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1. What is the difference between primary and secondary evidence?

Primary evidence was created at the time of the event, where as secondary evidence was
created after the fact.
2. Who was the Prime Minister of Canada during WWI?
Robert Borden
3. Who was the commander of the Canadian Corps?
Arthur Currie
4. List the major details of the following battles: Somme, Ypres, Vimy Ridge, Passchendaele
Ypres (2nd battle) 1915
- First battle to involve Canadians
- First time poison gas was used as a weapon in war (Germany)
- Marks the start of Total War
- Canadians began to be respected as fighters
Somme 1916
- Very little land taken in a five month battle, one million dead
- Tank introduced
- Volunteer numbers decreased as casualties increased
- Canadians continued to gain respect
Vimy Ridge 1917
- Germans had captured a ridge in France however Allied troops failed to recapture it
- 80 000 Canadian troops formed a Canadian Corps for the first time
- Canadians knocked out 83% of the German artillery
- Canadian Corps advanced four and a half kilometres in a few hours, largest advance on

Western front since 1914

- 3 days total, 3500 Canadians dead
Passchendaele 1917
- Natural drainage systems were destroyed, rain drenched and swamped fields, trenches
were destroyed and were in terrible conditions
- 30 000 + casualties
- Arthur Currie thought it was Canadas biggest victory Passchendaele Ridge was captured
in the end
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5. Describe the impact of new military technologies on the war: machine gun, airplane, tank
Machine Gun
**Most significant weapon in the war**
- Were set up primarily at trenches and were used to shoot at inbound men at 400 rpm
- Main reason why the war was a stalemate and defensive
- Many many many deaths
- Very little effect in terms of war position, but pilots were seen as heroes since they risked
their lives in the sky
- Dogfight winners were rewarded in public
- Airplanes were originally used for the collection of information
First used in Battle of the Somme
- Not that effective, very little impact
6. What was the Russian Revolution and how did it impact the war and Canada?

Russian Revolution Czar Nicholas II was Russias terrible leader and made them terribly
prepared for the war
- Caused Russia to drop out of the war
- Made Russia communist after overthrowing
- **Increased fear of communism in Canada**
7. Know the countries in each of the Triple Alliance and Triple Entente.
Triple Entente Britain, France, Russia
Triple Alliance Germany, Italy, Austro-Hungarian Empire
8. What was an Enemy Alien? Describe their treatment during WWI.
Enemy Aliens were people who originated from the Triple Alliance (Germans, Italians,
AustroHungarians) living in Canada. Due to the War Measures Act, the government was able to
them poorly they were required to carry ID and report to authorities regularly, were banned
from owning weapons, media in their languages was banned, the right to vote was revoked,
and in the end many were arrested and were sent to camps or prison.
9. Conscription was a major issue during WWI. Describe the controversy and importance of
the Conscription Election of 1917.
Conscription was such an important issue during WWI because it divided French and
speaking Canadians. English Canadians felt that they were loyal to Britain and therefore had
to fight in their war and therefore were for conscription, however French Canadians believed
they owed Britain (and France) nothing and they were their own country, and were against
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conscription. The election in 1917 had nothing to do with political beliefs; it was only to vote
parties based on preference to conscription. A vote for Robert Borden (Union) was for

conscription, and a vote for Wilfred Laurier (Liberal) was against conscription. More English
Canadians than French Canadians conscription won.
10. Explain the significance of the Treaty of Versailles: What was it? What impact did it have
on the map of Europe? How did it impact future conflicts? What did it mean for Canadian
independence from Britain?
- Was a treaty signed by UK, US, France and Germany in Versailles, France
- Said that Germany was liable for all damages in WWI, had to pay reparations
- Germanys military became restricted (no airforce, tanks, submarines, < 100 000 men)
- US proposed a League of Nations that would encourage peace amongst nations
- Later around WWII Hitler felt that Germany was mistreated at the treaty and fuelled his
rampage in Europe
- New countries formed after: Yugoslavia, Austria, Hungary, Finland, Poland, USSR...
- ***First document that Canada signed independent of Britain: step towards complete
Canadian independence
11. What was prohibition? How did it impact Windsor? What was bootlegging?
Prohibition was when the consumption of alcohol was banned after WWI. At the time,
Windsor was known as the Great Funnel; an estimated $120 million of illegal liquor crossed
the border between Windsor and Detroit. Bootlegging was
It impacted Windsor because back then Windsor was called The Great Funnel. It was
estimated that $120 million of illegal liquor crossed the border. Bootlegging was an
illegal traffic in liquor in violation of legislative restriction on its manufacture, sale, or
12. What was the Persons case? Describe the case and explain its significance.
The Persons case was when five women challenged the definition of a Person in the British

North America Act (Canadas Constitution at the time). Two of these women, Emily Murphy
and Alice Jamieson, were magistrates and Jamieson had her ruling challenged on the
grounds that women were not Persons. The Alberta court said that women are, the
Court said that they arent, however in the end the Privy Council in England overruling
Canada at the time said that they are, resulting in a change of the definition of a person.
Significant for womens rights.
13. Describe the changing social norms of the 1920s regarding women, including Flappers.
Flappers were young women in the 1920s, who rebelled the old way of doing things. They
did this by cutting their hair short, wearing brightly coloured clothes (shorts, dresses), short
hemline dresses (to the knees), emphasis on straight lines (masculine). They used lots of
makeup, as the lipstick tube was invented in 1915. They wanted to look like boyish women.
They attended dances and other mixed social events, spent a lot of time in cars (freedom
privacy) and smoked and drank.
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14. Describe the events that led to the Great Depression.
- Easy Credit: Many families lived above their means due to credit/financed purchasing;
when creditors demanded their money back many couldnt afford to pay and lost what they
- A Lack of Financial Regulation: People bought stocks on credit and even banks invested in
the stock market; once the market crashed banks werent being paid their money and had
to close, with people losing their savings
- Canadas Reliance on Exports

- Also Agricultural crash: Poor farming practices, drought, grasshoppers that ate
vegetation, disease (rust) wheat sold for $1.65 a bushel in 1928 and sold for $0.28 in
15. Which Prime Minister caught most of the blame for the lingering effects of the
R. B. Bennett
16. Describe the changing politics of the Depression: CCF, Social Credit, Union Nationale,
On-To-Ottawa Trek.
- CCF - Cooperative Commonwealth Federation a socialist party that wanted to
reorganized the economy against capitalism in favour of an economy for the benefit of all
(won 7 seats)
- Social Credit - Lead by Bible Bill believed that Canadas economic problems were due
to underconsumption and could be fixed by social dividends, elected premier of Alberta
- Union National Promised to defend French language, religion, culture against English
Canada, won the Quebec election with support from rural citizens and small businesses
- On-To-Ottawa Trek R.B. Bennett put men in work camps, but these men decided that
government wasnt listening to their complains so they went on strike
- A thousand men boarded freight trains and headed towards Ottawa, demanding to talk
to the PM
- Bennett feared that the trekkers were communist revolutionaries, and demanded the
RCMP to stop them in Regina
- Ended in a bloody riot in Regina
17. Give examples of some of the ways Canadians tried to help end the Depression or cope
with its effects.

- Many moved in with extended family

- Some rely on charities
- Neighbours pull together
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18. What were relief payments? Describe some of the things one had to do to qualify for
The government decides to provide money to the provinces for assistance. These relief
payments are nicknamed The Dole. To qualify, you had to have no family that could help
you and have no assets (e.g. youd have to sell your car to get payments). The government
also put men in work camps, where single unemployed men worked far from the cities doing
physical labour for $0.20 an hour. The conditions were poor.
19. Explain the role of the following in Canadian independence from Britain: Halibut treaty,
Chanak Crisis, Statute of Westminster.
- Halibut Treaty - Canada signed a treaty about fishing rights with the US, the first time
Canada negotiated with the US without British involvement
- Chanak Crisis - Canada says that it will no longer automatically support British wars
- Statute of Westminster - British dominions declared to be self-governing
20. Know the countries in each of the Axis and the Allies.
Axis - Germany, Italy, Japan, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria
Allied - Canada, UK, US, France, USSR, China, Norway, Poland, Yugoslavia, Belgium...
21. How long after Britain did Canada declare war on Germany?
One week
22. Who was the Prime Minister of Canada during WWII?

William Lyon Mackenzie King

23. How was Canada involved in the Manhattan Project? What was the Manhattan Project?
The Manhattan Project was a top secret project to build an atomic bomb. Thousands of
scientists were involved and it costed millions of dollars. Canada contributed with lab space
and uranium. The first atomic bomb was eventually dropped on Hiroshima, Japan in 1945.
24. Describe the efforts on the home front in Canada and describe how they helped the
Allies win the war.
- People worked in manufacturing jobs creating supplies for the Allies
- Certain food was rationed so that food could be sent to the troops
- Other food items, such as apples and lobster, were surplus and were patriotic
25. Specifically, how did women contribute on the home front during WWII?
With so many men absent from home in the armed forces and with industries pushing
for more production, the Canadian government actively urged women to work in the
war effort. Some women had to do jobs in manufacturing, helping create goods for
the Allied troops.
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26. How did Mackenzie King successfully deal with the issue of conscription during WWII?
Be sure to include the National Resources Mobilization Act in your answer.
When Canada declared war in 1940 against Germany, King promised not to use
However, in 1940 he enacted the NRM Act, which allowed him to conscript men and women
to work for jobs necessary for the war effort (manufacturing, home defence), but did not
them to be sent to overseas fronts.
27. Describe the experience of Japanese Canadians during WWII.

In BC, where 22 000 people of Japanese descent lived, there was already a feeling of
resentment towards the success of the Japanese in the West Coast they were not allowed
vote, teach or work in the government. When Pearl Harbour, Hawaii was attacked, the racial
hostility increased tenfold. Although they were deemed to be no threat by the RCMP, they
were attacked both physically and in the media; their businesses were boycotted. Some third
generation Canadians with no loyalty to Japan were treated worse than recent German
- Ottawa took action and sent all Japanese men without Canadian citizenship to internment
camps away from the coast
- Eventually all Japanese descendants, even those with Canadian citizenship, were put in
internment camps No Japs from the Rockies to the Sea
- Families were spread throughout BC and Alberta with the fathers doing labour and
mothers and children living in makeshift houses without electricity or running water
- After the war, the Japanese didnt get their property back and over 4000 were deported
before 1947 they only got relief payments of a mere $20 000 (survivors only) in 1988
28. Be able to describe the major details of each of the following WWII battles and discuss
the role of Canadians: Battle of Britain, Hong Kong, Dieppe, D-Day, Netherlands.
- Battle of Britain - Operation Sea Lion, June to September 1940, German invasion on
Britain, an all air raid (only involved the Air Force)
- More than 100 Canadians participated and 23 died, Canadians served in Bomber and
coastal command, RAF squadrons and serviced planes
- Hong Kong - In 1941 Britain possessed HK, two Canadian units were sent to aid the
defence of Hong Kong, however 50 000 Japanese troops attacked Hong Kong and took

no prisoners
- The British surrendered on December 25, 1941 after the Japanese invaded HK and many
prisoners were sent to Japan or Korea to do work
- 300 Canadians were killed during the battle, another 250 died in Prisoner of War camps
- Dieppe - Raid in August 1942, an allied invasion on Dieppe, that the Axis had captured
- Before Allies reached the bridge, Germans raked them with tank and machine gun fire,
and ships were sunk before landing
- Very unsuccessful
- 5000 Canadians (including Essex Scottish from Windsor), 1000 killed, 500 wounded, 200
taken as Prisoners of War
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- D-Day - Allied full scale invasion to take back Europe, June 6, 1944
- Dieppe proved Allies were ready; they needed a good beach and chose Normandy in
- Canada landed on Juno Beach
- Allies confused the Germans
- Was considered success at a great cost; 15 000 Canadians participated with 1074
- Netherlands - Allied attack to reclaim Netherlands from Germany, 1945
- Canadians liberated major Dutch cities such as Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Hague
- They feared the Germans would blow up sea walls
- 200 000 Canadians and tons of soldiers were under Canadian command
- Canadian command negotiated cease fire
- **Germany surrendered here to a Canadian commander**

29. What was the holocaust? Be able to explain the death camp system and identify
The holocaust was a mass genocide by the Nazi Germany military on primarily Jews,
many other groups of people were targeted (including Slavs). Nazis believed that Germans
were descendants of the Aryan master race and they were the rightful rulers of the world,
that Jews and Slavs were subhuman. After invading Poland and capturing 3 million Jews,
Germans started to rip people out of their homes and put them in ghettoes. After capturing
more and more Jews and other Europeans, the Nazis devised a plan to murder 12 000 000
Europeans they created a system of labour, concentration and extermination camps
connected by rail.
Those who could work were put into labour, while those who couldnt were killed
immediately. They filled up gas chambers (and gave prisoners false hope and pretended
were shower rooms for them to cleanse before deporting) with people until no more could fit,
and released a poisonous Zyklon B gas killing everyone in the chamber.
Auschwitz was one of the most infamous camps, where over 1 million people were murdered
2000 could be gassed at once.
In the end, 2/3 of the Jews in Europe were killed, 12 000 000 people total, 6 000 000 Poles
30. What international organization was created at the end of WWII?
United Nations
31. Who was Igor Gouzenko and why is he important to Canadian history?
Igor Gouzenko was a clerk who revealed 109 top secret documents that would prove that
Soviet Union was operating spy rings in Canada. According to him, the Soviets were trying to

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steal the technology used to create the atomic bomb, and were doing the same to the US
UK. Many Canadians had been deeply suspicious of Communist intentions for years, and
only furthered that fear. The Gouzenko Affair became a symbol for the beginning of the Cold
32. What was the Avro Arrow and why was it scrapped?
The Avro Arrow was an advanced supersonic, twin-engine, all-weather interceptor jet
aircraft. Within two month of the project cancellation, all aircraft, engines, production
tooling and technical data were ordered scrapped. The official reason was that it was
too expensive and no longer worth the money. The same day the first Arrow was
created, the Russians put the first man made object in space (opposing sides of Cold
War) the Avro Arrow sparked a long political debate.
33. Who was the Prime Minister at the time?
John Diefenbaker
34. Explain Canadas role in: the Korean War, Vietnam War, Suez Crisis.
- Korean War - After WWII, Korea was occupied: Soviets occupied the North (communist)
while the US occupied the South (democracy)
- In 1950 the North invaded the South and is initially successful
- The UN sends troops from 15 countries to help stabilize the front back at 38th parallel
- **27 000 Canadians participated
- Vietnam War - Canada did not participate and the US was upset
- Canadian businesses exported $2.5 billion of war materials and $10 billion in food to

the US helping their effort; Canadian unemployment dropped to 3.9%

- Suez Crisis - Lester B. Pearson won a Nobel Peace Prize for his mediation between all
parties involved in the Suez Crisis
- Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal company, France declared war against Egypt and
Britain decided to send troops as peacekeepers; US president didnt want this and
strongly urged the US to avoid force
- Canada was in a perfect position to find a middle ground between everyone, however
he was failing and it looked like the world was going to war
- Pearson resolved the issues over four sleepless days
35. Which Canadian diplomat and future Prime Minister won a Nobel Peace Prize? Why?
Lester B. Pearson won a Nobel Peace Prize, for resolving the Suez Crisis.
36. What was NATO and what was Canadas role in it?
NATO is the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and was signed by US, Canada, Britain,
and eight other nation in 1949. All members agreed to contribute military units to a new
NATO defence force, intended to discourage Soviet expansion into Western Europe. Canada
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convinced the US to sign, and hoped that it would give Canada a greater say in shaping US
defence policy.
37. What was the Cuban Missile Crisis and how did it strain relations between Canada and
the USA?
Cuban communist forces had overthrown the pro-American government in Cuba and the
USSR started to aid Cuba. The US found out that Soviet missiles were being installed in
The issue was that Canada did not want to immediately comply with the USs request to

Canadian forces to an alert status. As Soviet ships approached they finally complied, ready
defeat Soviets if they attacked. This made an already unstable relationship with the US
Kennedy government even more unstable. The crisis ended on October 28 when the USSR
removed the missiles from Cuba.
38. What was the Quiet Revolution? Identify the premier of Quebec who instigated it, and
describe some of the major changes in the province at this time.
In 1960, Quebec voted for Liberal Jean Lesage to begin a rapid reform in the province. In
sixties, Quebeckers challenged social and cultural traditions, political authorities, and the
importance of religion and agriculture. Many began to call themselves Quebecois instead of
Canadiens; while they wanted to stay in Canada they demanded a new, equal partnership as
a founding nation of Canada. Major changes included:
- Secularization and Modernism: people moved away from Church and agriculture to the
- Lower marriage rates and lower birth rate
- Educational Reform and Investment: At the time, English Canadians held the highest rank
jobs in the province while the Quebecois had lower ranks; the Liberals changed this such
that the Quebecois would masters in our own house
- Education was placed in provincial control, an emphasis was placed on business and
science, applied and practical studies
- More Quebecois than ever began completing elementary school and going to university
- Political Reorganization: Province took control of health care and utilities (Hydro-Quebec)
- John Lesage pressed for special status for Quebec, feeling they needed more powers
to protect its language and culture

39. What two superpowers engaged in the Cold War? On whose side was Canada?
The US and USSR engaged in the Cold War. Canada was on the US side.
40. Discuss the threat of nuclear war and its effect on civilian in Canada (duck and cover
drills, bomb shelters, mutually assured destruction).
41. Describe Canadas role in the following as they apply to the Cold War: Bomarc Missiles,
- Bomarc Missiles - Canada accepted nuclear missiles while under the Liberal government
- NATO - Canada was a founding nation in NATO and convinced the US to join
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42. Who became Prime Minister in 1968?
Pierre Elliot Trudeau
43. What was the FLQ crisis? be able to explain the goals of the FLQ, their actions in the
1970, and the government response (including the use of the War Measures Act).
The Front de Liberation de Quebec was created in 1963 with the goal of achieving
independence for Quebec by any means necessary. They believed that The dignity of the
Quebec people demands independence... independence is only possible through social
- October 5th, 1970: FLQ kidnapped British diplomat James Cross, demanding $500 000 in
gold, a passage abroad, for their manifesto to be read on the radio and 23 FLQ members to
be released from jail the government refused
- October 10th, 1970: Quebec vice premier Pierre Laporte is kidnapped
- Quebec asked Ottawa for help; PM Trudeau evokes the War Measures Act
- October 17th, 1970: Pierre Laporte found dead in the trunk of a car

- FLQ leaders were caught, tried and convicted; FLQ dissolves

- Violent separation has since subsided, more political means are adopted
44. What issue led to feelings of resentment in Alberta in the 1970s? (Trudeaus National
Energy Program, Energy Crisis)
- Energy Crisis: high oil prices and substantially decreased oil supply
- NEP - (1) security and supply and ultimate independence from the world market, (2) the
opportunity for all Canadians to participate in the energy industry (particularly oil and gas)
and to share in the benefits of its expansion and (3) fairness with a pricing and revenue
sharing regime which recognizes the needs and rights of all Canadians
- The program was extremely unpopular in Western Canada, especially Alberta (where most
of Canadas oil is produced)
- They were not governed by the Liberals
- They felt that NEP was at their expense in benefitting the eastern provinces
- They felt that the federal government was intruding in provincial matters (natural
resources are dealt with by provinces individually)
45. What was the White Paper? Explain why it angered many aboriginal groups.
The White Paper was issued by the Trudeau government in 1969, voiding all previous
aboriginal treaties on the basis that treaties could only be signed between sovereign nations,
not groups within Canada. It angered many aboriginal Canadians because they went back to
being treated unfairly.
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46. Constitution Act of 1982. Be able to describe the process through which it was
completed. Why did many in Quebec feel disrespected?
After being re-elected in 1980, Trudeau wanted to change the Canadian constitution,

allowing Canada to pass bills if all provinces agreed without British approval, and create a
charter guaranteeing the right to education in English and French. At first, only Ontario and
New Brunswick agreed, while the other eight premiers did not. Endless negotiation occurred,
until a midnight meeting on November 5th the premiers were awakened for a last minute
discussion. The Quebec premier was not staying at the same hotel as the other nine
and therefore was left out of the negotiations. He woke up to find that a new constitution had
been negotiated without him. The constitution passed the House of Commons and was
signed and returned to Canada by the Queen by April 1982, however Quebec did not sign
the constitution until Robert Bourassa became premier five years later.
47. Explain the events and significance of: James Bay Agreement, Oka, Ipperwash.
Ipperwash Crisis
- Involves a land claim
- Native group occupies park, upset that their land wasnt returned
James Bay Agreement
- The Quebec government wanted large tracts of land in northern Quebec to build
hydroelectric plants
- A deal was made with native groups the government gave Inuit and Cree groups $225
million and hunting and fishing rights on the land to be surrendered to Quebec
Oka Crisis (1990)
- Municipal officials in Oka, Quebec decided to allow a golf course to be developed on
Native burial grounds on a local reserve: the Mohawk nation was angry
- The group blocked off all roads in and out of the reserve
- Quebec police confronted the group, one officer was shot and killed

- Canadian Armed Forces were called in to remove the barricades and quell the disturbance
- The crisis helped raise awareness of aboriginal issues
48. Describe the impact of: Official Bilingualism, Official Multiculturalism, Changes to the
Immigration policy including the points system.
Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism: 1963 - 1969
- Response to unrest amongst French Canadians, who called for protection of their language
and culture, more political opportunities
- Pierre Trudeau was the Prime Minister at the time
- Examined how bilingual the government was, equal partnership
- Francophones were underrepresented in government; French had trouble getting
government service in French
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- What changed: Changes made to French education in all 9 Anglophone provinces, New
Brunswick became officially bilingual, Official Languages Act 1969; federal government
Three definitions: A society composed of many different ethnicities, the ideal of quality and
respect between cultures and **an official government policy of 1971**
- Policy officially recognizes and promotes diversity
Immigration Act of 1976 (Came into effect in 1978)
- Eliminates prohibited classes (groups that were denied entry)
- Created four new classes of immigrants (Refugees, Families, Assisted relatives,
Independent immigrants), only individuals need the point system
- Business class created in 1980