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Santa Susana High School

Fitting the Mold


A Study in Archetypes and Writing, Senior Project 2015

Tifani Hatcher
AP English 12
Mrs. Bradley
20 November 2015

Writing is my passion. My career goal is to write my own fiction novels, and Im


inspired by authors like S.E Hinton and Mary Shelley, women who started writing young

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just like me. As a result of my passion, my physical project will be a collection of short
stories, each story based on a different literary archetype. Ive been writing, or at least
attempting to, from a very young age. In seventh grade, I started practicing writing every
day and my writing has vastly improved as a result. However, I often write whenever the
inspiration strikes and I have a tendency to abandon my ideas. Most of my stories dont
even make it to a stage beyond chicken scratch on a piece of lined paper, let alone to
the editing or revising process and certainly not to completion. The writing process is
very difficult and time consuming, as it requires you to develop plot, characters, setting,
and more, and includes steps such as revising and editing. Im using this project to
develop my writing, and what better way to develop writing than to write about what
makes up the foundation of all literature? To write about archetypes, one should
understand them, and to understand archetypes, one must understand what they are,
where they come from, and the effects they have on literature.
The most basic aspect of the archetype is what it literally is. The archetype is
most concretely viewed as instinct, as we have subconsciously created many different
archetypes over the course of time and across different cultures. Archetypes carry a
high emotional charge. Whether the emotion is positive or negative, it is always
powerful. For individuals, archetypes frequently recur in situations when the rational,
conscious mind is not in full control such as dreams, fantasies, and obsessive behavior.
For society as a whole, they occur in many different eras and cultures as recurring
mythic patterns and common literary symbols.
Despite archetypes occurring throughout so many different eras and cultures,
there are very consistent, specific examples of them that we can see and analyze in

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various forms of media. One such example is the archetype of The Hero. Though
heroes were usually only well known in their hometowns, the archetypal heroes are
famous and renowned across the land. They are not divine, but can be demigods, and
they usually went to new, strange lands. The Heroes embody the values of their culture,
so we often see them on quests in which the fate of their people depends on them.
Examples of The Hero are most easily seen in Greek epics. Achilles, Odysseus, Hector,
and Hercules are just a few of the examples of the Greek Hero. However, The Hero can
also be seen in more modern media. Heroes can be seen everywhere from gothic
fiction to fantasy, with examples such as Atticus Finch and Harry Potter.
Another example of an archetype is that of The Child. The child is a universal
symbol of future potentiality (Clift) that carries tradition and captures ideas such as
innocence, purity, and freshness. Like The Hero, or any archetype, examples of The
Child can be seen throughout time and in everything from cartoons to comics to novels.
Theres Calvin from Calvin and Hobbes, Linus from The Peanuts, Tommy Pickles from
Rugrats, and even the crude Stewie Griffin from Family Guy and the dark Antichrist
Damien Thorn from The Omen series. With examples like Stewie and Damien, its easy
to question if the child actually symbolizes ideas such as innocence and purity.
According to author Caroline Myss, this is because The Child can be broken into subarchetypes, such as the nature child, the divine child, and the wounded child.
Though it may be rather simple to define what an archetype is, their origins are a
bit more difficult to uncover. To trace the origins of archetypes,it is necessary to go all
the way back to early philosophers, who were the first to discuss them, often in relation
to religion. Philo Judaeus, a Jewish theologian, refers to the archetype as the imago

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dei, or "god-image", residing in and molding humanity in the likeness of God. (Moon).
Irenaeus, a bishop who helped form Christian theology, discussed archetypes in his
thoughts and criticisms on cosmology. The Platonic mystic Plotinus, like Irenaeus,
discussed archetypes in relation to cosmology. However, Plotinus went even further and
wrote of archetypes when discussing not just cosmology but also the natural world and
its laws (Moon).
The more modern view on archetypes, which focuses less on religion and more
on the archetypes themselves as well as their relation to us as people, was introduced
by Carl Jung. Jung suggested that the basic symbolic elements of all literature are
"primordial images" or "archetypes" that emerge from the "collective unconscious" of
man. (McManus). As shown by the work of the ancient philosophers, archetypes existed
before Jung. However, after the philosophers, the archetypes eventually fell into
obscurity. Jung brought them back into the light of interest. Psychology of the
Unconscious: A Study of the Transformations and Symbolisms of the Libido was the first
work Carl Jung published after his split with Sigmund Freud. In this work, Jung
demonstrated the concept of religious and mythical symbolism. His concept of
archetypes and the collective unconscious influenced not only the people, but also
many scholars and literary figures.
One of those scholars who was influenced by Jung also rose to be a large figure
in archetypal thinking, perhaps even surpassing his inspiration, who is now thought of
more in relation to psychology. His name was Joseph Campbell. Campbell's fascination
with myth, Eastern religion, and Jungian psychology finally led to his own famous study
of hero myths, The Hero with a Thousand Faces, which was published in 1949.

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(MacWilliams) His inspiration didnt come from just Jung though. He was also heavily
influenced by his friendship with the German Indologist Heinrich Zimmer, whose positive
views of Indian myths as repositories of timeless spiritual truths greatly impressed him.
(MacWilliams). Williams death motivated Campbell to do more work in myth. His goal
was to write a "natural history" of myths that traced "the fundamental unity of the
spiritual history of mankind" by revealing themes with a worldwide distribution, such as
"fire-theft, deluge, land of the dead, virgin birth, and resurrected hero" (MacWilliams).
Now, Joseph Campbells monomyth is taught in classes. From Campbells prevalence in
the world of archetypes, it is safe to assume he achieved his goal.
From their origins until today, archetypes have had a great effect on both
literature and society. When it comes to literature, in one sense, all created things are
imitations of their eternal archetypes (Beardsley) . Archetypes determine the form and
function of literary works and build the intelligibility of a piece of literature (Delahoyde).
An archetype can essentially be seen as a mold that all stories and characters are
made to fit, whether consciously or not.
As for the effect of archetypes on people and society, they encourage readers in
basic beliefs, fears, and anxieties of their age (Delahoyde). This is because archetypes
tap into a level of desires and anxieties of humankind (Delahoyde). For some,
archetypes can create a pedestal that is too high (Siegel). For example, cults arose
around heroes (Heroes and Demigods). This is a perfect example, as these hometown
men were revered to the point where they had cults claiming they were faded gods.
Archetypes can also lead to stereotypes, forcing a group of people to be boxed into a

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few specific rules. For example, women have mostly been seen as mothers and not as
complex people with diverse abilities.
I myself have largely felt the effect of archetypes. I decided on this project in
sophomore year when we were studying archetypes. As soon as I started to read over
the list, I got inspired. I was already spinning stories in my head for each. However,
instead of acting on my ideas and writing them down, I held off to save them for this
project. This was meant to ensure that my ideas were as fresh and genuine as possible
for my project. Eventually, I realized just simple ideas werent enough. In English, we
were provided with a list of the archetypes and a short description of each. Soon I found
I did not want to write my short stories based only on those short descriptions. This lead
to me my in depth research of archetypes. My interest in what archetypes are stemmed
into an interest in where they came from. Researching this, I realized how much of an
impact they have had on both literature and society, so I incorporated that into my
research. Any story, no matter the length, needs a good foundation, and my research
has provided me with this.
My research on archetypes applies not only to my writing project, but to my other
writings, my reading, and most importantly my study and analysis of literature, which I
plan to continue in college. The knowledge of archetypes is not just throwaway
knowledge. It can be used to analyze anything, from books to films to even ourselves.
Archetypes can be seen in everything, and the ability to identify and analyze them adds
a depth to the analysis that can not only show more about the specific work but also
relate it to other works and traditions.

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Though I have learned a lot about archetypes, perhaps an even bigger learning
stretch is actually writing. As I said before, one of the main things holding me back from
doing my best writing is that I struggle to finish what I start. This time around, to
motivate me to write to completion, I decided to participate in NaNoWriMo, or National
Novel Writing Month. I created an account in the Young Writers Program, as I am still
17 and also because I do not feel prepared or experienced enough to participate in the
adult program. I have set a goal of 30,000 words for myself.
As far as how I will use this project to research the writing process, I will be doing
that hands on. I find the best way for me to learn about the most efficient way of writing
is actually writing. There is no one writing process set in stone. Everyone thinks
differently, so everyone writes differently. My plan is to write a rough draft of my
collection as purely as possible. In the past, Ive noticed that I slow my writing by getting
hung up on revisions. So, after writing a rough draft without going back to change the
content at any point during the progress, my first order of business will be to go through
and edit. I plan to have someone else read my stories for me, because as Ive been
taught multiple times, we often dont catch our own mistakes. Once I am sure my
grammar, spelling, tense, sentence structure, and word choice is all correct, then I will
return to the content. Taking a break from a story can allow a writer to see things they
didnt when initially writing it. I personally like to copy my writing into a new document so
that when I make my revisions, the old version will still be completely intact in the old
document. Once I finish my revisions, the stories will have to go through the editing
process again, and I plan for this to mark the completion of the collection.

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My biggest worry is that I wont have enough time to fit this entire process in
before the November 30th deadline. If I end up not having enough time for the whole
process, I plan to edit my stories and submit to NaNoWriMo without going through
revisions. Then, I will continue into revisions outside of NaNoWriMo. Another thing Im
unsure of is my word count goal. At first, 30,00 words seemed very small. I even
wondered if I should increase it, and I actually anticipated that I would write a lot with
ease and increase it as the month went on. However, after I finished my first story and it
was about 1,520 words, the goal seemed very daunting. In fact, Im even worried that I
may not meet it, or that Ill just barely meet it. I dont want to lower my word count goal,
but if the deadline for changing the goal has come and I still dont feel like Ill be able to
meet it, I will change it. This has shown me that one month may not be enough time for
me to do my best writing.
I have learned a lot from this project, not only about archetypes but about myself.
Ive come to believe that when one is learning about archetypes, learning about
themselves and the people around them is inevitable. Understanding what archetypes
are, where they come from, and their effect on us leads us to better understand
ourselves because they are a reflection of us. Though archetypes influence and inspire
all works of literature after them, each author is different and each has a different writing
process, bringing a uniqueness to each work that comes from the same mold as many
others. This project has helped me learn about the writing process that fits me. Through
my work, Ive discovered a lot about the way that I write and what techniques work for
me. My project has also taught me what its truly like to be a writer.Its not just hard-its
extremely difficult. Sometimes, I have to write on a night that Im tired and just dont

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want to write. Sometimes, I have very little inspiration but have to at least put something
down in the name of progress. It can take an hour and a half to write just over a
thousand words. There are endless nights hunched over my computer, typing until my
fingers and back and neck are sore, attempting to bleed my brain dry of all my great
ideas before they slip away from me. Though this was important for me to learn, I
learned something else about writing that was even more important: its worth it.

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Works Cited
Beardsley, Monroe C. "Aesthetics, History of." Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Ed. Donald
M. Borchert. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2006. 41-63.
Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 16 Sept. 2015.
Clift, Wallace B. "Child." Encyclopedia of Religion. Ed. Lindsay Jones. 2nd ed. Vol. 3.
Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005. 1566-1569. Gale Virtual Reference
Library. Web. 17 Sept. 2015.
Delahoyde, Michael. Archetypal Criticism. Washington State University, Unknown
Date. Web. 17 September 2015.
"Heroes and Demigods." Arts and Humanities Through the Eras. Ed. Edward I. Bleiberg,
et al. Vol. 2: Ancient Greece and Rome 1200 B.C.E.-476 C.E. Detroit: Gale,
2005. 312-314. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 16 Sept. 2015.
MacWilliams, Mark W. "Campbell, Joseph." Encyclopedia of Religion. Ed. Lindsay
Jones. 2nd ed. Vol. 3. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005. 1377-1380. Gale
Virtual Reference Library. Web. 16 Sept. 2015.
McManus, Barbara F. The Jungian Approach to Symbolic Interpretation. College of
New Rochelle, Feb, 1999. Web. 17 Sept. 2015.
Moon, Beverly. "Archetypes." Encyclopedia of Religion. Ed. Lindsay Jones. 2nd ed. Vol.
1. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005. 457-460. Gale Virtual Reference
Library. Web. 16 Sept. 2015.
Siegel, Deborah. "Stereotypes and archetypes." The Progressive. Jan. 2004: 39+.
Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 16 Sept. 2015.
Bibliography

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Tifani Hatcher
English 12 AP
Mrs. Bradley
Period 5
18 September 2015
Annotated Bibliography
Beardsley, Monroe C. "Aesthetics, History of." Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Ed. Donald
M. Borchert. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2006. 41-63.
Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 16 Sept. 2015.
This source has a lot of information on the effect of archetypes on literature that
came after them. It discuss those that pioneered the archetype, such as Plato
and Jung. There is much detail about the way archetypes are imitated in writing.
The author of this work is Monroe Beardsley, who was a philosopher and a
recipient of the Addison Porter Prize. He was educated at Yale University. His
work is accepted by critics and his work is included in Gale, making this a reliable
source. The encyclopedia its from was published in 2006, and because the
source is about historical facts it is still relevant. The article is very thorough and
includes information above and beyond archetypes.
Clift, Wallace B. "Child." Encyclopedia of Religion. Ed. Lindsay Jones. 2nd ed. Vol. 3.
Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005. 1566-1569. Gale Virtual Reference
Library. Web. 17 Sept. 2015.

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This excerpt discusses the archetype Child. It provides information on what the
child symbolizes, as well as the meaning of childhood. It discusses the child in
both mythology and psychology.
The author of this excerpt is Wallace Clift, a professor emeritus at the University
of Denver. He was educated at the University of Texas at Austin. The excerpt was
published in Gale databases, which are reliable. The article is factual and
thorough in its explanations. However, possible bias could come from Clifts long
religious history. Though the edition of the encyclopedia this excerpt comes from
in 2005, it is still relevant because it focuses on the archetypes history.
Delahoyde, Michael. Archetypal Criticism. Washington State University, Unknown
Date. Web. 17 September 2015.
This article discusses archetypal criticism. It provides information on where
criticism of archetypes comes from, modern criticisms, and the effects
archetypes have on society. It gives examples of archetype and defines what
they are, as well as what archetypal criticism is.
The author of this article is Michael Delahoyde. He is a professor at Washington
State University. He has his B.A in literature as well as music. The article is
published by the college website, a credible source. The article seems very
factual, but it is also very brief and though well explained, not too thorough.
There is no date on the article unfortunately.
"Heroes and Demigods." Arts and Humanities Through the Eras. Ed. Edward I. Bleiberg,
et al. Vol. 2: Ancient Greece and Rome 1200 B.C.E.-476 C.E. Detroit: Gale,
2005. 312-314. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 16 Sept. 2015.

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This excerpt discusses the hero, on of the most important archetypes in


literature. It discusses both mortal and demigod heroes. The relationships
between heroes and the military as well as the relationship between heroes and
politics is discussed.
The authorship of the book this excerpt comes from is attributed to Edward
Bleiberg, the Brooklyn Museums Curator of Egyptian, Classical, and Ancient
Middle Eastern Art. He got his MA and Ph.D. in Egyptology at the University of
Toronto after studying at Haverford College, Yale University, and the Hebrew
University of Jerusalem. This excerpt is included in Gale databases and the book
it comes from was published by Gale, a reliable source. The first edition was
published in 2004, but its about history, so its not out of date. The article is
thorough and includes information heroes not included in the typical age of
heroes.
MacWilliams, Mark W. "Campbell, Joseph." Encyclopedia of Religion. Ed. Lindsay
Jones. 2nd ed. Vol. 3. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005. 1377-1380. Gale
Virtual Reference Library. Web. 16 Sept. 2015.
This excerpt is a biography of Joseph Campbell, a very well known mythologist. It
focuses on his whole life, including his early life, education, and work. It
discusses his work on the hero and myth, as well as critical responses to it.
The author is Mark W. MacWilliams, a Professor of Religious Studies at St.
Lawrence University. He has his Ph.D. in History of Religions, his M.A. in
Religious Studies, and his B.A. which he got at the University of Chicago,
Indiana University, and Syracuse University, respectively. This excerpt was

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included in the Gale databases, a reliable source. The article seems very factual
instead of opinionated, because criticisms of Campbells work are provided along
with the facts about it, showing more than just a positive view. The encyclopedia
the excerpt comes from was published in 2004, but because it is a biography it is
not out of date, especially because the person its about is no longer alive. The
article is very thorough and factual, describing not only Campbells work but his
early life and personal views.
McManus, Barbara F. The Jungian Approach to Symbolic Interpretation. College of
New Rochelle, Feb, 1999. Web. 17 Sept. 2015.
This article focuses on Carl Jungs work with archetypes. To explain his ideas, it
provides many quotes from him and other sources. It provides a clear outline on
how to recognize archetypes. Not only does it explain what archetypes are, but it
explains how they are formed.
The author of this article is Barbara McManus. She was a professor of classics at
New Rochelle University, where she graduated from. After that she got her Ph. D
at Harvard. The article is published by the College of New Rochelle, making it
reliable. The article seems factual, but possible bia could come from her feminist
views. The article was published in February of 1999, so it is very old, but as the
information is historical, its still relevant. The article is fairly thorough, as it
provides explanations for the quotes it gives.
Moon, Beverly. "Archetypes." Encyclopedia of Religion. Ed. Lindsay Jones. 2nd ed. Vol.
1. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005. 457-460. Gale Virtual Reference
Library. Web. 16 Sept. 2015.

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In this excerpt, the author describes both the meaning and history of the
archetype. She explains where the term archetype came from, how it was first
used, and the use of archetypes in writing and psychology. There is a great focus
on the relationships between archetypes and religion.
The author is Beverly Moon, Ph.D. She attended the University of Chicago and
Columbia University and is a historian of religions. This excerpt was included in
the Gale databases, a reliable source. The article seems very factual. The
encyclopedia the excerpt comes from was published in 2004, but because it is
about history it is not out of date. It appears very thorough and well researched,
including explanations of archetypes in writing, religion, philosophy, and
psychology as well as the people that used them.
"Psychology of the Unconscious." American Decades Primary Sources. Ed. Cynthia
Rose. Vol. 2: 1910-1919. Detroit: Gale, 2004. 534-537. Gale Virtual Reference
Library. Web. 17 Sept. 2015.
This work discusses Carl Jungs Psychology of the Unconscious, which is
credited as being a pioneering work in the idea of archetypes. It gives a brief
overview of Jungs life in addition to the information on his work. It explains the
work and then provides an excerpt.The research appears very thorough, not just
telling about the work but about Jung too. The explanation given before the
excerpt is thorough.
The authorship of this work is attributed to Cynthia Rose, who got her M.A in
classics at Brown University as well as her Ph. D is classical and oriental studies.
The work was included in the credible Gale databases. The article seems very

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factual and very thorough, with an explanation before each excerpt. The article
was originally published in 2004. Despite being old, the historical information is
still relevant.
Siegel, Deborah. "Stereotypes and archetypes." The Progressive. Jan. 2004: 39+.
Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 16 Sept. 2015.
This article focuses on both archetypes and stereotypes given to women, as well
as their effects. It looks in to two novels on the subject. There is a very feminist
quality to it. It argues that women are more than just mothers and other
stereotypes they are given.
The author of this article is Deborah Siegel, who got her doctorate in English and
American Literature at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The article was
published by The Progressive, a liberal magazine. The article seems opinionated,
calling for recognition for women as more than the weak or motherly archetypes
and stereotypes always attributed to them. The article was published in 2004, so
the womens rights aspect may be a bit out of date, but the historical archetypes
still stand. The article thoroughly focuses on and displays research on two
specific novels.
Struck, Peter T. "Symbol and Symbolism." Encyclopedia of Religion. Ed. Lindsay Jones.
2nd ed. Vol. 13. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005. 8906-8915. Gale
Virtual Reference Library. Web. 17 Sept. 2015.
This article discusses symbols and symbolism throughout the ages. It gives a
very in-depth explanation of symbols in each age. Also provided are what defines
a symbol and where symbols originate.

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The author of this article is Peter Struck, an Associate Professor of Classical


Studies. He has his A.B, which he received at the university of Michigan, and his
M.A and Ph.D, both of which he received at the University of Chicago. The article
was published in the credible Gale databases. The article seems very factual,
however possible bias can come from Strucks extensive religious background.
The article was published in 2005, but is historically relevant.