This is known as the log-law region. Even further

away from the wall, the flow transitions to the free-stream region. The

viscous and buffer layers are very thin, and if the distance to the end of the

buffer layer is , then the log-law region will extend about

away

from the wall.

It is possible to use a RANS model to compute the flow field in all four of

these regimes. However, since the thickness of the buffer layer is so small,

it can be advantageous to use an approximation in this region. Wall

functions ignore the flow field in the buffer region, and analytically compute

a non-zero fluid velocity at the wall. By using a wall function formulation,

you assume an analytic solution for the flow in the viscous layer, and the

resultant models will have significantly lower computational requirements.

This is a very useful approach for many practical engineering applications.

If you need a level of accuracy beyond what the wall function formulations

provide, then you will want to consider a turbulence model that solves the

entire flow regime. For example, you may want to compute lift and drag on

an object, or compute the heat transfer between the fluid and the wall.

If you are solving any kind of problem where the flow is not fully turbulent,

such as a free convection problem, you will need to resolve the flow to the

wall, and should not use wall functions.

The seven RANS turbulence models differ in their usage of wall functions,

the number of additional variables solved for, and what these variables

represent. All of these models augment the Navier-Stokes equations with

an additional turbulent viscosity term, but they differ in how it is computed.

Editors note: This blog post has been updated to include information on

the L-VEL and yPlus models that were added in COMSOL Multiphysics

version 5.0, released on 10/31/2014.

The L-VEL and yPlus algebraic turbulence models compute the turbulent

viscosity, based only on the local fluid velocity and the distance to the

closest wall; they do not solve for additional variables. These models solve

the flow everywhere and are the most robust and least computationally

intensive of the seven turbulence models. While they are generally the least

accurate models, they do provide good approximations for internal flow,

especially in electronic cooling applications.

Spalart-Allmaras

The Spalart-Allmaras model adds a single additional variable for a SpalartAllmaras viscosity and does not use any wall functions; it solves the entire

flow field. The model was originally developed for aerodynamics

applications and is advantageous in that it solves for only a single

additional variable. This makes it less memory-intensive than the other

models that solve the flow field in the buffer layer. Experience shows that

this model does not accurately compute fields that exhibit shear flow,

separated flow, or decaying turbulence. Its advantage is that it is quite

stable and shows good convergence.

k-epsilon

The k-epsilon model solves for two variables: k; the turbulent kinetic

energy, and epsilon; the rate of dissipation of kinetic energy. Wall functions

are used in this model, so the flow in the buffer region is not simulated.

The k-epsilon model is very popular for industrial applications due to its

good convergence rate and relatively low memory requirements. It does

not very accurately compute flow fields that exhibit adverse pressure

gradients, strong curvature to the flow, or jet flow. It does perform well for

external flow problems around complex geometries. For example, the kepsilon model can be used to solve for the airflow around a bluff body .

k-omega

The k-omega model is similar to k-epsilon, instead however, it solves for

omega the specific rate of dissipation of kinetic energy. It also uses wall

functions and therefore has comparable memory requirements. It has more

difficulty converging and is quite sensitive to the initial guess at the

solution. Hence, the k-epsilon model is often used first to find an initial

condition for solving the k-omega model. The k-omega model is useful in

many cases where the k-epsilon model is not accurate, such as internal

flows, flows that exhibit strong curvature, separated flows, and jets. A good

example of internal flow is flow through a pipe bend .

The Low Reynolds number k-epsilon is similar to the k-epsilon model but

does not use wall functions; it solves the flow everywhere. It is a logical

extension to k-epsilon and shares many of its advantages, but uses more

memory. It is often advisable to use the k-epsilon model to first compute a

good initial condition for solving the Low Reynolds number k-epsilon model.

Since it does not use wall functions, lift and drag forces and heat flux can

be modeled with higher accuracy.

SST

Finally, the SST model is a combination of the k-epsilon in the free stream

and the k-omega models near the walls. It does not use wall functions and

tends to be most accurate when solving the flow near the wall. The SST

model does not always converge to the solution quickly, so the k-epsilon or

k-omega models are often solved first to give good initial conditions. In an

example model, the SST model solves for flow over a NACA 0012 Airfoil,

and the results are shown to compare well with experimental data.

Meshing Considerations

Solving for any kind of fluid flow problem laminar or turbulent is

computationally intensive. Relatively fine meshes are required and there

are many variables to solve for. Ideally, you would have a very fast

computer with many gigabytes of RAM to solve such problems, but

simulations can still take hours or days for larger 3D models. Therefore, we

want to use as simple of a mesh as possible, while still capturing all of the

details of the flow.

Referring back to the figure at the top, we can observe that for the flat

plate (and for most flow problems), the velocity field changes quite slowly

in the direction tangential to the wall, but quite rapidly in the normal

direction, especially if we consider the buffer layer region. This observation

motivates the use of a boundary layer mesh. Boundary layer meshes

(which are the default mesh type on walls when using our physics-based

meshing) insert thin rectangles in 2D, or triangular prisms in 3D, at the

walls. These high aspect ratio elements will do a good job of resolving the

variations in the flow speed normal to the boundary, while reducing the

number of calculation points in the direction tangential to the boundary.

The boundary layer mesh (magenta) around an airfoil and the surrounding

triangular mesh (cyan) for a 2D mesh.

The boundary layer mesh (magenta) around a bluff body and the

surrounding tetrahedral mesh (cyan) for a 3D volumetric mesh.

Model

Once youve used one of these turbulence models to solve your flow

simulation, you will want to verify that the solution is accurate. Of course,

as you do with any finite element model, you can simply run it with finer

and finer meshes and observe how the solution changes with increasing

mesh refinement. Once the solution does not change to within a value you

find acceptable, your simulation can be considered converged with respect

to the mesh. However, there are additional values you need to check when

modeling turbulence.

When using wall function formulations, you will want to check the wall liftoff in viscous units (this plot is generated by default). This value tells you if

your mesh at the wall is fine enough, and should be 11.06 everywhere. If

the mesh resolution in the direction normal to the wall is too coarse, then

this value will be greater than 11.06 and you should use a finer boundary

layer mesh in these regions. The second variable that you should check

when using wall functions is the wall lift-off (in length units). This variable

is related to the assumed thickness of the viscous layer, and should be

small relative to the surrounding dimensions of the geometry. If it is not,

then you should refine the mesh in these regions as well.

The regions where the wall lift-off in viscous units is greater than 11.06

require a finer mesh.

When solving in the viscous and buffer layer, check the dimensionless

distance to cell center (also generated by default). This value should be of

order unity everywhere, and less than 0.5 for the Low Reynolds number kepsilon model. If it is not, then refine the mesh in these regions.

Concluding Thoughts

This post has discussed the various turbulence models available in COMSOL

Multiphysics, and when and why you should use each of them. The real

strength of the software is when you want to combine your fluid flow

simulations with other physics, such as finding stresses on a solar panel in

high winds, forced convection modeling in a heat exchanger , or mass

transfer in a mixer, among other possibilities.

If you are interested in using COMSOL software for your computational fluid

dynamics (CFD) and multiphysics simulations, or have a question that isnt

addressed here, please contact us.

- CFDUploaded byanirudha_jewalikar1
- Cfd Simulation pptUploaded bySambhav Jain
- CFDUploaded byRafael Cavalcante
- Cfd Manual FluentUploaded byLaxman Kumar
- CFD Applications PPTUploaded byavailme
- CFD-IntroUploaded byChris Nikolopoulos
- Computational Fluid Mechanics and Heat TransferUploaded byTomer Saley
- Steam Power Plants EnglishUploaded byMirza Zubair Raza
- Heat TransferUploaded byn_raveendra@sify.com
- CFD NOTESUploaded bysubha_aero
- CFD Project TitlesUploaded byThota Sri K Haritha
- Finite Volume MethodsUploaded byKang Qin
- Methane Combustion Modelling Using ANSYS-CFX - (Www.cfdiran.ir)Uploaded byAhmadreza Aminian
- Using ANSYS BladeGenUploaded byOlga
- Cfd MethodsUploaded byAna Mora
- Cfd for Offshore ApplicationsUploaded byValentina Cor
- CFD Application in Fixed Bed Reactor InternalsUploaded bySubhasish Mitra
- AdvancesModelingFluidDynamicsITO12 Softarchive.netUploaded byPhilip Shih
- CFD Analysis of Electronics Chip CoolingUploaded byRanjeet Singh
- CFDUploaded bySabrinaFuschetto
- Technical ReferenceUploaded byJuan_Viesca_7422
- cfd lecture1Uploaded byJanarthanan Karthick
- Examples of CFD Applications at the FrenchUploaded byLordofchim
- cfdUploaded bySattar Al-Jabair
- CFD Applications- FTP Sathyabama UnivUploaded byVasanth Kumar
- Ansys Cfd for Naval ApplicationsUploaded byTrần Văn Cường
- Natural gas engines modeling: combustion and NOx emissions predictionUploaded bygkarthikeyan
- Computational Fluid DynamicsUploaded byFlorica Balog
- CFDUploaded byKrishna Myakala
- Cfx Ansys TutorialUploaded byRicardo Bau

- Design of Artificial Knee JointUploaded bygrkgupta
- Gas Turbine Emissions and Their ControlUploaded bygrkgupta
- Innovations and Developments in AviationUploaded bygrkgupta
- Thermal Hydraulics Design for Nuclear ReactorsUploaded bygrkgupta
- FVM - CFD.pptUploaded bygrkgupta
- pde tool in matlabUploaded bygrkgupta
- Turbine Blade Technology and DesignUploaded bygrkgupta
- Study and Control of Surge in Centrifugal CompressorsUploaded bygrkgupta
- Lab Class 4 - Runge-kutta MethodUploaded bygrkgupta
- Numerical Modelling of Reflective SensorsUploaded bygrkgupta
- Control System RevUploaded bysajid90
- Working of Hydro Power Plants and EconomicsUploaded bygrkgupta
- Taha and His MotherUploaded bygrkgupta
- amazing dramaUploaded bygrkgupta
- 153621-Governing of Hydraulic TurbineUploaded bygrkgupta
- Economics and Financial analysis of power plant.pptxUploaded bygrkgupta
- Stall and SurgeUploaded bygrkgupta
- Design of Exo-skeleton for Quasi Stiffness of KneeUploaded bygrkgupta
- Power Plant Econimics 2Uploaded bygrkgupta
- Flow Over S-blades Using FluentUploaded bygrkgupta
- Inspirational IdeasUploaded bySanghamitra Das
- ht basicUploaded byVivek Mohan
- sign languageUploaded bySumit Ghosh
- 0708_simple_machines_8Uploaded bypankaj51281
- 19. tqm - AravindUploaded bygrkgupta
- 8. Axiomatic Design - ANUDEEPUploaded bygrkgupta
- Clarifying ObjectivesUploaded bygrkgupta

- Aurora Pipe HangersUploaded bySorin Popa
- Weather Terms GlossaryUploaded byTu Burin Dt
- Unit IUploaded byMegh Nath Regmi
- Admin - 6Z0XU_as248inst.pdfUploaded byibm_aix
- Chapter 8 Exam_ Ccnp-tshoot Sp2016Uploaded byEddie83
- Change Auditor Quick StartUploaded byHachiko Mae
- Herbal Solutions for Musculoscheletal HealthUploaded byAnonymous 2rNFWz
- mtd-20-9Uploaded byMahendran Mahe
- Bulletin 010112Uploaded bystritaschool
- Identidad Cine Americano TextosUploaded byJulia
- Botany Lecture - Chapter 6Uploaded bycherokee
- 37.1kupferUploaded byBlogue Menos Um Carro
- The More LawUploaded byJackson Davis
- Rent ReceiptUploaded byNitish Kumar
- Prepaid Vouchers - MTNL MumbaiUploaded byJadhav Pritam
- Nabhstandards Vks AkaUploaded byAnonymous ibmeej9
- SAP HR Interview QuestionsUploaded bybarbie
- Final Score - Thomson Reuters 2011Uploaded byjchianglin
- Haeckel LifeUploaded bycharlygramsci
- Analysis of a Sheet Metal Bucket Elevator HeadUploaded byNono_geotec
- Mahabharata for ChildrenUploaded bythisistricky22761
- HCl Lawson Talent Management WhitepaperUploaded byEduardo Falcão
- ECON222 OutlineUploaded byHenry Tian
- Fema 453Uploaded bybhardin4411
- ad-click-prediction.pdfUploaded byMiguel Lopez
- Banking System in IndiaUploaded byVelde Nagaraju
- Volume II Issue 2(4) Winter 2011Uploaded byMadalina Constantinescu
- Application Note - Wind Farm Transformer Inrush StudiesUploaded byMustafa Fidanoglu
- English in KinetotherapyUploaded byPintilie Bogdan
- Differential.equations.and.Control.theory.ebook EEnUploaded bymetkmy