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AP US Government & Politics

Nominations and Campaigns

Chapter 9 Reading Guide


1. Explain the difference between the caucus and primary method of nominating
presidential candidates.

2. What is front-loading, and how does it affect the nominating process?

3. How has the development of the internet changed campaigns?

4. Describe the Campaign Finance Act of 1974. What were the main provisions of The
Campaign Finance Act of 1974?

5. McCain-Feingold campaign finance reform act regulates soft money. What is soft money,
and has the new law been successful?

6. What are PACs? How has the proliferation of PACs affected presidential campaigns?

7. Describe three factors that tend to weaken a campaigns impact on voters?

Ch 9 Vocabulary Study Chart Nominations and Campaigns (pg 253-276)

Nomination (254)

A partys official endorsement of a

Success in nomination game

candidate for office

requires momentum, money

Campaign strategy

Master game plan candidates lay out

and media attn

How they manipulate money,


to guide their electoral campaign

media attn and momentum to

National party

Supreme power within each party.

achieve nomination
State delegates meet to cast

convention (255)

Convention meets every 4 years to

their votes (tho they are well

nominate partys presidential and

known already)

VPO candidates and to write the


partys platform
Commission formed at the 1968

Bob Mulholland
Riots in 1968 DNC est

Commission (255)

Democratic convention in response to

affirmative action guidelines

demands for reform by minority

for delegate selection now

groups who sought better

conventions much more


Natl party leaders who automatically

Last vestige of old elite-


get a delegate slot at the national

dominated system (member of

party convention

Congress or partys natl

System for selecting convention

committee = automatic in)

Iowa first caucus. Voters

delegates used in ~ 12 rural states

must show up at set time &

Caucus (256)

attend an open meeting to

express their preference
Jimmy Carter, obscure Gov from

(takes time)

Georgia won Iowa in 1976

Obama won all 12 his

Obama shocked the world with Iowa

community organizing

win in 2008

experience helped to mobilize


Elections in which a states voters

activists to attend a caucus

NH first primary.

primaries (257)

vote their preference for a partys

nominee for president. Most

Proving grounds

delegates to natl party conventions

Frontloading (259)

chosen this way

Recent tendency of states to hold

Media madness
NH gets 20% of ALL media

primaries early in order to capitalize

attn in whole campaign

National primary

on media attention
Proposed nationwide primary that

Makes sense! First proposed


would replace the current system of

in 1913

caucuses and presidential primaries

Pros = more direct, simple and

takes much less time
Cons = not so simple. Who

Other ideas would be regional

wants a candidate nominated

primaries (each time zone) but where

with 25% of vote from field

to start??

of six? Only well-established

would have a shot. Big money
and attn more crucial than

Primaries in each time zone

But where to start? 1st always

Party platform

A political partys statement of its

has advantage
2nd day of Natl Convention


goals and policies for the next four

focus on party platform (goals

years. Platform drafted prior to

and policies for next 4 years0

Regional primaries

party convention by committee

whose members are chosen in
proportion to each candidates
strength. It is the best formal
Direct mail (264)

statement of a partys beliefs.

Method of raising money for political

Sierra Club lists

cause or candidate where requests

for money sent to people whose

Obamas email list had 5

names appear on lists of those who


have supported similar views or

Federal Election

candidates in the past

1974 law passed to reform campaign

Following Watergate and large

Campaign Act

finances. Act created the FEC (Fedl

illegal campaign contributions,


Election Commission), provided public

momentum was on for

financing for presidential primaries

campaign reform

and genl elections, limited

presidential campaign spending,
required disclosure, and attempted
to limit contributions

Federal Election

FEC 6 member bipartisan agency

Commission (268)

created by Fedl Election Campaign

6 members, bipartisan agency

Act of 1974. Administers and


enforces campaign finance laws

Money from fedl income tax check-

Election Campaign

off goes into this fund, which is

Fund (268)

distributed to qualified candidates

$3 check mark on tax returns.

10% of population donates

to subsidize their presidential

Matching funds

Up to $250 contributions matched

Must raise $5000 in at least


by Pres Election Campaign Fund to

20 states to qualify

candidates for pres nomination who

qualify and agree to meet various
conditions such as limiting their
Soft money (269)

overall spending
Contributions ear-marked for party-

2000 say half a billion raised

building expenses at grass-roots

this way for pres race

level or for advertising.

527 groups (270)


subject to limits until banned by


McCain Feingold Act (now overturned


by SC in United Citizens of 2010)

Way for wealthy to make unlimited

Loophole to McCain-Feingolds

contributions / independent political

ban on soft money

Named after

groups not subject to contribution

section of fedl

restrictions because they do not

Anti Kerry Swift Boat

tax code

directly seek the election of

Veterans for Truth or Anti

particular candidates. Must be


reported to IRS
Groups that are exempted from

Section 501c

501 groups (270)

reporting their contributions and can

Emerged in 2010

receive unlimited contributions.

Starting in 2010 became

vehicles for unlimited political
donations that oculd remain

Political action

PACs became funding vehicles

A corporation, unon or other

committees (271)

created by 1974 campaign finance

interest group can create a


PAC and register it with the

FEC which will monitor their

Now corporations and unions can



openly contribute to campaigns.

Phenomenon that peoples beliefs

We pay attention to what we

perception (274)

often guide what they pay the most

agree with already (!) ie CNN

attention to and how they interpret

v FOX or opinion writers